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1.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 22(3): 82, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624199

RESUMO

Current trends in the pharmaceutical industry led to a demand for more flexible manufacturing processes with smaller batch sizes. Prepackaged nested vials that can be processed as a unit were introduced into the market to fulfill this need. However, vial nests provide a different thermal environment for the vials compared to a hexagonal packaging array and could therefore influence product temperature profiles, primary drying times, and product quality attributes. Polymer caps with the possibility of vial closure inside the freeze-drying chamber were developed to remove the risks and need of a crimping process. A general concern with the use of such caps is the possibility of an increase in resistance to water vapor flow out of the vial. This case study investigated the effect of the LyoSeal® and PLASCAP® polymer caps and EZ-fill® nests on the freeze-drying process. Amorphous and partially crystalline model formulations were freeze-dried. Process data and product quality attributes were compared for regularly stoppered vials and vials with polymer caps as well as vials in a hexagonal packaging array and nested vials. The results indicated no increased resistance or impeded water vapor flow by the polymer caps. Differences in the macro- and microscopic appearances of products and a trend towards lower product temperatures were observed for the investigated nest type compared to a regular hexagonal packaging array. Consequently, the polymer caps could be used as an alternative to regular stoppers without affecting freeze-drying process data or product quality attributes, while the different thermal environment of nested vials should be considered.


Assuntos
Indústria Farmacêutica/normas , Embalagem de Medicamentos/normas , Polímeros/normas , Dessecação/métodos , Indústria Farmacêutica/métodos , Embalagem de Medicamentos/métodos , Liofilização/métodos , Liofilização/normas , Temperatura
2.
Food Chem ; 351: 129226, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639430

RESUMO

The effect of three drying methods (hot air, freeze and spray drying) on the solubility and amphiphilicity of gelatin were investigated and compared. Results showed spray drying gelatin (SDG) and hot air drying gelatin (HDG) showed the lowest and best solubility, respectively. This phenomenon was attributed to the degree of subunits degradation and hydrophobicity. The HDG showed an obvious degradation during the hot air drying and displayed the strongest hydrophilicity, while SDG showed a slight degradation and strongest hydrophobicity. The results of wettability showed that SDG had a better amphiphilicity (92.48°) in comparison with HDG (57.7°) and freeze drying gelatin (VDG, 77.53°), which can effectively reduce the interfacial tension of gelatin, thus significantly improving the stability of foam and emulsion (p < 0.05). These results suggested the drying methods can adjust the amphiphilicity of gelatin, and the SDG displayed a better amphiphilicity, showing good potential applications in foam and emulsion.


Assuntos
Dessecação/métodos , Congelamento , Gelatina/química , Gelatina/isolamento & purificação , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Micro-Ondas , Solubilidade , Fatores de Tempo , Molhabilidade
3.
Food Chem ; 350: 129188, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588280

RESUMO

Hempseed meal after protein isolation (HM-PI) is a co-product obtained from hempseed. The objectives were to characterize and determine the effect of drying on HM-PI. HM-PI was produced using three drying methods: freeze (FD), vacuum oven (VOD), and oven drying (OD). HM-PI contained over 70% protein and had similar or higher level of essential amino acids than recommended values for human adults. Osborne fractionation indicated that glutelin was the most dominant fraction in HM-PI. FD HMPI has a significant lower surface hydrophobicity and higher in vitro protein digestibility than OD and VOD HM-PI. FD HM-PI demonstrated better functional properties than OD and VOD HM-PI. Pepsin-pancreatin digestion of VOD, FD and OD resulted in comparable and considerable antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This is the first report on the characterization of HM-PI, a co-product of hempseed processing. HM-PI could serve as a novel food protein ingredient resulting in increase utilization of hempseed.


Assuntos
Cannabis/química , Fenômenos Químicos , Dessecação/métodos , Resinas Vegetais/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Liofilização , Humanos , Pancreatina/metabolismo , Pepsina A/metabolismo , Resinas Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Resinas Vegetais/metabolismo
4.
Food Chem ; 345: 128856, 2021 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601662

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the formation kinetics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during drying of olive pomace. It was dried at 170, 200 and 230 °C until the final moisture of 5%. PAH analyses were realized after certain drying times and moisture contents. Kinetics of the total PAH formation was comprised with the formation of PAH compounds through the drying process. The highest formation (2224 µg/kg) was observed at 200 °C and 5% moisture after 40 min. This also indicated the significance of drying time and evolution of temperature on the formation of PAH compounds. First order kinetic was applied to determine the kinetic constants as a function of temperature. Total PAH fomration rate constants (k) increased with the drying temperature. Activation energy (Ea) and frequency factor (k0) values were determined to be 45.9 × 103 kJ/kg-mol and 18125.95 min-1, respectively using the Arrhenius equation.


