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1.
Anaesthesia ; 75(1): 37-44, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556454

RESUMO

The inflationary non-invasive blood pressure monitor (iNIBP™) uses a new measurement method, whereby the cuff is slowly inflated whilst simultaneously sensing oscillations, to determine the diastolic blood pressure first and then the systolic pressure. It may measure blood pressure more quickly than the conventional non-invasive blood pressure monitor. We studied 66 patients undergoing general anaesthesia, comparing the time taken to measure the blood pressure between the two monitors at times when there were marked changes (increases or decreases by 30 mmHg or greater) in the systolic blood pressure. The median (IQR) [range]) time was significantly longer for the non-invasive blood pressure monitor (38.8 (31.5-44.7) [18.0-130.0] s) than for the iNIBP (14.6 (13.7-16.4) [11.5-35.5] s), p = 0.001, 95%CI for difference 22-25 s). We also studied 30 volunteers to evaluate the accuracy of the iNIBP, comparing it with the mercury sphygmomanometer. There was good agreement between the two monitors, with a mean difference of 0 (95% limit of agreement -12 to 11) mmHg for the systolic blood pressure. We also compared the degree of pain during cuff inflation between the automated non-invasive blood pressure and iNIBP monitors. Pain was significantly more for the non-invasive blood pressure monitor (22 of 30 volunteers had less pain with the iNIBP). We have shown that the iNIBP measured the blood pressure quicker than the conventional non-invasive blood pressure monitor and the speed of measurement was not significantly affected by marked changes in the blood pressure.


Assuntos
Determinação da Pressão Arterial/instrumentação , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Estudos Cross-Over , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Presse Med ; 48(11 Pt 1): 1319-1328, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732365

RESUMO

Since 2016, the French Society of Hypertension has warned about the decline in the management of high blood pressure in France: stagnation, or even decreased number of people who know their blood pressure level, take a treatment and are controlled. These results are lower than those observed in many other countries. Blood pressure is measured with an old method in the doctor's office. Accepted, simple and cost-effective, this method is currently unavoidable for reasons of feasibility and social habit. It has been used in observational and intervention studies that are the basis of the medical reasoning for screening, treatment and drug control of hypertension. In practice, it is too often poorly applied and unpredictable. It is now necessary to measure blood pressure in mmHg using a validated oscillometric automatic device coupled to a specific upper arm cuff adapted to the arm circumferences for the diagnosis and monitoring of high blood pressure in the doctor's office and at home. The auscultatoric measurement is only recommended if any doubt about the reliability of the electronic measurement. Blood pressure measurement is basically performed on both arms to detect asymmetry and then on the arm with the highest blood pressure. It is performed in sitting or lying position after a few minutes of rest without speaking and without having smoked and then in standing position to diagnose orthostatic hypotension, especially in elderly, diabetic and multi-medicated subjects. The blood pressure measurement during the consultation must be repeated and include at least 3 consecutive measurements at one minute intervals. The average of the last 2 measurements determines the blood pressure level. It is recommended to perform BP measurements outside the medical environment for the diagnosis and monitoring of hypertension; Home BP measurement is preferred to ambulatory blood pressure measurement for practical reasons unless otherwise specified. The home blood pressure measurement should include three measurements in the morning at breakfast and three measurements in the evening before bedtime at one minute intervals for at least three days. Prior training must be provided. In treated hypertensive patients, a masked hypertension should be considered as an uncontrolled hypertension and antihypertensive therapy adapted accordingly. The measurement of central BP pressure (aorta) should be limited to clinical research.


