Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 10.489
Filtrar
1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5390, 2021 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508073

RESUMO

The smooth conduct of movements requires simultaneous motor planning and execution according to internal goals. So far it remains unknown how such movement plans are modified without interfering with ongoing movements. Previous studies have isolated planning and execution-related neuronal activity by separating behavioral planning and movement periods in time by sensory cues. Here, we separate continuous self-paced motor planning from motor execution statistically, by experimentally minimizing the repetitiveness of the movements. This approach shows that, in the rat sensorimotor cortex, neuronal motor planning processes evolve with slower dynamics than movement-related responses. Fast-evolving neuronal activity precees skilled forelimb movements and is nested within slower dynamics. We capture this effect via high-pass filtering and confirm the results with optogenetic stimulations. The various dynamics combined with adaptation-based high-pass filtering provide a simple principle for separating concurrent motor planning and execution.


Assuntos
Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Córtex Sensório-Motor/fisiologia , Animais , Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Membro Anterior/fisiologia , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Optogenética , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans , Técnicas Estereotáxicas
2.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 1704947, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34485510

RESUMO

Purpose: The bidirectional associations among children's motor skill competence (MSC), perceived competence (PC), physical activity (PA), and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) over time remain unanswered. This study is aimed at discerning the bidirectional relationships among elementary school children's MSC, PC, PA and, CRF over the course of one school year. Methods: A total of 261 second and third grade children (127 boys, 134 girls; meanage = 8.27 years; BMI = 18.22 ± 3.71) were recruited from two Texas elementary schools. Approximately 73.56% of participants were White American. Children's baseline data were assessed in September/October in 2012 (Time1), and identical assessments were conducted in April/May in 2013 (Time2). MSC was assessed using product-oriented skill tests (e.g., throw, kick, and jump). PC was assessed via the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence for Children. Minutes spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) was assessed using ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers for five days, and CRF was assessed by the PACER test. Six age- and body mass index-adjusted cross-lagged panel models were used to test the relationships between the variables. Results: We observed that T1 MSC significantly predicted T2 MSC (ß = 0.59; p < 0.01), T2 CRF (ß = 0.28; p < 0.01), and T2 MVPA (ß = 0.18; p < 0.01). Children's CRF was a positive predictor for T2 CRF (ß = 0.56; p < 0.01) and T2 MSC (ß = 0.13; p < 0.05) Additionally, T1 MVPA significantly predicted T2 MVPA (ß = 0.30; p < 0.01) and T2 PC (ß = -0.14; p < 0.05). Conclusion: Findings suggested a fully bidirectional relationship between elementary children's MSC and CRF. Other bidirectional relationships among the variables were only partially supported. Educators and health professionals need to emphasize the importance of developing both MSC and CRF to maintain physical health over time.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Aptidão Física , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , Instituições Acadêmicas , Texas
3.
Nat Neurosci ; 24(9): 1256-1269, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267392

RESUMO

The basal ganglia are known to influence action selection and modulation of movement vigor, but whether and how they contribute to specifying the kinematics of learned motor skills is not understood. Here, we probe this question by recording and manipulating basal ganglia activity in rats trained to generate complex task-specific movement patterns with rich kinematic structure. We find that the sensorimotor arm of the basal ganglia circuit is crucial for generating the detailed movement patterns underlying the acquired motor skills. Furthermore, the neural representations in the striatum, and the control function they subserve, do not depend on inputs from the motor cortex. Taken together, these results extend our understanding of the basal ganglia by showing that they can specify and control the fine-grained details of learned motor skills through their interactions with lower-level motor circuits.


Assuntos
Gânglios da Base/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Feminino , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans
4.
J Sports Sci Med ; 20(3): 508-515, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267591

