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1.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 40(4): 463-468, 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895131

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protective effects of dexmedetomidine (DEX) against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in mice and its relation with mitochondrial fusion and fission. METHODS: Male ICR mice were randomly divided into sham-operated group, I/R group, I/R+DEX group and I/R+DEX+dorsomorphin group. Mouse models of cerebral I/R injury were established by modified thread occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. DEX (50 µg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally at 30 min before cerebral ischemia, which lasted for 1 h followed by reperfusion for 24 h. The neurobehavioral deficits of the mice were evaluated based on Longa's scores. The volume of cerebral infarction was detected by TTC staining. The changes in mitochondrial morphology of the brain cells were observed with transmission electron microscopy. Western blotting was performed to detect the expressions of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK), mitochondrial fusion protein (Mfn2) and mitochondrial fission protein (p-Drp1) in the brain tissues. RESULTS: DEX pretreatment significantly reduced the neurobehavioral score and the percent volume of cerebral infarction in mice with cerebral I/R injury. Treatment with dorsomorphin (an AMPK inhibitor) in addition to DEX significantly increased the neurobehavioral score and the percent volume of cerebral infarction in the mouse models. Transmission electron microscopy showed that DEX obviously reduced mitochondrial damage caused by cerebral I/R injury and restored mitochondrial morphology of the brain cells, and such effects were abolished by dorsomorphin treatment. Western blotting showed that DEX pretreatment significantly increased the expressions of p-AMPK and Mfn2 protein and decreased the expression of p-Drp1 protein in the brain tissue of the mice, and these changes were also reversed by dorsomorphin treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Preconditioning with DEX produces protective effects against cerebral I/R injury in mice possibly by activating AMPK signaling to regulate mitochondrial fusion and fission in the brain cells.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Animais , Dexmedetomidina , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Dinâmica Mitocondrial
2.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 40(7): 1013-1017, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895163

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of dexmedetomidine combined with pulmonary protective ventilation against lung injury in patients undergoing surgeries for esophageal cancer with one-lung ventilation (OLV). METHODS: Forty patients with undergoing surgery for esophageal cancer with OLV were randomly divided into pulmonary protective ventilation strategy group (F group) and dexmedetomidine combined with protective ventilation strategy group (DF group; n=20). In F group, lung protective ventilation strategy during anesthesia was adopte, and in DF group, the patients received intravenous infusion of dexmedetomidine hydrochloride (0.3 µg · kg-1 ·h-1) during the surgery starting at 10 min before anesthesia induction in addition to protective ventilation strategy. Brachial artery blood was sampled before ventilation (T0), at 30 and 90 min after the start of OLV (T1 and T2, respectively) and at the end of the surgery (T3) for analysis of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), arterial oxygenation pressure (PaO2), oxygenation index (OI) and lung compliance (CL). RESULTS: At the time points of T1, T2 and T3, SOD level was significantly higher and IL-6 level was significantly lower in the DF group than in F group (P < 0.05). The patients in DF group showed significantly higher PaO2, OI and CL index than those in F group at all the 3 time points. CONCLUSIONS: Dexmedetomidine combined with pulmonary protective ventilation strategy can reduce perioperative lung injury in patients undergoing surgery for esophageal cancer with OLV by suppressing inflammation and oxidative stress to improve lung function and reduce adverse effects of the surgery.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas , Ventilação Monopulmonar , Dexmedetomidina , Neoplasias Esofágicas/terapia , Humanos , Pulmão , Malondialdeído
3.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 40(6): 864-868, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895199

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the median effective dose (ED50) of intranasal dexmedetomidine for procedural sedation in uncooperative pediatric patients with acyanotic congenital heart disease before and after cardiac surgery. METHODS: We prospectively recruited 47 children (22 in preoperative group and 25 in postoperative group) who needed sedation for transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). A modified up-and-down sequential study design was employed to determine dexmedetomidine dose for each patient with a starting dose of 2 µg/kg in both groups; dexmedetomidine doses for subsequent subjects were determined according to the responses from the previous subject using the up-and-down method at a 0.25 µg/kg interval. The ED95 was determined using probit regression. The onset time, examination time, wake-up time and adverse effects were measured, and the safety was evaluated in terms of changes in vital signs every 5 min. RESULTS: The ED50 value of intranasal dexmedetomidine for sedation was 1.84 µg/kg (95% CI: 1.68-2.00 µg/kg) in children with congenital heart disease before cardiac surgery, and 3.38 µg/kg (95% CI: 3.21-3.54 µg/kg) after the surgery. No significant difference was found between the two groups in the demographic variables, onset time, examination time, wake-up time, or adverse effects. CONCLUSIONS: In children with acyanotic congenital heart disease, the ED50 of intranasal dexmedetomidine for TTE sedation increases to 3.38 µg/ kg after cardiac surgery from the preoperative value of 1.84 µg/kg.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Cardiopatias Congênitas , Administração Intranasal , Criança , Dexmedetomidina , Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos
4.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; ago 25, 2020. 28 p.
Não convencional em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117908

