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1.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 104(4): 288-294, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34931536

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Motor imagery and mental practice are important for the acquisition and mastery of surgical skills. The success of this technique relies on the use of a well-developed mental script. In this study, we shared how we developed a mental script for basic micro suturing training by using a low-fidelity rubber glove model. METHODS: This study applied the design and development research framework. Five expert surgeons developed a mental script by performing a cognitive walkthrough to repair a vertical opening in a rubber glove model, followed by hierarchical task analysis. A draft script was created, and its face and content validity assessed with a checking-back process. Twenty-eight surgeons used the Mental Imagery Questionnaire (MIQ) to assess the validity of the final script. RESULTS: The process of developing the mental script is detailed. The assessment by the expert panel showed the mental script had good face and content validity. The mean overall MIQ score was 5.2±1.1 (standard deviation), demonstrating the validity of generating mental imagery from the mental script developed in this study for micro suturing in the rubber glove model. CONCLUSION: The methodological approach described in this study is based on a design and development research framework to teach surgical skills. This model is inexpensive and easily accessible, addressing the challenges of reduced opportunities to practise surgical skills. However, although motor skills are important, the surgeon's other non-technical expertise is not addressed with this model. Thus, this model should act as one surgical training approach, but not replace it.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Cirurgiões , Humanos , Destreza Motora , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suturas
2.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 2332628, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35912156

RESUMO

Objective: Motion analysis of surgical instruments can be used to evaluate laparoscopic surgical skills, and this study assessed the validity of an optical tracking system for the assessment of laparoscopic surgical motor skills. Methods: Ten experienced surgeons and ten novices were recruited to complete the transferring tasks on a laparoscopic simulator. An optical tracking system, Micron Tracker, was used to capture the marker points on each instrument and to obtain the coordinates of the marker points and the corresponding instrument tip coordinates. The data are processed to create a coordinate system based on the laparoscopic simulator and to calculate the movement parameters of the instruments, such as operating time, path length, speed, acceleration, and smoothness. At the same time, the range of motion of the instrument (insertion depth and pivoting angle) is also calculated. Results: The position that the tip of the instrument can reach is a small, irregularly shaped spatial area. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found between the surgeon and novice groups in parameters such as operating time, path length, mean speed, mean acceleration, and mean smoothness. The range of insertion depth of the instruments was approximately 150 mm to 240 mm, and the pivoting angles of the left and right instruments were 30.9° and 46.6° up and down and 28.0° and 35.0° left and right, respectively. Conclusions: The optical tracking system was effective in subjectively evaluating laparoscopic surgical skills, with significant differences between the surgeon and novice groups in terms of movement parameters, but not in terms of range of motion.


Assuntos
Laparoscopia , Cirurgiões , Competência Clínica , Humanos , Destreza Motora , Instrumentos Cirúrgicos
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13319, 2022 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922460

