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1.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 378-381, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018007

RESUMO

Inspired by the collaborative movements of the living cells in different natural biological processes, this paper highlights a self-regulated and co-ordinated targeting strategy to detect tumor in complex human vasculature. We show by computational experiments that simple and non-centralized nanoparticles with limited locomotive capability, when they collaborate and move in the form of groups, can be very robust in the tumor homing process. Once reaching tumor location, such nanoparticles (potential contrast agents) can deposit themselves on tumor through the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect thereby making the malignant cancerous area more prominent. Hence, existing medical imaging techniques with limited resolution can be used to detect small malignant tumors. We believe that our work will help in early cancer detection through an independent, non-centralized and self-controlled system.Clinical Relevance:- With the help of target amplification through contrast agents such as self-regulated nanoparticles contrast enhanced medical imaging can detect the tumor at its initial stages when 90% of the cancers are curable.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Neoplasias , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Humanos , Permeabilidade
2.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1148-1151, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018190

RESUMO

We apply feature-extraction and machine learning methods to multiple sources of contrast (acetic acid, Lugol's iodine and green light) from the white Pocket Colposcope, a low-cost point of care colposcope for cervical cancer screening. We combine features from the sources of contrast and analyze diagnostic improvements with addition of each contrast. We find that overall AUC increases with additional contrast agents compared to using only one source.


Assuntos
Colposcópios , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Colposcopia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Gravidez , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico
3.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1944-1949, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018383

RESUMO

Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women and still one of the major causes of women's death around the world. Early screening of high grade Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN), precursors to cervical cancer, is vital to efforts aimed at improving survival rate and eventually eliminating cervical cancer. Visual Inspection with Acetic acid (VIA) is an assessment method which can inspect the cervix and potentially detect lesions caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), which is a major cause of cervical cancer. VIA has the potential to be an effective screening method in low resource settings when triaged with HPV test, but it has the drawback that it depends on the subjective evaluation of health workers with varying levels of training. A new deep learning algorithm called Automated Visual Evaluation (AVE) for analyzing cervigram images has been recently reported that can automatically detect cervical precancer better than human experts. In this paper, we address the question of whether mobile phone-based cervical cancer screening is feasible. We consider the capabilities of two key components of a mobile phone platform for cervical cancer screening: (1) the core AVE algorithm and (2) an image quality algorithm. We consider both accuracy and speed in our assessment. We show that the core AVE algorithm, by refactoring to a new deep learning detection framework, can run in ~30 seconds on a low-end smartphone (i.e. Samsung J8), with equivalent accuracy. We developed an image quality algorithm that can localize the cervix and assess image quality in ~1 second on a low-end smartphone, achieving an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.95. Field validation of the mobile phone platform for cervical cancer screening is in progress.


Assuntos
Smartphone , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Aprendizado Profundo , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico
4.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 2178-2181, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018438

RESUMO

Cancer has affected the human community to a large extent due to its low survival rate towards the end stage of the disease. It is asymptomatic in many cases during the initial stage. Thus the dependency on early diagnosis and regular check up increases manifold. Computer Aided Diagnostic Model is the need of the hour which will increase the diagnostic efficiency. A total of 400 images acquired from the Digital Database for Screening Mammography have been used here for analysis. This paper proposes a novel technique to differentiate benign and malignant breast lesions in mammograms using multiresolution analysis and Schmid Filter Bank, which were not reported earlier. A three level Haar wavelet decomposed image(L1, L2, L3) is obtained for each Region of Interest. In each level Texton based analysis is further investigated through Schmid filter bank. Statistical features and Haralick's Features are obtained from filter response and Gray Level Cooccurence Matrix respectively. Partition Membership Filter is further applied to the feature matrix for feature partitioning. The method shows maximum accuracy of 98.63% and Area under Curve of 0.981 using Random Forest Classifier and ten fold cross validation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Análise de Ondaletas , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Humanos , Mamografia
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(41): e22382, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mammography is considered a fundamental part of diagnosis in modern health care services. It provides low dose images of normal structures and pathological soft tissues in the breast. Many reports suggested that intervention is playing a positive role in anxiety related to mammography, but there is no high-quality evidence to prove its effects. This paper reports the protocol of a systematic review (SR) and meta-analysis (MA) to clarify effectiveness of intervention during screening mammography. METHODS: A systematic literature search will be performed in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase and Web of Science from inception to July 2020. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) will be included to evaluate any interventions in the treatment of anxiety related to mammography screening. The main outcome measure is the impact on patient anxiety, and the impact on patient breast cancer worry, the impact on patient satisfaction are the additional outcome measure. Risk of bias assessment of the included RCTs will be carried out using Cochrane Collaboration's tool for RCTs. The Review Manager 5.4 for Windows will be used to perform the MA and generate the result figures. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) will be used to evaluate the quality of evidence. Subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis will be conducted to assess the robustness of the results. RESULTS: A total of 782 English studies of anxiety related to mammography screening were obtained through search. After preliminary screening, 773 non-conforming studies were excluded. Finally, nine English studies of anxiety related to mammography screening will be included for full-text assessment. We will submit the results of this SR and MA to a peer-reviewed journal for publication. CONCLUSIONS: This study will provide reliable evidence for intervention for reducing anxiety in women receiving screening mammography. INPLASY REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY202070131.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Mamografia , Programas de Rastreamento , Metanálise como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
7.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(8): 994-998, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053544

