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Am Psychol ; 75(5): 729-730, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673018


Bleidorn et al. (2019) argued that personality traits, as important determinants of life outcomes, should be the object of treatment interventions. They suggested that self-reports on standard personality questionnaires provide necessary and sufficient evidence of trait change. However, the self-concept-on which self-reports are based-may change without any alteration in the underlying trait. Additional evidence, such as that provided by independent informant ratings, is needed, and multimethod assessments should be a feature of all studies of trait change. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

Transtornos da Personalidade , Personalidade , Humanos , Determinação da Personalidade , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Autorrelato
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233435, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421752


Core self-evaluation (CSE) is a theory that includes four personality dimensions: self-esteem, self-efficacy, locus of control and emotional stability. CSE proved to be a significant predictor of the research on cognitive, emotional and behavioral responses across various situations in the workplace. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between personality traits of the core self-evaluation and clinical decision-making in nurses' profession. A cross-sectional design was applied. Data was collected with standardized instruments: Core Self-Evaluation Scale and Clinical Decision-Making Nurses Scale, 584 nurses have participated in the study. Correlation and hierarchical regression analysis were used to test the relations and prediction of variables. The findings of the study revealed that there is a significant positive relationship between overall core self-evaluation and nurses' clinical decision-making, and there is a significant contribution of self-esteem, self-efficacy and locus of control on all dimensions of clinical decision, especially in the area of canvassing of objectives and values. Nurses with high CSE have positive self-views and tend to be confident in their ability and they also feel in control while performing nursing interventions, whereas those with low CSE tend to have fewer accessible positive resources and are more prone to risk aversion.

Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Enfermagem , Determinação da Personalidade , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Masculino , Autoimagem , Autoeficácia , Local de Trabalho
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232187, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348331


Social anxiety disorder (SAD) can come in different forms, presenting problems for diagnostic classification. Here, we examined personality traits in a large sample of patients (N = 265) diagnosed with SAD in comparison to healthy controls (N = 164) by use of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP). In addition, we identified subtypes of SAD based on cluster analysis of the NEO-PI-R Big Five personality dimensions. Significant group differences in personality traits between patients and controls were noted on all Big Five dimensions except agreeableness. Group differences were further noted on most lower-order facets of NEO-PI-R, and nearly all KSP variables. A logistic regression analysis showed, however, that only neuroticism and extraversion remained significant independent predictors of patient/control group when controlling for the effects of the other Big Five dimensions. Also, only neuroticism and extraversion yielded large effect sizes when SAD patients were compared to Swedish normative data for the NEO-PI-R. A two-step cluster analysis resulted in three separate clusters labelled Prototypical (33%), Introvert-Conscientious (29%), and Instable-Open (38%) SAD. Individuals in the Prototypical cluster deviated most on the Big Five dimensions and they were at the most severe end in profile analyses of social anxiety, self-rated fear during public speaking, trait anxiety, and anxiety-related KSP variables. While additional studies are needed to determine if personality subtypes in SAD differ in etiological and treatment-related factors, the present results demonstrate considerable personality heterogeneity in socially anxious individuals, further underscoring that SAD is a multidimensional disorder.

Personalidade , Fobia Social/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Determinação da Personalidade , Inventário de Personalidade , Fobia Social/classificação , Suécia , Adulto Jovem
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231313, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294122


In our experiment, we tested how exposure to a mock televised news segment, with a systematically manipulated emotional valence of voiceover, images and TV tickers (in the updating format) impacts viewers' perception. Subjects (N = 603) watched specially prepared professional video material which portrayed the story of a candidate for local mayor. Following exposure to the video, subjects assessed the politician in terms of competence, sociability, and morality. Results showed that positive images improved the assessment of the politician, whereas negative images lowered it. In addition, unexpectedly, positive tickers led to a negative assessment, and negative ones led to more beneficial assessments. However, in a situation of inconsistency between the voiceover and information provided on visual add-ons, additional elements are apparently ignored, especially when they are negative and the narrative is positive. We then discuss the implications of these findings.

