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1.
Ideggyogy Sz ; 72(9-10): 343-351, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625701

RESUMO

Background and purpose: To understand if children with and without cerebral palsy share the same lumbar postural control threshold on the sagittal plane for the transition between each walking locomotor stage. Methods: Observational analysis of sagittal trunk-pelvis kinematics of 97 children with cerebral palsy and 73 with typical development, according to their locomotor stage. Results: Among children with typical development, all average and minimum measurements of the sagittal lumbar curve during the gait events were correlated with age and the locomotor stages of development. Among children with cerebral palsy, there were significant correlations between all average and minimum values of the sagittal lumbar curve and locomotor stages of development but not age. Conclusion: We conclude that, for the same locomotor level, there are no common postural patterns between children with typical development and those with spastic bilateral cerebral palsy for the position between trunk and pelvis in the sagittal plane. Maximal lordosis reduction between trunk and pelvis may change with age or even training, but does not make a positive effect on the locomotor level, while basal and maintenance capacities could explain locomotor function. Trials that failed to assess quality of movement may now have a better understanding of how different interventions improve posture towards the next functional level.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Marcha/fisiologia , Pelve/fisiologia , Postura/fisiologia , Tronco/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Coluna Vertebral/fisiopatologia
2.
Sports Biomech ; 18(6): 663-685, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543063

RESUMO

The golfer's body (trunk/arms/club) can be modeled as an inclined axle-chain system and the rotations of its parts observed on the functional swing plane (FSP) can represent the actual angular motions closely. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pelvis-shoulders torsional separation style on the kinematic sequences employed by the axle-chain system in golf driving. Seventy-four male skilled golfers (handicap ≤ 3) were assigned to five groups based on their shoulder girdle motion and X-factor stretch characteristics: Late Shoulder Acceleration, Large Downswing Stretch, Large Backswing Stretch, Medium Total Stretch, and Small Total Stretch. Swing trials were captured by an optical system and the hip-line, thorax, shoulder-line, upper-lever, club, and wrist angular positions/velocities were calculated on the FSP. Kinematic sequences were established based on the timings of the peak angular velocities (backswing and downswing sequences) and the backswing-to-downswing transition time points (transition sequence). The backswing and transition sequences were somewhat consistent across the groups, showing full or partial proximal-to-distal sequences with minor variations. The downswing sequence was inconsistent across the groups and the angular velocity peaks of the body segments were not significantly separated. Various swing characteristics associated with the separation styles influenced the motion sequences.


Assuntos
Golfe/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Pelve/fisiologia , Ombro/fisiologia , Adulto , Braço/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento , Tórax/fisiologia , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento
3.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(11): 725-731, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382298

RESUMO

The aims of this study were twofold: 1) to examine lower extremity coordination during bodyweight squats performed at two different tempos, and 2) to establish a reliable measure of segment coordination variability. Eighteen subjects (10 F, 8 M) completed bodyweight squats at preferred (self-paced) and non-preferred (metronome-paced) tempos. A modified vector coding approach used kinematic data to compute absolute couplings patterns and coordination variability for three couplings (foot-shank, shank-thigh, thigh-trunk) in three planes of motion for the descent and ascent phases of a squat cycle. A coordination variability reliability equation was used to determine the number of squats needed for a reliable index of movement variability relative to total variability over 20 squats. Tempo did not significantly alter the absolute coordination patterns of any couplings. The reliability equation revealed that 5-9 squats were needed for a reliable coordination variability measure. Nine squats provided a reliable measure of coordination that is comparable to using 20 double leg squats in the calculation. Using nine squats ensures reliable calculations in the frontal, sagittal and transverse planes at preferred and non-preferred speeds. These results can be used to guide clinical evaluation of acceptable levels of movement variability during rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Exercício/fisiologia , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento
4.
Fisioterapia (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 41(4): 242-246, jul.-ago. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183102

