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1.
Quintessence Int ; 51(6): 474-485, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424376

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the cleaning potential of a protein-denaturing agent with or without anionic detergent by monitoring the residual contamination on healing abutments used for dental implant treatment. METHOD AND MATERIALS: Forty contaminated healing abutments removed from patients were randomized and immediately treated with differing cleaning methods; either Method A (presoaking in 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate followed by ultrasonication with 4 mol/L guanidine hydrochloride), or Method B (soaking in distilled water followed by ultrasonication with 4 mol/L guanidine hydrochloride) was used. Samples were stained with phloxine B and photographed using a light microscope. The proportion of stained and contaminated areas on each healing abutment was then calculated using Image J. The surface was examined with a scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. RESULTS: The percentages of contaminated surfaces of the screwdriver engagement region, upper body, and lower body for methods A and B were 50% and 38%, 10% and 80%, and 38% and 18%, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference (engagement region [P < .001], upper body [P = .043], and lower body [P = .017]; Mann-Whitney) regarding the residually stained areas between the two cleaning methods. No surface alterations were seen by scanning electron microscopy. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy confirmed that the cleaned surfaces of the healing abutments revealed no signs of organic contamination. CONCLUSION: Although the combination of a strong denaturing agent and detergent effectively cleaned contaminated healing abutments, perfect cleaning was not always possible, indicating that the reuse of healing abutments in different patients is not recommended.


Assuntos
Implantes Dentários , Dente Suporte , Detergentes , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Propriedades de Superfície , Titânio
3.
J Cosmet Sci ; 71(2): 91-109, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271711

RESUMO

Surfactants possess the ability to reduce surface tension at low concentrations, resulting in emulsification, foaming, wetting, and solubilizing. As a versatile industrial material, surfactants can be widely used as additives in the industrial field as different as textile, metal processing, mineral processing, new materials, industrial cleaning, construction, and pharmaceuticals. The most extensive application of surfactants perhaps is in the household and cosmetic industries, such as laundry detergents, dishwashing detergents, facial and body cleansers, and preparation of emulsions and creams. However, the extensive use of detergents, cleaners, and cleansers on skin may cause itching, redness, and dryness termed as surfactant-induced irritation, which is at least, partially due to surfactant penetration into skin. To understand how surfactants penetrate into skin, this review summarizes the penetration models proposed by researchers in the past two decades, including the surfactant monomer penetration model, the surfactant micelle and submicelle penetration model, and the recently proposed surfactant charge density and penetration correlation model that demonstrates the correlation between the surfactant charge density and skin penetration.


Assuntos
Cosméticos , Dermatopatias , Pele , Detergentes , Humanos , Tensoativos
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(3): 157, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016621

RESUMO

Quantitatively characterizing dermal exposure for workers and consumers performing tasks with hand-applied cleaning solution is complex as many of the assessment variables are scenario specific. One of the key variables necessary for quantitatively estimating dermal exposure is the surface area of the hand contacted by the cleaning solution. However, no relevant data or methods are available in the literature. This study evaluated the feasibility of a novel simulation approach to measure skin contact area specific to hand cleaning with various types of liquid cleaning products to refine exposure and risk estimates for users of these products. This approach incorporates cotton rags wetted with pigmented cleaning solutions, volunteers wearing white cotton gloves during hand cleaning with those cotton rags, and digital imaging of the pigmented solution-contacted gloves post-simulation to quantify area of the hand contacted by the cleaning solution. When applied across three separate cleaning solutions, a denatured alcohol, an aqueous solution, and a lacquer thinner, this novel method performed well in estimating both palmer and dorsal surface areas of the hand contacted during simulated cleaning. The volume of cleaning solution applied to the rag and thickness of the rag were consistent predictors of contacted surface area. For the denatured alcohol, the time spent cleaning was additionally correlated with contacted surface area. This study suggests that this novel simulation approach could be an important tool for reducing an important source of uncertainty in dermal exposure assessments involving hand-applied cleaning solutions.