Assuntos
Dessecação/métodos , Olea/química , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Temperatura Alta , Cinética , Olea/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/isolamento & purificação , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Extração em Fase Sólida
5.
J Food Sci ; 86(2): 426-433, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33438227

RESUMO

Dragon fruit shows good sensory and nutritional attributes, but it is also highly perishable. Drying is a unitary operation that promotes the reduction of moisture content, extending the useful life of the product. In this study, the elaboration of white and red dragon fruit powder by foam mat drying was studied with optimization of the proportion of foaming agent and stirring time. The use of ethanol and air temperature were evaluated on drying kinetics, effective moisture diffusivity (Deff ), and drying rate (DR). The study was divided into two steps. In the first, density, stability, porosity and overrun foam were evaluated and the optimal condition was determined. For the white and red pulp foams, the optimal conditions were, respectively, 26.88 min and 4.12 kg 100 kg-1 and 23.5 min and 3.44 kg 100 kg-1 . In the second step, the foam was subjected to ethanol pretreatment and convective drying (50 or 70 °C). The best condition involved pretreatment and the highest tested temperature, with the shortest drying time and the highest Deff and DR. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Foam mat drying is a suitable method for drying perishable fruits, such as dragon fruit. The foam properties need to be optimized to ensure the success of the drying process. The ethanol pretreatment and the drying air temperature influence the drying kinetics. Therefore, determining the optimal process conditions is very important.


Assuntos
Cactaceae , Dessecação/métodos , Etanol , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas , Alimentos em Conserva , Temperatura Alta , Temperatura
6.
Carbohydr Polym ; 256: 117525, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483046

RESUMO

Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) is widely used as a reinforcement filler for biocomposites due to its unique properties. However, the challenge of drying MFC and the incompatibility between nanocellulose and polymer matrix still limits the mechanical performance of MFC-reinforced biocomposites. In this study, we used a water-based transesterification reaction to functionalize MFC and explored the capability of oven-dried MFC as a reinforcement filler for polylactic acid (PLA). Remarkably, this oven-dried, vinyl laurate-modified MFC improved the tensile strength by 38 % and Young's modulus by 71 % compared with neat PLA. Our results suggested improved compatibility and dispersion of the fibrils in PLA after modification. This study demonstrated that scalable water-based surface modification and subsequent straightforward oven drying could be a facile method for effectively drying cellulose nanomaterials. The method helps significantly disperse fibrils in polymers and enhances the mechanical properties of microfibrillar cellulose-reinforced biocomposites.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Lauratos/química , Nanocompostos/química , Poliésteres/química , Compostos de Vinila/química , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Celulose/ultraestrutura , Dessecação/métodos , Módulo de Elasticidade , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Nanocompostos/ultraestrutura , Propriedades de Superfície , Resistência à Tração , Termogravimetria , Água/química
7.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 22(1): 52, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33469785

RESUMO

Vial-based lyophilization for biopharmaceuticals has been an indispensable cornerstone process for over 50 years. However, the process is not without significant challenges. Capital costs to realize a lyophilized drug product facility, for example, are very high. Similarly, heat and mass transfer limitations inherent in lyophilization result in drying cycle on the order of several days while putting practical constraints on available formulation space, such as solute mass percentage or fill volume in a vial. Through collaboration with an external partner, we are exploring microwave vacuum drying (MVD) as a faster drying process to vial lyophilization wherein the heat transfer process occurs by microwave radiation instead of pure conduction from the vial. Drying using this radiative process demonstrates greater than 80% reduction in drying time over traditional freeze-drying times while maintaining product activity and stability. Such reduction in freeze-drying process times from days to several hours is a welcome change as it enables flexible manufacturing by being able to better react to changes either in terms of product volume for on-demand manufacturing scenarios or facilities for production (e.g., scale-out over scale-up). Additionally, by utilizing first-principle modeling coupled with experimental verification, a mechanism for faster drying times associated with MVD is proposed in this article. This research, to the best of our knowledge, forms the very first report of utilizing microwave vacuum drying for vaccines while utilizing the power of simplified models to understand drying principles associated with MVD.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/química , Dessecação/métodos , Liofilização , Micro-Ondas , Vacinas/química , Vácuo , Temperatura Alta , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento
8.
Food Chem ; 347: 128999, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465687