RESUMO

In motor learning tasks, there is mixed evidence for whether increased task-relevant variability in early learning stages leads to improved outcomes. One problem is that there may be a connection between skill level and motor variability, such that participants who initially have more variability may also perform worse on the task, so will have more room to improve. To avoid this confound, we experimentally manipulated the amount of movement timing variability (MTV) during training to test whether it improves performance. Based on previous studies showing that most of the improvement in finger-opposition tasks comes from optimizing the relative onset time of the finger movements, we used auditory cues (beeps) to guide the onset times of sequential movements during a training session, and then assessed motor performance after the intervention. Participants were assigned to three groups that either: (a) followed a prescribed random rhythm for their finger touches (Variable MTV), (b) followed a fixed rhythm (Fixed control MTV), or (c) produced the entire sequence following a single beep (Unsupervised control MTV). While the intervention was successful in increasing MTV during training for the Variable group, it did not lead to improved outcomes post-training compared to either control group, and the use of fixed timing led to significantly worse performance compared to the Unsupervised control group. These results suggest that manipulating MTV through auditory cues does not produce greater learning than unconstrained training in motor sequence tasks.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Destreza Motora , Dedos , Humanos , Movimento , Desempenho Psicomotor , Extremidade Superior
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence has indicated the health importance of fundamental movement skills (FMS) and physical activity (PA) in children and their relationships seems bidirectional. However, their bidirectional relationship has not yet been fully answered in the literature. AIM: This study sought to determine bidirectional relationship between FMS and PA in children using cross-lagged study design. METHODS: A total of 183 second-level students (8.8 ± 1.1 years old) from three primary schools in Henan Province, China were selected as subjects. The average number of steps per school day was used as the amount of PA in the school environment; the third edition of the test of gross motor development was used for FMS testing. The baseline data (T1) and tracking data (T2) were collected at the beginning and end of the fall semester, respectively. The two tests were separated by 3 months (11 weeks), and a cross-lag model analysis was performed. Based on the hypothetical model, we tested the cross-lag effect of children's PA and FMS. RESULTS: The model fit index was χ2/df = 2.861 (p < 0.001, n = 183); goodness of fit index GFI = 0.900; NFI = 0.909; CFI = 0.931 and the 95%CI was between 0.071-0.192. The RMSEA = 0.063, and the standardized residual root mean square SRMR = 0.029. The T1 FMS can be used to predict the number of steps in the T2 teaching days with statistical significance (ß = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.07-0.38, p = 0.003). However, the T1 steps cannot be used to predict the T2 FMS (ß = 0.05, 95% CI: 0.07-0.13, p = 0.475). Further analysis shows that the main contributor to these relationships are ball skills in the FMS. CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between children's fundamental movement skills and PA is not two-way. Students with higher FMS are expected to reach higher levels of PA after undergoing school PA in a teaching cycle. The PA of the students can be improved by improving their motor skills, which further improves their physical and mental health.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Instituições Acadêmicas , Criança , Humanos , Destreza Motora , Movimento , Estudantes
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805311

RESUMO

Both the indoor and the outdoor environments and their organization exert pronounced influence upon physical activity behavior and motor development of preschool children. The aim of this study was to explore whether partly structured activity or free play in a specific playground had different impacts on motor competence development in 4-6-year-old preschoolers. The study had a pretest-post-test design, with two intervention groups and one control. Sixty-two children were included in a partly structured activity group and forty-three children in a free-play group. Both groups participated in playground activities consisting of 10 sessions (once a week), each lasting 1 h, in a specific playground setting. For the partly structured activity group, activities in each session consisted of a combination of both structured and free activity while the free-play group were engaged in unstructured play only. The control group did not attend the playground activities (N = 36). To assess levels of motor skills, each child completed pre- and post-tests using the Movement Assessment Battery for children (MABC-2), the Test of Motor Competence (TMC) and two playground-specific tests. A 3 (study group) and X 2 (gender) ANCOVAs were conducted on post-test scores on each of the test items from TMC, MABC-II and playground tests, with pre-test scores as covariates. Post hoc pairwise multiple comparisons were conducted with the alpha Bonferroni corrected, and the partial eta-squared (η2p) was applied as a measure of effect size. The results indicate no significant differences in motor competence measured by the TMC or the MABC-2 between groups. On the contrary, a significant improvement in performance in the playground-specific tests was observed in the partly structured activity group compared to the free-play and control groups.


Assuntos
Destreza Motora , Parques Recreativos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Atividade Motora , Movimento
6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(13)2022 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35808395