Assuntos
Determinação da Pressão Arterial/normas , Consenso , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/instrumentação , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , França , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Sociedades Médicas , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Presse Med ; 48(11 Pt 1): 1288-1294, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727484

RESUMO

Menopause is associated with a significant increase in arterial and metabolic risk. Systolic hypertension is common in post-menopausal women. Measurement of blood pressure should be repeated systematically at each visit. Ambulatory blood pressure measurements should be encouraged, especially to detect nocturnal hypertension and to prevent more efficiently women at risk. Self-testing of hypertension by home blood pressure should be encouraged at menopause. Antihypertensive treatment should be initiated after ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in association with reinforced lifestyle. Furthermore, global level of cardiovascular risk should take into account before starting antihypertensive treatment. There are no women specificities in the choice of the initial treatment except thiazide diuretics which should be preferred in osteoporotic women. In hypertensive women and with disabling climacteric symptoms under 60 and within 10 years after the onset of menopause, post-menopausal hormone therapy can be offered in absence of arterial or venous contraindications. A preliminary discussion between gynecologist, cardiologist and general practionner is necessary before deciding to treat a post-menopausal women for her climacteric symptoms. A clear information on the benefit-risk balance of post-menopausal hormone therapy should be given to the women. The information should be recorded in the medical file. Cooperation between cardiologists, gynecologists and general practionners should be promoted in France, to optimize the care pathways in these women at risk and to improve medical practices.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Pós-Menopausa , Fatores Etários , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Cardiologia , Feminino , Ginecologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Hipertensão/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Medicina de Precisão , Autocuidado , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Hypertension ; 74(5): 1172-1180, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542965

RESUMO

Blood pressure variability (BPV) has been shown to have predictive value over blood pressure (BP) levels alone in stroke patients. We assessed whether BPV predicts cognitive and functional decline in Alzheimer disease, using data from a randomized trial (NILVAD [A European Multicentre Double-blind Placebo-controlled Phase III Trial of Nilvadipine in Mild to Moderate Alzheimer's Disease]). Patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer disease were included if they had ≥3 office BP measurements available to determine visit-to-visit BPV. Day-to-day BPV was assessed using home BP measurements in a subsample. The variation independent of mean was used to calculate BPV. Outcomes were change in Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale-12 and Disability Assessment for Dementia after 1 and 1.5 years. A total of 460 patients aged 72.1 (SD=8.1) years, with mean BP of 134.0/75.1 (10.9/6.3) mm Hg were included. After 1 year, patients in the highest quartile of BPV had deteriorated more on Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale compared with patients in the lowest quartile (systolic: ß, 2.24 [95% CI, 0.11-4.38], P=0.040; diastolic: ß, 2.54 [95% CI, 0.33-4.75] P=0.024). This association was still present after 1.5 years (systolic: ß, 2.86 [95% CI, 0.35-5.36], P=0.026; diastolic: ß, 3.30 [95% CI, 0.67-5.93], P=0.014). There was no effect of visit-to-visit BPV on Disability Assessment for Dementia. Day-to-day BPV was available for 46 patients. Significant associations were observed between day-to-day BPV and deterioration on Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (systolic: P=0.036) and Disability Assessment for Dementia (systolic: P=0.020; diastolic: P=0.007) after 1 year, but not after 1.5 years. All associations were adjusted for potential confounders, including intervention group. In conclusion, this post hoc analysis indicates that higher visit-to-visit and day-to-day BPV might be associated with progression of Alzheimer disease. Targeting BPV may be a future target to slow decline in patients with Alzheimer disease. Clinical Trial Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02017340.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Nifedipino/análogos & derivados , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia , Intervalos de Confiança , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Nifedipino/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
7.
Hypertension ; 74(5): e45-e51, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522617

RESUMO

Hypertension and obesity are known risk factors for atrial fibrillation (AF). However, it is unclear whether uncontrolled, long-standing hypertension has a particularly profound effect on AF. Because they have a similar underlying pathophysiology, hypertension and obesity could act synergistically in the context of AF. We evaluated how various stages of hypertension and body weight status affect new-onset AF. We analyzed a total of 9 797 418 participants who underwent a national health checkup. Hypertension was classified into 5 stages: nonhypertension, prehypertension, hypertension without medication, hypertension with medication <5 years, and hypertension with medication ≥5 years. The participants were also stratified based on body mass index and waist circumference. During the 80 130 161 person×years follow-up, a total of 196 136 new-onset AF cases occurred. The incidence of new-onset AF gradually increased among the 5 stages of hypertension: the adjusted hazard ratio for each group was 1 (reference), 1.145, 1.390, 1.853, and 2.344 for each stage of hypertension. A graded escalation in the risk of new-onset AF was also observed in response to increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The incidence of new-onset AF correlated with body mass index and waist circumference, with obese people having a higher risk than others. Hypertension and obesity acted synergistically: obese people with hypertension on medication ≥5 years had the highest risk of AF. In conclusion, the degree and duration of hypertension, as well as the presence of hypertension, were important factors for new-onset AF. Body weight status was significantly associated with new-onset AF and acted synergistically with hypertension.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Pré-Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idade de Início , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pré-Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Curva ROC , República da Coreia , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores de Tempo , Circunferência da Cintura
8.
Hypertension ; 74(5): 1192-1199, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522619