Propaganda , Percepção Social , Emoções , Humanos , Maquiavelismo , Determinação da Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Política , Televisão
Fertil Steril ; 113(3): 642-652, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192597


OBJECTIVE: To characterize the sociodemographic and psychological profiles of participant groups involved in altruistic surrogacy in Australia. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Single psychological practice in Sydney, Australia. PATIENT(S): Six hundred and two individuals involved in 160 altruistic surrogacy arrangements: 143 intended mothers, 175 intended fathers (including 17 same-sex intended father couples), 160 surrogates, and 124 surrogate partners. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Responses to a presurrogacy sociodemographic assessment counseling protocol and the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI). RESULT(S): The surrogates were primarily sisters, sisters-in-law, mothers (48.6%), or other extended family or friends (46.3%) of the intended parents. Most participants resided in residential postcode areas within the highest socioeconomic status quintile; however, intended mothers were more likely than surrogates to live in the most advantaged residential areas, to be younger and be more educated, and to be employed in professional occupations. Most participant psychological profiles were normal. A statistically significantly elevated PAI Somatic Complaints-Health Concerns subscale for intended mothers was observed compared with other participant groups. The higher PAI Warmth scale scores of intended mothers and surrogates were statistically significantly different from their respective partners, although not different from each other. CONCLUSION(S): Sociodemographic and some psychological differences between participant groups were observed that warrant exploration in pretreatment surrogacy counseling. Importantly, the higher scores on the PAI Warmth scale exhibited by intended mothers and surrogates in the context of close family and friendship relationships are likely to serve as protective mechanisms for the altruistic surrogacy outcome.

Altruísmo , Relações Interpessoais , Pais/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Mães Substitutas , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Relações Pai-Filho , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação da Personalidade , Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Mães Substitutas/psicologia , Mães Substitutas/estatística & dados numéricos
Aggress Behav ; 46(3): 266-277, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32149387


Multiple reviews and meta-analyses have identified the low pole of the Five-Factor Model (FFM) Agreeableness (also called Antagonism) as the primary domain-level personality correlates of aggression across self-report and behavioral methodologies. In the current study, we expand on this literature by investigating the relations between FFM facets and aggressive behavior as measured by laboratory competitive reaction time tasks (CRTTs). Across three samples (total N = 639), we conducted weighted mean analyses, multiple regression analyses, and dominance analyses to determine which FFM facets were the strongest predictors of aggression within and across domains. These analyses suggested that facets of Agreeableness were among the strongest consistent predictors of CRTT aggression, including Sympathy (r = -.21) and Cooperation (r = -.14), but facets from other FFM domains also yielded meaningful relations (e.g., Anger from Neuroticism; r = .17). We conclude by discussing these results in the context of controversies surrounding laboratory aggression paradigms and emphasizing the importance of considering small effect sizes in the prediction of societally harmful behavior like aggression.

Agressão , Determinação da Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Personalidade , Emoções , Hostilidade , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos , Transtornos da Personalidade/classificação , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 22(3): 14, 2020 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32025914


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of the paper is reviewing recent literature on the epidemiology, assessment, and treatment of personality disorders (PDs) among older adults (≥ 60 years). RECENT FINDINGS: Since 2015, 12 primary empirical studies have been published addressing PDs in older adults; 3 addressing epidemiological aspects, 6 on assessment, 2 exploring both epidemiology and assessment, and 1 examining treatment. PD research in older adults is steadily growing and is predominantly focused on assessment. The studies showed that PDs were rather prevalent ranging from 10.6-14.5% in community-dwelling older adults, to 57.8% in nursing home-residing older adults. The Severity Indices of Personality Problems-Short Form, Gerontological Personality disorders Scale, and Assessment of DSM-IV Personality Disorders turned out to be promising instruments for assessing PDs in later life. Furthermore, schema therapy seems to be a feasible and effective intervention. Despite promising findings, there is an urgent need for studies addressing PDs in older adults, especially studies investigating epidemiological aspects and treatment options. Furthermore, new areas of interest arise such as PDs in other settings, and behavioral counseling.