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the role of release parameter changes within individuals (intra-individual) on basketball shooting performance across both free throws and three-point shots, and identify whether any velocity dependence exists. Twelve male basketball players were recorded shooting seventy-five three-point shots (6.75 m) and fifty free throws (4.19 m). Ball release parameters were estimated by combining an analytic trajectory model including drag, a least squares estimator, and gradient-based release distance compensation. Intra-individual release velocity standard deviations (SD) were found to be significantly smaller across all distances ([0.05-0.13 m/s] when compared to statistics reported by other studies [0.2-0.8 m/s]). Despite an increase in lower body motion and a 24% increase in release velocity (p < 0.001) as shooting distance increased, no increases in intra-individual release velocity or angle SD were observed indicating velocity-dependent changes in release parameters were absent. Shooting performance was found to be strongly correlated to the release velocity SD (r = -0.96, p < 0.001, for three-point shots, and r = -0.88, p < 0.001, for free throws). Release angle SD (1.2 ± 0.24 deg, for three-point shots, and 1.3 ± 0.26 deg, for free throws) showed no increase with distance and unrelated to performance. These findings suggest that velocity-dependent factors have minimal contribution to shooting strategies and an individual's ability to control release velocity at any distance is a primary factor in determining their shooting performance.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Basquetebol/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Cotovelo/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Propriocepção/fisiologia , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Punho/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Sports Sci Med ; 20(2): 268-274, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211319

RESUMO

Several studies have indicated that musculoskeletal injuries are common during a professional tennis competition. However, data from a tropical country like Indonesia is lacking. This study aimed to obtain the incidence rate and injury characteristics and identify risk factors of musculoskeletal injuries among professional tennis players competing in Indonesia under the International Tennis Federation (ITF). The study was a prospective cohort during professional tennis tournaments in Jakarta, Indonesia in 2019, consisting of the ITF Women's Circuit Indonesia (two weeks) and ITF Men's Future Indonesia (three weeks). All athletes were enrolled in this study. Injuries were assessed based on the ITF Consensus Statement. Incidence rate was the number of injuries per 1000 player hours (i.e., the total duration from before the match starts to completion of the match after the final point). The magnitude of risk was expressed as a relative risk (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI). Independent risk factors were identified using multivariate analyses. A total of 161 tennis players were enrolled; 71 (44.1%) were men. Their mean age was 22 years old. The incidence rate of musculoskeletal injuries was 30.8 injuries per 1000 player hours (95% CI: 28.2-33.5). The most common onset was acute injuries (61.1%), while the most common location and type of injury was the trunk (38.9%) and muscle strain (61.1%). Risk factors associated with musculoskeletal injury were higher body height, skill level, history of previous injury, and wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) zone. There was no injury during the doubles matches. Previous injury was an independent risk factor (adjusted RR: 48.1 (95% CI: 11.3-155.0; p < 0.001). The incidence of musculoskeletal injuries among professional tennis player is considerably high. Factors associated with injury are body height, skill level, previous injury, and WBGT zone. Future injury prevention programmes should incorporate the management of previous injuries and take into account the effect of environmental temperature.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Sistema Musculoesquelético/lesões , Tênis/lesões , Clima Tropical , Estatura , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/lesões , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Entorses e Distensões/epidemiologia , Tronco/lesões , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252043, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086687

RESUMO

Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting primarily motor skills, but attentional and executive impairments are common in affected individuals. Moreover, the presence of neurodevelopmental comorbidities is frequent in this population, which certainly influences the cognitive profile of the children concerned. Previous studies have reported deficits in visuospatial/nonverbal and planning tasks. This systematic review of the literature aims to determine if impairments can be found in other attentional and executive functions as well. The type of cognitive tasks, the tasks' modality (verbal/nonverbal), and the influence of comorbid disorders on attentional and executive profiles are systematically considered. Forty-one studies were identified through the PubMed/Medline and PsycINFO databases according to pre-established eligibility criteria. The results reveal weaknesses in inhibitory control, working memory, planning, nonverbal fluency, and general executive functioning in children with DCD. The presence of comorbid disorders seemingly contributes to the verbal working memory difficulties findings. This review contributes to a better understanding of the cognitive impairments in DCD and of the needs of children with this disorder, allowing to optimize practitioners' therapeutic interventions.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Transtornos das Habilidades Motoras/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Criança , Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia
7.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 132(8): 1790-1801, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130247