Assuntos
Detergentes , Monitoramento Ambiental , Exposição Ocupacional , Absorção Cutânea , Mãos , Humanos , Pele
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 6, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An efficient surface cleaning strategy would first target cleaning to surfaces that make large contributions to the risk of infections. METHODS: In this study, we used data from the literature about methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and developed an ordinary differential equations based mathematical model to quantify the impact of contact heterogeneity on MRSA transmission in a hypothetical 6-bed intensive care unit (ICU). The susceptible patients are divided into two types, these who are cared by the same nurse as the MRSA infected patient (Type 1) and these who are not (Type 2). RESULTS: The results showed that the mean MRSA concentration on three kinds of susceptible patient nearby surfaces was significantly linearly associated with the hand-touch frequency (p < 0.05). The noncompliance of daily cleaning on patient nearby high-touch surfaces (HTSs) had the most impact on MRSA transmission. If the HTSs were not cleaned, the MRSA exposure to Type 1 and 2 susceptible patients would increase 118.4% (standard deviation (SD): 33.0%) and 115.4% (SD: 30.5%) respectively. The communal surfaces (CSs) had the least impact, if CSs were not cleaned, the MRSA exposure to Type 1 susceptible patient would only increase 1.7% (SD: 1.3). The impact of clinical equipment (CE) differed largely for two types of susceptible patients. If the CE was not cleaned, the exposure to Type 1 patients would only increase 8.4% (SD: 3.0%), while for Type 2 patients, it can increase 70.4% (SD: 25.4%). CONCLUSIONS: This study provided a framework to study the pathogen concentration dynamics on environmental surfaces and quantitatively showed the importance of cleaning patient nearby HTSs on controlling the nosocomial infection transmission via contact route.


Assuntos
Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/fisiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/transmissão , Busca de Comunicante/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Detergentes/farmacologia , Desinfecção , Feminino , Higiene das Mãos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Profissional para o Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Resistência a Meticilina/fisiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/patogenicidade , Propriedades de Superfície
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 564, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992701

RESUMO

Detergents enable the purification of membrane proteins and are indispensable reagents in structural biology. Even though a large variety of detergents have been developed in the last century, the challenge remains to identify guidelines that allow fine-tuning of detergents for individual applications in membrane protein research. Addressing this challenge, here we introduce the family of oligoglycerol detergents (OGDs). Native mass spectrometry (MS) reveals that the modular OGD architecture offers the ability to control protein purification and to preserve interactions with native membrane lipids during purification. In addition to a broad range of bacterial membrane proteins, OGDs also enable the purification and analysis of a functional G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR). Moreover, given the modular design of these detergents, we anticipate fine-tuning of their properties for specific applications in structural biology. Seen from a broader perspective, this represents a significant advance for the investigation of membrane proteins and their interactions with lipids.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/química , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/isolamento & purificação , Detergentes/química , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/química , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/química , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Espectrometria de Massas , Lipídeos de Membrana , Modelos Moleculares , Peptídeo Hidrolases/química , Peptídeo Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Redobramento de Proteína , Solubilidade
7.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(1): 153-159, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541265

RESUMO

In this study, it was aimed to determine the ability to produce protease enzyme of Thermomonas haemolytica isolated from geothermal Nenehatun hot spring in Turkey and utilization of this enzyme in the detergent industry to remove protein stains. The protease-producing strains were screened from hot springs, and a potential strain was identified as T. haemolytica according to morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics and sequence of 16S rRNA gene. Maximum protease activity was observed at 55 °C and pH 9.0 at 72 h of incubation. Activity was very stable between 50 and 65 °C and pH 8.0-10.0, respectively. The enzyme activity was significantly inhibited by PMSF and partly inhibited by EDTA, EGTA, SDS, and urea. Some divalent metal ions such as Ca2+, Mg2+, and Mn2+ increased the enzyme activity, while Zn2+ and Cu2+ decreased. Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) and maximum velocity (Vmax) values were calculated by Lineweaver-Burk plot as 125 EU/ml and 1262 mg/ml, respectively. The biochemical characterization of the protease obtained from T. haemolytica was performed and applied on the blood and grass-stained fabrics with detergent to evaluate the stain removal performance of the enzyme. It was observed that the application of detergent with enzyme was more effective than the detergent without enzyme to clean up the stained fabrics. This is the first report of characterization of the protease of T. haemolytica. According to results obtained from this study, this new strain is a promising candidate for industrial applications in production of detergent.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia , Detergentes , Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Xanthomonadaceae/enzimologia , Detergentes/química , Estabilidade Enzimática , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Temperatura , Xanthomonadaceae/genética
8.
Int J Occup Saf Ergon ; 26(1): 140-148, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30451643

RESUMO

Purpose. This study aimed to investigate chemical injuries caused by cleaning agents and disinfectants by reviewing poison control data. Methods. We performed a 5-year retrospective analysis of calls to the Swedish Poisons Information Centre (PIC) concerning occupational use of cleaning agents and disinfectants. In addition, callers for 17 new cases were interviewed. Results. Out of 8240 occupationally related cases handled by the PIC during 2010-2014, 24% concerned cleaning agents and disinfectants (N = 1983). Of these, one-third were classified as major risk cases, generally due to potential for corrosive eye and skin injuries. The most frequent type of workplace was restaurants and caterers. However, information about occupation was only identifiable for 30% of the cases. Follow-up interviews exemplify how limited awareness of safety data sheets and disregard of protective equipment may contribute to health-related outcomes such as absence at work. Conclusions. Management and prevention strategies for cleaning agents should be improved. PIC records hold relevant information both for designing interventions and for future research on occupational health and safety management. We suggest that systematic collection by the PIC of information on occupation and age would further improve the usefulness for occupational injury surveillance purposes.


Assuntos
Detergentes , Centros de Informação , Saúde do Trabalhador , Envenenamento/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estudos Retrospectivos , Gestão de Riscos , Local de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
9.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 27: e3211, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826156

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the potential contamination of enzymatic detergent from its reuse and to identify the microbiological profile in the solution used to clean gastrointestinal endoscopic devices. METHOD: cross-sectional study based on microbiological analysis of 76 aliquots of 19 different enzymatic detergent solutions used to clean endoscopic devices. The aliquots were homogenized, subjected to Millipore® 0.45 µm membrane filtration and the presumptive identification of microorganisms was performed by biochemical-physiological methods according to previously established specific bacterial groups that are of clinical and epidemiological relevance. RESULTS: the mean values, as well as the standard deviation and the median, of the enzymatic detergent microbial load increased as the solution was reused. There was a significant difference between the means of after first use and after fifth reuse. A total of 97 microorganisms were identified, with predominance of the coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas spp., Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp. genus, and Escherichia coli species. CONCLUSION: the reuse of the enzymatic detergent solution is a risk to the safe processing of endoscopic devices, evidenced by its contamination with pathogenic potential microorganisms, since the enzymatic detergent has no bactericidal property and can contribute as an important source for outbreaks in patients under such procedures.


Assuntos
Detergentes/efeitos adversos , Contaminação de Equipamentos , Gastroscópios/efeitos adversos , Gastroscópios/microbiologia , Carga Bacteriana , Estudos Transversais , Detergentes/farmacologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/classificação , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/classificação , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Controle de Infecções
10.
Science ; 366(6466)2019 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699906

RESUMO

Hirst et al claim that proteins ejected directly from mitochondrial membranes in our study are degraded, are incorrectly assigned, lack lipids, and show discrepancies with "native states" mostly obtained in detergent micelles. Here, we add further evidence in full support of our assignments and show that all complexes are either ejected intact or in known intermediate states, with core subunit interactions maintained. None are degraded or rearranged.


Assuntos
Detergentes , Proteínas de Membrana , Lipídeos , Espectrometria de Massas , Membranas Mitocondriais
11.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 18(11): 1140-1145, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31741359

RESUMO

Introduction: Acne vulgaris is a highly prevalent skin condition that can adversely affect the quality of life. Acne-predisposed skin is in a state of subclinical inflammation leading to skin barrier dysfunction. A multi-center cohort study was designed to evaluate clinical efficacy and safety of twice daily facial cleansing using an oscillatory sonic brush, acne brush head, and cleansing gel for 4 weeks. Methods: Subjects with mild-to-moderate acne and acne-prone skin used the cleansing regime after which they applied the skin care products they routinely used. Physician-assessed skin condition comparing baseline versus week 4 using the FDA/IGA scale and subject satisfaction with cleansing efficacy and handling properties of the regime were scored during the last visit. Results: Forty-six subjects completed the study. Physician-scored skin condition showed a statistically significant improvement in FDA/IGA scores and a significant reduction of inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions comparing baseline versus 4 weeks. Thirty-five (76.0%) subjects had cleared or almost cleared. Subjects similarly assessed their skin to be improved. Conclusion: Both the physician and subject scores revealed the gentle cleansing routine using the sonic brush to be effective reducing the number of acne lesions, improving skin condition. No adverse events were reported during the study period. The cleansing regime may offer an attractive, safe option for maintenance and treatment of subjects with mild-to-moderate acne and acne-prone skin. J Drugs Dermatol. 2019;18(11):1140-1145.


Assuntos
Acne Vulgar/terapia , Detergentes/administração & dosagem , Dermatoses Faciais/terapia , Higiene da Pele/instrumentação , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Géis , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(32): 33524-33531, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578681

RESUMO

The release of nanoplastics (NP) from the weathering of microplastics is a major concern for the environment. Methods for the detection of NP in biological tissues are urgently needed because of their ability to penetrate not only in tissues but also in cells. A simple fluorescence-based methodology for the detection of polystyrene NP in biological tissues is proposed using the solvatochromic properties of Nile red. Although NPs alone increased somewhat Nile red fluorescence, a characteristic hypsochromic shift in the emission spectra was found when the dye and NP were incubated with subcellular tissue fraction. To explain this, the probe and NPs (50 and 100 nm) were prepared in the presence of increasing concentrations of two detergents (Tween-20, Triton X-100) as a proxy to phospholipids. The data revealed that both detergents readily increased fluorescence values when added to the NP and Nile red. The addition of NPs in tissue extracts blue-shifted further the emission spectra to 623 nm from the normal Nile red-lipid peak at 660 nm. The fluorescence intensity was proportional to the NP concentration. A methodology is thus proposed for the detection of NPs in laboratory-exposed organisms based on the solvatochromic properties of Nile red. The methodology was used to detect the presence of NP and changes in polar lipid contents in Hydra attenuata exposed to polystyrene NP.


Assuntos
Hydra/fisiologia , Nanoestruturas/análise , Poliestirenos/análise , Animais , Detergentes , Monitoramento Ambiental , Lipídeos , Nanoestruturas/toxicidade , Octoxinol , Oxazinas , Plásticos , Polissorbatos , Poliestirenos/toxicidade
13.
Biofouling ; 35(8): 883-899, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663364

RESUMO

Biofilm growth is a significant source of contamination in the food industry. Enzymes are considered green countermeasures against biofilm formation in the food industry owing to their biodegradability and low toxicity. In this study, the synergistic effect of enzymes was studied against biofilm cleaning from hard surfaces. A mixed-microbial sample was sourced from a meat packaging line and biofilms were grown under high shear conditions on stainless steel and polyethylene surfaces. A model cleaning-in-place (CIP) parallel-plate flow chamber was used for firstly, the enzymatic cleaning and secondly, a disinfection step. The cleaning effectiveness was evaluated in response to different formulations containing non-foaming commercial surfactants among with amylase, protease and lipase at neutral pH. The formulation combining all three enzymes was the most effective, showing a synergy essential for the deformation of biofilm structure and consequently better disinfection of both material surfaces.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Detergentes/química , Desinfecção/métodos , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/normas , Hidrolases/química , Saneamento/métodos , Incrustação Biológica/prevenção & controle , Modelos Teóricos , Plásticos , Aço Inoxidável , Propriedades de Superfície
15.
Chemistry ; 25(50): 11635-11640, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368214

RESUMO

Disulfide-containing detergents (DCDs) are introduced, which contain a disulfide bond in the hydrophobic tail. DCDs form smaller micelles than corresponding detergents with linear hydrocarbon chains, while providing good solubilization and reconstitution of membrane proteins. The use of this new class of detergents in structural biology is illustrated with solution NMR spectra of the human G protein-coupled receptor A2A AR, which is an α-helical protein, and the ß-barrel protein OmpX from E. coli.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/química , Detergentes/química , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/química , Hidrolases/química , Receptor A2A de Adenosina/química , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/metabolismo , Dissulfetos/química , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidrolases/metabolismo , Micelas , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Estabilidade Proteica , Receptor A2A de Adenosina/metabolismo
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(8): e0007631, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425540

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Where human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) patients are seen, failure to microscopically diagnose infections by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in blood smears and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the critical early stages of the disease is the single most important factor in treatment failure, a result of delayed treatment onset or its absence. We hypothesized that the enhanced sensitivity of detergent-enhanced loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) will allow for point of care (POC) detection of African trypanosomes in the CSF of HAT patients where the probability for detecting a single parasite or parasite DNA molecule in 1 µL of CSF sample is negligible by current methods. METHODOLOGY: We used LAMP targeting the multicopy pan-T. brucei repetitive insertion mobile element (RIME LAMP) and the Trypanosoma brucei gambiense 5.8S rRNA-internal transcribed spacer 2 gene (TBG1 LAMP). We tested 1 µL out of 20 µL sham or Triton X-100 treated CSFs from 73 stage-1 and 77 stage-2 HAT patients from the Central African Republic and 100 CSF negative controls. RESULTS: Under sham conditions, parasite DNA was detected by RIME and TBG1 LAMP in 1.4% of the stage-1 and stage-2 gambiense HAT CSF samples tested. After sample incubation with detergent, the number of LAMP parasite positive stage-2 CSF's increased to 26%, a value which included the 2 of the 4 CSF samples where trypanosomes were identified microscopically. Unexpected was the 41% increase in parasite positive stage-1 CSF's detected by LAMP. Cohen's kappa coefficients for RIME versus TBG1 LAMP of 0.92 (95%CI: 0.82-1.00) for stage-1 and 0.90 (95%CI: 0.80-1.00) for stage-2 reflected a high level of agreement between the data sets indicating that the results were not due to amplicon contamination, data confirmed in χ2 tests (p<0.001) and Fisher's exact probability test (p = 4.7e-13). CONCLUSION: This study detected genomic trypanosome DNA in the CSF independent of the HAT stage and may be consistent with early CNS entry and other scenarios that identify critical knowledge gaps for future studies. Detergent-enhanced LAMP could be applicable for non-invasive African trypanosome detection in human skin and saliva or as an epidemiologic tool for the determination of human (or animal) African trypanosome prevalence in areas where chronically low parasitemias are present.


Assuntos
Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/parasitologia , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Trypanosoma/isolamento & purificação , Tripanossomíase Africana/diagnóstico , Tripanossomíase Africana/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , República Centro-Africana , Criança , Pré-Escolar , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Detergentes/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Ribossômico 5,8S/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Trypanosoma/genética , Adulto Jovem
17.
Extremophiles ; 23(6): 687-706, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407121

RESUMO

A thermostable extracellular alkaline protease (called SAPA) was produced (4600 U/mL) by Anoxybacillus kamchatkensis M1V, purified to homogeneity, and biochemically characterized. SAPA is a monomer with a molecular mass of 28 kDa estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), Native-PAGE, casein-zymography, and size exclusion using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The sequence of its NH2-terminal amino-acid residues showed high homology with those of Bacillus proteases. The SAPA irreversible inhibition by diiodopropyl fluorophosphates (DFP) and phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) confirmed its belonging to the serine proteases family. Optimal activity of SAPA was at pH 11 and 70 °C. The sapA gene was cloned and expressed in the extracellular fraction of E. coli. The highest sequence identity value (95%) of SAPA was obtained with peptidase S8 from Bacillus subtilis WT 168, but with 16 amino-acids of difference. The biochemical characteristics of the purified recombinant extracellular enzyme (called rSAPA) were analogous to those of native SAPA. Interestingly, rSAPA exhibit a degree of hydrolysis that were 1.24 and 2.6 than SAPB from Bacillus pumilus CBS and subtilisin A from Bacillus licheniformis, respectively. Furthermore, rSAPA showed a high detergent compatibility and an outstanding stain removal capacity compared to commercial enzymes: savinase™ 16L, type EX and alcalase™ Ultra 2.5 L.