Transtornos da Personalidade/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/terapia , Psicoterapia , Idoso , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Determinação da Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Prevalência
J Am Acad Orthop Surg ; 28(10): 395-409, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015248


Orthopaedic surgery has increasingly emerged as one of the most popular and competitive of all medical specialties. The selection of the best applicants has become a more difficult process because the number of qualified medical students has concomitantly grown. Although there are standardized guidelines in residency selection, there are several intangible factors that determine an applicant's fit into a program. Personality assessments, such as the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, are proficiencies that have garnered significant interest to help fill this void. Understanding and measuring empirically supported measures of personality traits and styles of medical students and residents may be valuable to medical educators and program directors in a variety of applications such as residency selection, mentoring, and education. Similar to personality identification, emotional intelligence assessments, such as the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, can prove to be pivotal tools in residency education and training. Emotional intelligence has shown to align with current Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education residency standardized core competencies that emphasize aptitude in noncognitive characteristics.

Inteligência Emocional , Internato e Residência , Ortopedia/educação , Determinação da Personalidade , Seleção de Pessoal/métodos , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Humanos , Internato e Residência/normas
Nurs Clin North Am ; 55(1): 97-107, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005369


The release of a quality study by the Institute of Medicine in 2001 challenged health care providers to deliver safe, quality care. Research has focused on 2 primary categories of nursing characteristics: demographic data and emotional intelligence and personality traits. The research has shown a correlation between nursing characteristics and quality care and patient outcomes. Factors not considered in this article include hospital teaching status, type of unit, unit skill mix, hospital safety culture, and total nursing hours per patient day. These factors may contribute to quality of care and patient outcomes.

Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Competência Clínica , Cuidados de Enfermagem/psicologia , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Determinação da Personalidade , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228384, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023291


In the field of psychopathy, there is an ongoing debate about the core traits that define the disorder, and that therefore must be present to some extent in all psychopaths. The main controversy of this debate concerns criminal behaviour, as some researchers consider it a defining trait, while others disagree. Using a representative sample of 204 Spanish convicted inmates incarcerated at the Pereiro de Aguiar Penitentiary in Ourense, Spain, we tested two competing models, the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), which includes criminal behaviour items, versus the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP), which does not. We used two different PCL-R models, one that includes criminal items and another that does not. PCL-R factors, facets, and testlets from both models and CAPP dimensions were correlated and compared. Two different PCL-R cut-off scores, 25 or more and 30 or more, were used for the analysis. Overall, a strong correlation was found between PCL-R and CAPP scores in the whole sample, but as scores increased and inmates became more psychopathic, the correlations weakened. All these data indicate that psychopathy, understood to mean having high scores on the PCL-R and CAPP, is a multidimensional entity, and inmates can develop the disorder and then receive the diagnosis through different dimensions. The CAPP domains showed better correlations when compared with the PCL-R factors from both models, showing that an instrument for the assessment of psychopathy without a criminal dimension is valuable for clinical assessment and research purposes.

Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Determinação da Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Psicometria/métodos , Psicopatologia/métodos , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Lista de Checagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Espanha
An. psicol ; 36(1): 39-45, ene. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192039


Coping strategies used play an essential role in the adaptation to changes in older adults, and personality traits are important predictors of these strategies. The aim of this study is to analyse what traits predict different coping strategies in older adults. Participants were 226 older adults (60 to 88 years old). Data on personality and coping strategies were obtained through the NEO-FFI and the Coping Strategies Questionnaire. Multiple linear regression models were conducted. Neuroticism positively predicted emotion-oriented strategies: negative self-focused, overt-emotional expression, avoidance, and religious. Openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness positively predicted problem-oriented coping strategies: openness to experience (problem-solving focused), agreeableness (positive reappraisal), and conscientiousness (problem-solving focused and positive reappraisal). In addition, agreeableness and conscientiousness negatively predicted emotion-oriented strategies: overt-emotional expression and negative self-focused. Extraversion did not predict any coping strategy. These findings show that neuroticism is a maladaptive trait during aging, whereas openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness are adaptive traits in older adults

