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1.
Value Health ; 23(9): 1171-1179, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940235

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate cost-effectiveness of a novel screening strategy using a microRNA (miRNA) blood test as a screen, followed by endoscopy for diagnosis confirmation in a 3-yearly population screening program for gastric cancer. METHODS: A Markov cohort model has been developed in Microsoft Excel 2016 for the population identified to be at intermediate risk (Singaporean men, aged 50-75 years with Chinese ethnicity). The interventions compared were (1) initial screening using miRNA test followed by endoscopy for test-positive individuals and a 3-yearly follow-up screening for test-negative individuals (proposed strategy), and (2) no screening with gastric cancer being diagnosed clinically (current practice). The model was evaluated for 25 years with a healthcare perspective and accounted for test characteristics, compliance, disease progression, cancer recurrence, costs, utilities, and mortality. The outcomes measured included incremental cost-effectiveness ratios, cancer stage at diagnosis, and thresholds for significant variables. RESULTS: The miRNA-based screening was found to be cost-effective with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $40 971/quality-adjusted life-year. Key drivers included test costs, test accuracy, cancer incidence, and recurrence risk. Threshold analysis highlights the need for high accuracy of miRNA tests (threshold sensitivity: 68%; threshold specificity: 77%). A perfect compliance to screening would double the cancer diagnosis in early stages compared to the current practice. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis reported the miRNA-based screening to be cost-effective in >95% of iterations for a willingness to pay of $70 000/quality-adjusted life-year (approximately equivalent to 1 gross domestic product/capita) CONCLUSIONS: The miRNA-based screening intervention was found to be cost-effective and is expected to contribute immensely in early diagnosis of cancer by improving screening compliance.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Endoscopia/economia , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , MicroRNAs/economia , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Análise Custo-Benefício , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , MicroRNAs/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Medição de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Singapura/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia
2.
Value Health ; 23(9): 1246-1255, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940243

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Low uptake of cancer screening services is a global concern. Our aim was to understand factors that influence the screening decision, including screening and treatment subsidies and a gain-frame message designed to present screening as a win-win. METHODS: We analyzed preferences for mammography and Pap smear among women in Singapore by means of discrete choice experiments while randomly exposing half of respondents to a gain-framed public health message promoting the benefits of screening. RESULTS: Results showed that the message did not influence stated uptake, and given the levels shown, respondents were influenced more by treatment attributes, including effectiveness and out-of-pocket cost should they test positive, than by screening attributes, including the offer of a monetary incentive for screening. Respondents also underestimated the survival chances of screen-detected breast and cervical cancers. CONCLUSIONS: Combined, these findings suggest that correcting misconceptions about screen-detected cancer prognosis or providing greater financial protection for those who test positive could be more effective and more cost-effective than subsidizing screening directly in increasing screening uptakes.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Mamografia/psicologia , Programas de Rastreamento/psicologia , Teste de Papanicolaou/psicologia , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Comportamento de Escolha , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Mamografia/economia , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Teste de Papanicolaou/economia , Singapura , Inquéritos e Questionários , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico
3.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235264, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658921

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify health systems-level barriers to treatment for women who screened positive for high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) in a cervical cancer prevention program in Kenya. METHODS: In a trial of implementation strategies for hrHPV-based cervical cancer screening in western Kenya in 2018-2019, women underwent hrHPV testing offered through community health campaigns, and women who tested positive were referred to government health facilities for cryotherapy. The current analysis draws on treatment data from this trial, as well as two observational studies that were conducted: 1) periodic assessments of the treatment sites to ascertain availability of resources for treatment and 2) surveys with treatment providers to elicit their views on barriers to care. Bivariate analyses were performed for the site assessment data, and the provider survey data were analyzed descriptively. RESULTS: Seventeen site assessments were performed across three treatment sites. All three sites reported instances of supply stockouts, two sites reported treatment delays due to lack of supplies, and two sites reported treatment delays due to provider factors. Of the 16 providers surveyed, ten (67%) perceived lack of knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer as the main barrier in women's decision to get treated, and seven (47%) perceived financial barriers for transportation and childcare as the main barrier to accessing treatment. Eight (50%) endorsed that providing treatment free of cost was the greatest facilitator of treatment. CONCLUSION: Patient education and financial support to reach treatment are potential areas for intervention to increase rates of hrHPV+ women presenting for treatment. It is also essential to eliminate barriers that prevent treatment of women who present, including ensuring adequate supplies and staff for treatment.