RESUMO

Black Americans suffer disproportionately from hypertension and hypertensive heart disease. Out-of-office blood pressure (BP) is more predictive for cardiovascular complications than clinic BP; however, the relative abilities of clinic and out-of-office BP to predict left ventricular hypertrophy in black and white adults have not been established. Thus, we aimed to compare associations of out-of-office and clinic BP measurement with left ventricular hypertrophy by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging among non-Hispanic black and white adults. In this cross-sectional study, 1262 black and 927 white participants of the Dallas Heart Study ages 30 to 64 years underwent assessment of standardized clinic and out-of-office (research staff-obtained) BP and left ventricular mass index. In multivariable-adjusted analyses of treated and untreated participants, out-of-office BP was a stronger determinant of left ventricular hypertrophy than clinic BP (odds ratio per 10 mm Hg, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.34-1.64 for out-of-office systolic BP and 1.15 [1.04-1.28] for clinic systolic BP; 1.71 [1.43-2.05] for out-of-office diastolic BP, and 1.03 [0.86-1.24] for clinic diastolic BP). Non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity, treatment status, and lower left ventricular ejection fraction were also independent determinants of hypertrophy. Among treated Blacks, the differential association between out-of-office and clinic BP with hypertrophy was more pronounced than in treated white or untreated participants. In conclusion, protocol-driven supervised out-of-office BP monitoring provides important information that cannot be gleaned from clinic BP assessment alone. Our results underscore the importance of hypertension management programs outside the medical office to prevent hypertensive heart disease, especially in high-risk black adults. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00344903.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Teorema de Bayes , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/etnologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Texas
9.
Blood Press Monit ; 24(5): 213-220, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Before arterial cannulation for invasive blood pressure monitoring, clinical decision-making depends on non-invasive blood pressure in critically ill patients. Whether non-invasive blood pressure is comparable to invasive measurement is not clearly elucidated. We address this issue as it relates to the use of norepinephrine in patients with cardiogenic shock. METHODS: We analysed invasive and non-invasive blood pressure in 85 patients admitted to the Coronary-Care Unit for cardiogenic shock. We compared initial blood pressure measurement (just after radial artery cannulation) and blood pressure taken during the first 72 hours after admission. Invasive blood pressure was used as the reference method. RESULTS: Initial invasive mean and systolic arterial pressures were in a good agreement with oscillometric blood pressure; mean differences were -0.4 ± 8.8 and +6.1 ± 14.4 mmHg with correlation coefficients of 0.76 and 0.74. Doses of norepinephrine were significant negative determinants of invasive/oscillometric blood pressure differences. The invasive/oscillometric mean arterial pressures and SBP differences were +0.1 ± 3.4 and 7.6 ± 1.6 mmHg in patients treated with nothing or a maximum norepinephrine dose of 0.6 µg/kg/min. However, treatment with very high doses of norepinephrine was associated with a steep rise in mean arterial pressures and SBP invasive/oscillometric differences (-9.5 ± 3.3 and -8.5 ± 5.2 mmHg). In a total of 967 sets of blood pressure measurements, invasive/oscillometric differences were relatively stable across blood pressure categories, with the exception of measurements assessed after very high norepinephrine doses. CONCLUSIONS: Non-invasive BP is a sufficient substitute for invasive measurement in cardiogenic shock patients, with the exception of those receiving very high doses of norepinephrine.