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Age-related differences in neural strategies for motor learning are not fully understood. We determined the effects of age on the relationship between motor network connectivity and motor skill acquisition, consolidation, and interlimb transfer using dynamic imaging of coherent sources. METHODS: Healthy younger (n = 24, 18-24 y) and older (n = 24, 65-87 y) adults unilaterally practiced a visuomotor task and resting-state electroencephalographic data was acquired before and after practice as well as at retention. RESULTS: The results showed that right-hand skill acquisition and consolidation did not differ between age groups. However, age affected the ability to transfer the newly acquired motor skill to the non-practiced limb. Moreover, strengthened left- and right-primary motor cortex-related beta connectivity was negatively and positively associated with right-hand skill acquisition and left-hand skill consolidation in older adults, respectively. CONCLUSION: Age-dependent modulations of bilateral resting-state motor network connectivity indicate age-specific strategies for the acquisition, consolidation, and interlimb transfer of novel motor tasks. SIGNIFICANCE: The present results provide insights into the mechanisms underlying motor learning that are important for the development of interventions for patients with unilateral injuries.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Transferência de Experiência/fisiologia , Adolescente , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Consolidação da Memória/fisiologia , Córtex Motor/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Adulto Jovem
8.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071269

RESUMO

Vortioxetine is a multimodal antidepressant drug that affects several brain neurochemicals and has the potential to induce various pharmacological effects on the central nervous system. Therefore, we investigated the centrally mediated analgesic efficacy of this drug and the mechanisms underlying this effect. Analgesic activity of vortioxetine (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, p.o.) was examined by tail-clip, tail-immersion and hot-plate tests. Motor performance of animals was evaluated using Rota-rod device. Time course measurements (30-180 min) showed that vortioxetine (10 and 20 mg/kg) administrations significantly increased the response latency, percent maximum possible effect and area under the curve values in all of the nociceptive tests. These data pointed out the analgesic effect of vortioxetine on central pathways carrying acute thermal and mechanical nociceptive stimuli. Vortioxetine did not alter the motor coordination of mice indicating that the analgesic activity of this drug was specific. In mechanistic studies, pre-treatments with p-chlorophenylalanine (serotonin-synthesis inhibitor), NAN-190 (serotonin 5-HT1A receptor antagonist), α-methyl-para-tyrosine (catecholamine-synthesis inhibitor), phentolamine (non-selective α-adrenoceptor blocker), and naloxone (non-selective opioid receptor blocker) antagonised the vortioxetine-induced analgesia. Obtained findings indicated that vortioxetine-induced analgesia is mediated by 5-HT1A serotonergic, α-adrenergic and opioidergic receptors, and contributions of central serotonergic and catecholaminergic neurotransmissions are critical for this effect.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/química , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Receptor 5-HT1A de Serotonina/metabolismo , Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa/metabolismo , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/metabolismo , Vortioxetina/farmacologia , Analgesia/métodos , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Diazepam/farmacologia , Fenclonina/química , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Morfina/farmacologia , Naloxona/química , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Fentolamina/química , Piperazinas/química , Agonistas do Receptor 5-HT1 de Serotonina/farmacologia , alfa-Metiltirosina/química
9.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During early life, dynamic gut colonization and brain development co-occur with potential cross-talk mechanisms affecting behaviour. METHODS: We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to examine the associations between gut microbiota and neurodevelopmental outcomes assessed by the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III in 71 full-term healthy infants at 18 months of age. We hypothesized that children would differ in gut microbial diversity, enterotypes obtained by Dirichlet multinomial mixture analysis and specific taxa based on their behavioural characteristics. RESULTS: In children dichotomized by behavioural trait performance in above- and below-median groups, weighted Unifrac b-diversity exhibited significant differences in fine motor (FM) activity. Dirichlet multinomial mixture modelling identified two enterotypes strongly associated with FM outcomes. When controlling for maternal pre-gestational BMI and breastfeeding for up to 3 months, the examination of signature taxa in FM groups showed that Turicibacter and Parabacteroides were highly abundant in the below-median FM group, while Collinsella, Coprococcus, Enterococcus, Fusobacterium, Holdemanella, Propionibacterium, Roseburia, Veillonella, an unassigned genus within Veillonellaceae and, interestingly, probiotic Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus were more abundant in the above-median FM group. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest an association between enterotypes and specific genera with FM activity and may represent an opportunity for probiotic interventions relevant to treatment for motor disorders.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Aleitamento Materno , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Probióticos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
10.
Muscle Nerve ; 64(3): 357-361, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105182