RESUMO

Antecedentes y objetivos: La parálisis cerebral es el trastorno neurológico más frecuente en la edad infantil que afecta el cerebro inmaduro o en desarrollo ocasionando retraso en el desarrollo psicomotor. El objetivo de este estudio de caso fue identificar los efectos del concepto Bobath en la función motora en un niño con parálisis cerebral espástica nivel v según la clasificación de la función motora gruesa. Descripción del caso: Niño de 9 años de edad con diagnóstico médico de parálisis cerebral de tipo cuadriplejia espástica nivel v según el Gross Motor Function Classification System. Intervención: Se aplicó el concepto Bobath 5 veces a la semana con una duración de 45min cada sesión para un total de 16 semanas de tratamiento. Resultados: Se muestran cambios en las puntuaciones de la función motora gruesa, que en preintervención fue de 0,0, a las 12 semanas de intervención se evidencia un puntaje de 14,8 y en la semana 16 de intervención los cambios a nivel de la función motora son de 20,5, con una diferencia entre la segunda y la tercera intervención de un 5,7%. Discusión: Los resultados obtenidos evidencian que el concepto enfoque Bobath genera cambios positivos en la función motora y el manejo de la espasticidad. Los autores han encontrado resultados similares que confirman los beneficios que se lograron en el caso clínico planteado


Background and objectives: Cerebral palsy is the most frequent neurological disorder in childhood that affects the immature or developing brain, causing a delay in psychomotor development. The objective of this study was to identify the effects of the Bobath concept on motor function in a child with spastic cerebral palsy level v according to the of gross motor function classification. Case description: A 9 year-old boy with a medical diagnosis of spastic cerebral palsy level v according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System. Intervention: The Bobath concept was applied 5 times a week, with a duration of 45min each session for a total of 16 weeks of treatment. Results: Changes were seen in the gross motor function scores in pre-intervention of 0.0. A change of 14.8 was observed at 12 weeks of intervention. At week 16 of intervention the changes in the level of the motor function was 20.5, with a difference between the second and third intervention of 5.7%. Discussion: The results obtained suggest that the Bobath approach generates positive changes in motor function, and in the management of spasticity. The authors have found similar results that confirm the benefits that were achieved in this clinical case


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Criança , Paralisia Cerebral/terapia , Espasticidade Muscular/terapia , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Paralisia Cerebral/reabilitação , Paralisia Cerebral/complicações , Avaliação da Deficiência , Destreza Motora/fisiologia
5.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stability training, including rehabilitation, using the principle of biofeedback for support reaction on the stabilometric platform, is used to restore the functions of maintaining balance in medicine and to increase vertical stability in athletes, etc. in sports. AIM: To substantiate a procedure to correct the properties of human motor abilities during stability training, which are based on the consideration of the consistently involved levels of the nervous system in the construction of movements during games using biofeedback for support reaction. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The multilevel motion construction concept proposed by N.A. Bernstein (1947) was analyzed. Computer-assisted stabilometry, including Romberg's test with the eyes open and closed in the European standing (for 51 sec), was used for objective instrumental assessment of postural function. The study included 7 university students who belonged to a special medical group for their health status. The training was stopped when the student felt worse, tired, and unwilling to continue the game. The training duration was 12 to 22 minutes. To obtain reliable results, all stabilometric examinations were made from 8 to 9 o'clock in the morning. The study results were statistically analyzed using the goodness-of-fit test: Z-test (equality of the observed frequencies of two events), Wilcoxon signed rank test (when comparing dependent samples). RESULTS: The paper describes a relationship between the provisions of the multilevel motion construction concept proposed by N.A. Bernstein and the information about the levelled organization of movements during games via biofeedback for support reaction; guidelines for their use and experimental confirmation for the higher function of motor abilities: muscle synergy and kinesthetic sensitivity. CONCLUSION: There is evidence for the positive training effect on the function of motor ability properties of the pallidothalamic level of the nervous system during games via biological feedback for support reaction, their informative value compared with other stabilometric indicators.


Assuntos
Biorretroalimentação Psicológica , Jogos Experimentais , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Humanos
6.
J Pediatr Orthop ; 39(7): 359-365, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding gross motor skills (GMS) in children with idiopathic clubfoot (IC). This study describes GMS, specifically foot involvement and asymmetries, and analyses the association between GMS, gait, and foot status in children with IC. METHODS: Gross motor tasks and gait were analyzed in children with IC and typically developed (TD) children. GMS were assessed using videotapes and the Clubfoot Assessment Protocol (CAP). The Gait Deviation Index (GDI) and GDI-Kinetic were calculated from gait analyses. Children were divided into bilateral, unilateral clubfoot, or TD groups. To analyze asymmetries, feet within each group were further classified into superior or inferior foot, depending on their CAP scores. Correlations identified associations between CAP and GDI, GDI-Kinetic, passive foot motion, and Dimeglio Classification Scores at birth in the clubfeet. RESULTS: In total, 75 children (mean age, 5 years) were enrolled (bilateral n=22, unilateral clubfoot n=25, TD=28). Children with clubfeet demonstrated significantly lower GMS, gait, and foot motion compared with TD children. One leg standing and hopping deviated in 84% and 91%, respectively, in at least one foot in children with clubfoot. Gross motor asymmetries were evident in both children with bilateral and unilateral involvement. In children with unilateral clubfoot, contralateral feet showed few deviations in GMS compared with TD; however, differences existed in gait and foot motion. The association between GMS and gait, foot motion, and initial foot status varied between poor and moderate. CONCLUSIONS: Gross motor deficits and asymmetries are present in children with both bilateral and unilateral IC. Development of GMS of the contralateral foot mirrors that of TD children, but modifies to the clubfoot in gait and foot motion. The weak association with gait, foot motion, and initial clubfoot severity indicates that gross motor measurements represent a different outcome entity in clubfoot treatment. We therefore, recommend gross motor task evaluation for children with IC. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II-prognostic studies.


Assuntos
Pé Torto Equinovaro/fisiopatologia , Pé/fisiopatologia , Marcha , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Análise da Marcha , Humanos , Cinética , Masculino , Movimento , Amplitude de Movimento Articular
7.
J Sports Sci ; 37(19): 2243-2252, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170881

RESUMO

This study modelled children's gross motor coordination, investigated sex-differences and identified the effects of fixed and dynamic correlates on motor coordination development. A total of 344 Portuguese children (170 girls), from 6 age cohorts (5 to 9 years of age), were followed consecutively for three years (age range 5 to 11 years) using a mixed-longitudinal cohort design. Birth weight, hand dominance and socioeconomic status (SES) were identified. Gross motor coordination, body mass index, physical fitness (PF) and physical activity (PA) were assessed annually. A sequence of multilevel hierarchical linear models were developed. Model 1 found that age, age2, sex, sex-by-age and sex-by-age2 were significant predictors (p < 0.05) of gross motor coordination. Boys outperformed girls from 6 years of age onwards. Model 2 found a cohort effect (p < 0.05). Model 3 found that right handers were more coordinated (p < 0.05). When the confounders of body mass index, PF and PA were added to the model (Model 4) it was found that boys and girls had parallel trajectories in their gross motor coordination development. In conclusion children with increasing body mass index were less coordinated, while those who were stronger and more agile had steeper trajectories of gross motor coordination with age.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Peso ao Nascer , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exercício , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Aptidão Física , Portugal , Fatores Socioeconômicos
8.
J Sports Sci ; 37(19): 2220-2227, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164046

RESUMO

The aims of this study were to examine the medium-term effects of previous experiences during early stages of sport development on physical capacities of under-13 (U-13) talented basketball players and, to identify variables that discriminated under-14 (U-14) national team training camp selection. Anthropometrical and physical measurements were collected during a basketball training camp. Previous sport experiences (6-10 years), maturity offset, power outputs for jumping and sprinting were determined. A cluster analysis was used to allocate the subjects according to their different levels of sport experiences (more specialized vs. less specialized) to allow creating a dummy variable for the subsequent analysis of the physical variables. A stepwise discriminant analysis was computed to identify the construct that best classifies selected and non-selected players for U-14 national team training camp. The less specialized group outscored more specialized in all physical parameters, irrespectively of gender. The Abalakov Jump Peak Power and Predicted Adult Height (PAH) could successfully discriminate selected from non-selected players for U-14 national team training camp in boys and PAHin girls. The diversified and non-specific sport stimulus during early ages seem to be determinant to the acquisition and development of fundamental movement skills of talented basketball players.


Assuntos
Aptidão/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Basquetebol/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Adolescente , Antropometria , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento , Maturidade Sexual
9.
J Sports Sci ; 37(19): 2263-2269, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179836

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of sex and planning time on spatial and temporal aspects of the whole-body centre of mass (CoM) mechanics during sidestepping performance. Seventeen female and 17 male collegiate team sport athletes completed seven anticipated and seven unanticipated sidestep trials during which three-dimensional CoM data were recorded. Female athletes had a reduced ability to reorient their CoM towards the desired direction of travel (lower medio-lateral and anterior-posterior CoM velocity) than their male counterparts, with reduced medial (closer to stance foot) and increased posterior positioning of CoM relative to the stance foot (p < 0.05). When planning time was limited, female and male athletes performed sidestepping with CoM further from the stance foot (more medial) and more anterior than in the anticipated condition (p < 0.05) at reduced medio-lateral velocities. Sex and condition control strategy differences were evident both in the preparatory phase and the stance phase. The current research draws attention to the foreseen benefits of training athletes, with particular emphasis on females, to direct CoM towards the desired direction of travel in the preparatory and stance phases within temporally constrained situations for improved performance.


