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1.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(1): 54-61, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914570

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the consciousness of the cancer early detection among urban residents and identify the influencing factors from 2015 to 2017. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 16 provinces covered by the Cancer Screening Program in Urban China from 2015 to 2017. A total of 32 257 local residents aged ≥18 years old who could understand the investigation procedure were included in the study by using the cluster sampling method and convenient sampling method. All local residents were categorized into four groups, which contained 15 524 community residents, 8 016 cancer risk assessment/screening population, 2 289 cancer patients and 6 428 occupational population, respectively. Self-designed questionnaires were used to collect population, socioeconomic indicators, self-cancer risk assessment, regular participation in physical examination and other information. The multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify the factors of people who had not regularly participated in the regular physical examination in the past five years. Results: The self-assessment results of 32 357 residents showed that there were 27.54% (8 882) of total study population with self-reported cancer risk, 45.48% (14 671) without cancer risk and 26.98% (8 704) with unclear judgement on their own cancer risk. Among population with cancer risk, 79.84% (7 091) considered physical examination accounted. In the past five years, there were 21 105 (65.43%) residents participated in regular physical examination and 11 148 (34.56%) participated in non-scheduled one, respectively. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that compared with unmarried and western region residents, divorced, middle and eastern region residents had a stronger consciousness to participate in the regular physical examination (P<0.05). Compare with residents with annual household income less than 20 000 CNY in 2014, cancer risk assessment/screening intervention population, and self-assessment with cancer risk, residents with annual household income between 20 000 CNY and 59 000 CNY in 2014, occupational population, community residents, cancer patients, self-reported cancer-free risk, and self-assessment with unclear judgement of cancer risk were less likely to participate in the regular physical examination (all P values <0.05). Conclusion: From 2015 to 2017, the Chinese urban residents had a acceptable consciousness of the cancer early detection. The marital status, annual household income, population group and self-assessment of cancer risk were related to the consciousness of the cancer early detection of people who had not participated in the regular physical examination in the past five years.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , População Urbana , Adolescente , Adulto , China , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(1): 62-68, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914571

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the consciousness of the cancer early diagnosis among urban residents and identify the related factors from 2015 to 2017. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 16 provinces covered by the Cancer Screening Program in Urban China from 2015 to 2017. A total of 32 257 local residents aged ≥18 years old who could understand the investigation procedure were included in the study by using the cluster sampling method and convenient sampling method. All local residents were categorized into four groups, which contained 15 524 community residents, 8 016 cancer risk assessment/screening population, 2 289 cancer patients and 6 428 occupational population, respectively. The general demographic characteristics, the consciousness of the cancer early diagnosis (whether people would have a willingness or encourage their relatives/friends to confirm the abnormal results once which were detected from the physical examination) and other information were collected by using the self-designed questionnaire. The non-conditional logistic regression model was used to identify the relateol factors related to the consciousness of the cancer early diagnosis. Results: As for residents with abnormal result from the physical examination, 89.29% (28 802) of residents would choose to seek medical treatment for further diagnosis. If their relatives/friends had abnormal results from the physical examination, 89.55% (28 886) of residents would encourage their relatives/friends to confirm the diagnosis in time. The non-conditional logistic regression model analysis showed that compared with the public institution staff/civil servants, annual household income less than 20 000 CNY, the western region and the cancer risk assessment/screening intervention population, the company staff, annual household income about 40 000 CNY and more, and the residents from the middle and eastern region had a stronger consciousness to seek further diagnosis; while the unemployed residents and community residents were less likely to seek further diagnosis (P<0.05). Conclusions: From 2015 to 2017, the Chinese urban residents had a good consciousness of the cancer early diagnosis. Occupation, annual household income, residential region and population group were related to the consciousness of the cancer early diagnosis.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , População Urbana , Adolescente , Adulto , China , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
BJOG ; 127(3): 364-375, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507061