RESUMO

The effect of in-bag dry- and wet-ageing on metabolite profiles of lamb legs was determined using Rapid Evaporative Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (REIMS). Using orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) with REIMS, 1705 metabolite ions were identified (Q2 = 0.86) in four muscles: m. semimembranosus, m. biceps femoris, m. vastus lateralis and m. rectus femoris. A total of 663 metabolites differed between ageing methods (P < 0.05) which mainly resulted from proteolysis and lipid metabolism. Dry-aged lamb had higher pH (P = 0.016) and lower moisture content (P = 0.034) than the wet-aged. Dry-ageing produced more (P < 0.05) smaller sized metabolites including dipeptides and free amino acids and lipid oxidation metabolites compared to wet-aged equivalents. Different muscles had distinct REIMS metabolic profiles. Outcomes of this study demonstrated that REIMS can be used for authentication between in-bag dry- and wet-aged lamb based on their metabolic fingerprints.


Assuntos
Dessecação/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metaboloma , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/análise , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise Discriminante , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Proteínas Musculares/análise , Proteólise , Carne Vermelha/análise , Ovinos , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Int J Pharm ; 595: 120069, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421586

RESUMO

In pharmaceutical wet granulation, drying is a critical step in terms of energy and material consumption, whereas granule moisture content and size are important process outcomes that determine tabletting performance. The drying process is, however, very complex due to the multitude of interacting mechanisms on different scales. Building robust physical models of this process therefore requires detailed data. Current data collection methods only succeed in measuring the average moisture content of a size fraction of granules, whereas this property rather follows a distribution that, moreover, contains information on the drying patterns. Therefore, a measurement method is devised to simultaneously characterise the moisture content and size of individual pharmaceutical granules. A setup with near-infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) is used to capture an image of a number of granules, in which the absorbance spectra are used for deriving the moisture content of the material and the size of the granules is estimated based on the amount of pixels containing pharmaceutical material. The quantification of moisture content based on absorption spectra is performed with two different regression methods, Partial Least Squares regression (PLSR) and Elastic Net Regression (ENR). The method is validated with particle size data for size determination, loss-on-drying (LOD) data of average moisture contents of granule samples and, finally, batch fluid bed experiments in which the results are compared to the most detailed method to date. The individual granule moisture contents confirmed again that granule size is an important factor in the drying process. The measurement method can be used to gain more detailed experimental insight in different fluidisation and particulate processes, which will allow building of robust process models.


Assuntos
Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/instrumentação , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Tecnologia Farmacêutica/instrumentação , Tecnologia Farmacêutica/métodos , Água/análise , Calibragem , Dessecação/métodos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Modelos Químicos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/química , Pós/química , Temperatura
10.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(2): 398-413, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combined infrared (CIR) and convective drying is a promising technology in dehydrating heat-sensitive foods, such as fruits and vegetables. This novel thermal drying method, which involves the application of infrared energy and hot air during a drying process, can drastically enhance energy efficiency and improve overall product quality at the end of the process. Understanding the dynamics of what goes on inside the product during drying is important for further development, optimization, and upscaling of the drying method. In this study, a multiphase porous media model considering liquid water, gases, and solid matrix was developed for the CIR and hot-air drying (HAD) of sweet potato slices in order to capture the relevant physics and obtain an in-depth insight on the drying process. The model was simulated using Matlab with user-friendly graphical user interface for easy coupling and faster computational time. RESULTS: The gas pressure for CIR-HAD was higher centrally and decreased gradually towards the surface of the product. This implies that drying force is stronger at the product core than at the product surface. A phase change from liquid water to vapour occurs almost immediately after the start of the drying process for CIR-HAD. The evaporation rate, as expected, was observed to increase with increased drying time. Evaporation during CIR-HAD increased with increasing distance from the centreline of the sample surface. The simulation results of water and vapour flux revealed that moisture transport around the surfaces and sides of the sample is as a result of capillary diffusion, binary diffusion, and gas pressure in both the vertical and horizontal directions. The nonuniform dominant infrared heating caused the heterogeneous distribution of product temperature. These results suggest that CIR-HAD of food occurs in a non-uniform manner with high vapour and water concentration gradient between the product core and the surface. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides in-depth insight into the physics and phase changes of food during CIR-HAD. The multiphase model has the advantage that phase change and impact of CIR-HAD operating parameters can be swiftly quantified. Such a modelling approach is thereby significant for further development and process optimization of CIR-HAD towards industrial upscaling. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Dessecação/métodos , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Ipomoea batatas/química , Tubérculos/química , Dessecação/instrumentação , Manipulação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Temperatura Alta , Raios Infravermelhos , Ipomoea batatas/efeitos da radiação , Tubérculos/efeitos da radiação
11.
Food Chem ; 334: 127557, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712488