Assuntos
Crioterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/terapia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/economia , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/estatística & dados numéricos , Crioterapia/economia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Feminino , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/economia , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/economia , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/organização & administração , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde/economia , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Promoção da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Mão de Obra em Saúde/organização & administração , Mão de Obra em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Programas de Rastreamento/organização & administração , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia
4.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(9): 839-850, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602058

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The 2010 Affordable Care Act (ACA) provided millions of people with health insurance coverage and facilitated routine cancer screening by requiring insurers to cover preventive services without cost-sharing. Despite greater access to affordable cancer screening, Pap testing has declined over time. The aim of this study is to assess participation in Pap test and HPV vaccination, and adherence to guidelines as outlined by the American Cancer Society (ACS) from the 2010 ACA provision eliminating cost-sharing for preventive services. METHODS: Using multi-year responses from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we examined the association between the ACA and participation in and adherence to Pap testing and HPV vaccination behaviors as set by the ACS. The sample included women aged 21-29 who completed the survey between 2008 and 2018 (every other year) and who live in 24 US States (N = 37,893). RESULTS: Results showed significant decreases in Pap testing rates but increases in the uptake of the HPV vaccine series for all age groups and across all demographics. Post-ACA year significantly predicted increases in HPV + Pap co-testing participation and adherence. Women with health insurance coverage were more likely to engage in both behaviors. CONCLUSION: Findings raise concerns around declines in the proportion of women receiving and adhering to Pap testing guidelines. A need exists for research to examine the role of increases in HPV vaccination uptake on decreases in Pap testing. Moreover, effective strategies should target increases in cervical cancer screening uptake among women vaccinated against HPV.


Assuntos
Teste de Papanicolaou/estatística & dados numéricos , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Custo Compartilhado de Seguro , Estudos Transversais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Teste de Papanicolaou/economia , Teste de Papanicolaou/métodos , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act/economia , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/economia , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/métodos , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/economia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(7): 691-702, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436037

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) provides free cervical cancer screening to low-income women. This study estimated the health benefits gained in terms of life years (LYs) saved and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained if cervical cancer screening by the NBCCEDP increased to reach more eligible women. METHODS: Data from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results, NBCCEDP, and Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys were used. LYs saved and QALYs gained/100,000 women were estimated using modeling methods. They were used to predict additional health benefits gained if screening by the NBCCEDP increased from 6.5% up to 10-25% of the eligible women. RESULTS: Overall, per 100,000 women screened by the NBCCEDP, 1,731 LYs were saved and 1,608 QALYs were gained. For white women, 1,926 LYs were saved and 1,780 QALYs were gained/100,000 women screened by the NBCCEDP. For black women, 1,506 LYs were saved and 1,300 QALYs were gained/100,000 women screened. If the proportion of eligible women screened by the NBCCEDP increased to 10-25%, the estimated health benefits would range from 6,626-34,896 LYs saved and 6,153-32,407 QALYs gained. CONCLUSIONS: The reported estimates emphasize the value of cervical cancer screening program by extending LE in low-income women. Further, it demonstrates that screening a higher percentage of eligible women in the NBCCEDP may yield more health benefits.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Sistema de Registros , Programa de SEER , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 576, 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The causal relationship between high-risk (hr) HPV infection and precancerous lesions or cervical cancer has led to the development of strategies to increase screening performance and prevent this cancer. The increased sensitivity of DNA-HPV testing compared to cervical cytology favors DNA-HPV testing as a primary screening test. Cervical cancer screening in Brazil is opportunistic, and this cancer remains a considerable health problem with a high proportion of diagnoses in advanced stages. This paper aims to describe the design and implementation of the Cervical Cancer Screening Program with primary DNA-HPV testing (CCSP-HPV) planned for Indaiatuba City (SP), Brazil; the strategies to achieve higher population coverage; and a study protocol for cost-effectiveness analyses. METHODS: The CCSP-HPV was designed based on successful guidelines that replaced cervical cytology-based screening by the DNA-HPV test performed at 5-year intervals. The screening will be performed for the female population aged 25-64 years cared for by the public health system and aim to reach 80% coverage after completing the first round. The chosen DNA-HPV test detects 14 hr-HPV types and genotypes HPV-16 and 18. All women with a negative test will be reassessed after five years. Women showing a positive test for HPV-16 and/or 18 will be referred for colposcopy. Those showing the other 12 hr-HPV types will be tested by cytology, and if any abnormality is detected, they will also be referred for colposcopy. The histopathologic evaluation will be reviewed by a pathologist panel and aided by p16 immunohistochemistry. A cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed by a Markov model comparing the cost of the new program and the screening performed by conventional cytology five years prior (2011-2016). DISCUSSION: The new screening program is considered a breakthrough for public health regarding cervical cancer, which is the third leading cause of cancer death among Brazilian women. Achieving at least 80% coverage will have the possibility to change this scenario. The proposed program will provide a modern cervical cancer screening method for women, and information about cost-effectiveness will help other similar places support the decision of implementing cervical cancer screening using the DNA-HPV test.


