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1.
Mol Syst Biol ; 16(7): e9628, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729248

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has is a global health challenge. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the host receptor for SARS-CoV-2 entry. Recent studies have suggested that patients with hypertension and diabetes treated with ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers have a higher risk of COVID-19 infection as these drugs could upregulate ACE2, motivating the study of ACE2 modulation by drugs in current clinical use. Here, we mined published datasets to determine the effects of hundreds of clinically approved drugs on ACE2 expression. We find that ACEIs are enriched for ACE2-upregulating drugs, while antineoplastic agents are enriched for ACE2-downregulating drugs. Vorinostat and isotretinoin are the top ACE2 up/downregulators, respectively, in cell lines. Dexamethasone, a corticosteroid used in treating severe acute respiratory syndrome and COVID-19, significantly upregulates ACE2 both in vitro and in vivo. Further top ACE2 regulators in vivo or in primary cells include erlotinib and bleomycin in the lung and vancomycin, cisplatin, and probenecid in the kidney. Our study provides leads for future work studying ACE2 expression modulators.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Células A549 , Betacoronavirus , Bleomicina/farmacologia , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Desenho de Fármacos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Cloridrato de Erlotinib/farmacologia , Flufenazina/farmacologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Células MCF-7 , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A , Biologia de Sistemas , Regulação para Cima , Vemurafenib/farmacologia
2.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 401: 115118, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619553

RESUMO

Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) modulates extensive biological and pathological processes including tumor progression through diverse mechanisms. The regulatory effects of dexamethasone (DEX), a synthetic glucocorticoid, as well as its interaction with GR have been recognized beyond hematologic cancers. In the present study, we investigated the anti-cancer efficacy of DEX and the correlation with GR in pancreatic cancer, a most aggressive malignancy threatening human health. The differential levels of GR expression were examined in two human pancreatic cancer cell lines, PANC-1 and SW1990, as well as in xenografts and patient tumor tissues. DEX significantly inhibited colony formation, migration, and tumor growth of PANC-1 cells expressing abundant GR. The underlying mechanisms involved suppression of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) phosphorylation and down-regulation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The anti-cancer effects of DEX were partially reversed by GR silencing or combinational administration of GR antagonist, RU486. The dose-dependent efficacy of DEX in tumor growth inhibition was also demonstrated in a GR-positive patient-derived xenograft model along with safety in mice. DEX was less potent, however, in SW1990 cells with poor GR expression. Our findings suggest that DEX effectively inhibits pancreatic tumor growth partially through GR activation. The potential correlation between GR expression and anti-cancer efficacy of DEX may have some clinical implications.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos , Células A549 , Animais , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/farmacologia , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Carga Tumoral/fisiologia
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3461, 2020 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651371

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by Leishmania protozoa transmitted by infected sand flies. Vaccination through leishmanization with live Leishmania major has been used successfully but is no longer practiced because it resulted in occasional skin lesions. A second generation leishmanization is described here using a CRISPR genome edited L. major strain (LmCen-/-). Notably, LmCen-/- is a genetically engineered centrin gene knock-out mutant strain that is antibiotic resistant marker free and does not have detectable off-target mutations. Mice immunized with LmCen-/- have no visible lesions following challenge with L. major-infected sand flies, while non-immunized animals develop large and progressive lesions with a 2-log fold higher parasite burden. LmCen-/- immunization results in protection and an immune response comparable to leishmanization. LmCen-/- is safe since it is unable to cause disease in immunocompromised mice, induces robust host protection against vector sand fly challenge and because it is marker free, can be advanced to human vaccine trials.


Assuntos
Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas/genética , Leishmania major/genética , Leishmania major/patogenicidade , Vacinas Atenuadas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Edição de Genes , Engenharia Genética , Humanos , Imunossupressão , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
4.
Life Sci ; 257: 118044, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622944

RESUMO

AIMS: High-dose glucocorticoid (GC) administration causes osteoporosis. Many previous studies from our group and other groups have shown that melatonin participates in the regulation of osteoblast proliferation and differentiation, especially low concentrations of melatonin, which enhance osteoblast osteogenesis. However, the role of melatonin in glucocorticoid-induced osteoblast differentiation remains unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An examination of the expression of osteoblast differentiation markers (ALP, OCN, COLL-1), as well as alkaline phosphatase staining and alkaline phosphatase enzymatic activity assay to measure osteoblast differentiation and quantifying Alizarin red S staining to measure mineralization, were performed to determine the effects of dexamethasone (Dex) and melatonin on the differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. We used immunofluorescence staining to detect the expression of Runx2 in melatonin-treated MC3T3-E1 cells. The expression of mRNA was determined by qRT-PCR, and protein levels were measured by western blotting. KEY FINDINGS: In the present study, we found that 100 µM Dex significantly reduced osteoblast differentiation and mineralization in MC3T3-E1 cells and that 1 µM melatonin attenuated these inhibitory effects. We found that only inhibition of PI3K/AKT (MK2206) and BMP/Smad (LDN193189) signalling abolished melatonin-induced differentiation and mineralization. Meanwhile, MK2206 decreased the expression of P-AKT and P-Smad1/5/9 and LDN193189 decreased the expression of P-Smad1/5/9 but had no obvious effect on P-AKT expression in melatonin-treated and Dex-induced MC3T3-E1 cells. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that melatonin rescues Dex-induced inhibition of osteoblast differentiation in MC3T3-E1 cells via the PI3K/AKT and BMP/Smad signalling pathways and that PI3K/AKT signalling may be the upstream signal of BMP/Smad signalling.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Melatonina/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Animais , Biomineralização/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/metabolismo , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/metabolismo , Calcificação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Melatonina/farmacologia , Camundongos , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo
5.
Life Sci ; 257: 118054, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663575

RESUMO

The outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the current world health concern, presenting a public health dilemma with ascending morbidity and mortality rates exceeding any previous viral spread, without a standard effective treatment yet. SARS-CoV-2 infection is distinguished with multiple epidemiological and pathological features, one of them being the elevated levels of cytokine release, which in turn trigger an aberrant uncontrolled response known as "cytokine storm". This phenomenon contributes to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), leading to pneumonia and respiratory failure, which is considered a major contributor to COVID-19-associated fatality rates. Taking into account that the vast majority of the COVID-19 cases are aggravated by the respiratory and multiorgan failure triggered by the sustained release of cytokines, implementing therapeutics that alleviate or diminish the upregulated inflammatory response would provide a therapeutic advantage to COVID-19 patients. Indeed, dexamethasone, a widely available and inexpensive corticosteroid with anti-inflammatory effects, has shown a great promise in reducing mortality rates in COVID-19 patients. In this review, we have critically compared the clinical impact of several potential therapeutic agents that could block or interfere with the cytokine storm, such as IL-1 inhibitors, IL-6 inhibitors, mast cell targeting agents, and corticosteroids. This work focused on highlighting and contrasting the current success and limitations towards the involvement of these agents in future treatment protocols.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Corticosteroides/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Coronavirus/imunologia , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47625

RESUMO

A Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) recebe com satisfação os resultados iniciais dos ensaios clínicos do Reino Unido, que mostram que a dexametasona, um corticosteroide, pode salvar vidas de pacientes com COVID-19 em estado crítico


Assuntos
Dexametasona/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus
7.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0232111, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579557

RESUMO

Glaucoma is the second leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), the most common form of glaucoma, is often associated with elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) due to the dysfunction of trabecular meshwork (TM) tissues. Currently, an ex vivo human anterior segment perfusion cultured system is widely used to study the effects of glaucoma factors and disease modifying drugs on physiological parameters like aqueous humor (AH) dynamics and IOP homeostasis. This system requires the use of freshly enucleated intact human eyes, which are sparsely available at very high cost. In this study, we explored the feasibility of using human donor corneoscleral segments for modeling morphological and biochemical changes associated with POAG. Among the number of corneas donated each year, many are deemed ineligible for transplantation due to stringent acceptance criteria. These ineligible corneoscleral segments were obtained from the Lions Eye Bank, Tampa, Florida. Each human donor anterior corneoscleral segment was dissected into four equal quadrants and cultured for 7 days by treating with the glaucoma factors dexamethasone (Dex) or recombinant transforming growth factor (TGF) ß2 or transduced with lentiviral expression vectors containing wild type (WT) and mutant myocilin. Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) staining analysis revealed that the TM structural integrity is maintained after 7 days in culture. Increased TUNEL positive TM cells were observed in corneoscleral quadrants treated with glaucoma factors compared to their respective controls. However, these TUNEL positive cells were mainly confined to the scleral region adjacent to the TM. Treatment of corneoscleral quadrants with Dex or TGFß2 resulted in glaucomatous changes at the TM, which included increased extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Western blot analysis of the conditioned medium showed an increase in ECM (fibronectin and collagen IV) levels in Dex- or TGFß2-treated samples compared to control. Lentiviral transduction of quadrants resulted in expression of WT and mutant myocilin in TM tissues. Western blot analysis of conditioned medium revealed decreased secretion of mutant myocilin compared to WT myocilin. Moreover, increased ECM deposition and ER stress induction was observed in the TM of mutant myocilin transduced quadrants. Our findings suggest that the ex-vivo cultured human corneoscleral segment model is cost-effective and can be used as a pre-screening tool to study the effects of glaucoma factors and anti-glaucoma therapeutics on the TM.


Assuntos
Dexametasona/farmacologia , Limbo da Córnea/metabolismo , Malha Trabecular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta2/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Proteínas do Olho/genética , Proteínas do Olho/metabolismo , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/patologia , Glicoproteínas/genética , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Humanos , Limbo da Córnea/citologia , Limbo da Córnea/efeitos dos fármacos , Malha Trabecular/metabolismo , Malha Trabecular/patologia , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Br J Anaesth ; 125(2): 175-183, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liposomal bupivacaine (Exparel®) is a sustained-release formulation of bupivacaine for use in surgical infiltration anaesthesia. We analysed the histological nerve toxicity and clinical effectiveness of perineural Exparel® alone or with added dexamethasone in a mouse model. METHODS: We assigned 98 mice receiving a perineural sciatic nerve injection into seven groups: sham (n=14, perineural saline), B (n=14, perineural bupivacaine), BDIP (n=14, perineural bupivacaine + intraperitoneal dexamethasone), BDPN (n=14, perineural bupivacaine + perineural dexamethasone), E (n=14, perineural Exparel®), EDIP (n=14, perineural Exparel® + intraperitoneal dexamethasone), and EDPN (n=14, perineural Exparel® + perineural dexamethasone). The duration of thermoalgesic and motor block was evaluated in 49 mice (seven mice randomly selected by group) every 30 min until recovery. Mice were killed for sciatic nerve histological assessment at 14 or 28 days. RESULTS: The median duration of motor block was 90, 120, 120, 120, 180, and 180 min and the duration of thermoalgesic block was 240, 300, 360, 360, 360, and 420 min for groups B, BDIP, BDPN, E, EDIP, and EDPN, respectively. The B group mice showed mild neural inflammation at 14 days and the E group mice showed mild neural inflammation at 28 days. Addition (intraperitoneal or perineural) of dexamethasone reduced neural inflammation induced by bupivacaine, whereas only perineural dexamethasone reduced neural inflammation induced by Exparel®. CONCLUSIONS: Perineural or systemic dexamethasone had a protective effect against the neural inflammation induced by bupivacaine, and perineural dexamethasone attenuated delayed inflammation induced by perineural Exparel®.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Bupivacaína/farmacologia , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Interações Medicamentosas , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Tempo
9.
Chem Biol Interact ; 327: 109146, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561335

RESUMO

Evodiae Fructus (EF), the dried nearly mature scented fruit of Tetradium ruticarpum (A.Juss.) T.G.Hartley, was typically used to treat headache, abdominal pain, hernias, and menorrhagia for thousands of years. It had been reported to be a mild toxic herb through metabolic activation mainly by CYP3A but was barely explained from pharmacokinetic interaction. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of CYP3A inducer/inhibitor in pharmacokinetics of five alkaloids (evodiamine (EVOD), rutaecarpine (RUTA), 1-methyl-2-undecyl-4(1H)-quinolone (MUDQ), 1-methyl-2-nonyl-4(1H)-quinolone (MNNQ) and evocarpine (EVOC)) associated with hepatotoxicity of EF in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. The results demonstrated that the metabolism of the five alkaloids of EF were inhibited in presence of CYP3A inhibitor whereas the metabolism of the five alkaloids of EF were promoted in presence of CYP3A inducer. Therefore, the dose is required attention when EF is taken in conjunction with CYP3A inducer as there is an enhancement in drug metabolism, which might lead to toxicity.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacocinética , Indutores do Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/farmacologia , Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/farmacologia , Evodia/química , Alcaloides/sangue , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Meia-Vida , Cetoconazol/farmacologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 134(12): 1305-1318, 2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32478397

RESUMO

Podocyte injury and loss contribute to proteinuria, glomerulosclerosis and eventually kidney failure. Recent studies have demonstrated that the loss of Kruppel-like factor 15 (KLF15) in podocytes increases the susceptibility to injury; however, the mechanism underlying the protective effects on podocyte injury remains incompletely understood. Herein, we showed that KLF15 ameliorates podocyte injury through suppressing NFAT signaling and the salutary effects of the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone in podocyte were partially mediated by the KLF15-NFATc1 axis. We found that KLF15 was significantly reduced in glomerular cells of proteinuric patients and in ADR-, LPS- or HG-treated podocyets in vitro. Overexpression of KLF15 attenuated podocyte apoptosis induced by ADR, LPS or HG and resulted in decreased expression of pro-apoptotic Bax and increased expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. Conversely, the flow cytometry analysis and TUNEl assay demonstrated that loss of KLF15 accelerated podocyte apoptosis and we further found that 11R-VIVIT, a specific NFAT inhibitor, and NFATc1-siRNA rescued KLF15-deficient induced podocyte apoptosis. Meanwhile, Western blot and RT-qPCR showed that the expression of NFATc1 was up-regulated in KLF15 silenced podocytes and reduced in KLF15 overexpressed podocytes. Mechanistically, ChIP analysis showed that KLF15 bound to the NFATc1 promoter region -1984 to -1861base pairs upstream of the transcription start site and the binding amount was decreased after treatment with LPS. The dual-luciferase reporter assay indicated that NFATc1 was a direct target of KLF15. In addition, we found that in vitro treatment with dexamethasone induced a decrease of NFATc1 expression in podocytes and was abrogated by knockdown of KLF15. Hence, our results identify the critical role of the KLF15-NFATc1 axis in podocyte injury and loss, which may be involved in mediating the salutary effects of dexamethasone in podocytes.


Assuntos
Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/metabolismo , Podócitos/metabolismo , Podócitos/patologia , Proteinúria/tratamento farmacológico , Proteinúria/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Inativação Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Glucose/toxicidade , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , Transdução de Sinais
11.
J Toxicol Sci ; 45(5): 293-304, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404561

RESUMO

Acute exposure to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) can cause fatal acute lung injury (ALI). However, the mechanisms of H2S-induced ALI are still not fully understood. This study aims to investigate the role of the tight junction protein claudin-5 in H2S-induced ALI. In our study, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were exposed to H2S to establish the ALI model, and in parallel, human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs) were incubated with NaHS (a H2S donor) to establish a cell model. Lung immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy assays were used to identify H2S-induced ALI, and the expression of claudin-5, p-AKT/t-AKT and p-FoxO1/t-FoxO1 was detected. Our results show that H2S promoted the formation of ALI by morphological investigation and decreased claudin-5 expression. Dexamethasone (Dex) could partly attenuate NaHS-mediated claudin-5 downregulation, and the protective effects of Dex could be partially blocked by LY294002, a PI3K/AKT/FoxO1 pathway antagonist. Moreover, as a consequence of the altered phosphorylation of AKT and FoxO1, a change in claudin-5 with the same trend was observed. Therefore, the tight junction protein claudin-5 might be considered a therapeutic target for the treatment of ALI induced by H2S and other hazardous gases.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/metabolismo , Claudina-5/metabolismo , Claudina-5/fisiologia , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/genética , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Claudina-5/genética , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
12.
Life Sci ; 255: 117817, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446845

RESUMO

Glucocorticoids can promote cardiomyocyte maturation. However, the mechanism underlying glucocorticoid-mediated cardiomyocyte maturation is still unclear. Mitophagy plays a key role in cardiomyocyte maturation. Based on current knowledge, our study evaluated the effects of the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (100 nM) on the maturation of mouse embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and the role of mitophagy in this maturation. The results showed that dexamethasone can promote embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte maturation, inhibit cardiomyocyte proliferation, and promote myocardial fiber arrangement. However, dexamethasone did not affect mitochondrial morphology in cardiomyocytes. Glucocorticoid receptor inhibitors (RU486, 1 nM) can inhibit dexamethasone-mediated cardiomyocyte maturation. Additionally, dexamethasone can promote mitophagy in embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and induce LC3 and lysosomal aggregation in mitochondria. The inhibition of mitophagy can inhibit the cardiomyocyte maturation effect of dexamethasone. Furthermore, our research found that dexamethasone may mediate the occurrence of mitophagy in cardiomyocytes through Parkin. The siRNA-mediated inhibition of Parkin expression can inhibit mitochondrial autophagy caused by dexamethasone, thus inhibiting cardiomyocyte maturation. Overall, our study found that dexamethasone can promote embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte maturation through Parkin-mediated mitophagy.


Assuntos
Dexametasona/farmacologia , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Mitofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Animais , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/administração & dosagem , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo
13.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 61(4): 24, 2020 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32305042

RESUMO

Purpose: To identify processes that contribute to corticosteroid-induced ocular hypertension and candidate target genes for treatment. Methods: A systematic search identified five human microarray datasets investigating the effect of dexamethasone versus a control medium on trabecular meshwork (TM) tissue. After thorough quality control, samples of low quality were removed, and the datasets were integrated. Additionally, a bovine RNA-sequencing dataset allowed to investigate differences in gene expression profiling between cows with and without corticosteroid-induced ocular hypertension (responders vs. nonresponders). The obtained datasets were used as input for parallel pathway analyses. Significantly changed pathways were clustered into functional categories and the results were further investigated. A network visualizing the differences between the responders and nonresponders was created. Results: Seven functional pathway clusters were found to be significantly changed in TM cells exposed to dexamethasone versus a control medium and in TM cells of responders versus nonresponders: collagen, extracellular matrix, adhesion, WNT-signaling, inflammation, adipogenesis, and glucose metabolism. In addition, cell cycle and senescence were only significantly changed in responders versus nonresponders. The network of the differential gene expression between responders and nonresponders shows many connections between the identified processes via shared genes. Conclusions: Nine functional pathway clusters synthesize the molecular response to dexamethasone exposure in TM cells and are likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of corticosteroid-induced ocular hypertension.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Hipertensão Ocular/induzido quimicamente , Malha Trabecular/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bovinos , Células Cultivadas , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Hipertensão Ocular/genética , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Malha Trabecular/metabolismo
14.
Gene ; 745: 144651, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32259633

RESUMO

Sexual differentiation and ovotestis development are closely associated with cortisol levels, the principal indicator of stress, via the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in teleosts. Thus, GR is regarded as a mediator to expound the relationship between social stress and gonad development. In the present study, two gr genes (gr1 and gr2) were cloned and analyzed from a protandrous hermaphroditic teleost, the yellowtail clownfish (Amphiprion clarkii). GR1 was found to display a conserved nine-amino-acid insert, WRARQNTDG, between two zinc finger domains. The phylogenetic tree of GR showed that yellowtail clownfish GR1 and GR2 are clustered to teleost GR1 and teleost GR2 separately, and differ from tetrapod GR. The result of real-time PCR revealed that high-level gr1 was mainly distributed in the cerebellum, hypothalamus and heart. The gr2 gene was abundant in the pituitary and liver of females and nonbreeders, while gr2 was mainly detected in the medulla oblongata and middle kidney of males. Moreover, GRs can be expressed in cultured eukaryotic cells and functionally interact with dexamethasone (exogenous glucocorticoid), thereby triggering downstream signaling pathways of different potentials. GR1 and GR2 can be activated by 10 nM dexamethasone treatment in HEK-293T cells. Notably, real-time PCR analysis among three social status groups demonstrated that gr2 expression was the highest in the hypothalamus of nonbreeders, but gr1 was no difference. We speculate that social stress would increase the expression of gr2 gene expression in the hypothalamus to inhibit sexual development. These data provide evidence of social stress involving reproductive regulation, which may help to elucidate the underlying mechanism of sex differentiation and change.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Perciformes/genética , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/genética , Diferenciação Sexual/genética , Animais , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Feminino , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Família Multigênica , Perciformes/metabolismo , Filogenia , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Reprodução/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Dedos de Zinco/genética
15.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 134(7): 751-763, 2020 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227160