RESUMO

Previous studies indicate that the bioactive compounds of Eugenia stipitata pulp have antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic and antigenotoxic properties, but its use has been limited due to its high perishability. The aim of this study was to preserve bioactivity by using spray-drying microencapsulation, and is pioneering for its use of DSC to determine the best proportion of wall material (maltodextrin or gum arabic) and drying temperature (100 or 120 °C). The microparticles with maltodextrin (1:9)-100 °C had the best bioactivity conservation after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, conserving 61% of total polyphenols, and 101%, 85% and 31% of antioxidant capacity according to the ABTS, FRAP and DPPH test methods respectively. These microparticles had a spherical morphology, presented good thermal stability and can be stored at a temperature range from 20 to 40 °C without becoming sticky. Therefore, spray-drying microencapsulation together with DSC is important for preserving a high concentration of bioactive compounds.


Assuntos
Dessecação/métodos , Eugenia/química , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/química , Ar , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Digestão , Composição de Medicamentos , Goma Arábica/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/química
12.
Food Chem ; 338: 128062, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950009

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of freeze drying and oven drying on appearance, chemical components and antioxidant activities of three cultivars of tomatoes. This study showed cultivar 18,131 would provide the highest phenolic contents and ABTS radical scavenging activity, and cultivar 1862 provide the highest lycopene content after oven drying. On the basis of appearance and contents of polyphenols, freeze drying showed better results. However, oven drying was found superior in decreasing degradation of lycopene. The effects of drying on the polyphenol contents varied depending on the cultivars. In addition, there is no significant difference of antioxidant activities between freeze dried and oven dried tomatoes. These results also demonstrated that freeze drying is superior in maintaining physical structure and phenolic contents of tomato slices. However, oven drying is a viable option for drying tomatoes considering both costing and contents of lycopene.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Dessecação/métodos , Licopeno/análise , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Polifenóis/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Liofilização , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/química , Análise de Componente Principal
13.
Food Chem ; 338: 127799, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798816

RESUMO

An emerging blanching technology, namely vacuum-steam pulsed blanching (VSPB) was employed to blanch the carrots and its effects on blanching efficiency, microstructure and ultrastructure, drying kinetics, colour, texture, phytochemicals (phenolics and ß-carotene) and antioxidant capacity of carrot slices were explored and compared with the traditional hot water blanching. Results showed that both blanching treatments enhanced the drying velocity and shortened the drying time by 25.9% compared with untreated samples. VSPB yielded higher blanching efficiency, better colour (more red and yellow), greater antioxidant capacity and higher preservation of phytochemicals compared with hot water blanched samples. Especially, compared to hot water blanched carrots, the p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, and caffeic acid content of VSPB samples increased of 106.6%, 42.0%, and 19.0%, respectively. Interestingly, the chlorogenic acid content in the blanched carrot increased more than 220 times compared to fresh samples. Ultrastructure and microstructure observation clarify the mechanism of quality enhancement of VSPB.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Daucus carota/química , Daucus carota/ultraestrutura , Dessecação/métodos , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/métodos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Cor , Ácidos Cumáricos/análise , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Dureza , Cinética , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Fenóis/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Vapor , Temperatura , Vácuo , Água/química , beta Caroteno/análise
14.
Food Chem ; 339: 127823, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829242