Assuntos
DNA Viral/análise , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Adulto , Brasil , Colposcopia/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Citodiagnóstico/economia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Papillomavirus Humano 16/genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/economia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Gravidez , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/economia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Esfregaço Vaginal/economia
7.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 44(3): 219-226, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32311194

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the government and out-of-pocket community costs (out-of-hospital medical services and prescription medicines) associated with screen-detected and community-detected cancers (i.e. cancers detected outside of Australia's organised screening program [BreastScreen]). METHODS: We analyse administrative data on government-subsidised medical services and prescription medicines for 568 Victorian women diagnosed with breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Using multivariable regression analysis, we estimate the government and out-of-pocket community costs incurred in the three years after diagnosis for screen-detected cancers and community-detected cancers. Additionally, we estimate the government costs associated with diagnosis within and outside of BreastScreen. RESULTS: Average government costs for breast cancer diagnosis were similar within and outside of BreastScreen [$808 (lower limit 676; upper limit 940) vs $837 (95%CI 671; 1,003) respectively]; however, women with community-detected cancers incurred an additional $254 (95%CI 175; 332) out-of-pocket. Controlling for differences in known cancer characteristics, compared to screen-detected cancers, community-detected breast cancers were associated with an additional $2,622 (95%CI 644; 4,776) in government expenditure in the three years following diagnosis. Adverse cancer characteristics that were more prevalent in community-detected cancers (high grade, lymph node involvement, HER2 positive receptor status) were associated with increased government and out-of-pocket costs. CONCLUSIONS: Community-detected breast cancers were associated with increased government and out-of-pocket costs. Implications for public health: These costs should be considered when evaluating current and alternative breast cancer screening strategies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Mamografia/economia , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Serviços de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Sistema de Registros
8.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231409, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298325

RESUMO

Variation in utilization of healthcare services is influenced by patient, provider and healthcare system characteristics. It could also be related to the evidence supporting their use, as reflected in the availability and strength of recommendations in clinical guidelines. In this study, we analyzed the geographic variation of colorectal, breast and prostate cancer screening utilization in Switzerland and the influence of available guidelines and different modifiers of access. Colonoscopy, mammography and prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing use in eligible population in 2014 was assessed with administrative claims data. We ran a multilevel multivariable logistic regression model and calculated Moran's I and regional level median odds ratio (MOR) statistics to explore residual geographic variation. In total, an estimated 8.1% of eligible persons received colonoscopy, 22.3% mammography and 31.3% PSA testing. Low deductibles, supplementary health insurance and enrollment in a managed care plan were associated with higher screening utilization. Cantonal breast cancer screening programs were also associated with higher utilization. Spatial clustering was observed in the raw regional utilization of all services, but only for prostate cancer screening in regional residuals of the multilevel model. MOR was highest for prostate cancer screening (1.24) and lowest for colorectal cancer screening (1.16). The reasons for the variation of the prostate cancer screening utilization, not recommended routinely without explicit shared decision-making, could be further investigated by adding provider characteristics and patient preference information. This first cross-comparison of different cancer screening patterns indicates that the strength of recommendations, mediated by specific health policies facilitating screening, may indeed contribute to variation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Seguro Saúde , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Suíça
9.
Am Surg ; 86(3): 195-199, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223797