El manejo y las estrategias utilizadas desempeñan un papel esencial en la adaptación a los cambios, y los rasgos de la personalidad son factores predictivos importantes de estas estrategias. El objetivo de este estudio es estudiar qué rasgos predicen diferentes estrategias de afrontamiento en adultos mayores. Los participantes fueron 226 adultos mayores (60 a 88 años). Los instrumentos utilizados fueron el NEO-FFI para evaluar la personalidad y el Cuestionario de estrategias de afrontamiento (CAE). Se realizaron modelos de regresión lineal múltiple. El neuroticismo predijo positivamente las estrategias orientadas a la emoción: autofocalización negativa, expresión abierta de emociones, evitación y religión. Las estrategias orientadas a los problemas fueron predichas positivamente: apertura a la experiencia (resolución de problemas), la amabilidad (reevaluación positiva) y la responsabilidad (resolución de problemas y reevaluación positiva). Además, la amabilidad y la responsabilidad predijeron de manera negativa las estrategias orientadas a la emoción: expresión emocional abierta y autofocalización negativa. La extraversión no predijo ninguna estrategia de afrontamiento. Estos hallazgos muestran que el neuroticismo es un rasgo desadaptativo durante el envejecimiento, mientras que la apertura a la experiencia, la amabilidad y la conciencia son rasgos adaptativos en los adultos mayores

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Determinação da Personalidade , Adaptação Psicológica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Modelos Lineares , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Neuroticismo
An. psicol ; 36(1): 84-91, ene. 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192044


La Inteligencia Emocional es un factor clave que repercute en el bienestar social y mental de los alumnos, lo que les facilita a comprender su entorno y a tomar decisiones acertadas ante las diversas situaciones conflictivas que surgen diariamente. Lo que pone de manifiesto que este constructo debe de ser desarrollado de forma continua por medio de las entidades educativas. Por ello, se ha desarrollado un metaanálisis con el fin de comprobar el grado de fiabilidad, así como los beneficios que reportan los programas de implementación de Inteligencia Emocional en el alumnado. La búsqueda bibliográfica se ha realizado en las bases de datos Web of Science, SCOPUS y PubMed, obteniendo un total de 20 artículos relacionados con la temática analizada. Solam ente se incluyeron artículos de tipo longitudinal, con los que se obtuvo un tamaño del efecto medio de 0.73. Al analizar la efectividad según etapa educativa, destacar que la Educación Primaria fue la que mejores resultados obtuvo (TE=0.95), seguida de la Educación Secundaria. Entorno a la duración de los programas, se obtuvo que los de duración media fueron los que mejor resultados reportaron. Asimismo, los datos más elevados se detectaron en aquellos programas que utilizaron como instrumentos de evaluación los de rasgos de personalidad. Llegando a la conclusión de que mayoritariamente los programas contribuyen al desarrollo y a la potenciación de la Inteligencia Emocional de los alumnos, los cuales los dotan de las habilidades necesarias para afrontar las situaciones que acontecen en el día a día, así como de la capacidad para sentirse auto-realizados con las tareas llevadas a cabo y con el esfuerzo aplicado