Assuntos
Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Norepinefrina/farmacologia , Choque Cardiogênico/fisiopatologia , Vasoconstritores/farmacologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pressão Arterial , Cateterismo , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica , Norepinefrina/administração & dosagem , Oscilometria/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Vasoconstritores/administração & dosagem
10.
Blood Press Monit ; 24(5): 241-247, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490246

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Data on ventricular-arterial coupling using invasive hemodynamic studies are limited. This study was performed to clarify the interaction between aortic pressures and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) using invasive catheterization. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 104 consecutive stable patients (mean age, 65.8 ± 10.0 years; 56% men) undergoing invasive coronary angiography (ICA) were prospectively evaluated. LVEDP and central aortic pressures [systolic blood pressure (aSBP) and diastolic blood pressure (aDBP)] were sequentially measured using a pigtail catheter before ICA. Aortic pulse pressure (aPP) was defined by the difference between aSBP and aDBP. RESULTS: A total of 82 patients (79%) had obstructive coronary artery disease (≥50% stenosis). The mean LVEDP value was 18.7 ± 6.4 mmHg. Univariable analyses showed that aSBP (r = 0.309, P = 0.001) and aPP (r = 0.286, P = 0.003) significantly correlated with LVEDP, whereas aDBP was not correlated with LVEDP (P > 0.05). Multivariable analysis revealed that aSBP (ß = 0.345, P = 0.001) and aPP (ß = 0.276, P = 0.018) remained independent predictors of LVEDP even after controlling for potential confounders. CONCLUSION: Invasively measured aSBP and aPP were independently associated with invasively measured LVEDP in patients undergoing ICA. This result provides additional evidence of a close interaction between central aortic pressure and LV diastolic function in this population.


Assuntos
Aorta/fisiopatologia , Pressão Arterial , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Angiografia Coronária , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Idoso , Diástole , Feminino , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
JAMA ; 322(5): 409-420, 2019 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386134

RESUMO

Importance: Blood pressure (BP) is a known risk factor for overall mortality and cardiovascular (CV)-specific fatal and nonfatal outcomes. It is uncertain which BP index is most strongly associated with these outcomes. Objective: To evaluate the association of BP indexes with death and a composite CV event. Design, Setting, and Participants: Longitudinal population-based cohort study of 11 135 adults from Europe, Asia, and South America with baseline observations collected from May 1988 to May 2010 (last follow-ups, August 2006-October 2016). Exposures: Blood pressure measured by an observer or an automated office machine; measured for 24 hours, during the day or the night; and the dipping ratio (nighttime divided by daytime readings). Main Outcomes and Measures: Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) expressed the risk of death or a CV event associated with BP increments of 20/10 mm Hg. Cardiovascular events included CV mortality combined with nonfatal coronary events, heart failure, and stroke. Improvement in model performance was assessed by the change in the area under the curve (AUC). Results: Among 11 135 participants (median age, 54.7 years, 49.3% women), 2836 participants died (18.5 per 1000 person-years) and 2049 (13.4 per 1000 person-years) experienced a CV event over a median of 13.8 years of follow-up. Both end points were significantly associated with all single systolic BP indexes (P < .001). For nighttime systolic BP level, the HR for total mortality was 1.23 (95% CI, 1.17-1.28) and for CV events, 1.36 (95% CI, 1.30-1.43). For the 24-hour systolic BP level, the HR for total mortality was 1.22 (95% CI, 1.16-1.28) and for CV events, 1.45 (95% CI, 1.37-1.54). With adjustment for any of the other systolic BP indexes, the associations of nighttime and 24-hour systolic BP with the primary outcomes remained statistically significant (HRs ranging from 1.17 [95% CI, 1.10-1.25] to 1.87 [95% CI, 1.62-2.16]). Base models that included single systolic BP indexes yielded an AUC of 0.83 for mortality and 0.84 for the CV outcomes. Adding 24-hour or nighttime systolic BP to base models that included other BP indexes resulted in incremental improvements in the AUC of 0.0013 to 0.0027 for mortality and 0.0031 to 0.0075 for the composite CV outcome. Adding any systolic BP index to models already including nighttime or 24-hour systolic BP did not significantly improve model performance. These findings were consistent for diastolic BP. Conclusions and Relevance: In this population-based cohort study, higher 24-hour and nighttime blood pressure measurements were significantly associated with greater risks of death and a composite CV outcome, even after adjusting for other office-based or ambulatory blood pressure measurements. Thus, 24-hour and nighttime blood pressure may be considered optimal measurements for estimating CV risk, although statistically, model improvement compared with other blood pressure indexes was small.