RESUMO

Dexterous tool use is typically characterized by fast and precise motions performed by multiple fingers. One representative task is piano playing, which involves fast performance of a sequence of complex motions with high spatiotemporal precision. However, for several decades, a lack of contactless sensing technologies that are capable of precision measurement of piano key motions has been a bottleneck for unveiling how such an outstanding skill is cultivated. Here, we developed a novel sensing system that can record the vertical position of all piano keys with a time resolution of 1 ms and a spatial resolution of 0.01 mm in a noncontact manner. Using this system, we recorded the piano key motions while 49 pianists played a complex sequence of tones that required both individuated and coordinated finger movements to be performed as fast and accurately as possible. Penalized regression using various feature variables of the key motions identified distinct characteristics of the key-depressing and key-releasing motions in relation to the speed and accuracy of the performance. For the maximum rate of the keystrokes, individual differences across the pianists were associated with the peak key descending velocity, the key depression duration, and key-lift timing. For the timing error of the keystrokes, the interindividual differences were associated with the peak ascending velocity of the key and the inter-strike variability of both the peak key descending velocity and the key depression duration. These results highlight the importance of dexterous control of the vertical motions of the keys for fast and accurate piano performance.


Assuntos
Destreza Motora , Música , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Dedos , Movimento (Física)
7.
Braz Oral Res ; 36: e103, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35830146

RESUMO

Fine motor skills (FMS) allow for the control and coordination of the distal musculature of hands and fingers, a skill required to brush teeth. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between FMS and toothbrushing efficacy. This cross-sectional study included 42 low-income Latino children aged 5 to 9 years from Pasto, Colombia. Toothbrushing efficacy was determined by the children's dental plaque Quigley-Hein Index (QH-I) mean-score difference from before and after toothbrushing. FMS were evaluated using the 5-15R parent evaluation, the spiral drawing Archimedes test, and a neurodevelopmental assessment of movements and prehension patterns during toothbrushing. A descriptive analysis was performed to assess the characteristics of FMS and children's toothbrushing, and a generalized linear model was used to determine associations between these skills and toothbrushing efficacy. Eighty-six percent of the children had at least one difficulty with FMS, and in 7%, they interfered with daily activities. Fourteen percent presented a moderate pattern in the Archimedes test, and 43% had inefficient prehension patterns. Toothbrushing reduced the QH-I by a mean of 1.45 (SD = 0.78-2.12) (p < 0.001). Toothbrushing efficacy was only significantly associated with age (mean-difference = -0.315, 95%CI: -0.481 to -0.148, p < 0.001). FMS and toothbrushing efficacy were not significantly associated. Other components of fine motor control should be analyzed to understand the kinetics of toothbrushing.


Assuntos
Destreza Motora , Escovação Dentária , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pais
9.
Neurosci Lett ; 785: 136775, 2022 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35817313

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Task complexity could affect acquisition efficiency of motor skills and interlimb transfer; however, how task complexity affects interlimb transfer remains unclear. We hypothesized that left- and right-handed participants may have different interlimb transfer efficiency depending on the task complexity. METHODS: Left-hand (n = 28) and right-hand (n = 28) dominant participants (age = 24.70 ± 4.02 years, male:female = 28:28) performed a finger sequence test with two levels of complexity (simple: one-digit with four fingers vs. complex: two-digit with five fingers) before and after ten trials of 2-min practice each on the same apparatus. The speed and task errors were measured and analyzed. RESULTS: Right-handed participants failed to improve performance on their right hand (non-trained hand) after contralateral left-hand practice in the simple finger sequence task. In contrast, the left-handed participants improved performance on non-trained hands both right and left after contralateral practices. In the complex task, however, both the left- and right-handed participants improved performance on non-trained hands by contralateral practices. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that task complexity of skilled practice gave different effects on interlimb transfer between right- and left-handed subjects. It appears that a certain level of appropriate complexity is necessary to detect inter-limb transfers in motor learning in right-handed subjects.