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION/AIM: This retrospective study aimed to quantify the changes in motor function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) due to the government-imposed travel restrictions associated with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: Twelve DMD patients were enrolled in this investigation (mean ± SD age: 9.8 ± 3.6 y). Their physical characteristics and motor function were evaluated approximately 3 mo before, immediately before, and approximately 3 mo after the travel restrictions were decreed. Statistical comparisons were performed of the changes in motor function before and after the travel restrictions. RESULTS: The change in range of motion (ROM) of ankle dorsiflexion was significantly decreased after the travel restrictions. Changes in body mass index and other motor function parameters were not significant. DISCUSSION: An apparent decrease in the amount of physical activity due to travel restrictions in response to COVID-19 negatively affected ankle dorsiflexion ROM but not other motor functions. A more sedentary lifestyle and lack of regular physical therapy services most likely contributed to this reduction. The use of remote rehabilitation tools with the involvement of physiotherapists may help mitigate such changes and prevent more severe physical decline.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/terapia , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Viagem , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/diagnóstico , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/fisiopatologia , Modalidades de Fisioterapia/tendências , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Viagem/tendências
11.
J Sports Sci Med ; 20(2): 197-203, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33948097

RESUMO

The hexagon agility test is widely used in tennis players' fitness evaluation, although its validity has not been fully stablished. This study aimed to assess the relationships between sprinting, jumping, and change of direction (COD) ability and hexagon test performance. Thirty-five under-16 tennis players completed a testing battery including the hexagon test, 20-m linear sprint, bilateral and unilateral countermovement jumps (CMJ), triple leg-hop for distance, T-Test, 5-0-5 and Pro-Agility test on two different sessions, separated by one week. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the standard error of measurement (SEM) were used to assess the reliability of the test. Pearson's product correlations (r) were used to analyze the relationships between the hexagon test and the other fitness tests. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. The hexagon test showed high relative reliability (ICC = 0.88) and low SEM values (0.17 s). Significant small to large correlations were found between the hexagon test time and linear sprint time (r = 0.40 to 0.60), COD tests (r = 0.53 to 0.79), and jumping performance (r = -0.40 to -0.68). The hexagon test is a simple, quick, easy-to-implement and reliable test, which allow it to be included in tennis players' testing batteries. The test is related to measures of speed, power and agility, although the magnitude of these relationships does not allow for the replacement of the more traditional assessments (e.g., CMJ, 20-m sprint, T-Test) within tennis players' testing batteries.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Tênis/fisiologia , Adolescente , Aptidão , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Aptidão Física , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
12.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0237760, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038427

RESUMO

Seefeldt`s classic motor development pyramid model recognizes the significance of fundamental movement skills (FMS) in physical activities and proposes a "proficiency barrier" between FMS and higher-level specific sports skills during middle childhood. However, the relationship between the layers of the conceptual model has not been empirically tested. This study investigated motor fitness (MF), FMS, and quality of movement patterns (QMP) in 7-10 years old children and evaluated the relationships among them. A total of 117 children were randomly selected to take tests of MF, the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2), and the Functional Movement Screen (FMS™). MF and FMS levels were classified according to percentile ranges. Two multiple (R×C) Chi-Square tests were applied to analyze the relationships between MF, FMS, and QMP. Post-hoc testing estimated the possibility of FMS and QMP to predict MF. The results showed that boys scored significantly higher on the object-control subtest and on the TGMD-2 compared to girls (p<0.001), while girls scored significantly higher on the FMS™ (p = 0.001). FMS score and QMP level were weakly correlated with MF (FMS: χ2 = 14.605, p = 0.006, Cramer`s V = 0.25; QMP: χ2 = 13.943, p = 0.007, Cramer`s V = 0.24). Thus, 60.5% of children with "excellent" FMS and 59.6% with "high" QMP were categorized as having a "good" MF. In contrast, only 23.1% of children with "poor" FMS and 24.3% with "low" QMP were classified as having a "good" MF. Our results confirm MF, FMS, and QMP are correlated with each other, although this relationship is weak. Further, a possible motor skill proficiency barrier exists already in children 7-10 years old. The study results support the promotion of physical activity and motor skill development in primary school children.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores Sexuais , Esportes/fisiologia
13.
Traffic Inj Prev ; 22(5): 343-348, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33979247