Assuntos
Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/complicações , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Ritmo Circadiano , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/mortalidade , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
12.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 22(3): 419-439, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395323

RESUMO

Even when performed by skilled operators, locating the nerves can be challenging in small exotic pets; in such cases, the use of an electrical nerve stimulator may be useful to confirm the correct identification of the target nerve. Exotic animal anesthesia and analgesia have dramatically progressed over the past decade and continue to do so as more research and technologies develop. Technological advancements such as airway devices, endoscopic intubation techniques, positive intermittent pressure ventilators, and invasive and noninvasive blood pressure monitors have played a significant role in improving patient safety and the anesthetic outcomes of exotic animals.


Assuntos
Analgesia/veterinária , Anestesia/veterinária , Animais Exóticos/fisiologia , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/instrumentação , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/métodos , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/normas , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/veterinária , Analgesia/tendências , Anestesia/tendências , Anestésicos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Aves/fisiologia , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/normas , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/veterinária , Endoscopia/instrumentação , Endoscopia/métodos , Endoscopia/tendências , Endoscopia/veterinária , Humanos , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Bloqueio Nervoso/instrumentação , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Bloqueio Nervoso/tendências , Bloqueio Nervoso/veterinária , Manejo da Dor , Respiração Artificial/instrumentação , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Respiração Artificial/tendências , Respiração Artificial/veterinária
13.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(8): 1140-1146, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417059

RESUMO

Objective: Hypertension among adolescents is an emerging public health problem. The current study aims to estimate the burden of hypertension and identify its risk factors among male adolescents of intermediate and secondary schools. Subjects and Methods: This is a school-based cross-sectional study that targeted 400 male adolescents in the age group of 15-17 years. Blood pressure was defined as per the "Fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents". An electronic device approved for use by the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010, (Omron M3W; HEM-7202-E) was used for measuring blood pressure. CDC's body mass index tool was adopted for defining overweight and obesity. Descriptive analysis for hypertension and the risk factors were carried out. Chi-square test and odds ratios were calculated to assess any association between categorical variables. Results: Overall 36 (9.0%) adolescents had prehypertension and 69 (17.2%) had hypertension. Systolic prehypertension, systolic hypertension, diastolic prehypertension, and diastolic hypertension were present in 6.5%, 17.2%, 5.8%, and 9.0% of the adolescents, respectively. Bivariate analysis revealed that overweight and obesity, no physical activity, or once-a-week physical activity, positive family history of hypertension, and smoking were predictors of systolic prehypertension and showed a significant relationship with systolic hypertension. Conclusion: There is a considerable prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension, among school-going male adolescents. We recommend school-based health education programs and routine screening directed toward the risk factors of noncommunicable diseases like hypertension with special attention to obesity, physical inactivity, and smoking.


Assuntos
Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pré-Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/etiologia , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Pré-Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Pré-Hipertensão/etiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Blood Press Monit ; 24(5): 259-263, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425157

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The arm with the higher blood pressure (BP) is assigned as the follow up arm for hypertensive patients (reference-arm). We evaluated the reproducibility of this assignment. METHODS: BP was measured simultaneously on both arms with a double cuff validated device in two visits separated <10 days (two sets of three readings per visit). Two reference-arms were assigned in each visit (the arm with higher BP, at least ≥1 mmHg). The intravisit and intervisit agreements of this assignment were evaluated. RESULTS: We included 313 hypertensive patients. First visit mean right arm BP was 131.6 (16.6)/75.3 (9.4) mmHg and left arm BP was 132.4 (16.9)/75.7 (9.7) mmHg (P = 0.002). Intravisit concordance at the first and second visits were κ = 0.60 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.516-0.696] and κ = 0.45 [95% CI, 0.356-0.555], respectively. Therefore, 21.8% of patients (at the first visit) and 29.1% (at the second visit) with the right arm as the reference-arm in the first round of readings changed to the left arm in the same visit in the second round of readings. The intervisit κ index was 0.25 [95% CI, 0.147-0.365]. After that, 36.8% of patients with the right arm as the reference-arm at the first visit changed to the left arm at the second visit. The subgroup (9.5%) with an interarm systolic BP difference ≥10 mmHg at the first visit did not differ significantly from the rest of patients. CONCLUSION: The reference-arm assignment agreement is weak to moderate. The assignment of the reference-arm should be individualized and not considered as definitive.