Assuntos
Lateralidade Funcional , Mãos , Adulto , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Destreza Motora , Desempenho Psicomotor , Extremidade Superior , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Neuroeng Rehabil ; 19(1): 82, 2022 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35883179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An individual's rapid motor skills allow them to perform many daily activities and are a hallmark of physical health. Although age and sex are both known to affect motor performance, standardized methods for assessing their impact on upper limb function are limited. METHODS: Here we perform a cross-sectional study of 643 healthy human participants in two interactive motor tasks developed to quantify sensorimotor abilities, Object-Hit (OH) and Object-Hit-and-Avoid (OHA). The tasks required participants to hit virtual objects with and without the presence of distractor objects. Velocities and positions of hands and objects were recorded by a robotic exoskeleton, allowing a variety of parameters to be calculated for each trial. We verified that these tasks are viable for measuring performance in healthy humans and we examined whether any of our recorded parameters were related to age or sex. RESULTS: Our analysis shows that both OH and OHA can assess rapid motor behaviours in healthy human participants. It also shows that while some parameters in these tasks decline with age, those most associated with the motor system do not. Three parameters show significant sex-related effects in OH, but these effects disappear in OHA. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the underlying effect of aging on rapid motor behaviours is not on the capabilities of the motor system, but on the brain's capacity for processing inputs into motor actions. Additionally, this study provides a baseline description of healthy human performance in OH and OHA when using these tasks to investigate age-related declines in sensorimotor ability.


Assuntos
Exoesqueleto Energizado , Destreza Motora , Envelhecimento , Estudos Transversais , Mãos , Humanos
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35886518

RESUMO

The assessment of motor proficiency is essential across childhood to identify children's strengths and difficulties and to provide adequate instruction and opportunities; assessment is a powerful tool to promote children's development. This study aimed to investigate the hierarchal order of the Test of Gross Motor Development-Third Edition (TGMD-3) items regarding difficulty levels and the differential item functioning across gender and age group (3 to 5, 6 to 8, and 9 to 10 years old). Participants are 989 children (3 to 10.9 years; girls n = 491) who were assessed using TGMD-3. For locomotor skills, appropriate results reliability (alpha = 1.0), infit (M = 0.99; SD = 0.17), outfit (M = 1.18; SD = 0.64), and point-biserial correlations (rpb values from 0.14 to 0.58) were found; the trend was similar for ball skills: reliability (alpha = 1.0), infit (M = 0.99; SD = 0.13), outfit (M = 1.08; SD = 0.52); point-biserial correlations (rpb values from 0.06 to 0.59) were obtained. Two motor criteria: gallop, item-1, and one-hand forehand strike, item-4, were the most difficult items; in contrast, run, item-2, and two-hand catch, item-2, were the easiest items. Differential item functioning for age was observed in nine locomotor and ten ball skills items. These items were easier for older children compared to younger ones. The TGMD-3 has items with different difficulty levels capable of differential functioning across age groups.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Destreza Motora , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Mãos , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
12.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0262977, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35797362

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Adopting an external focus of attention has been shown to benefit motor performance and learning. However, the potential of optimizing attentional focus for improving prosthetic motor skills in lower limb prosthesis (LLP) users has not been examined. In this study, we investigated the frequency and direction of attentional focus embedded in the verbal instructions in a clinical prosthetic training setting. METHODS: Twenty-one adult LLP users (8 female, 13 male; 85% at K3 level; mean age = 50.5) were recruited from prosthetic clinics in the Southern Nevada region. Verbal interactions between LLP users and their prosthetists (mean experience = 10 years, range = 4-21 years) during prosthetic training were recorded. Recordings were analyzed to categorize the direction of attentional focus embedded in the instructional and feedback statements as internal, external, mixed, or unfocused. We also explored whether LLP users' age, time since amputation, and perceived mobility were associated with the proportion of attentional focus statements they received. RESULTS: We recorded a total of 20 training sessions, yielding 904 statements of instruction from 338 minutes of training. Overall, one verbal interaction occurred every 22.1 seconds. Among the statements, 64% were internal, 9% external, 3% mixed, and 25% unfocused. Regression analysis revealed that female, older, and higher functioning LLP users were significantly more likely to receive internally-focused instructions (p = 0.006, 0.035, and 0.024, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that verbal instructions and feedback are frequently provided to LLP users during prosthetic training. Most verbal interactions are focused internally on the LLP users' body movements and not externally on the movement effects. IMPACT STATEMENT: While more research is needed to explore how motor learning principles may be applied to improve LLP user outcomes, clinicians should consider adopting the best available scientific evidence during treatment. Overreliance on internally-focused instructions as observed in the current study may hinder prosthetic skill learning.