RESUMO

The incidence of cervical cancer ranks the first among the gynecological malignant tumors. Given the implementation of widespread cervical cancer screening and the improvement of clinical treatment, the cervical cancer mortality has decreased substantially. However, surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy may impair the ovarian function, resulting in premature ovarian insufficiency and premature climacteric, which has reduced the quality of life in young patients. As a new fertility preservation technology, autologous ovarian tissue cryopreservation and transplantation is developing rapidly and showing great potentiality in preserving ovarian endocrine function of young cervical cancer patients.


Assuntos
Preservação da Fertilidade , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Criopreservação , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(33): e21420, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early gastric cancer is the fifth common malignancy and the third leading cause of cancer death throughout the world. However, it is not clear how endoscopic screening for early gastric cancer affects incidence or mortality. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between endoscopic screening for the mortality and incidence of early gastric cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This protocol established in this study has been reported following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols. Web of Science, PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched for cohort and case-control studies in cases without early gastric cancer until March 31, 2020. We will use a combination of Medical Subject Heading and free-text terms with various synonyms to search based on the Eligibility criteria. Two investigators independently reviewed the included studies and extracted relevant data. The relative risk and 95% confidence intervals were used as effect estimate. I-square test, substantial heterogeneity, sensitivity analysis, and publication bias assessment will be performed accordingly. Stata 15.0 and Review Manger 5.3 are used for meta-analysis and systematic review. RESULTS: The results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. CONCLUSION: The results of this review will be widely disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. This evidence may also provide helpful evidence of whether endoscopic screening would reduce the mortality and incidence of early gastric cancer. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020171053.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Gastroscopia , Imagem de Banda Estreita , Projetos de Pesquisa , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
9.
FP Essent ; 496: 21-25, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902243

RESUMO

Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer mortality among women in the United States. Screening has been shown to increase early detection rates and decrease mortality rates. Evidence-based guidelines have been updated as knowledge has advanced. Screening recommendations from various organizations vary significantly. These variations-from screening modality, age to initiate and discontinue screening, and screening intervals-have led to confusion among patients and clinicians alike. Clinicians should be aware of the current screening recommendations so they can address questions patients may have about recommendation differences and to optimize early detection. Management of breast cancer is highly individualized and dependent on the subtype of cancer, the stage at diagnosis, patient preferences, and physician recommendations. Management may involve surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, and/or hormone therapy. Family physicians can help facilitate patient care throughout the screening, diagnosis, and treatment processes. Multiple factors contribute to disparities in breast cancer screening, management, and outcomes. Clinician knowledge of these factors can help reduce disparities in care and patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Estados Unidos
10.
Cancer Control ; 27(1): 1073274820960471, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938229

RESUMO

Early detection of cancer greatly increases the chances of better survival. The emergence of COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted several essential health services globally and early detection of cancer services is one of them. The routine cancer screenings have plummeted in many developed countries since the crisis. India has highest estimated lip and oral cavity cancer cases worldwide (119,992, 33.8%) and the secondhighest number of breast (162,468, 17.8%) and cervix uteri (96,922,30.7%) cancers in Asian sub-continent. Not only India has high burden of cancer, but the majority (75-80%) of patients have advanced disease at the time of diagnosis. Hence is it imperative that early detection services should be kept functional at out-patient settings so that at least the patients coming to hospitals with early signs and symptoms can be diagnosed as early as possible. Strategies need to be adopted to continue early detection services and ensure safety of patients and health care workers from COVID-19 transmission.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações
11.
Chirurgia (Bucur) ; 115(4): 448-457, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876018