Currently Emotional Intelligence is a key factor that affects the social and mental wellbeing of students, helping them to regulate and manage their emotions, which makes it easier for them to understand their environment and make the right decisions in the face of the different stressful moments that arise daily in class. which emphasizes that it must be a continuous and progressive element developed through educational entities. Hence the intention to carry out a meta-analysis in order to know the degree of reliability as well as the benefits reported by the programs of implementation of Emotional Intelligence in the students. The bibliographic search was carried out in the Web of Science, SCOPUS and PubMed database, obtaining a total of 20 articles published in the last two decades related to the subject analyzed and which met the inclusion criteria. Only longitudinal articles were included with which a meta-analysis was carried out, obtaining an average effect size of 0.73, analyzing in turn the effectiveness according to educational stage and duration of implementation, with Primary Education obtaining the best results. results according to the application of the programs (TE = 0.95), followed by Secondary Education, in turn, the effectiveness of the interventions was analyzed according to the duration of the program, obtained that the medium-term programs were the ones that reported the best results to the students. Reaching the conclusion that most of the programs contribute to the development and empowerment of the Emotional Intelligence of the students, equipping them with the necessary skills to face the situations that take place on a daily basis, as well as the ability to feel self-realized with the tasks carried out and with the applied effort

Humanos , Inteligência Emocional , Motivação/fisiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Psicologia Educacional/instrumentação , Bem-Estar da Criança/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Ensino Fundamental e Médio , Determinação da Personalidade , Educação Profissionalizante
Rev. Rol enferm ; 43(1,supl): 83-89, ene. 2020. tab
Artigo em Português | IBECS | ID: ibc-193165


Introduction: Nowadays nurses execute their tasks in demanding and stressful contexts, where the stress accumulates and can trigger burnout. This one seems to be the result from the combination of organizational factors with individual vulnerability, in particular predisposition for anxiety and personality traits such as neuroticism. Objectives: This study aims, by comparing nurses from Portugal/Spain, to identify burnout levels and to analyse if personality and anxiety predict burnout. Methodology: This is a quantitative, exploratory, descriptive and transversal study, using a demographic/professional characterization questionnaire, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Maslach Burnout Inventory. After institutional authorizations, participated anonymously and volunteer, 337 Portuguese nurses and 309 Spanish nurses. Results: We found 55% of nurses without burnout, 35% with moderate burnout and 11% with high burnout, without differences between countries. However, the Portuguese nurses present significantly more exhaustion and less depersonalization, less anxiety trait, and more extroversion and Social Desirability, all with a moderate level. In Portugal, the age and professional experience correlate negatively with burnout, and anxiety predicts 32% of burnout. In Spain, anxiety explains 36% of burnout and personality traits only 2%. Discussion: These findings are consistent with studies in which anxiety is a vulnerability factor for burnout, but contradicted the influence of other personality traits, reinforcing the influence of organizational factors. Conclusion: The results are useful, in the field of occupational health, to develop organizational strategies that enhance individual characteristics of stress management, which, lately, have been applied using Mindfulness among nurses and nursing students

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Humanos , Determinação da Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Equipe de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Despersonalização/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Portugal/epidemiologia , Eficiência Organizacional/tendências , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Neuroticismo
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 29(1): 9-18, ene. 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-190381


New intervention approaches are required for dating violence (DV) prevention, given the limited results of existing programs in achieving behavioral changes. The main objective of this study was to explore the effect of a brief, single-session intervention aimed at promoting an incremental theory of personality (ITP) on dating violence perpetration (DVP) and dating violence victimization (DVV). A double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) with two parallel groups (experimental vs. control) was conducted. Participants were 123 adolescents (53.7% females, Mage = 15.20, SD = 0.99). Assessment measures were administered one week prior to the intervention, and six months and one year after the intervention. The results of the hierarchical linear models showed that the interaction between time and condition was statistically significant for DVP, showing a significant decrease both in traditional and cyber dating abuse in the experimental condition. The ITP intervention had no effect on DVV. Our findings suggest that the ITP intervention decreases the perpetration of aggressive acts toward the dating partner and support the idea that strategies aimed at preventing peer conflict may also prevent DVP. Increasing our empirical evidence about the efficacy of a one-hour self-applied intervention is of great relevance for moving forward in the prevention of DV