Assuntos
Amputados , Atenção , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Extremidade Inferior , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Destreza Motora
13.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0270121, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35849563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a complex neuromuscular condition that may negatively influence gross motor function. Children diagnosed with CP often exhibit spasticity, weakness, reduced motor control, contracture, and bony malalignment. Despite many previous association studies, the causal impact of these impairments on motor function is unknown. AIM: In this study, we proposed a causal model which estimated the effects of common impairments on motor function in children with spastic CP as measured by the 66-item Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66). We estimated both direct and total effect sizes of all included variables using linear regression based on covariate adjustment sets implied by the minimally sufficient adjustment sets. In addition, we estimated bivariate effect sizes of all measures for comparison. METHOD: We retrospectively evaluated 300 consecutive subjects with spastic cerebral palsy who underwent routine clinical gait analysis. Model data included standard information collected during this analysis. RESULTS: The largest causal effect sizes, as measured by standardized regression coefficients, were found for selective voluntary motor control and dynamic motor control, followed by strength, then gait deviations. In contrast, common treatment targets, such as spasticity and orthopedic deformity, had relatively small effects. Effect sizes estimated from bivariate models, which cannot appropriately adjust for other causal factors, substantially overestimated the total effect of spasticity, strength, and orthopedic deformity. INTERPRETATION: Understanding the effects of impairments on gross motor function will allow clinicians to direct treatments at those impairments with the greatest potential to influence gross motor function and provide realistic expectations of the anticipated changes.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral , Criança , Avaliação da Deficiência , Marcha , Humanos , Destreza Motora , Espasticidade Muscular , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Andes Pediatr ; 93(3): 361-370, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35857007

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To functionally characterize patients with Cerebral Palsy (CP) living in the Magallanes Re gion and the Chilean Antarctic. PATIENT AND METHOD: Descriptive-retrospective observational study of patients with cerebral palsy, registered in the Outpatient Rehabilitation Program of the Corporación de Rehabilitación Club de Leones Cruz del Sur de Punta Arenas between 1986 and 2018. Patients with CP were clinically categorized and then functionally characterized according to gross motor skills (GMFCS), manual ability (MACS), feeding ability (EDACS), and communication function (CFCS). RESULTS: 106 patients were included. Regarding the clinical classification, the most common type of CP was bilateral spastic paralysis, with the highest percentage of functional involvement in each of the evaluated areas, followed by unilateral spastic paralysis, while cases of dystonic CP and other non-classifiable types presented were less frequent. According to the clinical subclassification, spastic diplegia was more frequent, especially affecting manual and communication skills level I compared with hemiplegia, while cases of mixed and unclassifiable quadriplegia were less frequent with greater overall involvement of level I feeding skills. CONCLUSION: The observed results of CP in the Magalla nes Region and the Chilean Antarctic are similar to studies available in the literature. The complete evaluation and classification of patients with CP enable a better understanding of the pathology for future studies.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral , Regiões Antárticas , Paralisia Cerebral/reabilitação , Chile , Humanos , Destreza Motora , Espasticidade Muscular , Quadriplegia
15.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 423, 2022 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35850717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The status of children's early motor skills play an important role during childhood and across lifetime. This study described FMS proficiency among boys (n = 189) and girls (n = 179) kindergarten children from 3 to 6 years old (4.4 s 0.7, mean ± SD) in northwest China. The differences in FMS proficiency of boys and girls from different environments, ethnic groups were analyzed respectively. METHODS: TGMD-3 was used to assess FMS. FMS mastery level was defined according to the correct performance of all criteria over two trials. The correlation between BMI and FMS and the interaction of environmental and ethnic on FMS were analyzed. The general linear model was used to evaluate the differences of boys and girls among environment groups (urban/suburban/county), and ethnic groups (Han/Hui/Tibetan) on the FMS subsets respectively. RESULTS: FMS proficiency was assessed in 368 3- to 6-year-old children (n = 156 urban, n = 101 suburban, n = 111 county)/(n = 208 Han, n = 107 Hui, n = 53 Tibetan). Overall, the highest skill performance was the run, with 86% achieving mastery level, and the poorest performance was the FH strike, at only 19%. Correlation between BMI and FMS is minimal. According to TGMD-3 scores, there was no significant difference between boys and girls in total FMS (p = 0.38). In terms of locomotor skills, boys performed better than girls in the hop, skip and slide (p < 0.05). County children performed significantly difference than urban and suburban children. Some skills performed less proficiently, (boys in 6 of 13 skills: run, HJ, slide, TH strike, FH strike and kick; girls in 4 of 13 skills: run, slide, TH strike and kick) and some skills performed more proficiently (boys in dribble; girls in hop and dribble). Tibetan children performed significantly difference than Han and Hui children. Some skills performed less proficiently, (boys in 6 of 13 skills: run, HJ, slide, TH strike, FH strike and kick; girls in TH strike) and some skills performed more proficiently (boys and girls were all in dribble). CONCLUSION: Children in northwest China showed certain characteristics in FMS, the county/Tibetan boys and girls performed poorer than others in ability to execute particular process characteristics of some skills and performed more outstanding in other skills. It suggests that a certain group population may need specific focus on interventions to improve their FMS level.