RESUMO

Patients presenting with localized breast cancer have a five-year survival of 99 per cent, whereas survival falls to 27 per cent in advanced disease. This obviates the importance of early diagnosis and treatment. Our study evaluates the impact of Ohio's Medicaid expansion and the passage of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) on the stage at which Ohioans were diagnosed with breast cancer. Data were collected for 3056 patients presenting with breast cancer between 2006 and 2016 in the Dayton area. Patients were divided into groups based on cancer stage. The percentage of patients presenting with advanced disease (stage 3 or 4) was compared both before and after ACA implementation and Ohio Medicaid expansion. These results were also compared with statewide data maintained by the Ohio Department of Health. Compared with pre-ACA, the number of uninsured patients post-ACA was noted to fall 83 per cent, the number of patients presenting with Medicaid increased by five times, and the proportion of patients younger than 65 years presenting with breast cancer increased by approximately 7 per cent. These changes notwithstanding, no difference was identified in the percentage of patients presenting with advanced breast cancer before and after ACA implementation or Ohio Medicaid expansion (P = 0.56). Statewide data similarly demonstrated no change (P = 0.88). Improved insurance access had a smaller-than-anticipated impact on the stage at which Ohioans presented with breast cancer. As significant morbidity and mortality can be avoided by earlier presentation, additional research is appropriate to identify factors affecting patients' decision to seek breast cancer screening and care.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Medicaid/economia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/economia , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Ohio , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos
10.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(3): 429-435, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294848

RESUMO

Objective: This study was to systematically update the economic evaluation evidence of colorectal cancer screening in mainland China. Methods: Based on a systematic review published in 2015, we expanded the scope of retrieval database (PubMed, EMbase, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CNKI, Wanfang Data, VIP, CBM) and extended it to December 2018. Focusing on the evidence for nearly 10 years (2009-2018), basic characteristics and main results were extracted. Costs were discounted to 2017 using the consumer price index of medical and health care being provided to the residents, and the ratio of incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) to per capita GDP in corresponding years were calculated. Results: A total of 12 articles (8 new ones) were included, of which 9 were population-based (all cross-sectional studies) and 3 were model-based. Most of the initial screening age was 40 years (7 articles), and most of the frequency was once in a lifetime (11 articles). Technologies used for primary screening included: questionnaire assessment, immunological fecal occult blood test (iFOBT) and endoscopy. The most commonly used indicator was the cost per colorectal cancer detected, and the median (range) of the 20 screening schemes was 52 307 Chinese Yuan (12 967-3 769 801, n=20). The cost per adenoma detected was 9 220 Yuan (1 859-40 535, n=10). In 3 articles, the cost per life year saved (compared with noscreening) was mentioned and the ratio of ICER to GDP was 0.673 (-0.013-2.459, n=11), which was considered by WHO as "very cost-effective" ; The range of ratios overlapped greatly among different technologies and screening frequencies, but the initial age for screening seemed more cost-effective at the age of 50 years (0.002, -0.013-0.015, n=3), than at the 40 year-olds (0.781, 0.321-2.459, n=8). Conclusions: Results from the population-based studies showed that the cost per adenoma detected was only 1/6 of the cost per colorectal cancer detected, and limited ICER evidence suggested that screening for colorectal cancer was generally cost-effective in Chinese population. Despite the inconclusiveness of the optimal screening technology, the findings suggested that the initial screening might be more cost-effective at older age. No high-level evidence such as randomized controlled trial evaluation was found.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Adulto , China , Análise Custo-Benefício , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
11.
CA Cancer J Clin ; 70(3): 165-181, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202312