La necesidad de nuevos enfoques de intervención para la prevención de la violencia en el noviazgo (VN) deriva de las limitaciones de los programas existentes para lograr cambios conductuales. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue examinar el efecto de una intervención breve -de una sesión- dirigida a promover una teoría incremental de la personalidad, sobre la perpetración (PVN) y victimización (VVN) de violencia en el noviazgo. Se realizó un ensayo clínico aleatorizado doble ciego con dos grupos paralelos (experimental vs. control). Los participantes fueron 123 adolescentes (53,7% mujeres, Medad = 15.20, DT = 0.99). Las medidas de evaluación se administraron una semana antes de la intervención, seis meses después de la intervención y un año después de la intervención. Los resultados de los modelos lineales jerárquicos mostraron que la interacción entre el tiempo y la condición fue estadísticamente significativa para la PVN, mostrando una disminución significativa tanto en el abuso tradicional como en el ciberacoso en la pareja en la condición experimental. La intervención no tuvo ningún efecto para la VVN. Nuestros hallazgos sugieren que la intervención disminuye la perpetración de actos agresivos hacia la pareja y apoyan la idea de que las estrategias dirigidas a prevenir conflictos entre iguales pueden también prevenir la PVN. El incremento de evidencia empírica sobre la eficacia de una intervención autoaplicable de una hora de duración es de gran relevancia para avanzar en la prevención de la VN

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Personalidade , Psicoterapia Breve/instrumentação , Cyberbullying/prevenção & controle , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Determinação da Personalidade , Cyberbullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 29(1): 19-28, ene. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-190382


Positive and negative-worded items affect respondents' answering style in attitude surveys and have psychometric implications. This research was conducted to assess the wording effect on the validation of the Spanish adaptation of the Intimate Partner Violence Attitude Scale-Revised (IPVAS-R). Five competing models were tested with confirmatory factor analyses in two samples of young people between 15 and 25 years old (sample A, n = 402, Mage = 17.5, SDage = 2.21, 60.4% girls; sample B, n = 451, Mage = 19.55, SDage = 3.11, 57.6% girls). An outstanding method effect related to the writing of items in a positive (acceptance) versus negative (rejection) sense affecting the original three-factor structure of the IPVAS-R was supported by this research. The wording effect produced inconsistent factorial loadings and flawed internal consistency. Most of the relationships with other criterion measures, after controlling for the method effect, were moderate, in line with previous studies. Our results imply that the wording effect should be considered both in the building and the validation of instruments on attitudes towards dating violence

La redacción de los ítems en sentido directo e inverso afecta al estilo de respuesta de los encuestados en las escalas de actitud y tienen implicaciones psicométricas. Esta investigación se llevó a cabo para evaluar el efecto de la redacción en sentido directo o inverso en la validación de la adaptación española de la Escala de Actitud hacia la Violencia en la Pareja-revisada (IPVAS-R). Se probaron cinco modelos competitivos con análisis factorial confirmatorio en dos muestras de jóvenes entre 15 y 25 años de edad (muestra A, n = 402, Medad = 17.5, DTedad = 2.21, 60.4% chicas; muestra B, n = 451, Medad = 19.55, DTedad = 3.11, 57.6% chicas). Un notable efecto del método relacionado con la redacción de los ítems en un sentido positivo (aceptación) frente a negativo (rechazo) que afectaba a la estructura original de tres factores del IPVAS-R fue avalado por esta investigación. El efecto de la redacción produjo cargas factoriales incongruentes y una consistencia interna defectuosa. La mayoría de las relaciones con otras medidas criterio, tras controlar el efecto del método, fueron moderadas, en línea con estudios anteriores. Nuestros resultados implican que el efecto de la redacción debe ser considerado tanto en la construcción como en la validación de los instrumentos que miden actitudes hacia la violencia en el noviazgo

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Personalidade , Psicoterapia Breve/instrumentação , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Inventário de Personalidade , Semântica , Psicometria , Determinação da Personalidade , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227799, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951627