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Alcohol-impairment of drivers has significant influence on road traffic safety; however, no experimental research has been conducted on the lateral driving control of Indian drivers. Therefore, the present study investigates the effects of different Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) levels (0%, 0.03%, 0.05% and 0.08%) and driver attributes on the lane positioning and steering control of Indian drivers. METHOD: A driving simulator experiment was designed where 82 adult licensed drivers (62 males, 20 females) completed driving on the simulated urban arterial road environment under the influence of varying BACs. Lateral driving performance measures associated with lane positioning (lane position variability) and steering control of drivers (steering angle variability and steering reversal rates (SRR)) were analyzed. RESULTS: The findings reported that lane position variability was significantly influenced only at 0.08% BAC (5.8% increment); no significant influence was observed at 0.03% and 0.05% BACs. Compared to 0% BAC, steering angle variability increased by 0.105 degrees or 15.7%, 0.142 degrees or 21.4%, and 0.176 degrees or 25.7% at 0.03%, 0.05% and 0.08% BACs respectively. No significant differences were observed between the sober-state driving and alcohol-impaired driving at 1ο and 5ο SRR. However, 10ο SRR was found to be higher by 36%, 65% and 92% at 0.03%, 0.05% and 0.08% BACs compared to 0% BAC. Among the driver attributes, male drivers displayed higher impairment in lane positioning behavior as compared to female drivers. One-year increase in drivers' age reduced the lane position variability by 0.6%. Drivers who performed regular physical exercise were found to have better lateral control on the vehicle, as observed in their steering angle variability. Prior crash history had negative association with the steering reversal rates, indicating that drivers who have previous experience of crash involvement show better steering control than the drivers without any crash experience. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the outcomes of this study provide novel insights into the alcohol-impaired lateral vehicle control of Indian drivers which can assist in policy interventions aiming to reduce crashes with alcohol as a major crash causation factor.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Concentração Alcoólica no Sangue , Dirigir sob a Influência/psicologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/sangue , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Simulação por Computador , Etanol/sangue , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Assunção de Riscos
14.
J Neuroeng Rehabil ; 18(1): 85, 2021 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022945

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current myoelectric prostheses are multi-articulated and offer multiple modes. Switching between modes is often done through pre-defined myosignals, so-called triggers, of which the training hardly is studied. We evaluated if switching skills trained without using a prosthesis transfer to actual prosthesis use and whether the available feedback during training influences this transfer. Furthermore we examined which clinically relevant performance measures and which myosignal features were adapted during training. METHODS: Two experimental groups and one control group participated in a five day pre-test-post-test design study. Both experimental groups used their myosignals to perform a task. One group performed a serious game without seeing their myosignals, the second group was presented their myosignal on a screen. The control group played the serious game using the touchpad of the laptop. Each training session lasted 15 min. The pre- and post-test were identical for all groups and consisted of performing a task with an actual prosthesis, where switches had to be produced to change grip mode to relocate clothespins. Both clinically relevant performance measures and myosignal features were analysed. RESULTS: 10 participants trained using the serious game, 10 participants trained with the visual myosignal and 8 the control task. All participants were unimpaired. Both experimental groups showed significant transfer of skill from training to prosthesis use, the control group did not. The degree of transfer did not differ between the two training groups. Clinically relevant measure 'accuracy' and feature of the myosignals 'variation in phasing' changed during training. CONCLUSIONS: Training switching skills appeared to be successful. The skills trained in the game transferred to performance in a functional task. Learning switching skills is independent of the type of feedback used during training. Outcome measures hardly changed during training and further research is needed to explain this. It should be noted that five training sessions did not result in a level of performance needed for actual prosthesis use. Trial registration The study was approved by the local ethics committee (ECB 2014.02.28_1) and was included in the Dutch trial registry (NTR5876).


Assuntos
Membros Artificiais , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Adulto , Retroalimentação , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Masculino , Extremidade Superior , Jogos de Vídeo , Adulto Jovem
15.
An. sist. sanit. Navar ; 44(1): 83-95, ene.-abr. 2021. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-201850