RESUMO

Lack of health insurance coverage is strongly associated with poor cancer outcomes in the United States. The uninsured are less likely to have access to timely and effective cancer prevention, screening, diagnosis, treatment, survivorship, and end-of-life care than their counterparts with health insurance coverage. On March 23, 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) was signed into law, representing the largest change to health care delivery in the United States since the introduction of the Medicare and Medicaid programs in 1965. The primary goals of the ACA are to improve health insurance coverage, the quality of care, and patient outcomes, and to maintain or lower costs by catalyzing changes in the health care delivery system. In this review, we describe the main components of the ACA, including health insurance expansions, coverage reforms, and delivery system reforms, provisions within these components, and their relevance to cancer screening and early detection, care, and outcomes. We then highlight selected, well-designed studies examining the effects of the ACA provisions on coverage, access to cancer care, and disparities throughout the cancer control continuum. Finally, we identify research gaps to inform evaluation of current and emerging health policies related to cancer outcomes.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Neoplasias/economia , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Humanos , Seguro Saúde/economia , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Morbidade/tendências , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(3): 306-313, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187937

RESUMO

Objective: The existed economic evaluations of cancer screening in Chinese population are almost all single-cancer focused, evidence on parallel comparison among multiple cancers is lacking. Thus, the aim of this study was, from a priority setting perspective, to compare the cost-effectiveness of six common cancers(colorectal cancer, breast cancer, liver cancer, lung cancer, esophageal cancer and stomach cancer) to facilitate policy making in future scaled-up screening in populations in China. Methods: Partially based on our previous single-cancer systematic reviews (colorectal cancer, breast cancer, liver cancer, and lung cancer), evidence of economic evaluations of cancer screening in populations in mainland China were systematically updated and integrated. The main updates include: 1) Stomach cancer and esophageal cancer were newly added to the current analysis. 2) The literature searching was extended to 8 literature databases, including PubMed, EMbase, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CBM, CNKI, Wanfang Data, and VIP. 3) The period of publication year was updated to the recent 10 years: January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2018. 4) The study focused on populations in mainland China. Following the standard processes of literature searching, inclusion and exclusion from previous systematic reviews, the basic characteristics, evaluation indicators and main results of the included studies were extracted. All the costs were discounted to 2017 value using the by-year consumer price index of medical and health care residents in China and presented in the Chinese Yuan (CNY). The ratios of incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) to China's per capita GDP in 2017 were calculated (<1 means very cost-effective, 1-3 means cost-effective, >3 means not cost-effective). Given a specific indicator, the median value among all reported screening strategies for each cancer was calculated, based on which priority ranking was then conducted among all cancers when data available. Results: A total of 45 studies were included, 22 for breast cancer, 12 for colorectal cancer, 6 for stomach cancer, 4 for esophageal cancer (all conducted in high-risk areas), 1 for liver cancer and none for lung cancer (was not then considered for next ranking due to limited numbers of studies). When based on the indicator, the median ratio of cost per life-year saved to China's per capita GDP (reported in 12 studies), the lowest ratio (-0.015) was observed in esophageal cancer among 16 strategies of 2 studies (N=2, n=16), followed by 0.297 for colorectal cancer (N=3, n=12), 0.356 for stomach cancer (N=1, n=4) and 0.896 for breast cancer (N=6, n=52, P(75)=3.602). When based on another commonly used ICER indicator, the median ratio of cost per quality-adjusted life-year gained to China's per capita GDP (reported in 13 studies), the least cost was found in stomach cancer (0.495, N=3, n=8, P(75)=3.126), followed by esophageal cancer (0.960, N=1, n=4, P(75)=1.762) and breast cancer (2.056, N=9, n=64, P(75)=4.217). Data was not found for colorectal cancer. In addition, cost per cancer case detected was the most adopted indicator (32 studies). The median cost among all screening strategies for each cancer was 14 759 CNY for stomach cancer (N=5, n=7), 49 680 CNY for colorectal cancer (N=12, n=25) and 171 930 CNY for breast cancer (N=13, n=24), respectively. Data was not available for esophageal cancer and rare for precancer cases detected. Evidence related to cost per disability-adjusted life-year gained was not available. Conclusions: At China's national level and limited to the six cancers covered by the current study, the preliminary analysis suggests that stomach cancer and colorectal cancer were the most cost-effective target cancers and could be given priority in the future scaled-up screening in general populations. Esophageal cancer screening should be prioritized in high-risk areas. Breast cancer was also cost-effective in general but some of the intensive screening strategies were marginal. Data on liver cancer and lung cancer were too limited to conclude, and more well-designed studies and high-quality research evidence should be required. This priority ranking might be changed if other common cancers were involved analyses.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , China , Análise Custo-Benefício , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Humanos , Neoplasias/economia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
14.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228660, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053648