Assuntos
Anoxybacillus/enzimologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Detergentes/química , Temperatura Alta , Peptídeo Hidrolases/química , Anoxybacillus/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Estabilidade Enzimática , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética
18.
Indian J Gastroenterol ; 38(3): 268-272, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317387

RESUMO

Simethicone is an antifoaming agent frequently added to endoscopic rinse solutions but has recently been implicated as a risk factor for transmission of infections due to the formation of simethicone deposits within scope channels. Since the build-up of residue is likely dose-related, the smallest effective dose of simethicone should be used but there are no data available on the effective dose. Thus, we conducted a dose-finding study in an "in vitro bubble model" to determine the appropriate simethicone dose. Six 100-mL test tubes were filled with a 1% (v/v) solution of kitchen detergent (Fairy®, Procter & Gamble, London, England) in water for irrigation (Baxter®, Sydney, Australia). One test tube served as the control, while different doses of simethicone (Infacol®, Nice Pak, Melbourne, Australia) were added to the other five tubes (0.02, 0.2, 2.0, 20, and 200 mg/100 mL). Oxygen was streamed for 30 s into the test tubes at a rate of 2 L/min. After 10 s, photographs were taken and the visible bubbles were semi-quantitatively rated by independent assessors blinded to the dosing of simethicone. Simethicone at doses of 2 mg/100 mL had no appreciable antifoaming effect, whereas concentrations ≥ 20 mg/100 mL were sufficient to suppress bubble formation. This is substantially lower compared with frequently used doses of up to 200 mg/100 mL. Subsequently, we tested the lower simethicone dose with previously used higher doses, in 1475 and 1340 patients, respectively. We found it to have no impact on polyp detection with a rate of 56.7% (54.2-59.3% [95% CI]) at the lower dose and 56.5% (53.8-59.1% [95% CI]) at the higher dose.


Assuntos
Antiespumantes/administração & dosagem , Pólipos do Colo/diagnóstico , Colonoscopia/métodos , Simeticone/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Detergentes , Feminino , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Água
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(26): 26439-26448, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352596

RESUMO

Among the different contaminants, detergent as an important pollutant has serious risks to natural ecosystems. Furthermore, detergents can pass into the wastewater treatment plants and have bad effect on their performance. They are part of human life and consumed for different aims especially hygienic purposes. Therefore, detergent components can enter to soil and water bodies from different sources. Detergents affect fauna and flora, and they have direct and indirect effects on ecosystems. Eutrophication, foaming, and altering parameters such as temperature, salinity, turbidity, and pH are more important, and their effects need to be managed and controlled. Researchers confirmed that aerobic processes are able to degrade the most of detergents but anaerobic degradation is not possible because of restricted metabolic pathways and toxicity of them. Therefore, production of environment-friendly detergent is an important issue around the world. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Detergentes/análise , Ecossistema , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Detergentes/toxicidade , Eutrofização , Humanos , Solo/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
20.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 60(2): E140-E146, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31312743

RESUMO

Introduction: Evaluation of cleaning methods is the first step in the prevention of healthcare-associated infections. ATP hygiene monitoring tests are widely used for assessing the effectiveness of cleaning procedures. The test is easy to use and gives immediate results, however, ATP can be metabolized and degraded to ADP and AMP. Recently, a total adenylate [ATP + ADP + AMP(A3)] monitoring test has been developed. Our objective was to evaluate the usefulness of the A3 test for cleaning verification in healthcare settings. Methods: The detection sensitivities of the ATP and the A3 tests were compared using blood, and debris derived from gloved-hand method and endoscopes immediately after endoscopic examination. The performance of the A3 test in monitoring cleanliness of high touch surfaces in the hospital and endoscopes at each cleaning step was also evaluated. Results: For the hemolysate, the measurement values of the A3 test were stable, although ATP was promptly degraded. In debris from hands, the amount of A3 was 20 times higher than that of ATP. The detection sensitivities of the A3 test on residues derived from gastroscopes and colonoscopes were 3 and 8 times higher, respectively, than those from the ATP test. A field study indicated that a large number of microorganisms tend to show high A3 values on high touch surfaces in the hospital and on endoscopes. Conclusions: The A3 test showed higher detection sensitivities than the conventional ATP test for organic debris associated with healthcare settings.


Assuntos
Difosfato de Adenosina/análise , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análise , Trifosfato de Adenosina/análise , Descontaminação , Instalações de Saúde , Descontaminação/métodos , Descontaminação/normas , Detergentes/uso terapêutico , Desinfetantes/uso terapêutico , Instalações de Saúde/normas , Hospitais/normas , Humanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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