RESUMO

Las organizaciones deportivas involucradas en el deporte-base cuentan con entrenadores, directivos y árbitros cuya actitud, trabajo y dedicación permite deducir que la mayoría son ciudadanos voluntarios con escaso conocimiento sobre la psicología como método de trabajo. Este documento, impulsado por el Programa Talento Deportivo de la Universidad de Navarra y el Colegio Oficial de Psicólogos de Navarra, aborda el papel de la psicología en el deporte infanto-juvenil y los beneficios que puede aportar a deportistas, padres, entrenadores, árbitros o directivos. También establece un consenso en forma de decálogo y veintisiete recomendaciones con el objetivo de reconocer los beneficios de mejorar el conocimiento psicológico de los distintos perfiles implicados en el deporte-base con el fin de adquirir destrezas que beneficien tanto el rendimiento como el estado psicológico. Su objetivo es proveer unas directrices psicológicas para utilizarlas en el manejo y entrenamiento de los deportistas infanto-juveniles


Sports organisations involved in grassroots sports have trainers, managers and referees whose attitudes, work and dedication show that many of them are volunteers with little knowledge of psychology as a working method. This document, promoted by the Programa Talento Deportivo of the University of Navarra and the Official Association of Psychologists of Navarra, considers the role of psychology in children's and adolescents' sport and the benefits it can offer to sports players, parents, trainers, referees and managers. It also establishes a consensus in the form of a set of guidelines and twenty-seven recommendations. The aim of this consensus is to recognise the benefits of including psychology in the profiles involved in grassroots sport, to enable those involved to acquire skills that can help to improve performance and psychological states, promoting directives to be used when managing and training young sports players


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Guias como Assunto/normas , Psicologia/normas , Desempenho Atlético/normas , Psicologia do Esporte/normas , Esportes/educação , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Psicologia/educação , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/normas , Esportes/normas , Destreza Motora/fisiologia
16.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250598, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33905440

RESUMO

Patients with mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) often report difficulties in motor coordination and visuo-spatial attention. However, the consequences of mTBI on fine motor and visuo-motor coordination are still not well understood. We aimed to evaluate whether mTBI had a concomitant effect on fine motor ability and visuo-motor integration and whether this is related to visual perception and visuo-spatial attention impairments, including patients at different symptoms stage. Eleven mTBI patients (mean age 22.8 years) and ten healthy controls participated in the study. Visuo-motor integration of fine motor abilities and form recognition were measured with the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration test, motion perception was evaluated with motion coherence test, critical flicker fusion was measured with Pocket CFF tester. Visuo-spatial was assessed with the Ruff 2 & 7 Selection Attention Test. mTBI patients showed reduced visuo-motor integration, form recognition, and motor deficits as well as visuo-spatial attention impairment, while motion perception and critical flicker fusion were not impaired. These preliminary findings suggest that the temporary brain insults deriving from mTBI compromise fine motor skills, visuomotor integration, form recognition, and visuo-spatial attention. The impairment in visuo-motor coordination was associated with speed in visuo-attention and correlated with symptoms severity while motor ability was correlated with time since concussion. Given the strong correlation between visuomotor coordination and symptom severity, further investigation with a larger sample seems warranted. Since there appeared to be differences in motor skills with respect to symptom stage, further research is needed to investigate symptom profiles associated with visuomotor coordination and fine motor deficits in mTBI patients.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Concussão Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção de Movimento/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Testes Visuais , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Neuroeng Rehabil ; 18(1): 70, 2021 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The assessment of upper-limb motor impairments after stroke is usually performed using clinical scales and tests, which may lack accuracy and specificity and be biased. Although some instruments exist that are capable of evaluating hand functions and grasping during functional tasks, hand mobility and dexterity are generally either not specifically considered during clinical assessments or these examinations lack accuracy. This study aimed to determine the convergent validity, reliability, and sensitivity to impairment severity after a stroke of a dedicated, multi-touch app, named the Hand Assessment Test. METHODS: The hand mobility, coordination, and function of 88 individuals with stroke were assessed using the app, and their upper-limb functions were assessed using the Fugl-Meyer Assessment for Upper Extremity, the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test, the Box and Block Test, and the Nine Hole Peg Test. Twenty-three participants were further considered to investigate inter- and intra-rater reliability, standard error of measurement, and the minimal detectable change threshold of the app. Finally, participants were categorized according to motor impairment severity and the sensitivity of the app relative to these classifications was investigated. RESULTS: Significant correlations, of variable strengths, were found between the measurements performed by the app and the clinical scales and tests. Variable reliability, ranging from moderate to excellent, was found for all app measurements. Exercises that involved tapping and maximum finger-pincer grasp were sensitive to motor impairment severity. CONCLUSIONS: The convergent validity, reliability, and sensitivity to motor impairment severity of the app, especially of those exercises that involved tapping and the maximum extension of the fingers, together with the widespread availability of the app, could support the use of this and similar apps to complement conventional clinical assessments of hand function after stroke.