Assuntos
Etnicidade , Destreza Motora , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores Sexuais
16.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 430, 2022 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35854239

RESUMO

This study aimed to analyze the reliability of the tests included in the motor competence assessment (MCA) battery and compare the effects of the number of trials per test. Thirty female volleyball players (14.6 ± 1.3 years of age) were tested. The participants performed two or three trials of each test. Intra-class correlation (ICC) was calculated, and a paired sample t-test analyzed the variations between trials (1st vs. 2nd vs. 3rd). Results revealed a significant difference between the first and the second trials for jumping sideways [t(29) = -4.108, p < 0.01], standing long jump [t(29) = -3.643, p < 0.01], and shuttle run [t(29) = -3.139, p < 0.01]. No significant result was registered in the shifting platforms, ball throwing and kicking between the first and second trials. Hence, any difference was recorded between the second and third trial. High ICC values were registered in lateral jumps, among the three repetitions of ball kicking and ball throwing, and between the last two repetitions of shuttle run. Almost perfect values were recorded for the shifting platforms and standing long jump. Nevertheless, there seems to be a learning effect between the first and the second repetition-no differences were registered only considering the two manipulative tests. In conclusion, except for jumping sideways, the MCA tests are reliable and only need to be performed two times instead of three.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Destreza Motora , Voleibol , Adolescente , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Voleibol/fisiologia
17.
Neural Netw ; 153: 349-372, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35779444

RESUMO

The redundancy inherent to the human body is a central problem that must be solved by the brain when acquiring new motor skills. The problem of redundancy becomes particularly critical when learning a new motor policy from scratch in a novel environment and task (i.e., de novo learning). It has been proposed that motor variability could be leveraged to explore and identify task-potent motor commands, and recent results indicated a possible role of motor exploration in error-based motor learning, including in de novo learning tasks. However, the precise computational mechanisms underlying this role remain poorly understood. A new controller in a de novo motor task can potentially be learned by first using motor exploration to learn a sensitivity derivative, which can transform observed task errors into motor corrections, enabling the error-based learning of the controller. Although this approach has been discussed, the computational properties of exploration and how this mechanism can explain recent reports of motor exploration in error-based de-novo learning have not been thoroughly examined. Here, we used this approach to simulate the tasks used in several recent studies of human motor learning tasks in which motor exploration was observed, and replicating their main results. Analyses of the proposed learning mechanism using equations and simulations suggested that exploring the entire motor command space leads to the training of an efficient sensitivity derivative, enabling rapid learning of the controller, in visuomotor adaptation and de novo tasks. The successful replication of previous experimental results elucidated the role of motor exploration in motor learning.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Desempenho Psicomotor , Adaptação Fisiológica , Encéfalo , Humanos , Destreza Motora
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35886186