RESUMO

Until 2018, cervical cancer screening in France was an unorganized individual screening, with the exception of some pilot programs in some territories. We aimed to assess, before the implementation of organized cervical cancer screening and human papillomavirus (HPV) nonavalent vaccine introduction in the vaccination schedule in 2018, (i) the individual cervical cancer screening coverage, (ii) the management of squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) and (iii) the related costs. We used the Système National des Données de Santé (SNDS) (Echantillon Généraliste de Bénéficiaires [EGB] and Programme de Médicalisation des systèmes d'information [PMSI]) to assess the cervical screening coverage rate in France between January 1st, 2012 and December 31st, 2014, and to describe diagnostic investigations and therapeutic management of SIL in 2013. After extrapolation to the general population, a total of 10,847,814 women underwent at least one smear test over the 3-year study period, corresponding to a coverage rate of 52.4% of the women aged 25 to 64 included. In 2013, 126,095 women underwent HPV test, 327,444 women underwent colposcopy, and 9,653 underwent endocervical curettage; 31,863 had conization and 12,162 had laser ablation. Besides, 34,067 women experienced hospital stays related to management of SIL; 25,368 (74.5%) had high-grade lesions (HSIL) and 7,388 (21.7%) low-grade lesions (LSIL). Conization was the most frequent in-hospital therapeutic procedure: 89.5% (22,704) of women with an in-hospital procedure for HSIL and 64.7% (4,781) for LSIL. Mean cost of smear test, colposcopy and HPV tests were around 50€. Total cost for hospital stays in 2013 was estimated at M41€, or a mean cost of 1,211€ per woman; 76% were due to stays with HSIL. This study highlights the low coverage rate of individual cervical cancer screening and a high burden related to SIL management.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Lesões Intraepiteliais Escamosas/diagnóstico , Lesões Intraepiteliais Escamosas/terapia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/diagnóstico , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/economia , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/epidemiologia , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/virologia , Colo do Útero/patologia , Colo do Útero/virologia , Colposcopia/economia , Conização , Estudos Transversais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Lesões Intraepiteliais Escamosas/economia , Lesões Intraepiteliais Escamosas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/economia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Esfregaço Vaginal/economia , Esfregaço Vaginal/métodos
15.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0227899, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Australian National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) provides biennial immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT) screening for people aged 50-74 years. Previous work has quantified the number of colorectal cancer (CRC) deaths prevented by the NBCSP and has shown that it is cost-effective. With a 40% screening participation rate, the NBCSP is currently underutilised and could be improved by increasing program participation, but the maximum appropriate level of spending on effective interventions to increase adherence has not yet been quantified. OBJECTIVES: To estimate (i) reductions in CRC cases and deaths for 2020-2040 attributable to, and (ii) the threshold for cost-effective investment (TCEI) in, effective future interventions to improve participation in the NBCSP. METHODS: A comprehensive microsimulation model, Policy1-Bowel, was used to simulate CRC natural history and screening in Australia, considering currently reported NBCSP adherence rates, i.e. iFOBT participation (∼40%) and diagnostic colonoscopy assessment rates (∼70%). Australian residents aged 40-74 were modelled. We evaluated three scenarios: (1) diagnostic colonoscopy assessment increasing to 90%; (2) iFOBT screening participation increasing to 60% by 2020, 70% by 2030 with diagnostic assessment rates of 90%; and (3) iFOBT screening increasing to 90% by 2020 with diagnostic assessment rates of 90%. In each scenario, we estimated CRC incidence and mortality, colonoscopies, costs, and TCEI given indicative willingness-to-pay thresholds of AUD$10,000-$30,000/LYS. RESULTS: By 2040, age-standardised CRC incidence and mortality rates could be reduced from 46.2 and 13.5 per 100,000 persons, respectively, if current participation rates continued, to (1) 44.0 and 12.7, (2) 36.8 and 8.8, and (3) 31.9 and 6.5. In Scenario 2, 23,000 lives would be saved from 2020-2040 vs current participation rates. The estimated scenario-specific TCEI (Australian dollars or AUD$/year) to invest in interventions to increase participation, given a conservative willingness-to-pay threshold of AUD$10,000/LYS, was (1) AUD$14.9M, (2) AUD$72.0M, and (3) AUD$76.5M. CONCLUSION: Significant investment in evidence-based interventions could be used to improve NBCSP adherence and help realise the program's potential. Such interventions might include mass media campaigns to increase program participation, educational or awareness interventions for practitioners, and/or interventions resulting in improvements in referral pathways. Any set of interventions which achieves at least 70% iFOBT screening participation and a 90% diagnostic assessment rate while costing under AUD$72 million annually would be highly cost-effective (

Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Intestinos/patologia , Sangue Oculto , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo/economia , Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Colonoscopia/economia , Neoplasias Colorretais/economia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Fezes/química , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Obstet Gynecol ; 135(2): 257-265, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923060

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate how implementation of the 2010 Affordable Care Act (ACA) might be associated with stage at diagnosis and time to treatment for women with ovarian cancer. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using difference-in-differences analysis comparing stage at diagnosis and time to treatment before and after implementation of the ACA among women with ovarian cancer aged 21-64 years (exposure group) compared with women aged 65 years or older (control group). Using 2004-2015 data from the National Cancer Database, outcomes were analyzed overall and by insurance type and race, adjusting for urban-rural, income and education level, comorbidities, distance traveled for care, region, and care at an academic center. RESULTS: A total of 39,999 ovarian cancer cases prereform and 36,564 postreform were identified for women aged 21-64 years compared with 31,290 cases prereform and 29,807 postreform for women aged 65 years or older. The ACA was associated with increased early-stage diagnosis detection for women aged 21-64 years compared with women 65 and older (difference-in-differences 1.4%, 95% CI 0.4-2.4). The ACA was associated with more women receiving treatment within 30 days of ovarian cancer diagnosis (2.3%, 95% CI 1.7-3.0). Among women with public insurance, the ACA was associated with a significant improvement in early-stage diagnosis and receipt of treatment within 30 days of diagnosis (difference-in-differences 2.7%, 95% CI 1.0-4.5, difference-in-differences 2.5%, 95% CI 1.2-3.8). Improvements in time to treatment were seen across race and income groups. CONCLUSION: Implementation of the ACA was associated with earlier ovarian cancer stage at detection and treatment within 30 days of diagnosis.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde/economia , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Lineares , Medicaid/economia , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Ovarianas/economia , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act/economia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0226942, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978084