RESUMO

Background: In Romania, colorectal cancer does not benefit yet from a national screening program. In order to decrease the harm and burden of colorectal cancer (CRC), opportunistic programs relying on endoscopy has been adopted by each centre according to its capacity. A colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programme based on faecal immunochemical test (FIT) was launched at Ponderas Academic Hospital (PAH) in 2019. Aim: The present study analyses the outcomes after the first 1500 tests in the PAH-FIT-CRC Screening Program. We have also aimed to compare the efficiency of the FIT testing program with the screening colonoscopies performed in our Center, withing the same time interval (2019). Methods: The test was recommended in asymptomatic patients over 45 years, and it was followed by a colonoscopy when the test results were positive. Furthermore, we performed a retrospective observational study gathering data from all the consecutive patients prospectively included in the respective databases of our hospital, comparing the efficacy of the two colorectal cancer screening methods (FIT versus colonoscopy). Results: Between 01.01.2019 and 01.01.2020, 1524 screening colonoscopies were performed, and the resulting data were compared with those obtained in the FIT group (1500 FIT tests freely distributed). In the screening colonoscopy group, the polyp detection rate was 38.98% and 22 (1.44%) adenocarcinomas were identified. In the FIT group, the FIT uptake rate was 71% with a positivity rate of 21.7%. The colonoscopy compliance rate for positive FIT patients was 29.4%, with only 2 adenocarcinomas detected. Conclusions: Following data analysis, the need for improvement of uptake rate and colonoscopy compliance rate was suggested, due to the lower acceptance of FIT tests and colonoscopies, especially among men. Moreover, special efforts should be made in order to improve quality indicators for screening colonoscopies (especially adenoma detection rate) with the purpose of decreasing interval CRC.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Pólipos Adenomatosos/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Fezes , Colonoscopia , Fezes/química , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Romênia , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1467, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is one of the leading public health problem globally, especially in low-resource countries (LRCs). Breast cancer screening (BCS) services are an effective strategy for early determining of breast cancer. Hence, it is imperative to understand the utilisation of BCS services and their correlated predictors in LRCs. This study aims to determine the distribution of predictors that significantly influence the utilisation of BCS services among women in LRCs. METHODS: The present study used data on 140,974 women aged 40 years or over from 14 LRCs. The data came from country Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) between 2008 and 2016. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed to investigate the significant predictors that influence the use of BCS services. RESULTS: The utilisation of BCS services was 15.41%, varying from 81.10% (95% CI: 76.85-84.73%) in one European country, to 18.61% (95% CI: 18.16 to 19.06%) in Asian countries, 14.30% (95% CI: 13.67-14.96%) in American countries, and 14.29% (95% CI: 13.87-14.74%). Factors that were significantly associated to increase the use of BCS services include a higher level of education (OR = 2.48), advanced age at first birth (> 25 years) (OR = 1.65), female-headed households (OR = 1.65), access to mass media communication (OR = 1.84), health insurance coverage (OR = 1.09), urban residence (OR = 1.20) and highest socio-economic status (OR = 2.01). However, obese women shown a significantly 11% (OR = 0.89) lower use of BSC services compared to health weight women. CONCLUSION: The utilisation of BCS services is low in many LRCs. The findings of this study will assist policymakers in identifying the factors that influence the use of BCS services. To increase the national BCS rate, more attention should be essential to under-represented clusters; in particular women who have a poor socioeconomic clusters, live in a rural community, have limited access to mass media communication, and are have a low level educational background. These factors highlight the necessity for a new country-specific emphasis of promotional campaigns, health education, and policy targeting these underrepresented groups in LRCs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde da Mulher/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da Mulher/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Ásia , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Educação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
13.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 42(4): 535-539, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895107

RESUMO

Cervical cancer is the second most common malignant tumor in women worldwide.The burden of cervical cancer is particularly heavy in less developed countries as the malignancy brings huge pain to the patients and their family members and causes huge losses to social development and global health.However,cervical cancer is a preventable and curable disease.While screening and human papillomavirus vaccination in developed countries have remarkably lowered the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer,there is still a far way to go to achieve the prevention and treatment of this disease.The multidisciplinary prevention and control programs slightly differ in different countries due to diverse economic and health conditions.The general principle is to vaccinate the young females and to implement a comprehensive strategy including human papillomavirus vaccine vaccination,screening,early diagnosis,and early treatment in adults.