OBJECTIVE: Perceived rejection plays an important role for mental health and social integration. This study investigated the impact of rejection intensity and rejection sensitivity on social approach behavior. METHOD: 121 female participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions differing in the degree of induced rejection (inclusion, medium rejection, severe rejection). Thereafter they were asked to interact with an unknown person during a touch-based cooperative task. RESULTS: Participants high in rejection sensitivity sought significantly less physical contact than participants low in rejection sensitivity. Individuals in the medium rejection condition touched their partners more often than those in the included condition, while no difference between included and severely rejected participants could be observed. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the intensity of rejection matters with regard to coping. While participants in the medium intensity rejection condition aimed to 'repair' their social self by seeking increased contact with others, severely rejected participants did not adapt their behavior compared to included participants. Implications for therapy are discussed.

Rejeição em Psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Determinação da Personalidade , Comportamento Social , Distância Social , Adulto Jovem
Ann Clin Psychiatry ; 32(1): 33-40, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990967


BACKGROUND: Mental wellness has traditionally not been tracked by mental health clinicians. The aim is to examine the reliability and validity of the HERO Wellness Scale. METHODS: Eighty-four college students (age ≥18) with and without psychiatric morbidity from a small, private college in the north-central United States enrolled in the WILD 5 Wellness Program-a longitudinal, quasi-experimental clinical trial that included 2 groups (intervention and waitlist). Mental wellness scores at the beginning of the WILD 5 intervention were assessed by the HERO Wellness Scale and the World Health Organization-Five (WHO-5) Well-Being Index. RESULTS: Internal consistency was calculated from baseline data (N = 84) using Cronbach's alpha for the 5-item HERO composite = .93. The corrected item-total correlations were adequate (>.50), ranging from .67 (resilience) to .86 (mental wellness). The HERO Wellness Scale covers a representative sample of the domain of wellness. It diverges from WHO-5 items by specifically assessing for well-established positive psychology traits such as happiness, enthusiasm, resilience, and optimism. CONCLUSIONS: The HERO Wellness Scale showed good validity and reliability, and should be considered for individual-level assessment of mental wellness. The HERO Wellness Scale adds to the body of knowledge in psychiatry, nursing, and psychology.

Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Determinação da Personalidade/normas , Personalidade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/normas , Psicometria/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
Br J Ophthalmol ; 104(1): 110-114, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079051


BACKGROUND/AIMS: To determine whether self-reported illness perceptions in newly diagnosed patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and ocular hypertension (OHT) are more negative compared with peers who have lived with their diagnosis for more than 2 years. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 58 newly diagnosed patients with POAG and OHT recruited at their first clinic visit. Electronic patient records were used to identify similar patients (n=58, related by age and severity of visual field loss) who had their diagnosis for >2 years. All participants completed the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (BIPQ), EQ5D general health measure and Type D Personality Scale (DS14). RESULTS: Average BIPQ scores were similar for people newly diagnosed with POAG and POAG diagnosed >2 years and were no different to newly diagnosed OHT and OHT diagnosed >2 years POAG (p=0.46). An analysis correcting for personality type (DS14) and general health (EQ5D) indicated newly diagnosed patients with POAG to have marginally better illness perceptions on individual BIPQ items quantifying impact on life in general, experience of symptoms and 'understanding' of their condition (all p<0.01). In contrast, patients with POAG with a diagnosis >2 years understood better their condition to be long-term (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Some illness perceptions differed between newly diagnosed people and patients living with their diagnosis for >2 years. Illness perception for people with manifest glaucoma and at risk of glaucoma (OHT) were similar; the latter might benefit from an intervention at diagnosis that highlights the better prognosis for OHT compared with POAG.

Atitude Frente a Saúde , Comportamento de Doença , Hipertensão Ocular/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Inglaterra , Feminino , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação da Personalidade , Psicometria , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo