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1.
Med Educ Online ; 26(1): 1841982, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33135567

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Simulation-Based Education (SBE) simulates specific physiological characteristics of a patient, allowing student practice in developing clinical skills and assessment of skill competency. Literature is limited regarding SBE's effectiveness in curriculum enrichment. This study investigated Blood Pressure (BP) measuring proficiency of second-year medical students with first-year SBE training and a second-year review, by comparing data from Simulation-Based assessments in 2017 and 2019. METHODS: Second-year medical students measured BP on three manikin arms, associated with distinct clinical contexts (healthy young male, young female experiencing hypotension, and older male suffering hypertension and diabetes). All manikins' BP settings were independent of clinical context. In January 2019, 108 second-year medical students who received traditional training, as well as SBE in 2017 and Simulation-Based practice in 2018, were divided into four groups (n = 32, 24, 24, and 28), with two groups each assessed on consecutive days. The proportions of correct BP values in each of three contexts were compared between experiments in 2017 and 2019. Additionally, systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure results were stratified into three groups: lower than setting value, correct, and higher than setting vgalue, with proportions for each group compared for the 2017 and 2019 studies using Fisher's Exact Tests. RESULTS: In Case Two and Three, the proportion of correct BP values significantly increased from 2017 (Case Two: 51%; Case Three: 55%) to 2019 (Case Two: 73%; Case Three: 75%). Additionally, proportions of students who reported lower SBP values than setting values were significantly decreased in Case One and Two, with five failing all contexts. CONCLUSIONS: Second-year student BP measurement skills were improved, not only due to repeated Simulation-Based practice but advancing basic science knowledge and mastery experience in ongoing curriculum. Simulation-Based assessment provided an effective tool for evaluating skill retention and proficiency in medical training.


Assuntos
Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Pressão Sanguínea , Competência Clínica , Estudantes de Medicina , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Currículo , Educação Continuada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Manequins , Exame Físico , Treinamento por Simulação
3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(11): e2024311, 2020 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206190

RESUMO

Importance: Discrepancies in blood pressure (BP) estimates lead to incomparable BP assessment. Objective: To determine intraindividual discrepancies in BP estimates and classifications based on different BP estimation protocols. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study was a secondary analysis of data from the May Measurement Month Taiwan in 2017 and 2018, which were cross-sectional survey campaigns at pharmacies nationwide to raise awareness of high BP. Participants were volunteers aged 20 years or older. Analysis was conducted from February 2 to August 7, 2020. Exposure: Pharmacist-measured sitting BP using oscillometric sphygmomanometers. Main Outcomes and Measures: A total of 7 BP estimation protocols were assessed according to the latest American College of Cardiology (ACC), Chinese Hypertension League (CHL), European Society of Cardiology (ESC), International Society of Hypertension, Japanese Society of Hypertension, and National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) hypertension guidelines, and the proposed Averaging the Lowest Two systolic readings protocol. According to BP classification schemes of ESC and ACC guidelines, intraindividual discrepancies were identified if classification inconsistencies among 7 BP estimates were present. Results: Of 81 041 participants, 62 647 adults with 3 BP readings were included. The median (interquartile range) age was 59.0 (46.0-69.0) years, and 31 922 (51.5%) were women. The intraindividual maximum mean (SD) differences in systolic/diastolic BP estimates among the seven protocols were 4.8 (4.3)/3.3 (3.1) mm Hg. The highest prevalence of BP of 140/90 mm Hg or higher was by CHL (16 405 participants [26.2%]) and the lowest was by Averaging the Lowest Two (13 996 participants [22.3%]; P < .001); while the highest prevalence of 130/80 mm Hg or higher was by NICE (37 232 participants [59.4%]) and the lowest prevalence was by Averaging the Lowest Two (32 788 participants [52.4%]; P < .001). Compared with the other 6 estimates, Averaging the Lowest Two reclassified 7.3% to 15.8% of participants designated as 140/90 mm Hg or higher to less than 140/90 mm Hg, and 4.9% to 14.1% of those as 130/80 mm Hg or higher to less than 130/80 mm Hg. Intraindividual discrepancies in classifications occurred in 19 815 participants (31.6%) with the ESC classification and 16 401 participants (26.2%) with the ACC BP classification. Classification agreements were the lowest between NICE (κ coefficient, 0.667 [95% CI, 0.662-0.671]) and ESC protocols (κ coefficient, 0.705 [95% CI, 0.701-0.709]). Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study of adults in Taiwan found that different BP estimation protocols led to considerable intraindividual discrepancies in BP estimates and classifications. These findings suggest that the Averaging the Lowest Two protocol is less likely to overestimate BP and could serve as a prudent recommendation for BP estimation.


Assuntos
Determinação da Pressão Arterial/normas , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Idoso , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Taiwan
4.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239684, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, myocardial work analysis as an echocardiographic tool to non-invasively determine LV work has been introduced and validated against invasive measurements. Based on systolic blood pressure and speckle-tracking derived longitudinal strain (GLS) during systole and isovolumic relaxation, it is considered less load-dependent than LV ejection fraction (LVEF) or GLS and to integrate information on LV active systolic and diastolic work. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to establish reference values for global constructive (GCW) and global wasted work (GWW) as well as of global work index (GWI) and global work efficiency (GWE) across a wide age range and to assess the association with standard echocardiography parameters to estimate the potential additional information provided by myocardial work (MyW). METHODS: The Characteristics and Course of Heart Failure STAges A/B and Determinants of Progression (STAAB) cohort study carefully characterized a representative sample of the population of the City of Würzburg, Germany, aged 30-79 years. We performed myocardial work analysis using the standardized, quality-controlled transthoracic echocardiograms of all individuals lacking any cardiovascular risk factor. RESULTS: Out of 4965 participants, 779 (49±10 years, 59% women) were eligible for the present analysis. Levels of GCW, GWW, and GWE were independent of sex and body mass index, and were stable until the age of 45 years. Thereafter, we observed an upward shift to further stable values of GCW and a linear increase of GWW with advancing age, resulting in lower GWE. Age-adjusted percentiles for GCW, GWW, GWI, and GWE were derived. Higher levels of blood pressure or LV mass were associated with higher GCW, GWI, and GWW, resulting in lower GWE; higher LVEF correlated with higher GCW and GWI, but lower GWW. Higher E/e´ correlated with higher GWW, higher e´ with lower GWW. CONCLUSIONS: Derived from a large sample of apparently healthy individuals from a population based-cohort, we provide age-adjusted reference values for myocardial work indices, applicable for either sex. Weak correlations with common echocardiographic parameters suggest MyW indices to potentially provide additional information, which has to be evaluated in diseased patient cohorts.


Assuntos
Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Diástole/fisiologia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Contração Miocárdica/fisiologia , Valores de Referência , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Sístole/fisiologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia
5.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240126, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The correlation between pulse transit time and blood pressure has been proposed as a route to measure continuous non-invasive blood pressure. We investigated whether pulse transit time trends could model blood pressure trends during episodes of rapid declines in blood pressure. METHODS: From the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care waveform database we identified substantial blood pressure reductions. Pulse transit time was calculated from the R-peak of the electrocardiogram to the peak of the arterial pulse waveform. The time-series were processed with a moving average filter before comparison. Averaged, continuous heart rate was also analysed as a control. The intra-individual association between variables was assessed per subject using linear regression. RESULTS: In the 511 patients included we found a median correlation coefficient between blood pressure and pulse transit time of -0.93 (IQR -0.98 to -0.76) with regression slopes of -1.23 mmHg/ms (IQR -1.73 to -0.81). The median correlation coefficient between blood pressure and heart rate was 0.46 (IQR -0.16 to 0.83). In supplementary analysis, results did not differ substantially when widening inclusion criteria, but the results were not always consistent within subjects across episodes of hypotension. CONCLUSIONS: In a large cohort of critically ill patients experiencing episodes of rapid declines in systolic blood pressure, there was a moderate-strong intra-individual correlation between averaged systolic blood pressure and averaged pulse transit time. Our findings encourage further investigation into using the pulse transit time for non-invasive real-time detection of hypotension.


Assuntos
Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Hipotensão/diagnóstico , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Estado Terminal , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Hipotensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos
6.
Anesthesiology ; 133(5): 997-1006, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In most patients having noncardiac surgery, blood pressure is measured with the oscillometric upper arm cuff method. Although the method is noninvasive and practical, it is known to overestimate intraarterial pressure in hypotension and to underestimate it in hypertension. A high-fidelity upper arm cuff incorporating a hydraulic sensor pad was recently developed. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether noninvasive blood pressure measurements with the new high-fidelity cuff correspond to invasive measurements with a femoral artery catheter, especially at low blood pressure. METHODS: Simultaneous measurements of blood pressure recorded from a femoral arterial catheter and from the high-fidelity upper arm cuff were compared in 110 patients having major abdominal surgery or neurosurgery. RESULTS: 550 pairs of blood pressure measurements (5 pairs per patient) were considered for analysis. For mean arterial pressure measurements, the average bias was 0 mmHg, and the precision was 3 mmHg. The Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.96 (P < 0.0001; 95% CI, 0.96 to 0.97), and the percentage error was 9%. Error grid analysis showed that the proportions of mean arterial pressure measurements done with the high-fidelity cuff method were 98.4% in zone A (no risk), 1.6% in zone B (low risk) and 0% in zones C, D, and E (moderate, significant, and dangerous risk, respectively). The high-fidelity cuff method detected mean arterial pressure values less than 65 mmHg with a sensitivity of 84% (95% CI, 74 to 92%) and a specificity of 97% (95% CI, 95% to 98%). To detect changes in mean arterial pressure of more than 5 mmHg, the concordance rate between the two methods was 99.7%. Comparable accuracy and precision were observed for systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements. CONCLUSIONS: The new high-fidelity upper arm cuff method met the current international standards in terms of accuracy and precision. It was also very accurate to track changes in blood pressure and reliably detect severe hypotension during noncardiac surgery.


Assuntos
Pressão Arterial/fisiologia , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/normas , Monitorização Intraoperatória/métodos , Monitorização Intraoperatória/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/instrumentação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Intraoperatória/instrumentação , Oscilometria/instrumentação , Oscilometria/métodos , Oscilometria/normas , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240241, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hemodynamic monitoring during digestive endoscopy is usually minimal and involves intermittent brachial pressure measurements. New continuous noninvasive devices to acquire instantaneous arterial blood pressure may be more sensitive to detect procedural hypotension. PURPOSE: To compare the ability of noninvasive continuous monitoring with that of intermittent oscillometric measurements to detect hypotension during digestive endoscopy. METHODS: In this observational prospective study, patients scheduled for gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy under sedation were monitored using intermittent pressure measurements and a noninvasive continuous technique (ClearSight™, Edwards). Stroke volume was estimated from the arterial pressure waveform. Mean arterial pressure and stroke volume values were recorded at T1 (prior to anesthetic induction), T2 (after anesthetic induction), T3 (gastric insufflation), T4 (end of gastroscopy), T5 (colonic insufflation). Hypotension was defined as mean arterial pressure < 65 mmHg. RESULTS: Twenty patients (53±17 years) were included. Six patients (30%) had a hypotension detected using intermittent pressure measurements versus twelve patients (60%) using noninvasive continuous monitoring (p = 0.06). Mean arterial pressure decreased during the procedure with respect to T1 (p < 0.05), but the continuous method provided an earlier warning than the intermittent method (T3 vs T4). Nine patients (45%) had at least a 25% reduction in stroke volume, with respect to baseline. CONCLUSION: Noninvasive continuous monitoring was more sensitive than intermittent measurements to detect hypotension. Estimation of stroke volume revealed profound reductions in systemic flow. Noninvasive continuous monitoring in high-risk patients undergoing digestive endoscopy under sedation could help in detecting hypoperfusion earlier than the usual intermittent blood pressure measurements.


Assuntos
Endoscopia Gastrointestinal/métodos , Oscilometria/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Colonoscopia , Humanos , Hipotensão/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240804, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The patterns of blood pressure trajectory (i.e., change over time) over life-course remain to be explored. In this study, we aim to determine the trajectories of systolic blood pressure (SBP) from adulthood to late life and to assess its impact on the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). METHODS: Based on the China Health and Nutrition Survey, a total of 3566 participants aged 20-50 years at baseline (1989) with at least three SBP measurements during 1989-2011 were included. SBP was measured through physical examination, and socio-demographic factors, lifestyles, medications, and CVDs were based on self-reported questionnaire. Latent class growth modeling was performed to examine SBP trajectory. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) from logistic regression was used to determine the association between SBP trajectory and CVDs. RESULTS: Five trajectory groups of SBP were identified: Class 1: rapid increase (n = 113, 3.2%); Class 2: slight increase (n = 1958, 54.9%); Class 3: stable (n = 614, 17.2%); Class 4: increase (n = 800, 22.4%); Class 5: fluctuant (n = 81, 2.3%). After adjustment of demographic factors, baseline SBP, and lifestyles, compared with the "slight increase" group, the OR (95% CI) of CVDs was 0.65 (0.32, 1.28) for "stable" group, 2.24 (1.40, 3.58) for "increase" group, 3.95 (1.81, 8.62) for "rapid increase" group, and 4.32 (1.76, 10.57) for "fluctuant" group. After stratified by use of antihypertensive drugs, the association was only significant for "rapid increase" group among those using antihypertensive drugs with OR (95% CI) of 2.81 (1.01, 7.77). CONCLUSIONS: Having a rapidly increasing SBP over life-course is associated with a higher risk of CVDs. This implies the importance of monitoring lifetime change of blood pressure for the prevention of CVDs.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Biomarcadores/sangue , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco
9.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 170: 108515, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096185

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to assess whether body mass index (BMI), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels, blood pressure (BP), and kidney function were associated with the risk of severe disease or death in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Data on candidate risk factors were extracted from patients' last checkup records. Propensity score-matched cohorts were constructed, and logistic regression models were used to adjust for age, sex, and comorbidities. The primary outcome was death or severe COVID-19, defined as requiring supplementary oxygen or higher ventilatory support. RESULTS: Among 7,649 patients with confirmed COVID-19, 2,231 (29.2%) received checkups and severe COVID-19 occurred in 307 patients (13.8%). A BMI of 25.0-29.9 was associated with the outcome among women (aOR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.41-3.73) and patients aged 50-69 years (aOR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.06-2.54). An FPG ≥ 126 mg/dL was associated with poor outcomes in women (aOR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.13-3.77) but not in men. Similarly, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 was a risk factor in women (aOR, 3.46; 95% CI, 1.71-7.01) and patients aged < 70 years. CONCLUSIONS: The effects of BMI, FPG, and eGFR on outcomes associated with COVID-19 were prominent in women but not in men.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Testes de Função Renal/métodos , Obesidade/complicações , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16116, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999400

RESUMO

Repeated blood pressure (BP) measurements allow better control of hypertension. Current measurements rely on cuff-based devices. The aim of the present study was to compare BP measurements using a novel cuff-less photoplethysmography-based device to a standard sphygmomanometer device. Males and females were recruited from within the general population who arrived at a public BP screening station. One to two measurements were taken from each using a sphygmomanometer-based and the photoplethysmography-based devices. Devices were considered equal if the mean difference between paired measurements was below 5 mmHg and the Standard Deviation (SD) was no greater than 8 mmHg. Agreement and reliability analyses were also performed. 1057 subjects were included in the study analysis. There were no adverse events during the study. The mean (± SD) difference between paired measurements for all subjects was -0.1 ± 3.6 mmHg for the systolic and 0.0 ± 3.5 mmHg for the diastolic readings. We found 96.31% agreement in identifying hypertension and an Interclass Correlation Coefficient of 0.99 and 0.97 for systolic and diastolic measurements, respectively. The photoplethysmography-based device was found similar to the gold-standard sphygmomanometer-based device with high agreement and reliability levels. The device might enable a reliable, more convenient method for repeated BP monitoring.


Assuntos
Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Fotopletismografia/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Monitores de Pressão Arterial , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Manometria/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oscilometria/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Esfigmomanômetros , Adulto Jovem
11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16373, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009445

RESUMO

Pulse transit time (PTT) represents a potential approach for cuff-less blood pressure (BP) monitoring. Conventionally, PTT is determined by (1) measuring (a) ECG and ear, finger, or toe PPG waveforms or (b) two of these PPG waveforms and (2) detecting the time delay between the waveforms. The conventional PTTs (cPTTs) were compared in terms of correlation with BP in humans. Thirty-two volunteers [50% female; 52 (17) (mean (SD)) years; 25% hypertensive] were studied. The four waveforms and manual cuff BP were recorded before and after slow breathing, mental arithmetic, cold pressor, and sublingual nitroglycerin. Six cPTTs were detected as the time delays between the ECG R-wave and ear PPG foot, R-wave and finger PPG foot [finger pulse arrival time (PAT)], R-wave and toe PPG foot (toe PAT), ear and finger PPG feet, ear and toe PPG feet, and finger and toe PPG feet. These time delays were also detected via PPG peaks. The best correlation by a substantial extent was between toe PAT via the PPG foot and systolic BP [- 0.63 ± 0.05 (mean ± SE); p < 0.001 via one-way ANOVA]. Toe PAT is superior to other cPTTs including the popular finger PAT as a marker of changes in BP and systolic BP in particular.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Dedos/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Fotopletismografia/métodos , Análise de Onda de Pulso/métodos , Taxa Respiratória/fisiologia
12.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 22(11): 1974-1983, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006442

RESUMO

Hypertension is proved to be associated with severity and mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, little is known about the effects of pre-admission and/or in-hospital antihypertension treatments on clinical outcomes. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the association between in-hospital blood pressure (BP) control and COVID-19-related outcomes and to compare the effects of different antihypertension treatments. This study included 2864 COVID-19 patients and 1628 were hypertensive. Patients were grouped according to their BP during hospitalization and records of medication application. Patients with higher BP showed worse cardiac and renal functions and clinical outcomes. After adjustment, subjects with pre-admission usage of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors (HR = 0.35, 95%CI 0.14-0.86, P = .022) had a lower risk of adverse clinical outcomes, including death, acute respiratory distress syndrome, respiratory failure, septic shock, mechanical ventilation, and intensive care unit admission. Particularly, hypertension patients receiving RAAS inhibitor treatment either before (HR = 0.35, 95%CI 0.13-0.97, P = .043) or after (HR = 0.18, 95%CI 0.04-0.86, P = .031) admission showed a significantly lower risk of adverse clinical outcomes than those receiving application of other antihypertensive medicines. Furthermore, consecutive application of RAAS inhibitors in COVID-19 patients with hypertension showed better clinical outcomes (HR = 0.10, 95%CI 0.01-0.83, P = .033) than non-RAAS inhibitors users. We revealed that COVID-19 patients with poor BP control during hospitalization had worse clinical outcomes. Compared with other antihypertension medicines, RAAS inhibitors were beneficial for improving clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients with hypertension. Our findings provide direct evidence to support the administration of RAAS inhibitors to COVID-19 patients with hypertension before and after admission.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , /efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/estatística & dados numéricos , /epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , /genética
13.
Hypertension ; 76(5): 1368-1383, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921195

RESUMO

Telemedicine allows the remote exchange of medical data between patients and healthcare professionals. It is used to increase patients' access to care and provide effective healthcare services at a distance. During the recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, telemedicine has thrived and emerged worldwide as an indispensable resource to improve the management of isolated patients due to lockdown or shielding, including those with hypertension. The best proposed healthcare model for telemedicine in hypertension management should include remote monitoring and transmission of vital signs (notably blood pressure) and medication adherence plus education on lifestyle and risk factors, with video consultation as an option. The use of mixed automated feedback services with supervision of a multidisciplinary clinical team (physician, nurse, or pharmacist) is the ideal approach. The indications include screening for suspected hypertension, management of older adults, medically underserved people, high-risk hypertensive patients, patients with multiple diseases, and those isolated due to pandemics or national emergencies.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Itália , Masculino , Saúde do Trabalhador , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Segurança do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
14.
Hypertension ; 76(5): 1350-1367, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981369

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is associated with significant morbidity and mortality throughout the world, predominantly due to lung and cardiovascular injury. The virus responsible for COVID-19-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-gains entry into host cells via ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2). ACE2 is a primary enzyme within the key counter-regulatory pathway of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which acts to oppose the actions of Ang (angiotensin) II by generating Ang-(1-7) to reduce inflammation and fibrosis and mitigate end organ damage. As COVID-19 spans multiple organ systems linked to the cardiovascular system, it is imperative to understand clearly how severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 may affect the multifaceted RAS. In addition, recognition of the role of ACE2 and the RAS in COVID-19 has renewed interest in its role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease in general. We provide researchers with a framework of best practices in basic and clinical research to interrogate the RAS using appropriate methodology, especially those who are relatively new to the field. This is crucial, as there are many limitations inherent in investigating the RAS in experimental models and in humans. We discuss sound methodological approaches to quantifying enzyme content and activity (ACE, ACE2), peptides (Ang II, Ang-[1-7]), and receptors (types 1 and 2 Ang II receptors, Mas receptor). Our goal is to ensure appropriate research methodology for investigations of the RAS in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and COVID-19 to ensure optimal rigor and reproducibility and appropriate interpretation of results from these investigations.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/metabolismo , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Incidência , Masculino , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Prognóstico , Projetos de Pesquisa , Medição de Risco , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia
15.
Anesthesiology ; 133(6): 1214-1222, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Hypotension Prediction Index is a commercially available algorithm, based on arterial waveform features, that predicts hypotension defined as mean arterial pressure less than 65 mmHg for at least 1 min. We therefore tested the primary hypothesis that index guidance reduces the duration and severity of hypotension during noncardiac surgery. METHODS: We enrolled adults having moderate- or high-risk noncardiac surgery with invasive arterial pressure monitoring. Participating patients were randomized to hemodynamic management with or without index guidance. Clinicians caring for patients assigned to guidance were alerted when the index exceeded 85 (range, 0 to 100) and a treatment algorithm based on advanced hemodynamic parameters suggested vasopressor administration, fluid administration, inotrope administration, or observation. Primary outcome was the amount of hypotension, defined as time-weighted average mean arterial pressure less than 65 mmHg. Secondary outcomes were time-weighted mean pressures less than 60 and 55 mmHg. RESULTS: Among 214 enrolled patients, guidance was provided for 105 (49%) patients randomly assigned to the index guidance group. The median (first quartile, third quartile) time-weighted average mean arterial pressure less than 65 mmHg was 0.14 (0.03, 0.37) in guided patients versus 0.14 (0.03, 0.39) mmHg in unguided patients: median difference (95% CI) of 0 (-0.03 to 0.04), P = 0.757. Index guidance therefore did not reduce amount of hypotension less than 65 mmHg, nor did it reduce hypotension less than 60 or 55 mmHg. Post hoc, guidance was associated with less hypotension when analysis was restricted to episodes during which clinicians intervened. CONCLUSIONS: In this pilot trial, index guidance did not reduce the amount of intraoperative hypotension. Half of the alerts were not followed by treatment, presumably due to short warning time, complex treatment algorithm, or clinicians ignoring the alert. In the future we plan to use a lower index alert threshold and a simpler treatment algorithm that emphasizes prompt treatment.


Assuntos
Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Hipotensão/prevenção & controle , Monitorização Intraoperatória/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Idoso , Algoritmos , Pressão Arterial/fisiologia , Feminino , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Hipotensão/diagnóstico , Hipotensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tempo
16.
Neurology ; 95(21): e2854-e2865, 2020 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938788

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the frequency of transient orthostatic hypotension (tOH) and its clinical impact in Parkinson disease (PD), we retrospectively studied 173 patients with PD and 173 age- and sex-matched controls with orthostatic intolerance, who underwent cardiovascular autonomic function testing under continuous noninvasive blood pressure (BP) monitoring. METHODS: We screened for tOH (systolic BP fall ≥20 mm Hg or diastolic ≥10 mm Hg resolving within the first minute upon standing) and classic OH (cOH, sustained systolic BP fall ≥20 mm Hg or diastolic ≥10 mm Hg within 3 minutes upon standing). In patients with PD, we reviewed the medical records of the 6 months preceding and following autonomic testing for history of falls, syncope, and orthostatic intolerance. RESULTS: tOH occurred in 24% of patients with PD and 21% of controls, cOH in 19% of patients with PD and in none of the controls, independently of any clinical-demographic or PD-specific characteristic. Forty percent of patients with PD had a history of falls, in 29% of cases due to syncope. Patients with PD with history of orthostatic intolerance and syncope had a more severe systolic BP fall and lower diastolic BP rise upon standing, most pronounced in the first 30-60 seconds. CONCLUSIONS: tOH is an age-dependent phenomenon, which is at least as common as cOH in PD. Transient BP falls when changing to the upright position may be overlooked with bedside BP measurements, but contribute to orthostatic intolerance and syncope in PD. Continuous noninvasive BP monitoring upon standing may help identify a modifiable risk factor for syncope-related falls in parkinsonian patients.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Hipotensão Ortostática/complicações , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Síncope/complicações , Idoso , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotensão/complicações , Hipotensão Ortostática/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intolerância Ortostática/complicações , Fatores de Risco
17.
Pan Afr Med J ; 36: 31, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32774607

RESUMO

Introduction: In otolaryngologic surgery, ankle is frequently used for monitoring anesthesia in place of brachial when the patient doesn´t need invasive arterial cannulation. If there is a clinically useful and Predictable link between the two readings in hemodynamic normal patient, this difference during otolaryngologic surgery, was not evaluated. We aimed to investigate the reliability and the acceptability of non invasive blood pressure measurements at the ankle compared to those obtained concurrently at the arm during otolaryngologic surgery. Methods: Eighty ASA grade I and II patients who had to be operated under general anesthesia were taken as subjects for our study. Blood pressures were measured simultaneously in the 2 limbs before induction and then every 10 minutes until the end of the surgical procedure. Readings were initiated concurrently. Statistical analysis was performed with PASW Statistics 13. Results: There were 41 males (51.2 %) and 39 females (48.8 %). Bland-Altman analysis of mean difference between the ankle and arm (95 % limits of agreement) was -11.47 (- 23.77 to 0.82) mmHg for systolic blood pressure (SBP), -7.89 (-19.16 to 3.36) mmHg for diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and - 9.09 (18.19 to 0.00) mmHg for mean arterial pressure (MAP). Non-parametric analysis showed that 67.5 % of SBP, 46.2 % of DBP and 56.2 % of MAP measurements differed by > 10mmHg. Conclusion: Ankle BP cannot be used routinely in otolaryngological surgery. Although, the ankle can be used as an alternative where the arm cannot be used taking into account a difference.


Assuntos
Tornozelo/irrigação sanguínea , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Otorrinolaringológicos/métodos , Adulto , Anestesia Geral , Pressão Arterial/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD012739, 2020 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regular blood pressure (BP) measurement is crucial for the diagnosis and management of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, such as pre-eclampsia. BP can be measured in various settings, such as conventional clinics or self-measurement at home, and with different techniques, such as using auscultatory or automated BP devices. It is important to understand the impact of different settings and techniques of BP measurement on important outcomes for pregnant women. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of setting and technique of BP measurement for diagnosing hypertensive disorders in pregnancy on subsequent maternal and perinatal outcomes, women's quality of life, or use of health service resources. SEARCH METHODS: We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) on 22 April 2020, and reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving pregnant women, using validated BP devices in different settings or using different techniques. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently extracted data, assessed risk of bias, and used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of the evidence. MAIN RESULTS: Of the 21 identified studies, we included three, and excluded 11; seven were ongoing. Of the three included RCTs (536,607 women), one was a cluster-RCT, with a substantially higher number of participants (536,233 deliveries) than the other two trials, but did not provide data for most of our outcomes. We generally judged the included studies at low risk of bias, however, the certainty of the evidence was low, due to indirectness and imprecision. Meta-analysis was not possible because each study investigated a different comparison. None of the included studies reported our primary outcome of systolic BP greater than or equal to 150 mmHg. None of the studies reported any of these important secondary outcomes: antenatal hospital admissions, neonatal unit length of stay, or neonatal endotracheal intubation and use of mechanical ventilation. Setting of BP measurement: self-measurement versus conventional clinic measurement (one study, 154 women) There were no maternal deaths in either the self-monitoring group or the usual care group. The study did not report perinatal mortality. Self-monitoring may lead to slightly more diagnoses of pre-eclampsia compared with usual care (risk ratio (RR) 1.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87 to 2.54; 154 women; 1 study; low-certainty evidence) but the wide 95% CI is consistent with possible benefit and possible harm. Self-monitoring may have little to no effect on the likelihood of induction of labour compared with usual care (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.45; 154 women; 1 study; low-certainty evidence). We are uncertain if self-monitoring BP has any effect on maternal admission to intensive care (RR 1.54, 95% CI 0.06 to 37.25; 154 women; 1 study; low-certainty evidence), stillbirth (RR 2.57, 95% CI 0.13 to 52.63; 154 women; 1 study; low-certainty evidence), neonatal death (RR 1.54, 95% CI 0.06 to 37.25; 154 women; 1 study; low-certainty evidence) or preterm birth (RR 1.15, 95% CI 0.37 to 3.55; 154 women; 1 study; low-certainty evidence), compared with usual care because the certainty of evidence is low and the 95% CI is consistent with appreciable harms and appreciable benefits. Self-monitoring may lead to slightly more neonatal unit admissions compared with usual care (RR 1.53, 95% CI 0.65 to 3.62; 154 women; 1 study; low-certainty evidence) but the wide 95% CI includes the possibility of slightly fewer admissions with self-monitoring. Technique of BP measurement: Korotkoff phase IV (K4, muffling sound) versus Korotkoff phase V (K5, disappearance of sound) to represent diastolic BP (one study, 220 women) There were no maternal deaths in either the K4 or K5 group. There may be little to no difference in the diagnosis of pre-eclampsia between using K4 or K5 for diastolic BP (RR 1.16; 95% CI 0.89 to 1.49; 1 study; 220 women; low-certainty evidence), since the wide 95% CI includes the possibility of more diagnoses with K4. We are uncertain if there is a difference in perinatal mortality between the groups because the quality of evidence is low and the 95% CI is consistent with appreciable harm and appreciable benefit (RR 1.14, 95% CI 0.16 to 7.92; 1 study, 220 women; low-certainty evidence). The trial did not report data on maternal admission to intensive care, induction of labour, stillbirth, neonatal death, preterm birth, or neonatal unit admissions. Technique of BP measurement: CRADLE intervention (CRADLE device, a semi-automated BP monitor with additional features, and an education package) versus usual care (one study, 536,233 deliveries) There may be little to no difference between the use of the CRADLE device and usual care in the number of maternal deaths (adjusted RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.30 to 2.11; 536,233 women; 1 study; low-certainty evidence), but the 95% CI is consistent with appreciable harm and appreciable benefit. The trial did not report pre-eclampsia, induction of labour, perinatal mortality, preterm birth, or neonatal unit admissions. Maternal admission to intensive care and perinatal outcomes (stillbirths and neonatal deaths) were only collected for a small proportion of the women, identified by an outcome not by baseline characteristics, thereby breaking the random allocation. Therefore, any differences between the groups could not be attributed to the intervention, and we did not extract data for these outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The benefit, if any, of self-monitoring BP in hypertensive pregnancies remains uncertain, as the evidence is limited to one feasibility study. Current practice of using K5 to measure diastolic BP is supported for women with pregnancy hypertension. The benefit, if any, of using the CRADLE device to measure BP in pregnancy remains uncertain, due to the limitations and instability of the trial study design.


Assuntos
Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Pré-Eclâmpsia/diagnóstico , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Autocuidado/métodos
20.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 61(8): 35, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716503

RESUMO

Purpose: To determine risk factors associated with structural progression in medically treated normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 166 NTG patients (average age, 56.5 years; average mean deviation, -4.2 dB). The structural progression endpoint was determined by optical coherence tomography; significant thickness differences in the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) or macular ganglion cell inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) that exceeded baseline test-retest variability were identified with event-based guided-progression analysis. Intraocular pressure and systemic blood pressure (BP) were measured at each visit throughout the follow-up period, and the risk for progression was evaluated with Cox regression. Myopic disc features and antihypertensives were also analyzed. Tree analysis was used to determine the cutoff values and elucidate influential risk factors. Results: Structural progression, defined as progressive peripapillary RNFL or macular GCIPL thinning, was identified in 62 eyes. Occurrence of disc hemorrhages, presence of diabetes, and lower minimum systolic BP were associated with progression (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.116, P = 0.005; HR: 1.998, P = 0.031; HR: 0.968, P = 0.005; respectively). The cutoff value derived from the tree analysis of minimum systolic BP was 108 mm Hg. The tree analysis revealed systolic and diastolic BP to be the most influential risk factors for progressive peripapillary RFNL thinning and progressive macular GCIPL thinning, respectively. Conclusions: Low BP measured during follow-up correlated with structural progression in medically treated NTG eyes, indicating that the evaluation of hypotension is required during the management of NTG patients. The tree analysis identified BP target values that may help prevent glaucoma progression.


Assuntos
Glaucoma , Hipertensão , Miopia , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Glaucoma/diagnóstico , Glaucoma/tratamento farmacológico , Glaucoma/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miopia/diagnóstico , Miopia/etiologia , Miopia/fisiopatologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Tonometria Ocular/métodos , Acuidade Visual
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