RESUMO

The numbers of macrophages are increased in the lungs of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. COPD lung macrophages have reduced ability to phagocytose microbes and efferocytose apoptotic cells. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) are widely used anti-inflammatory drugs in COPD; however, their role beyond suppression of cytokine release has not been explored in COPD macrophages. We have examined the effects of corticosteroids on COPD lung macrophage phenotype and function. Lung macrophages from controls and COPD patients were treated with corticosteroids; effects on gene and protein expression of CD163, CD164, CD206, MERTK, CD64, CD80 and CD86 were studied. We also examined the effect of corticosteroids on the function of CD163, MERTK and cluster of differentiation 64 (CD64). Corticosteroid increased CD163, CD164, CD206 and MERTK expression and reduced CD64, CD80 and CD86 expression. We also observed an increase in the uptake of the haemoglobin-haptoglobin complex (CD163) from 59 up to 81% and an increase in efferocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils (MERTK) from 15 up to 28% following corticosteroid treatment. We observed no effect on bacterial phagocytosis. Corticosteroids alter the phenotype and function of COPD lung macrophages. Our findings suggest mechanisms by which corticosteroids exert therapeutic benefit in COPD, reducing iron available for bacterial growth and enhancing efferocytosis.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/farmacologia , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos Alveolares/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/genética , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Cocultura , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Ferro/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Macrófagos Alveolares/metabolismo , Macrófagos Alveolares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/patologia , Fenótipo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Receptores de IgG/genética , Receptores de IgG/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , c-Mer Tirosina Quinase/genética , c-Mer Tirosina Quinase/metabolismo
16.
Cell ; 180(5): 847-861.e15, 2020 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142678

RESUMO

Early life environmental exposure, particularly during perinatal period, can have a life-long impact on organismal development and physiology. The biological rationale for this phenomenon is to promote physiological adaptations to the anticipated environment based on early life experience. However, perinatal exposure to adverse environments can also be associated with adult-onset disorders. Multiple environmental stressors induce glucocorticoids, which prompted us to investigate their role in developmental programming. Here, we report that perinatal glucocorticoid exposure had long-term consequences and resulted in diminished CD8 T cell response in adulthood and impaired control of tumor growth and bacterial infection. We found that perinatal glucocorticoid exposure resulted in persistent alteration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Consequently, the level of the hormone in adults was significantly reduced, resulting in decreased CD8 T cell function. Our study thus demonstrates that perinatal stress can have long-term consequences on CD8 T cell immunity by altering HPA axis activity.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/imunologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/imunologia , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/genética , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/patologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/imunologia , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias/genética , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/imunologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/patologia , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética
17.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 163(2): 382-388, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32204660

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Tympanic membrane (TM) fibroblast cytotoxicity of quinolone ear drops is enhanced by dexamethasone and fluocinolone. Hydrocortisone has not been evaluated. We aimed to assess the effects of these 3 steroids on mouse and human TM fibroblast survival. STUDY DESIGN: In vitro. SETTING: Academic laboratory. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Mouse and human TM fibroblasts were exposed to hydrocortisone, dexamethasone, or fluocinolone at concentrations in commercial ear drops (1%, 0.1%, or 0.025%, respectively) and at steroid potency equivalents (1%, 0.033%, or 0.0033%, respectively), or dilute ethanol (control), twice within 24 hours or 4 times within 48 hours for 2 hours each time. Cells were observed with phase-contrast microscopy until the cytotoxicity assay was performed. RESULTS: Mouse and human TM fibroblasts treated with any of the steroids had lower survival after 24 and 48 hours compared to control (all P < .0001). After 24 hours, viability of mouse fibroblasts treated with the steroids was not different (P > .05), while treatment with hydrocortisone decreased human TM fibroblast viability (P < .0001). After 48 hours, at concentrations found in ear drops and at equivalent steroid potency, dexamethasone and fluocinolone had similar survival in mouse and human fibroblasts (all P > .05), but hydrocortisone had lower survival in both mouse (P = .02 and P < .0001) and human (P < .0001) fibroblasts. Phase-contrast images mirrored the cytotoxicity findings. CONCLUSION: Steroids found in commercial ear drops reduce survival of mouse and human TM fibroblasts. Hydrocortisone appears to be more cytotoxic than the more potent steroids, dexamethasone and fluocinolone. These findings should be considered when assessing clinical outcomes of ototopical preparations.


Assuntos
Dexametasona/farmacologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluocinolona Acetonida/análogos & derivados , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Hidrocortisona/farmacologia , Membrana Timpânica/citologia , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular , Células Cultivadas , Fluocinolona Acetonida/farmacologia , Humanos , Camundongos
18.
Exp Hematol ; 82: 1-7, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006607

RESUMO

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common childhood cancer. Therapies for pediatric ALL have improved such that more than 80% of patients survive to 5 years post-therapy, and most survive to adulthood. These ALL patients experience long-term side effects that permanently affect their quality of life, with bone loss and reduced longitudinal growth being the most common skeletal complications. To determine the effects of the chemotherapeutic agents used in ALL induction therapy on bone density and longitudinal growth in mice, we treated juvenile mice with doxorubicin, dexamethasone, vincristine, l-asparaginase, or combination therapy. At adulthood, mice were culled and bones collected and scanned by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Mice that received doxorubicin and combination therapy exhibited reduced longitudinal growth and significant reductions in trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, and trabecular number, with increased trabecular separation. Mean cortical thickness, cortical area, marrow area, endocortical perimeter, and polar moment of inertia were significantly reduced by doxorubicin and combination therapy. Vincristine treatment significantly decreased trabecular bone volume, trabecular number, and increased trabecular separation but had no effects on cortical bone. Dexamethasone treatment increased trabecular bone separation, cortical marrow area, and cortical bone periosteal perimeter. Mice treated with l-asparaginase did not have any bone phenotypes. In conclusion, these data indicate that the majority of the chemotherapy agents used in induction therapy for pediatric ALL have long-term effects on bone in mice. A single dose of doxorubicin in juvenile mice was sufficient to cause the majority of the bone phenotypes, with combination therapy intensifying these effects.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Osso Esponjoso , Lâmina de Crescimento , Quimioterapia de Indução/efeitos adversos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Microtomografia por Raio-X , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Asparaginase/efeitos adversos , Asparaginase/farmacologia , Osso Esponjoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Esponjoso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Criança , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Doxorrubicina/efeitos adversos , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Lâmina de Crescimento/diagnóstico por imagem , Lâmina de Crescimento/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/diagnóstico por imagem , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/metabolismo , Vincristina/efeitos adversos , Vincristina/farmacologia
19.
Oncol Rep ; 43(2): 427-436, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894280

RESUMO

Glucocorticoids (GCs) are known potent clinical drugs, however, their mode of action is still complex and debatable. Macrophages are the most important target of GCs and play a key role in tumor immunity in vivo, but their relationship is also controversial. In the present study, the lentivirus system was used to overexpress and knock down the level of transcription factor Krüppel­like factor 9 (KLF9). The results revealed that dexamethasone (Dex) induced ROS generation and mitochondria­dependent apoptosis in RAW 264.7 cells via the KLF9. In addition, overexpression of KLF9 significantly increased apoptosis of RAW 264.7 cells. Notably, ELISA assay revealed that increased expression of KLF9 inhibited LPS­induced COX­2 expression and reduced COX­2­derived prostaglandin E2 and pro­inflammatory cytokine secretion. Furthermore, a co­culture system was used to reveal that overexpression of KLF9 in RAW 264.7 cells promoted HepG2 cell survival. In summary, it is reported that KLF9 promoted apoptosis of proinflammatory macrophages, and suppressed the antitumor effects, which can be selectively targeted by GCs as a novel mechanism to suppress antineoplastic activity.


Assuntos
Dexametasona/farmacologia , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/genética , Macrófagos/citologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Técnicas de Cocultura , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7 , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
20.
Virology ; 540: 195-206, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929001

RESUMO

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection can cause mucus overproduction and bronchiolitis in infants leading to severe disease and hospitalization. As a therapeutic strategy, immune modulatory agents may help prevent RSV-driven immune responses that cause severe airway disease. We developed a high throughput screen to identify compounds that reduced RSV-driven mucin 5AC (Muc5AC) expression and identified dexamethasone. Despite leading to a pronounced reduction in RSV-driven Muc5AC, dexamethasone increased RSV infection in vitro and delayed viral clearance in mice. This correlated with reduced expression of a subset of immune response genes and reduced lymphocyte infiltration in vivo. Interestingly, dexamethasone increased RSV infection levels without altering antiviral interferon signaling. In summary, the immunosuppressive activities of dexamethasone had favorable inhibitory effects on RSV-driven mucus production yet prevented immune defense activities that limit RSV infection in vitro and in vivo. These findings offer an explanation for the lack of efficacy of glucocorticoids in RSV-infected patients.


Assuntos
Dexametasona/farmacologia , Interferons/metabolismo , Muco/metabolismo , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/metabolismo , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/virologia , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Camundongos , Mucina-5AC/genética , Mucina-5AC/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/virologia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/genética
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