Assuntos
Antecipação Psicológica/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Propriocepção/fisiologia , Esportes/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Estatura , Tamanho Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Adulto Jovem
10.
Fisioter. Pesqui. (Online) ; 26(2): 202-209, abr.-jun. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012141

RESUMO

ABSTRACT This study aimed to make a systematic review of scientific articles on the planning of manual motor actions of typical and atypical children. To do so, a search of articles published between 1996 and 2017 was done on PubMed, LILACS, Science Direct, and SciElo databases. Original articles in English and Portuguese evaluating the planning of motor actions in typical and atypical children performing manual tasks were selected. For the analysis, the population age, number of children, type of task, main results, site of study and impact of the journal were considered. From the eighteen articles found, twelve were about typical children (from nine months old to twenty years old) and six about atypical children (from three to fourteen years old) diagnosed with autism, hemiplegic cerebral palsy, and developmental coordination disorders. In nine- to ten-year-old typical children, the planning ability of manual motor actions develops over the time and is similar to that of an adult. The atypical children showed motor planning ability lower than that of the typical children, and determining the age when this planning ability is acquired was not possible.


RESUMO O objetivo desse estudo foi realizar uma revisão sistemática de artigos científicos sobre o planejamento de ações motoras manuais de crianças típicas e atípicas. Para isso, foi feita uma busca de artigos publicados entre 1996 e 2017 nas bases de dados PubMed, Lilacs, Science Direct e SciELO. Foram incluídos artigos originais em língua inglesa e portuguesa, que avaliaram o planejamento de ações motoras em crianças típicas e atípicas por meio de tarefas manuais. Para a análise dos artigos, considerou-se a população, a faixa etária, o número de crianças, o tipo de tarefa, os principais resultados, o local de realização do estudo e o fator de impacto da revista. Ao todo, foram encontrados 18 artigos, sendo 12 com crianças típicas (9 meses a 20 anos de idade), e 6 com crianças atípicas (3 a 14 anos) diagnosticadas com autismo, paralisia cerebral hemiplégica e transtornos de déficit de coordenação. Nas crianças típicas, observa-se que a capacidade de planejamento de ações motoras manuais se desenvolve ao longo do tempo e se assemelha a de um adulto entre os 9 e 10 anos de idade. As crianças atípicas apresentaram capacidade de planejamento motor inferior à das crianças típicas e não foi possível determinar a idade em que essa habilidade de planejamento é estabelecida.


RESUMEN El objetivo de este estudio fue realizar una revisión sistemática de artículos científicos sobre la planificación de acciones motoras manuales de niños típicos y atípicos. Para ello, se realizó una búsqueda de artículos publicados entre 1996 y 2017 en las bases de datos PubMed, Lilacs, Science Direct y SciELO. Se incluyeron artículos originales en inglés y portugués que evaluaron la planificación de acciones motoras en niños típicos y atípicos a través de tareas manuales. Para el análisis de los artículos, se consideró la población, el grupo de edad, el número de niños, el tipo de tarea, los principales resultados, el lugar de realización del estudio y el factor de impacto de la revista. En total, se encontraron 18 artículos, 12 con niños típicos (9 meses a 20 años) y 6 con niños atípicos (3 a 14 años) diagnosticados con autismo, parálisis cerebral hemipléjica y trastornos de déficit de coordinación. En los niños típicos, se observa que la capacidad de planificación de acciones motoras manuales se desarrolla a lo largo del tiempo y entre los 9 y 10 años se asemeja a la de un adulto. Los niños atípicos presentaron una capacidad de planificación de motores inferior a la de los niños típicos y no fue posible determinar la edad en que se estableció esta capacidad de planificación.


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Córtex Sensório-Motor/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Transtorno Autístico/fisiopatologia , Paralisia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Transtornos das Habilidades Motoras/fisiopatologia
11.
Rev. int. med. cienc. act. fis. deporte ; 19(74): 243-258, jun. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183690

RESUMO

El presente estudio tiene como objetivo determinar y analizar las relaciones y diferencias existentes entre el clima motivacional, en base al nivel competitivo en judocas no profesionales. Participaron un total de 121 judocas chilenos no profesionales (70 hombres y 51 mujeres) con edades comprendidas entre los 18 y 40 años, provenientes de siete clubes de judo. Completaron una hoja de autoregistro de variables sociodemográficas y un cuestionario de clima motivacional (PMCSQ-2). Los resultados indican que en los judocas aficionados predomina el clima tarea y a medida que se asciende en el nivel, en deportistas amateurs cobra una mayor importancia el clima ego. Como principal conclusión destaca que los judocas amateurs distinguen en mayor proporción la diferencia entre la superación personal y el esfuerzo (clima tarea) y demuestran mayor habilidad física que los demás. Al contrario que sucede en los aficionados, donde la correlación entre ambos es inferior, aunque sigue siendo negativa


The aim of this study is to determine and analyse the relationships and differences in the motivational climate, based on the competitive level in non-professional judokas. A sample of 121 non-professional Chilean judokas (70 men and 51 women) aged between 18 and 40, coming from seven different judo clubs took part. They completed a self-registration sheet of sociodemographic variables and a motivational climate questionnaire (PMCSQ-2). The results indicate that the task goal orientation prevails in non-professional judokas and as the level rises, in amateur athletes the ego goal orientation takes on greater importance. The main deduction is that amateur judokas distinguish in a greater proportion between personal improvement and effort (task goal orientation) and show a greater physical ability than others.This is opposed to what happens with non-professionals, where the correlation between both is lower, although still negative


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Artes Marciais/psicologia , Atletas/psicologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Ego , Análise de Dados , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Rev. andal. med. deporte ; 12(2): 83-87, jun. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | IBECS | ID: ibc-184503

RESUMO

Objetivo: Investigar a confiabilidade e reprodutibilidade do aplicativo Jumpo(R) para medida de saltos verticais de lutadores. Método: Participaram 16 atletas de ambos os sexos com idade média de 19 ± 5 anos, estatura de 1.7 ± 0.1 m, massa corporal de 65 ± 15 kg. A presente investigação contabilizou dois encontros, nos quais foram realizados teste-reteste de ambos os instrumentos de avaliações para os seguintes saltos verticais: Countermovement Jump, Squat Jump e Drop Jump, medidos simultaneamente com o Tapete de Contato e o Jumpo(R). Foram analisados o tempo de contato com o solo e a altura máxima de salto. Para análise estatística foi aplicado coeficiente de correlação intraclasse destinado às avaliações intra e inter-avaliadores. Já os comparativos entre Jumpo(R) e tapete de contato foram utilizados novamente o coeficiente de correlação intraclasse e a análise gráfica de Bland-Altman. Resultados: Concordâncias "quase perfeitas" para altura máxima em todos os saltos, tanto intra-avaliadores (CCI= 0.911-0.959), como inter-avaliadores (CCI= 0.939-0.951) e inter-instrumentos (CCI= 0.939-0.972) foram encontradas. Porém, o tempo de contato com o solo não apresentou concordância significante interinstrumentos (p<0.360). Entretanto, foram encontrados valores inter-avaliadores estatisticamente significativos (p<0.001). Conclusão: O Jumpo(R) parece ser uma ferramenta válida e reprodutível para medida de altura máxima de saltos verticais, mas não para o tempo de contato com o solo. Sugere-se, portanto, que treinadores e técnicos podem ser encorajados a utilizar esta ferramenta para avaliação e monitoramento do desempenho de saltos em lutadores


Objetivo: Investigar la confiabilidad y reproducibilidad de la aplicación Jumpo(R) para la medida de saltos verticales en luchadores. Método: Participaron 16 atletas de ambos os sexos con edad media de 19 ± 5 años, estatura de 1.7 ± 0.1 m, masa corporal de 65 ± 15 kg. La presente investigación contabilizó dos encuentros en los que se realizaron pruebas y re-test de ambos instrumentos de evaluación para los siguientes saltos verticales: Countermovement Jump, Squat Jump y Drop Jump, medidos simultáneamente con la Superfície de Contacto y el Jumpo(R). Se analizaron el tiempo de contacto con el suelo y la altura máxima de salto. Para el análisis estadístico se aplicó coeficiente de correlación intraclase destinado a las evaluaciones intra e inter-evaluadores. Los comparativos entre Jumpo(R) y la superfície de contacto se utilizaron nuevamente el coeficiente de correlación intraclase y el análisis gráfico de Bland-Altman. Resultados: Concordancias "casi perfectas" para altura máxima en todos los saltos, tanto intra-evaluadores (CCI = 0.911-0.959), como inter-evaluadores (CCI = 0.939-0.951) e inter-instrumentos (CCI = 0.939-0.972) encontrado. Sin embargo, el tiempo de contacto con el suelo no presentó concordancia significante inter-instrumentos (p <0.360). Sin embargo, se encontraron valores inter-evaluadores estadísticamente significativos (p <0.001). Conclusión: El Jumpo(R) parece ser una herramienta válida y reproducible para medida de altura máxima de saltos verticales, pero no para el tiempo de contacto. Se sugiere, por lo tanto, que entrenadores y técnicos puedan ser alentados a utilizar esta herramienta para evaluación y monitoreo del desempeño de saltos en luchadores


Objective: To investigate the reliability and reproducibility of the Jumpo(R) application for vertical jumping measurement. Method: 16 athletes of both sexes with a mean age of 19 ± 5 years, height of 1.7 ± 0.1 m, body mass of 65 ± 15 kg were included. The present investigation counted two meetings, in which test-retest of both assessment instruments for the following vertical jumps: Countermovement Jump, Squat Jump and Drop Jump, measured simultaneously with the Contact Mat and Jumpo(R). Contact time with soil the ground and maximum jump height were analyzed. For statistical analysis, intraclass correlation coefficient was applied for intra- and inter-rater assessments. The comparisons between Jumpo(R) and contact mat performed by intraclass correlation coefficient and the Bland-Altman graphic analysis. Results: Almost perfect agreement for maximum height in all jumps, both intra-rater (ICC = 0.911-0.959), and inter-rater (ICC = 0.939-0.951) and inter-instrument (ICC = 0.939-0.972) were found. However, the contact time presented no significance (p <0.360) in relation to inter-instrument measurements. However, statistically significant inter-rater values were found (p <0.001). Conclusion: Jumpo(R) seems to be a valid and reproducible tool for measuring maximum vertical jumps height, but not for contact time. It is suggested, therefore, that coaches and trainers can be encouraged to use this tool for evaluation and monitoring of jumping performance in fighters


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Altitude , Desempenho Atlético/estatística & dados numéricos , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Luta Romana/fisiologia , Aplicativos Móveis/tendências , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Monitores de Aptidão Física
13.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(7): 1122-1131, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31133689

RESUMO

A remarkable feature of motor control is the ability to coordinate movements across distinct body parts into a consistent, skilled action. To reach and grasp an object, 'gross' arm and 'fine' dexterous movements must be coordinated as a single action. How the nervous system achieves this coordination is currently unknown. One possibility is that, with training, gross and fine movements are co-optimized to produce a coordinated action; alternatively, gross and fine movements may be modularly refined to function together. To address this question, we recorded neural activity in the primary motor cortex and dorsolateral striatum during reach-to-grasp skill learning in rats. During learning, the refinement of fine and gross movements was behaviorally and neurally dissociable. Furthermore, inactivation of the primary motor cortex and dorsolateral striatum had distinct effects on skilled fine and gross movements. Our results indicate that skilled movement coordination is achieved through emergent modular neural control.


Assuntos
Corpo Estriado/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Potenciais de Ação/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Animais , Condicionamento Operante , Corpo Estriado/efeitos dos fármacos , Membro Anterior/fisiologia , Trombose Intracraniana/fisiopatologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Muscimol/farmacologia , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Ratos
14.
Sports Health ; 11(4): 343-349, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor landing mechanics are considered deficits in neuromuscular control and risk factors for lower extremity injury. The Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) has been used to assess the neuromuscular control of landing mechanics for the first landing in a drop vertical jump (DVJ) task. However, the second DVJ landing may provide different results, warranting assessment. HYPOTHESES: (1) LESS scores will differ between first and second DVJ landings across all female participants with (2) greater intraparticipant variability among the second landing compared with the first landing scores. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 4. METHODS: A total of 13 gymnasts and 31 softball players (N = 44) performed 3 DVJ trials. The mean ± SD age of 44 female athletes was 16.46 ± 2.59 years. The LESS was scored using 2-dimensional video of each trial. RESULTS: There was a significant difference between the first and second DVJ landings (P < 0.01). All participants demonstrated higher LESS scores (worse landing mechanics) during the second DVJ landing (10.10 ± 2.25) than the first landing (6.97 ± 2.72). CONCLUSION: The initial landing in a DVJ has been the focus of neuromuscular control studies using the LESS. This study found worse neuromuscular control during the second DVJ landing, which highlights the importance of evaluating landing mechanics beyond the initial landing. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: LESS analysis of both DVJ landings might improve neuromuscular control screening in female athletes and augment lower extremity and anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention programs.


Assuntos
Beisebol/fisiologia , Ginástica/fisiologia , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Exercício Pliométrico , Adolescente , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/fisiopatologia , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/prevenção & controle , Beisebol/lesões , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Ginástica/lesões , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/lesões , Fatores de Risco , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento
15.
Am J Occup Ther ; 73(3): 7303205090p1-7303205090p8, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding how repetitive finger movement performance, an assessment of bradykinesia (slowness of movement), is related to fine-motor dexterity tasks in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). OBJECTIVE: This pilot study examined the relationship between the performance of fine-motor dexterity tasks and repetitive finger movement in people with PD. METHOD: Forty-six participants with PD completed an acoustically cued repetitive finger movement task (1-3 Hz). Movement amplitude, movement rate difference, and coefficient of variation were obtained for each tone rate. Participants also completed a buttoning and Purdue pegboard assembly task. Buttoning time and number of assemblies were recorded. RESULTS: A significant association was found between movement rate difference and movement rate difference coefficient of variation and buttoning performance in which higher movement rate and higher variability were associated with slower buttoning times. No significant associations between any of the repetitive finger movement outcome measures and Purdue pegboard assembly performance were revealed. CONCLUSION: Changes in movement amplitude and movement rate may influence fine-motor dexterity tasks differently. Thus, it is important to consider the quantitative assessment of both movement rate and movement amplitude because they may indicate differential clinical applications in the treatment of people with PD.


Assuntos
Dedos/fisiopatologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico , Sinais (Psicologia) , Humanos , Movimento , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Projetos Piloto , Desempenho Psicomotor
16.
Sports Biomech ; 18(2): 146-162, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042139

RESUMO

Based on technological and analytical advances, the capability to more accurately and finitely examine biomechanical and skill characteristics of movement has improved. The purpose of this study was to use Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) and Functional Principal Components Analysis (fPCA) to examine the role of movement variability (assessed via angular velocity), on 2 divers (1 international level; 1 national) performing the forward 3½ pike somersault dive. Analysis of angular velocity curves during ive-flight identified 5 fPCs, accounting for 96.5% of movement variability. The national diver's scatter plots and standard deviation of fPC scores illustrated larger magnitudes of angular velocity variability across dive flight. For fPC1 and fPC3, magnitudes of SD variability were 282.6 and 201.5, respectively. The international diver illustrated more consistent angular velocity profiles, with clustering of fPCs scores (e.g., fPC1 & 3 = SD's of 75.2 & 68.0). To account for lower variability in the international diver, the ability to better coordinate movement sequences and functionally utilise feedback in response to initiation of the somersault position is highlighted. Overall, findings highlight how both IMUs and fPCA can more holistically and finitely examine the biomechanical and skill characteristics of movement sequences with the capability to inform athlete development.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/métodos , Mergulho/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Análise de Componente Principal , Adolescente , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Movimento , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Adulto Jovem
17.
Sports Biomech ; 18(2): 135-145, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042141

RESUMO

During sidestep cutting, the pelvis is supported only on one side; this affects the athlete's posture. This study investigated the mechanism to avoid excessive pelvic obliquity during sidestep cutting. Ten physically active men performed sidestep cutting with maximal effort, and we captured the kinematics and kinetics with force platforms and an eight-camera motion capture system. Our results indicated that the stance hip exerted little abduction torque; however, lumbosacral lateral flexion torque was exerted towards the free-leg side (peak value: 3.39 ± 0.91 N m/kg). Although bilateral hip joint forces acted to drop the free-leg side of the pelvis, the net torque around pelvic elevation/drop axis was nearly zero during the entire stance phase and the change in the angular momentum around the pelvic elevation/drop axis from touchdown to toe-off was negligible (-0.004 ± 0.003 N m s/kg). The integrated components of lateral flexor for elevating the free-leg side of the pelvis (0.220 ± 0.072 N m s/kg) were significantly larger than any other integrated components, which were all negligible (<0.010 N m s/kg). Thus, sidestep cutting requires the lumbosacral lateral flexion torque exertion to neutralise the passive action that drops the free-leg side of the pelvis.


Assuntos
Região Lombossacral/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Pelve/fisiologia , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Quadril/fisiologia , Humanos , Perna (Membro)/fisiologia , Masculino , Movimento , Postura , Rotação , Esportes/fisiologia , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Torque , Adulto Jovem
18.
Sports Biomech ; 18(2): 115-134, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042142

RESUMO

The purposes of this study were to characterise the golfer-ground interactions during the swing and to identify meaningful associations between the golfer-ground interaction force/moment parameters and the maximum clubhead speed in 63 highly skilled male golfers (handicap ≤ 3). Golfers performed shots in 3 club conditions (driver, 5-iron and pitching wedge) which were captured by an optical motion capture system and 2 force plates. In addition to the ground reaction forces (GRFs), 3 different golfer-ground interaction moments (GRF moments, pivoting moments and foot contact moments) were computed. The GRF moment about the forward/backward (F/B) axis and the pivoting moment about the vertical axis were identified as the primary moments. Significant (p < 0.05) correlations of peak force parameters (all components in the lead foot and F/B component in the trail foot) and peak moment parameters (lead-foot GRF moment and trail-foot pivoting moment) to clubhead speed were found. The lead-foot was responsible for generating the GRF moment, while the trail foot contributed to the pivoting moment more. The instant the lead arm becomes parallel to the ground was identified as the point of maximum angular effort, and the loading onto the lead-foot near this point was critical in generating both peak moments.


Assuntos
Golfe/fisiologia , Equipamentos Esportivos , Aceleração , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Pé/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Movimento , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Adulto Jovem
19.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(5)2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096637

RESUMO

Background and objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between motor competence, body mass index (BMI), and nutrition knowledge in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Materials and Methods: Fifty-one children with ASD (five females and 46 males) aged 7-12 participated in the study. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (MABC-2) was used to examine children's fine and gross motor skill competence; the nutrition knowledge survey assessed children's overall knowledge of food groups and healthful eating; and BMI-for-age determined their weight status. Descriptive analysis and Pearson correlation was used to analyze the relationship between nutrition knowledge, BMI, and motor competence in children with ASD. Results: The majority of children with ASD (82%) showed significant motor delays in MABC-2 assessments. The BMI-for-age percentile data suggested that 20% of participants were obese, 17% were overweight, and 12% were underweight. The nutrition knowledge data indicated that 55% of children scored below 70% on accuracy in the nutrition knowledge survey. Pearson correlation analysis revealed a significant positive relationship between MABC-2 manual dexterity and nutrition knowledge (r = 0.327, p < 0.01), and between MABC-2 balance skills and nutrition knowledge (r = 0.413, p < 0.01). A significant negative relationship was also found between BMI and MABC-2 balance skills (r = -0.325, p < 0.01). Conclusions: The findings of the study suggest that nutrition knowledge and motor competence may be key factors influencing BMI in children with ASD and therefore interventions tackling both sides of the energy balance equation are necessary.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Índice de Massa Corporal , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Estado Nutricional , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/classificação , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Intern Med ; 58(10): 1417-1421, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092772

RESUMO

Objective Assessing daily motor fluctuations is an important part of the disease management for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the frequent recording of subjective and/or objective assessments is not always feasible, and easier monitoring methods have been sought. Previous studies have reported that the spontaneous eye-blink rate (EBR) is correlated with the dopamine levels in the brain. Thus, the continuous monitoring of the EBR may be useful for predicting the motor status in patients with PD. Methods Electrooculograms (EOGs) were recorded for up to 7.5 hours from three PD patients using a wearable device that resembled ordinary glasses. An receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to compare the ability of the EBR estimates at each time-point (Blink Index) and the plasma levodopa levels to predict the motor status. Results The Blink Index was correlated with the plasma levodopa levels. When an indicator for the first hour of the observation period was included in the model, the Blink Index discerned wearing-off and dyskinesia as accurately as the plasma levodopa level. Conclusion Our study provides preliminary evidence regarding the utility of continuous EBR monitoring for the non-invasive evaluation of the motor status in patients with PD.


Assuntos
Piscadela/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Antiparkinsonianos/sangue , Dopaminérgicos/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Levodopa/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Curva ROC
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