RESUMO

Quinoa protein possesses great amino acid profiles and can be a potential food ingredient with broad applications. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different drying methods, namely freeze drying, spray drying, and vacuum drying on the functional and physicochemical properties of quinoa protein isolate, e.g., morphology, amino acid composition, SDS-PAGE profile, sulfhydryl/disulfide content, secondary structure, surface hydrophobicity, and thermal stability. The freeze-dried protein exhibited the highest emulsification capacity and stability and oil binding capacity, which was contributed to its higher surface hydrophobicity, while the spray-dried sample had the highest solubility and water absorption capacity at pH 7. Gels (8%) prepared with the freeze-dried protein had higher elastic and viscous modulus than that from others. The freeze-dried protein had the highest maximal denaturation temperature but lowest enthalpy, which may be attributed to its higher amount of random coil but lower percent of regular α-helix and ß-sheet structures. Overall, quinoa protein isolate from different processing methods demonstrated distinct functional properties. This information will be useful to optimize quinoa protein production and benefit its applications.


Assuntos
Chenopodium quinoa/química , Dessecação/métodos , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Aminoácidos/análise , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Emulsões/química , Liofilização , Géis/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/química , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/isolamento & purificação , Desnaturação Proteica , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Solubilidade , Temperatura , Vácuo , Viscosidade
15.
Food Chem ; 338: 128015, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932085

RESUMO

The purpose of this research was to study the effect of hot air drying, microwave vacuum drying and freeze drying combined with explosion puffing drying (HDEPD, MDEPD and FDEPD) on physicochemical properties, antioxidant activities and flavor characteristics of apples. The results showed that MDEPD and FDEPD products had better color and textural properties, exhibited a homogeneous porous structure. MDEPD and FDEPD better preserved scavenging abilities of DPPH, hydroxyl radical and FRAP, retained values of TFC and TPC. Aroma characteristics and taste properties of apples obviously changed with different drying methods, and drying qualities of products could be classified in terms of volatile compounds and taste profiles. Two principal components were able to describe 90.12% and 69.43% of the total volatile compound variance and total taste profile variance, respectively. Three main clusters of dried apples were identified, MDEPD and FDEPD can be used to enhance drying qualities of apple products.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Dessecação/métodos , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/métodos , Malus/química , Paladar , Cor , Nariz Eletrônico , Flavonoides/análise , Aromatizantes/análise , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Liofilização , Frutas/química , Micro-Ondas , Fenóis/análise , Vácuo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
16.
Food Chem ; 338: 128129, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092010

RESUMO

Aroma, phenolic compounds and sensory properties of fresh and powdered organic and conventional sweet red peppers dried by three methods (hot air, intermittent microwave and infrared) were studied. The number of aroma compounds was higher in both fresh and powdered organic pepper samples; however, the total amount was higher in conventional samples. In both organic and conventional samples, alcohols were the dominant aroma group. (E)-ß-ionone and ß-ocimene, which are important compounds in peppers, were determined only in organic peppers. Among the drying methods, intermittent microwave drying was more effective in creating new aroma compounds. The liquid chromatography, coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) revealed that luteolin derivative compounds comprised an average of 70% of the phenolics. Higher amount of phenolic were determined in organic samples. Infrared drying was more effective in retaining of phenolics than the other two methods. Sensory analysis revealed that hot air-dried samples were least preferred.


Assuntos
Capsicum/química , Dessecação/métodos , Fenóis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Micro-Ondas , Pós
17.
Food Chem ; 345: 128679, 2021 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310256

RESUMO

The effect of spray drying on the different polyphenolic compounds present in the root of a purple-fleshed sweet potato variety of Ipomoea batatas native from Peru was performed by HPLC-QTOF-MSMS. Nine anthocyanins, including four peonidin, three cyanidin and two pelargonidin derivatives glycosylated with sophorose and/or glucose and acylated with caffeic, ferulic and p-hydroxybenzoic acid were identified. Twenty nine cinnamoylquinic acids (CiQA), including eight mono-CiQA, fourteen di-CiQA, and five tri-CiQA, were identified on the base of their MS fragmentation profile. Relevant amounts of feruloylquinic acid derivatives were identified. Among them, some di and tri-CiQAs containing feruloyl and caffeoyl moieties in their structures, and di-feruloylquinic acids were reported here, for the first time, in Ipomoea. Spray drying process negatively affected the different phenolic groups, with polyphenol losses representing around 90% of the initial amounts. Mono-CiQAs presenting feruloyl moieties and mono acylated peonidin derivatives with p-hydroxybenzoic acid were the less affected compounds.


Assuntos
Dessecação/métodos , Ipomoea batatas/química , Polifenóis/análise , Ácido Quínico/análise , Cor , Polifenóis/química , Ácido Quínico/química
18.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(1): 167-178, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peas are an inexpensive yet nutritious and sustainable source of protein. However, it is challenging to incorporate pea proteins into food formulations owing to their beany or green off-flavours and their limited water solubility. RESULTS: Vacuum microwave dehydration (VMD) of pea protein with an initial moisture content of 425% (dry basis, db) at 2 W g-1 specific microwave energy and 200 Torr vacuum level for 88 min led to an 83% reduction in total volatile compound concentration. VMD processing at high initial moisture contents facilitated the Maillard reaction, enhancing the extent of protein cross-linking, leading to a marked decrease in soluble protein content, to 11 g kg-1 . Reducing the initial moisture content to 56% db greatly retained protein solubility (112-113 g kg-1 ), but it only led to a minor reduction in total volatile compound concentration (2-11% reduction). A high microwave energy (20 W g-1 )-short time (2 min) treatment at 200 Torr vacuum level was found optimal, reducing both volatile levels and soluble protein content by ~50%. CONCLUSION: Evidently, it is difficult to employ VMD without reduction of pea protein solubility and corresponding changing in functionality. Yet, if optimized, VMD has the capability to decrease volatile concentrations while retaining protein solubility. Future sensory analysis should be conducted to determine whether the aforementioned reductions in total volatile compound concentration may have a notable effect on consumer palatability. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Dessecação/métodos , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Ervilhas/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Sementes/química , Dessecação/instrumentação , Aromatizantes/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Micro-Ondas , Ervilhas/química , Sementes/efeitos da radiação , Vácuo
19.
Food Chem ; 340: 127931, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871358

RESUMO

Thinned peach is abundant in polyphenols, and has been shown to exhibit various bioactivities. In this study, we evaluated the underlying immunomodulatory activity of polyphenol extracts of thinned peach (PETP) via the NF-κB and Nrf2 signaling pathways in RAW264.7 macrophages. The results demonstrated that the PETP efficiently activated the nuclear translocation of NF-κB and Nrf2, as well as downstream cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α and IFN-γ), SOD activity and ROS levels in RAW264.7 cells. Specifically, the PETP of natural drying and hot air drying exhibited less efficacy than that of freeze drying in NF-κB pathway. Interestingly, the PETP of hot air drying at 50 °C was more effective than freeze-dried PETP in activating Nrf2 nuclear translocation. Additionally, 50 µg/mL PETP enhanced immune responses, whereas 800 µg/mL PETP inhibited inflammatory development in macrophages. These findings indicated that different PETP affected the immunomodulation effects differently, which associated with the drying methods and incubation concentrations.


Assuntos
Dessecação/métodos , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Prunus persica/química , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Liofilização , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Polifenóis/química , Células RAW 264.7 , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Food Chem ; 337: 127783, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791427

RESUMO

Jujube slices were pretreated by cold plasma for 15, 30, and 60 s on each side, followed by hot air drying at 50, 60, and 70 °C. Scanning electron microscopy investigation indicated that the application of cold plasma significantly changed the surface topography of jujube slice by etching larger cavities, which can facilitate moisture transfer and consequently enhance drying rate and effective diffusivity. Modified Henderson & Pabis model and Two-term model were the two most recommended models for describing the drying kinetics of jujube slices. Cold plasma pretreatment improved the contents of procyanidins, flavonoids, and phenolics by 53.81%, 33.89%, and 13.85% at most, respectively, and thereby enhanced antioxidant capacity by 36.85% at most. Besides, cold plasma pretreatment can reduce the production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural by 52.19% at most. In summary, cold plasma can be used as a promising pretreatment tool for drying processes of jujube slices.


Assuntos
Dessecação/métodos , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/química , Gases em Plasma , Ziziphus/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Cinética , Fenóis/análise , Proantocianidinas/análise
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