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Unselected population-based BRCA testing provides the opportunity to apply genomics on a population-scale to maximise primary prevention for breast-and-ovarian cancer. We compare long-term outcomes of population-based and family-history (FH)/clinical-criteria-based BRCA testing on psychological health and quality of life. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial (RCT) (ISRCTN73338115) GCaPPS, with two-arms: (i) population-screening (PS); (ii) FH/clinical-criteria-based testing. SETTING: North London Ashkenazi-Jewish (AJ) population. POPULATION/SAMPLE: AJ women/men. METHODS: Population-based RCT (1:1). Participants were recruited through self-referral, following pre-test genetic counselling from the North London AJ population. INCLUSION CRITERIA: AJ women/men >18 years old; exclusion-criteria: prior BRCA testing or first-degree relatives of BRCA-carriers. INTERVENTIONS: Genetic testing for three Jewish BRCA founder-mutations: 185delAG (c.68_69delAG), 5382insC (c.5266dupC) and 6174delT (c.5946delT), for (i) all participants in PS arm; (ii) those fulfilling FH/clinical criteria in FH arm. Linear mixed models and appropriate contrast tests were used to analyse the impact of BRCA testing on psychological and quality-of-life outcomes over 3 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Validated questionnaires (HADS/MICRA/HAI/SF12) used to analyse psychological wellbeing/quality-of-life outcomes at baseline/1-year/2-year/3-year follow up. RESULTS: In all, 1034 individuals (691 women, 343 men) were randomised to PS (n = 530) or FH (n = 504) arms. There was a statistically significant decrease in anxiety (P = 0.046) and total anxiety-&-depression scores (P = 0.0.012) in the PS arm compared with the FH arm over 3 years. No significant difference was observed between the FH and PS arms for depression, health-anxiety, distress, uncertainty, quality-of-life or experience scores associated with BRCA testing. Contrast tests showed a decrease in anxiety (P = 0.018), health-anxiety (P < 0.0005) and quality-of-life (P = 0.004) scores in both PS and FH groups over time. Eighteen of 30 (60%) BRCA carriers identified did not fulfil clinical criteria for BRCA testing. Total BRCA prevalence was 2.9% (95% CI 1.97-4.12%), BRCA1 prevalence was 1.55% (95% CI 0.89-2.5%) and BRCA2 prevalence was 1.35% (95% CI 0.74-2.26%). CONCLUSION: Population-based AJ BRCA testing does not adversely affect long-term psychological wellbeing or quality-of-life, decreases anxiety and could identify up to 150% additional BRCA carriers. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Population BRCA testing in Ashkenazi Jews reduces anxiety and does not adversely affect psychological health or quality of life.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/psicologia , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Testes Genéticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/diagnóstico , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/etnologia , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/genética , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/psicologia , Humanos , Judeus/genética , Judeus/estatística & dados numéricos , Londres/epidemiologia , Masculino , Anamnese/estatística & dados numéricos , Incerteza
4.
BMC Womens Health ; 19(1): 122, 2019 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Incidence of breast cancer in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has increased in recent years. Screening helps in early detection of cancer and early diagnosis and timely treatment of breast cancer lead to a better prognosis. Women in the healthcare profession can have a positive impact on the attitudes, beliefs, and practices of general public. Therefore, it is important that the healthcare workers themselves have adequate knowledge and positive attitudes. We conducted a study to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to breast cancer screening among female healthcare professionals. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on female health professional of KFMC (King Fahad Medical City). Data was collected using a pre-designed, tested, self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire included specific sections to test the participants' knowledge, attitude, and practices related to cervical cancer and its screening. Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: A total of 395 health care workers participated in this study. The mean age of the participants was 34.7 years. Participants included physicians (n = 63, 16.0%), nurses (n = 261, 66.1%), and allied health workers (n = 71, 18.0%). Only 6 (1.5%) participants had a good level of knowledge of breast cancer and 104 (26.8%) participants demonstrated a fair level of knowledge. Overall, 370 (93.7%), 339 (85.8%), and 368 (93.2%) participants had heard of breast self-examination, clinical breast examination, and mammography, respectively. A total of 295 (74.7%) participants reported practicing breast self-examination, 95 (24.1%) had undergone clinical breast examination, and 74 (18.7%) had ever undergone mammography. CONCLUSION: The knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to breast cancer screening were found to be lower than expected. Active steps are required to develop educational programs for the health care staff, which might empower them to spread the knowledge and positively influence the attitudes of female patients in the hospital.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Autoexame de Mama/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Mamografia/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Arábia Saudita , Inquéritos e Questionários , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/psicologia , Saúde da Mulher
5.