Assuntos
Infecções por Papillomavirus , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Vacinação
14.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(3): 469-475, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955231

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Currently, malignancies are the most severe medical problems worldwide. Numerous, already known risk factors in carcinogenesis could be potentially avoided. Some cancer risk factors have been recognized and have become the targets of primary prophylaxis. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to ascertain the state of knowledge about risk factors, primary prevention and early detection of malignancies of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in the urban and rural population of the Lublin province in Eastern Poland. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was cross-sectional. The originally designed questionnaire was applied to the group of 1,352 patients, representatives of both the rural and urban environments of the Lublin province during random appointments with their general practitioner (GP). RESULTS: The study showed low awareness of the issues connected with GIT malignancies within the studied group. The problem was particulary apparent in the rural population. CONCLUSIONS: In order to raise general awareness of cancer, different means should be applied in urban and rural populations. GPs and the media were found to have the leading rols in the promotion of primary prevention.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Prevenção Primária/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/prevenção & controle , Polônia , Fatores de Risco , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
In Vivo ; 34(5): 3047-3053, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Coronavirus disease is spreading worldwide. Due to fast transmission and high fatality rate drastic emergency restrictions were issued. During the lockdown, only urgent medical services are guaranteed. All non-urgent services, as breast cancer (BC) screening, are temporarily suspended. The potential of breast cancer screening programs in increasing the survival rate and decreasing the mortality rate has been widely confirmed. Suspension could lead to worse outcomes for breast cancer patients. Our study aimed to analyse the data and provide estimates regarding the temporary BC screening suspension. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data regarding breast cancer and respective screening programs were achieved through literature research and analysis. RESULTS: Considering three different scenarios with respect to the lockdown's impact on breast cancer screening, we estimate that approximately 10,000 patients could have a missed diagnosis during these 3 months. Considering a 6-month period, as suggested by the Imperial college model, the number of patients who will not receive a diagnosis will rise to 16,000. CONCLUSION: Breast cancer screening should be resumed as soon as possible in order to avoid further breast cancer missed diagnosis and reduce the impact of delayed diagnosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Programas de Rastreamento/tendências , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Mamografia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
20.
Urologiia ; (4): 66-72, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897017

RESUMO

AIM: To improve an early diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) by clarifying indications for prostate biopsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective analysis of 251 primary prostate biopsies performed in Republican Specialized Scientific and Practical Medical Center of Urology to patients with LUTS during the period from 2018 to 2019 was carried out. All patients were divided into two groups. The group 1 included 189 patients who underwent standard systematic prostate biopsy; the group 2 consisted of 62 patients, who had had baseline multiparametric magnetic resonance tomography (mp-MRI) of the prostate with risk evaluation using PI-RADS v2 score, followed by systematic biopsy in combination with targeted biopsy. The ultrasound-guided biopsy was done under local anesthesia using lidocaine gel and periprostatic nerve block with a 2% lidocaine solution. Systematic biopsy was performed with 10 to 12 cores using biopsy gun. In the second group, in addition to systematic biopsy, from 2 to 6 targeted cores from suspicious areas were taken. RESULTS: In the group 1, PCa was diagnosed in 124 (65.6%) patients. In patients with a PSA level of less than 20 ng/ml, a total of 18 PCa were revealed (35.3%). A concordance between TRUS and DRE with the biopsy result was significantly less in patients with PSA level < 20 ng/ml (17.6%), than in patients with PSA level more than 20.1 ng/ml (61.6%; p<0.001). In the second group, PCa was diagnosed in 5 patients (17.9%) with PI-RADS v2 category 2 and 3 lesions, compared to 31 men (91.2%) with category 4 and 5 lesions. In patients with PSA level of less than 20 ng/ml, the proportion of positive biopsy results was 5.6% and 75.0%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In all patients with PSA level of less than 20 ng/ml, mp-MRI of the prostate should be performed prior to biopsy. In men with PI-RADS v2 category 4-5 lesions, systematic biopsy in combination with targeted biopsy is recommended, while in case of category 2-3 lesions and negative TRUS and DRE, it is more appropriate to follow-up patients, instead of performing biopsy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
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