RESUMO

The age range of 3-6 years is considered as a critical period in developing and learning fundamental motor skills (FMS). To make the formulation of future FMS guidance programs more targeted, we examined gender differences in children's FMS proficiency using a meta-analysis. Structured electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science were systematically searched using key terms, and the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) was used to assess the quality of included literature. Finally, 38 articles (39 studies) met the pre-specified inclusion criteria. The results showed that boys had higher proficiency in total FMS and object control skills than girls (SMD = 0.17 (95% CI 0.03, 0.31), p = 0.02; SMD = 0.48 (95% CI 0.38, 0.58), p < 0.00001), and gender differences in locomotor skill proficiency approached significance, trending in favor of girls (SMD = -0.07 (95 % CI -0.15, 0.01), p = 0.09, I2 = 66%). Meta-regression shows that age is associated with gender differences in object control skills (p < 0.05). In addition, through subgroup analysis, we found that boys' advantage in object control skills increased with age (3 years: SMD = 0.27 (95% CI 0.00, 0.54), p < 0.00001; 4 years: SMD = 0.58 (95% CI 0.38, 0.77), p < 0.00001; 5 years: SMD = 0.59 (95% CI 0.31, 0.88), p < 0.00001; 6 years: SMD = 0.81 (95% CI 0.61, 1.01), p < 0.00001). In this meta-analysis, we found gender differences in FMS levels in children aged 3-6 years. Notably, gender differences in skill proficiency in object control were influenced by age. We recommend focusing on and developing girls' object control skills starting at age 3.


Assuntos
Destreza Motora , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
19.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 223: 105492, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35779285

RESUMO

Motor skills are an important aspect of development during infancy and have been found to predict development in other domains. Therefore, fast and reliable assessments of infant motor skills are needed. The current study revisited a time and cost-effective parent-report measure of infants' motor skills-the Early Motor Questionnaire (EMQ)-and aimed to improve the utility of the EMQ as a tool to examine variability, stability, and individual differences in early motor development. A sample of 446 parents of infants provided a total of 775 EMQ responses for analyses. Using this large sample, regression was used to create age-independent scores for global, gross motor, fine motor, and perception-action scores on the EMQ. Age-adjusted scores were then converted to t-scores to facilitate score interpretation for past and future studies using the EMQ. Finally, starting flags for different age groups were created to decrease the time it takes parents to complete the EMQ. Together, these changes to the EMQ will improve the utility and interpretability of the measure. The EMQ is free to use and available in the supplemental materials or via www.onlinebabylab.com/emq.


Assuntos
Destreza Motora , Pais , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Humanos , Individualidade , Lactente , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Pediatr Phys Ther ; 34(3): 309-316, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35653237

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study examines object permanence development in infants with motor delays (MD) compared with infants with typical development (TD) and in relation to sitting skill. METHODS: Fifty-six infants with MD (mean age = 10 months) and 36 with TD (mean age = 5.7 months) were assessed at baseline and then at 1.5, 3, and 6 months postbaseline. A scale was developed to measure object permanence (Object Permanence Scale [OPS]), and the Gross Motor Function Measure sitting subsection (GMFM-SS), and the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd Edition (Bayley-III) were administered. RESULTS: Interrater reliability of the OPS was excellent and correlation between the OPS and Bayley-III cognitive scores was moderately positive. Compared with TD, infants with MD were delayed in development of object permanence but demonstrated increased understanding over time and as sitting skills improved. CONCLUSION: In children with MD, object permanence, as quantified by the OPS, emerges in conjunction with sitting skill.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Transtornos das Habilidades Motoras , Humanos , Lactente , Destreza Motora , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Postura Sentada
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