Assuntos
Aplicativos Móveis , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Dedos/fisiopatologia , Mãos/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia
18.
Hum Mov Sci ; 77: 102790, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurophysiological development of selective voluntary motor control (SVMC) is assumed but has not been quantified objectively. We assessed SVMC with (i) clinical assessments, (ii) a combination of these assessments with surface electromyography (sEMG) and, (iii) a playful computer game. The aim of this study was to describe and compare age-related differences in SVMC, quantified with these tools, in neurologically intact children, adolescents, and adults. METHODS: We measured upper and lower extremity SVMC with three assessments in 31 children and adolescents. A sample of 33 and 31 adults provided reference values for the upper and lower extremity assessments, respectively. The Selective Control of the Upper Extremity Scale (SCUES) or the Selective Control Assessment of the Lower Extremity (SCALE) were combined with simultaneous sEMG recordings. We quantified SVMC by a similarity index that compared an individual's muscle activation pattern with those of an adult reference group. The SVMC Assessgame required isolated joint movements to steer an avatar and quantified the accuracy of the selective movement and the extent of involuntary movements occurring in not involved joints. RESULTS: Results from the conventional clinical assessments correlated low to moderately with age (SCUES: r = 0.55, p = 0.013; SCALE: r = 0.44, p = 0.001), while the correlation between the sEMG based similarity index and age was negligible (r ≤ 0.25). The outcomes of the Assessgame correlated highly with age (r ≥ 0.80, p ≤ 0.001). Older children and adolescents performed movements more accurately and with fewer involuntary movements compared to younger participants. CONCLUSIONS: The tools assess and quantify SVMC differently, affecting the way they capture age-related differences in SVMC. Some assessments require reference values from neurologically intact children and adolescents to correctly classify impairments of SVMC in patients with neuromotor disorders.


Assuntos
Eletromiografia , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Movimento , Extremidade Superior/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Jogos de Vídeo , Adulto Jovem
19.
Hum Mov Sci ; 77: 102802, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33894651

RESUMO

Motor abnormalities are generally observed in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and motor difficulties are certainly evident during the early years of life and may thus precede social-communication impairments. The main aim of the present study was to examine ASD subtypes based on the relationship between motor skills and social communication abilities. Motor skills and social communication abilities were evaluated through the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition, the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Second Version and the Psychoeducational Profile-Third Edition. In addition, social communication abilities were classified according to the Autism Classification System of Functioning: Social Communication-ACSF:SC criteria. We found that children with ASD presented poorer motor skills than their TD peers, and motor impairments correlated with poorer social communication abilities in children with ASD. In addition, children with lower social and communication functioning showed a more prominent impairment in manual dexterity and fine motor skills than children with better social and communication functioning. In conclusion, we suggest that stratifying children with ASD based on motor and social endophenotypes may be useful to understand the neurobiological mechanisms of ASD and lead to new types of treatment.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Comunicação , Testes de Inteligência , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Habilidades Sociais , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/classificação , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo
20.
Hum Mov Sci ; 77: 102794, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901790

RESUMO

Although the practice schedule and variation in incidental context have been investigated together, it is not clear whether just variation in incidental context can beneficiate motor learning. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of context variability on motor learning. We hypothesized the practice in a variable incidental context would enable learners to be more resistant to the effects of the contextual changes when compared to a constant incidental context practice. Twenty-four participants were assigned to one of the two groups: constant incidental context (G_CC) or variable incidental context (G_VC). During practice, the G_CC practiced a sequence keypressing task in one color and a position showed on the computer screen. The G_VC practiced the same sequence in four different combinations of color and position. Twenty four hours, the same contexts practiced on practice (SAME) was performed and immediately after, a new sequential movement in new color and new position (SWITCH) was performed. The results indicated that the G_VC showed better performance than the G_CC on the SWITCH condition, mainly in measures related to planning/selection process. The results were explained by degree of similarity among processing events engaged during different moments and by development of a filter of information based on attentional selection.


Assuntos
Atenção , Aprendizagem , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Masculino , Memória , Movimento , Prática Psicológica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...