Assuntos
Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/normas , Pressão Sanguínea , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Braço , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sístole
15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 5274097, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467896

RESUMO

Background: Few studies compared the effects of BP changes in short- and long-terms on all-cause mortality and CVD mortality. Methods: We performed a 12.5-year follow-up study to examine the association between short- (2008 to 2010) and long-term [baseline (2004-2006) to 2010] BP changes and the risk of mortality (2010 to 2017) in the Fuxin prospective cohort study. The Cox proportional hazards model was used for this study, and the average BP was stratified according to the Seven Joint National Committee (JNC7). Results: We identified 1496 (805 CVD deaths) and 2138 deaths (1222 CVD deaths) in short- and long-term study. Compared with BP maintainer, in short-term BP changes, for participants from normotension or prehypertension to hypertension, the hazards ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of all-cause mortality were 1.948 (1.118-3.392) and 1.439 (1.218-1.700), respectively, while for participants from hypertension to prehypertension, the HRs (95% CIs) were 0.766 (0.638-0.899) for all-cause mortality and 0.729 (0.585-0.908) for CVD mortality, respectively. In long-term BP changes, for participants from normotension or prehypertension to hypertension, the HRs (95% CIs) of all-cause mortality were 1.738 (1.099-2.749) and 1.203 (1.023-1.414), and they were 2.351 (1.049-5.269) and 1.323 (1.047-1.672) for CVD mortality, respectively. In addition, the effects of short-term BP changes on all-cause and CVD mortality, measured as regression coefficients (ß), were significantly greater than those in long-term change (all P<0.05). Conclusions: Our study emphasizes that short-term changes in BP have a greater impact on all-cause and CVD mortality than long-term changes and assess the cut-off value of the changes in blood pressure elevation.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/mortalidade , Idoso , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pré-Hipertensão/mortalidade , Pré-Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
19.
Hypertension ; 74(3): 572-580, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352828

RESUMO

To study the effect of formulas on the estimation of dietary sodium intake (sodium intake) and its association with mortality, we analyzed the TOHP (Trials of Hypertension Prevention) follow-up data. Sodium intake was assessed by measured 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and estimations from sodium concentration using the Kawasaki, Tanaka, and INTERSALT (International Cooperative Study on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure) formulas. We used both the average of 3 to 7 urinary measurements during the trial period and the first measurement at the beginning of each trial. Additionally, we kept sodium concentration constant to test whether the formulas were independently associated with mortality. We included 2974 individuals aged 30 to 54 years with prehypertension, not assigned to sodium intervention. During a median 24-year follow-up, 272 deaths occurred. The average measured sodium intake was 3766±1290 mg/d. All estimated values, including those with constant sodium concentration, were systematically biased with overestimation at lower levels and underestimation at higher levels. There was a significant linear association between the average measured sodium intake (ie, gold standard method) and mortality. This relationship was altered by using the estimated sodium intakes. There appeared to be a J- or U-shaped relationship for the average estimated sodium by all formulas. Despite variations in the sodium-mortality relationship among various formulas, a common pattern was that all estimated values including those with constant sodium appeared to be inversely related to mortality at lower levels of sodium intake. These results demonstrate that inaccurate estimates of sodium cannot be used in association studies, particularly as the formulas per se seem to be related to mortality independent of sodium.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão/mortalidade , Cloreto de Sódio/urina , Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Análise de Sobrevida , Taiwan , Fatores de Tempo , Urinálise/métodos
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