BMC Womens Health ; 19(1): 123, 2019 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in women in Ghana, but knowledge and experience of women who have had cervical screening is under-evaluated. This study examined knowledge and understanding of HPV and cervical cancer and evaluated experiences of screening in a cohort of women of mixed HIV status. METHODS: This was a mixed methods study using questionnaires and focus group discussions, with a knowledge score constructed from the questionnaire. HIV-positive and HIV-negative women were recruited from a larger cervical screening study in Ghana and were interviewed 6 months after receiving screening. Quantitative data was analyzed and triangulated with qualitative data following thematic analysis using the framework approach. RESULTS: A total of 131 women were included (HIV-positive, n = 60). Over 80% of participants had a knowledge score deemed adequate. There was no difference between HIV-status groups in overall knowledge scores (p = 0.1), but variation was seen in individual knowledge items. HIV-positive women were more likely to correctly identify HPV as being sexually-transmitted (p = 0.05), and HIV negative women to correctly identify the stages in developing cervical cancer (p = < 0.0001). HIV-positive women mostly described acquisition of HPV in stigmatising terms. The early asymptomatic phase of cervical cancer made it difficult for women to define "what" cancer was versus "what" HPV infection was. All women expressed that they found it difficult waiting for their screening results but that receiving information and counselling from health workers alleviated anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge of women who had participated in a cervical screening study was good, but specific misconceptions existed. HIV-positive women had similar levels of knowledge to HIV-negative, but different misconceptions. Women expressed generally positive views about screening, but did experience distress. A standardized education tool explaining cervical screening and relevance specifically of HPV-DNA results in Ghana should be developed, taking into consideration the different needs of HIV-positive women.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Soropositividade para HIV/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Infecções por Papillomavirus/psicologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Aconselhamento , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Gana , Soropositividade para HIV/complicações , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papillomaviridae , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia
6.
Health Psychol ; 38(12): 1083-1095, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556658

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This prospective study aimed to identify predictors of intention and subsequent attendance of flexible sigmoidoscopy screening using constructs derived from the Health Belief Model (HBM). METHOD: A total of 4,330 people aged 54 years and registered at 1 of 83 participating English general practices were sent a preinvitation questionnaire to assess sociodemographics, HBM variables including perceived benefits, barriers, seriousness, health motivation, and external cues to action as well a range of other constructs and personal characteristics known to relate to cancer screening. RESULTS: Of the 1,578 respondents (36.4%), 1,555 (98.5%) answered the intention question: 52.9% stated definitely yes, 38.1% probably yes, 6.8% probably not, and 2.2% definitely not. Intentions were positively associated with a higher score on a scale of benefits (odds ratio [OR] = 4.62; 95% confidence intervals [CI; 3.24, 6.59]) and health motivation, that is, interest in other ways of preventing colorectal cancer (OR = 2.61; 95% CI [1.62, 4.22]), while a higher score on perceived barriers (OR = 0.19; 95% CI [0.12, 0.31]) and currently following recommended healthy lifestyle behaviors (OR = 0.31; 95% CI [0.16, 0.59]) were negatively associated. Attendance was verified for 922 intenders (65.2%) of whom 737 (79.9%) attended. Attendance was predicted by health motivation (OR = 1.75; 95% CI [1.07, 2.86]), perceived benefits (OR = 1.82; 95% CI [1.37, 2.43]), perceived barriers (OR = 0.47; 95% CI [0.32, 0.69]), individual-level deprivation (OR = 0.26; 95% CI [0.14, 0.50]), and having diabetes (OR = 0.48; 95% CI [0.25, 0.94]). CONCLUSION: This study supported the usefulness of the HBM in predicting cancer screening and was further enhanced by adding non-HBM variables such as individual socioeconomic deprivation and comorbidities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/psicologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Sigmoidoscopia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
7.
BMC Womens Health ; 19(1): 116, 2019 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in women, and in those with a positive family history, it is important to perform mammography. One of the probable barriers in doing mammography is fatalism. METHODS: This is a descriptive/cross-sectional study conducted on 400 women residing in Isfahan, Iran, randomly selected in 2017. Sampling was done randomly among the enrolled women in Health Integrity System. The data collection tool was a questionnaire regarding the demographic-fertility information and fatalism. The data analysis was done by SPSS software. A P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The results showed that the mean rate of fatalism was 59.5 ± 23.2 in women with the experience of mammography, and 65.9±18.7 in women without the experience. Moreover, the mean rate of fatalism was 73.1±15.2 in subjects with a family history of breast cancer, and 59.3 ± 22.5 in those no family history related to this condition. Accordingly, fatalism was statistically significant associated (P < 0.001) with a family history of breast cancer and experience of mammography. There was no significant relationship between demographic information and fatalism (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The results indicated that fatalism in women with no experience of mammography was higher than in those with a positive history. Regarding the necessity of mammography in women with a family history of breast cancer, the required interventions seem to be essential to changing the viewpoints of women regarding the importance and effect of mammography as a screening method for breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/psicologia , Mamografia/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Mamografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
BMC Womens Health ; 19(1): 112, 2019 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Internationally, women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) lack knowledge about their disease, which limits their ability to take responsibility for self-care and creates negative psychosocial effects, including marital problems. Normally, screening is performed in primary care, and in case of abnormal results, the patient is referred to specialized care for follow-up and treatment. Given the lack of international literature regarding patients' experiences in primary and specialized healthcare, our study aims to: (a) investigate how women with CIN perceive the communication and management of information by healthcare providers at different moments of their healthcare and (b) identify these women's informational needs. METHODS: A qualitative exploratory study was carried out in a gynecology unit of a public hospital of the Galician Health Care Service (Spain). Participants were selected through purposive sampling. The sample consisted of 21 women aged 21 to 52 years old with a confirmed diagnosis of CIN. Semistructured interviews were recorded and transcribed. A thematic analysis was carried out, including triangulation of researchers for analysis verification. RESULTS: Two analytical themes were identified. The first was communication gaps in the diagnosis and management of information in primary and specialized healthcare. These gaps occurred in the following moments of the healthcare process: (a) cervical cancer screening in primary care, (b) waiting time until referral to specialized care, (c) first consultation in specialized care, and (d) after consultation in specialized care. The second theme was participants' unmatched informational needs. The doubts and informational needs of women during their healthcare process related to the following subthemes: (a) HPV transmission, (b) HPV infection symptoms and consequences, and (c) CIN treatment and follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that women who have a diagnosis of CIN experience important healthcare informational challenges when accessing primary and specialized care that have several implications for their wellbeing. The information given is limited, which makes it difficult for women to understand and participate in the decision making regarding the prevention and treatment of CIN. Service coordination among different levels of care and the availability of educational materials at any given time would improve the patients' healthcare experience.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Assistência ao Paciente , Navegação de Pacientes/organização & administração , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Adulto , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/patologia , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/psicologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Competência em Informação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Assistência ao Paciente/métodos , Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Espanha , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/psicologia
9.
J Clin Nurs ; 28(23-24): 4471-4477, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410923

RESUMO

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of the knowledge and health beliefs of individuals about colorectal cancer on their screening behaviour. BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer ranks third among the most common cancers both worldwide and in Turkey. Colorectal cancer plays an important role in cancer mortality but can be prevented by promoting healthy behaviour and participation in early screening programmes. DESIGN: This descriptive study was completed with 114 women and 121 men. METHODS: The study data were collected using the 'Data collection form' and 'Health Belief Model Scale for Protection from Colorectal Cancer'. Potential risk factors were investigated using logistic regression analyses. The AGREE checklist was completed. RESULTS: The colorectal cancer screening tests were known by 23.0% of the subjects and 17% had undergone one of these tests. The score medians obtained from the confidence-benefit subscale of Health Belief Model Scale for Protection from Colorectal Cancer were found to be significantly higher in those who had undergone colorectal cancer screening. Logistic regression analysis revealed that having knowledge of the relevant tests was associated with undergoing colorectal cancer screening. CONCLUSIONS: Having knowledge on colorectal cancer screening tests increases the relevant confidence-benefit perception regarding the tests and the behaviour of participating in screening programmes. Regular training on colorectal cancer and early diagnosis should therefore be provided by healthcare professionals to both women and men aged 50-70 years to increase the rate of undergoing early screening tests. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Increasing the rate of early screening is among the responsibilities of health workers working in primary health centres. Therefore, problems that prevent individuals from participating in these programmes need to be identified. In this way, health workers will develop suggestions and initiatives that change the individual's health beliefs and increase motivation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Programas de Rastreamento/psicologia , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Turquia
10.
BMC Womens Health ; 19(1): 107, 2019 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To be effective, population-based cervical cancer prevention programs must be tailored to meet the needs of the target population. One important factor in cervical cancer screening may include male involvement. To iteratively improve a screening program employing self-collected vaginal swabs for human-papillomavirus (HPV) testing in western Kenya, we examined the role of male partners and community leaders in decision-making and accessing screening services. METHODS: We carried out 604 semi-structured, in-depth interviews (IDIs) with women and community health volunteers who took part in a multiphase trial of implementation strategies for HPV-based cervical cancer screening. IDIs were coded and themes related to decision-making, screening and treatment barriers, and influence of male partners and community leaders were identified and analyzed. RESULTS: Women experienced both support and opposition from their male partners. Partner support took the form of financial support for transportation and emotional support and encouragement, while opposition ranged from anticipated negative reactions to lack of permission, isolation, and abandonment. Though most women described their own partners as supportive, many felt that other male partners would not be supportive. Most participants believed that increased HPV and cervical cancer knowledge would increase partner support. Women reported a general acceptance of involvement of community leaders in education and screening campaigns, in a setting where such leaders may hold influence over men in the community. CONCLUSION: There was a clear interest in involving male partners in the cervical cancer prevention process, specifically in increasing knowledge and awareness. Future research should explore the feasibility and effectiveness of engaging male partners in cervical cancer screening and prevention programs.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Tomada de Decisões , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Quênia , Masculino , Papillomaviridae
11.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 20(8): 2339-2343, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450904

RESUMO

Cancer is responsible for substantial burden on communities and more specifically on less developed countries. The incidence of cancer is on the rise due to population growth and aging, also due to increment of the risk factors such as smoking, increasing weight, low physical activity associated with adoption of western lifestyle. Around 14 million cases of new cancer and 8 million deaths from cancer is estimated to occur by 2012. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Baghdad from June 2016 to October 2016. Participants were selected according to our inclusion criteria, namely aged between 18 to 40 years and not being diagnosed with any chronic diseases. Those who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were 700 participants who completed the questionnaire. Results showed that most of our participants had low perceived susceptibility to cancer risk (62.4%), low perceived severity (59.8%), but good perceived benefits of screening (56.6%). Hierarchal linear regression analysis showed that sociodemographic factors of gender, marital status, and education level were statistically significant. Moreover, factors of health behaviour such as practice towards health and preventive behaviour were associated with the outcome. Finally, treatment control and emotional factors were mostly predicting the outcome. Perceived susceptibility to cancer along with its psychological factors and behaviour were important contributors to self-perceived health in this study. Hence there is association between perception and future morbidity and mortality, thus it is crucial for public health policy. Comprehensive health programs that include health promotion campaigns and proper health care services that deals with secondary prevention.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças/psicologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Neoplasias/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Exercício , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Iraque/epidemiologia , Masculino , Morbidade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Percepção , Projetos Piloto , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 20(8): 2373-2378, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450908

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. The present study investigated the stage of breast cancer screening adoption and the role of some of the cognitive predictors in a sample of Iranian married women. There were a total of 334 married women clients of eight health centers in Kermanshah city, the west of Iran, were randomly selected to participate voluntarily. Women filled out a self-report questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 20 using One-way ANOVA, χ2-test, Fisher's exact test, and bivariate correlations statistical tests at 95% significant level. The mean age was 39.75 years [SD: 7.73]. Nearly 58.4%, 26.9%, 3%, 9.6%, and 2.1% of the respondents were reported pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance of breast cancer screening adoption, respectively. There was a significant association between age (P=0.005), and positive family history of breast cancer (P=0.037), perceived susceptibility (P=0.005), perceived severity (P=0.001) and knowledge of symptoms (P=0.018) with breast cancer stage of screening adoption. Our findings can provide better knowledge for the development and implementing of stage-targeted breast cancer screening adoption promotion programs. We conclude that it seems that the focus of health planner should be to rise to perceived severity; perceived susceptibility and knowledge of symptoms of breast cancer about the promotion of breast cancer screening adoption an Iranian woman.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/psicologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Cancer Control ; 26(1): 1073274819863777, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331185

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women all over the world, also in Vietnam. In recent years, the incidence of breast cancer has been increasing in Vietnam, and most cases are diagnosed at late stages, making treatment more difficult. More and better early detection could help more women to survive. The aim of this study was to identify the current knowledge, attitude and practice about early detection of breast cancer as well as potential predictors of breast cancer screening among women aged 20 to 49 year in a mountainous commune in Thanh Hoa Province, Vietnam, in a largely ethnic Muong population. Women aged 20 to 49 years were selected by systematic random sampling to participate in a cross sectional study in October 2017. They were interviewed with a closed questionnaire about their knowledge of breast cancer, its risk factors, and warning signs. A checklist for performance of breast self-examination was also applied. Three hundred six women agreed to participate in the study. More than half had a low level of knowledge, and were weak in attitude and practice about breast self-examination, clinical breast examination, breast ultrasound, and mamography. Among women who had practiced at least 1 screening method, 17.0% mentioned clinical breast examination, and only 13.8% reported practicing breast self-examination. Factors associated with practice included knowledge about breast cancer early detection (BCED), ethnicity, income, the BCED information approach, and the BCED screening programs approach. The finding of a very low proportion of women in the mountainous setting with good awareness and practice on early detection of breast cancer is important evidence to inform the BCED intervention program developers about where and how to target which information, especially to reach more ethnic minority women.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Autoexame de Mama/psicologia , Autoexame de Mama/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 963, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine whether age is a barrier against acceptability of cervicovaginal self-sampling in screening for cervical cancer at two gynecology outpatient clinics. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study involving 116 women over 21 years of age with an abnormal Pap smear. Clinical and laboratorial data were recorded in electronic files. Women received detailed self-collection instructions. After the self-sampling procedure (Evalyn Brush®), women were instructed to answer a questionnaire about vaginal self-sampling acceptability that consisted of seven multiple-choice items. The participants were divided into three age brackets: 21 to 29 years, 30 to 49 years, and 50 years and over. Chi-square, Fischer exact, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used. RESULTS: The analysis of the participants' perception of the procedure stratified according to age groups showed a decline in the fear of hurting oneself during the procedure as age increased. Most participants reported that it was very easy to understand how to use the self-sampling brush and that it was easy to use it. Most of them were neither embarrassed nor afraid of getting hurt during the procedure. The majority preferred self-sampling to collection by a healthcare professional. The main reason was practicality: the possibility of choosing the place and time for sampling. CONCLUSIONS: The participating women found self-collection simple to understand and easy to accept regardless of age. The younger women indicated more fear and discomfort in self-sampling, which points to the need for attraction strategies that are more appealing to the younger generations.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Autocuidado/psicologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Esfregaço Vaginal/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papillomaviridae , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Papillomavirus/psicologia , Projetos Piloto , Autocuidado/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/psicologia , Esfregaço Vaginal/métodos , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMC Womens Health ; 19(1): 91, 2019 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the most common cancer and a major cause of morbidity and mortality among women in Zimbabwe yet it is preventable, early detectable and highly curable. The objective of this study was to investigate knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices towards cervical cancer, its prevention and treatment in Harare, Zimbabwe. METHODS: Sequential explanatory mixed methods approach consisting of analytical cross sectional survey and a qualitative inquiry was used. Study population consisted of women with cervical cancer, health workers and other stakeholders who are involved in cancer control programmes. Patient survey data were collected using validated structured questionnaire in Surveytogo software in an android tablet. Qualitative study used key informant interviews to understand survey findings better. Data analyses for the survey involved univariate and multivariate analyses using STATA version 14. For qualitative study, themes in transcripts were coded and analyzed using Dedoose software to generate evidence for the study. RESULTS: Participants reported different levels of knowledge of causes (23%), risk factors (71%), prevention (72%), screening (73%) and treatment (80%) of cervical cancer. Knowledge of causes of cervical cancer were negatively associated with: being aged 45 or more years (OR = 0.02; p = 0.004), having no household income (OR = 0.02;p = 0.007), household income

Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Zimbábue
17.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 667, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epigenetic markers might be used for risk-stratifying cancer screening and prevention programs in the future. Although the clinical utility of consequent epigenetic tests for risk stratification is yet to be proven, successful adoption into clinical practice also requires the public's acceptance of such tests. This cross-sectional online survey study sought to learn for the first time about European women's perceptions, attitudes, and intended behavior regarding a predictive epigenetic test for female cancer (breast, ovarian, cervical, and endometrial) risks. METHODS: 1675 women (40-75 years) from five European countries (Czech Republic, Germany, United Kingdom, Italy, Sweden), drawn from online panels by the survey sampling company Harris Interactive (Germany), participated in an online survey where they first received online leaflet information on a predictive epigenetic test for female cancer risks and were subsequently queried by an online questionnaire on their desire to know their female cancer risks, their perception of the benefit-to-harm ratio of an epigenetic test predicting female cancer risks, reasons in favor and disfavor of taking such a test, and their intention to take a predictive epigenetic test for female cancer risks. RESULTS: Most women desired information on each of their female cancer risks, 56.6% (95% CI: 54.2-59.0) thought the potential benefits outweighed potential harms, and 75% (72.0-77.8) intended to take a predictive epigenetic test for female cancer risks if freely available. Results varied considerably by country with women from Germany and the Czech Republic being more reserved about this new form of testing than women from the other three European countries. The main reason cited in favor of a predictive epigenetic test for female cancer risks was its potential to guide healthcare strategies and lifestyle changes in the future, and in its disfavor was that it may increase cancer worry and coerce unintended lifestyle changes and healthcare interventions. CONCLUSIONS: A successful introduction of predictive epigenetic tests for cancer risks will require a balanced and transparent communication of the benefit-to-harm ratio of healthcare pathways resulting from such tests in order to curb unjustified expectations and at the same time to prevent unjustified concerns.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Epigênese Genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Intenção , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos Transversais , Neoplasias do Endométrio/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/genética
18.
BMC Womens Health ; 19(1): 75, 2019 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite cervical cancer being preventable with effective screening programs, it is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related death among women in many countries in Africa. Screening involving pelvic examination may not be feasible or acceptable in limited-resource settings. We sought to evaluate women's perspectives on human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling as part of a larger trial on cervical cancer prevention implementation strategies in rural western Kenya. METHODS: We invited 120 women participating in a cluster randomized trial of cervical cancer screening implementation strategies in Migori County, Kenya for in-depth interviews. We explored reasons for testing, experience with and ability to complete HPV self-sampling, importance of clinician involvement during screening, factors and people contributing to screening decision-making, and ways to encourage other women to come for screening. We used validated theoretical frameworks to analyze the qualitative data. RESULTS: Women reported having positive experiences with the HPV self-sampling strategy. The factors facilitating uptake included knowledge and beliefs such as prior awareness of HPV, personal perception of cervical cancer risk, desire for improved health outcomes, and peer and partner encouragement. Logistical and screening facilitators included confidence in the ability to complete HPV self-sampling strategy, proximity to screening sites and feelings of privacy and comfort conducting the HPV self- sampling. The barriers to screening included fear of need for a pelvic exam, fear of disease and death associated with cervical cancer. We classified these findings as capabilities, opportunities and motivations for health behavior using the COM-B framework. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, HPV self-sampling was an acceptable cervical cancer screening strategy that seemed to meet the needs of the women in this community. These findings will further inform aspects of implementation, including outreach messaging, health education, screening sites and emphasis on availability and effectiveness of preventative treatment for women who screen positive.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , População Rural , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Quênia , Programas de Rastreamento/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papillomaviridae , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Autoeficácia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico
19.
Eur J Oncol Nurs ; 40: 2-9, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229203

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop an explanatory model, built on an ecological basis, and examine the relational effects of multilevel factors on screening behaviour among South Asian immigrant women. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, exploratory correlational study using path analysis. 776 South Asian immigrant women were recruited from community in Hong Kong. A self-administered survey with eight sections covering socio-demographics, recommendations received from others, previous screening experience, knowledge of the disease and screening, attitudes and perceptions, level of acculturation, cultural barriers to screening and perception of cancer fatalism was used to collect data. Path analysis was done to test the hypothesised model. FINDINGS: The final model obtained an acceptable model fit with x2/df = 2.52, RMSEA = 0.044, CFI = 0.95 and TLI = 0.93. A total of 15 factors, ranging from intra-personal to community level, were identified as being associated with South Asian immigrant women's cervical cancer screening behaviour. Three factors at the community level (language use, modesty and crisis orientation) had an inter-relationship with three intra-personal factors (perceived barriers to screening, cancer fatalism and perceived benefits of screening) and hence affected screening uptake. CONCLUSIONS: South Asian women's cervical cancer screening behaviour is affected by multi-level factors. Efforts should be made to change the current health-promoting strategies and attract more involvement from appropriate stakeholders, incorporating cultural and socio-environmental components in future interventions.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/etnologia , Adulto , Ásia/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Hong Kong , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multinível , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico
20.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 20(6): 1613-1620, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31244279

RESUMO

Each year, many countries from developed world publishes reports on early cancer detection; which is absolutely absent in most developing countries like Bangladesh.Very limited evidence is found on the role and acceptance of Pap test among the women of Bangladesh in determining cervical cancer. More research and updates are needed relating Pap test in early detection of cervical cancer. Thus the purpose of this study is set to assess the opinions of Bangladeshiurban womentowardsthe Pap test. A questionnaire-based survey of 400 Bangladeshi urban women was evaluated by on their socio-demographic characteristics, knowledgeand attitudes towards Pap testing. In general, the findings reveal that respondents havea good understanding of thepurpose of Pap test screening with 3.92 (Mean score). With 3.54 Mean score,the respondents believed that Pap tests are recommended to women who are married and with 3.45 mean score women believed that Pap tests arerecommended only to those who have children. Generally, respondents possess good knowledge of Pap test and its purpose. These findings can be used in identifying prospect cervical cancer screening significance populations and trend for future intrusion.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Teste de Papanicolaou/psicologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/psicologia , Esfregaço Vaginal/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Prognóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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