RESUMO

Few investigations have explored the potential impact of the Affordable Care Act on health disparity outcomes in states that chose to forgo Medicaid expansion. Filling this evidence gap is pressing as Congress grapples with controversial healthcare legislation that could phase out Medicaid expansion. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a commonly diagnosed, preventable cancer in the US that disproportionately burdens African American men and has substantial potential to be impacted by improved healthcare insurance coverage. Our objective was to estimate the impact of the Affordable Care Act (increasing insurance through health exchanges alone or with Medicaid expansion) on colorectal cancer outcomes and economic costs among African American and White males in North Carolina (NC), a state that did not expand Medicaid. We used an individual-based simulation model to estimate the impact of ACA (increasing insurance through health exchanges alone or with Medicaid expansion) on three CRC outcomes (screening, stage-specific incidence, and deaths) and economic costs among African American and White males in NC who were age-eligible for screening (between ages 50 and 75) during the study period, years of 2013-2023. Health exchanges and Medicaid expansion improved simulated CRC outcomes overall, though the impact was more substantial among AAs. Relative to health exchanges alone, Medicaid expansion would prevent between 7.1 to 25.5 CRC cases and 4.1 to 16.4 per 100,000 CRC cases among AA and White males, respectively. Our findings suggest policies that expanding affordable, quality healthcare coverage could have a demonstrable, cost-saving impact while reducing cancer disparities.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Medicaid/tendências , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act/tendências , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/economia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/ética , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Medicaid/economia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , North Carolina , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act/economia , Fatores Raciais/economia , Estados Unidos
18.
Public Health ; 179: 27-37, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726398

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC) attainable from introducing once-in-a-lifetime flexible sigmoidoscopy (FSIG) screening was assessed. STUDY DESIGN: This is a review of relevant available information for the assessment of the impact and resource demands of FSIG in New Zealand. METHODS: The reduction in bowel cancer incidence achievable by one-off FSIG screening from 50 to 59 years of age, an age group for which bowel screening is not currently offered, was reviewed. The prevention of CRC attainable from an offer of screening at 55 years of age in New Zealand was also estimated. The number and cost of the FSIG screening procedures required and referrals for colonoscopies and the savings in treatment were calculated. RESULTS: Annually, about 27,500 FSIG screening procedures would be required if 50% of those turning 55 years of age accepted an offer of once-in-a-lifetime FSIG screening. This would result in three-four-fold fewer people being referred for colonoscopy than in the national 2-yearly faecal immunochemical test (FIT) screening programme and subsequently reduce demand for colonoscopy from a false-positive FIT. The number of CRC cases prevented would increase over 17 years to more than 300 per year by 2033. After 10-15 years of screening, the annual savings in health service costs, primarily from CRC prevented, were sufficient to completely fund the FSIG screening. CONCLUSIONS: Inclusion of FSIG screening in the national bowel screening programme would significantly reduce both the incidence and mortality of CRC in New Zealand, reduce the colonoscopy demand of current bowel screening and reduce long-term health service costs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Sigmoidoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Sigmoidoscopia/economia
20.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(4): 577-583, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate and compare the results of three different cervical cancer screening strategies including cytology screening, HR-HPV screening which taking HR-HPV testing as primary test and co-testing which taking both tests at the same time, then provide evidence to explore whether the cervical cancer screening can be conducted in community healthcare centers in Beijing. METHODS: 182,119 women aged between 35 and 64, who were screened in the primary healthcare facilities of nine districts in Beijing from January 2014 to March 2015, were enrolled in this study. Cytology screening was performed in participants during January 2014 and December 2014 as a conventional arm. HR-HPV screening strategy and co-testing were randomly allocated to participants on districts level as experimental arm 1 and 2 during January 2015 and March 2015. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN 2+) was defined as endpoint. The screening results and costs to detect a case of three strategies were calculated. RESULTS: The positivity rate, colposcopy referral rate and biopsy referral rate of co-testing were 8.46%, 6.36% and 4.65% respectively, which were all significantly higher than the other two screening strategies. The detection rate of CIN 2+ by co-testing was 5.06‰ and was much more than the other two screening strategies, while the HR-HPV screening had the highest PPV of 14.40%. The HR-HPV screening ignores some lesion which can be found by co-testing. Co-testing refers a woman to colposcopy with a positive screening result at the least cost, but it costs the most to detect a CIN 2+ case. CONCLUSIONS: To detect more cases of CIN 2+, co-testing performs better although with the most cost. And the primary healthcare facilities in Beijing have the capability to carry out the cervical cancer screen programs and prompts women with positive screen results to the hospital.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Adulto , Pequim , Biópsia/métodos , Colo do Útero/patologia , Colposcopia/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Teste de Papanicolaou/economia , Teste de Papanicolaou/métodos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia
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