RESUMO

En el transcurso de la pandemia de COVID-19, numerosos países, de ingresos bajos, medianos y alto, han visto agotadas sus reservas de medicamentos esenciales necesarios para el manejo de los pacientes con COVID-19 en las unidades de cuidados intensivos (UCI). El plan de preparación para emergencias sanitarias de los países requiere incluir una lista de medicamentos esenciales y otros dispositivos médicos necesarios en las UCI para afrontar emergencias sanitarias. La lista de medicamentos esenciales para el manejo de pacientes que ingresan a unidades de cuidados intensivos con sospecha o diagnóstico confirmado de COVID-19 es un documento de orientación fundamental que ayuda a los sistemas de salud de los países a priorizar los medicamentos esenciales que deben estar ampliamente disponibles y ser asequibles para manejar los pacientes en las UCI durante las situaciones de emergencia sanitaria, en este caso con sospecha o diagnóstico confirmado de COVID-19. Está dirigida a las autoridades sanitaras y a los encargados del manejo del sistema de salud de los países. Esta lista incluye fundamentalmente los medicamentos considerados esenciales para el manejo de los cuadros clínicos que con se observan con mayor frecuencia en pacientes hospitalizados en UCI a causa de una infección por SARS-CoV-2. No se incluyen la mayoría de los medicamentos que comúnmente se encuentran en las UCI para el manejo de otras patologías, comorbilidades o la estabilización del paciente (p. ej., insulina o antihipertensivos), salvo aquellos que pueden requerirse para el tratamiento o apoyo (p. ej., bloqueantes neuromusculares o anestésicos) de las dolencias generadas por la infección. Tampoco se incluyen medicamentos específicos para el tratamiento de la infección por SARS-CoV-2, puesto que no existe, por el momento, evidencia científica de alta calidad que avale su uso, salvo en el contexto de ensayos clínicos controlados. Un equipo de expertos en el tema realizó una búsqueda de información sobre la atención de pacientes en UCI durante la pandemia de COVID-19, en Medline (a través de PubMed), Cochrane, Tripdatabase, Epistemonikos y en buscadores generales de internet (Google). Se identificaron también revisiones o guías generadas por ministerios de Salud de varios países de la Región de las Américas, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS), el Instituto Nacional de Salud y Excelencia Clínica (NICE) de Reino Unido, los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades (CDC) de Estados Unidos y los Institutos Nacionales de Salud (NIH) de Estados Unidos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Adulto , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Succinilcolina/uso terapêutico , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/organização & administração , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos Essenciais/provisão & distribução , Dexmedetomidina/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/tratamento farmacológico , Antipiréticos/uso terapêutico , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Haloperidol/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Respiração Artificial/enfermagem , Choque Séptico/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Intubação/enfermagem , Hipóxia/tratamento farmacológico
5.
J Med Life ; 13(2): 206-210, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32742515

RESUMO

Nausea is a mental sensation of unease and discomfort before vomiting. Vomiting refers to the return of the contents of the upper gastrointestinal tract to the mouth caused by contractions of chest and abdomen muscles. Postoperative nausea and vomiting is an unpleasant experience with high treatment costs. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the effects of haloperidol, metoclopramide, dexmedetomidine, and ginger on postoperative nausea and vomiting after laparoscopy. This double-blind clinical trial was performed on all laparoscopy candidates at Valiasr hospital, Arak, Iran. The patients were randomly divided into four groups (haloperidol, metoclopramide, dexmedetomidine and ginger), and all patients underwent general anesthesia using fentanyl, midazolam, atracurium, and propofol. After intubation, tube fixation, and stable hemodynamic conditions, the patients received four ginger capsules with a hint of lemon. A group of patients received 25 µg of dexmedetomidine. In the Plasil group, 10 mg of metoclopramide was given 30 minutes before the completion of surgery. In addition, 0.5 cc of haloperidol (5 mg) was administered to a group of patients. Heart rate, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation were recorded from the beginning of surgery, every 15 minutes until the end of the surgery. Furthermore, the occurrence of nausea and vomiting was recorded during recovery, 2 and 4 hours after surgery. Data were then analyzed using the SPSS software v.23. Eighty-eight patients were enrolled in the study. The youngest and the oldest were 30 years and 70 years old, respectively, and the mean age was 48.02 ± 9.31 years. Moreover, the number of women in the four groups was higher than that of men. Blood pressure in the dexmedetomidine group was lower than the other four groups (P <0.05). The lowest heart rate was observed in the haloperidol group, while the highest heart rate was seen in the plasil group (P <0.05). The occurrence of vomiting and nausea was not significantly different between the four groups (P <0.05). Our results showed no significant difference in postoperative nausea and vomiting between the four drugs. Due to the hemodynamic changes induced by each drug, it is best to use these drugs based on the patient's condition. Ginger is also a herbal remedy that has fewer side effects, and this drug can be a good option for patients when there is no contraindication.


Assuntos
Colecistectomia Laparoscópica/efeitos adversos , Dexmedetomidina/uso terapêutico , Gengibre/química , Haloperidol/uso terapêutico , Metoclopramida/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/tratamento farmacológico , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Dexmedetomidina/farmacologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Haloperidol/farmacologia , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Metoclopramida/farmacologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigênio/metabolismo
6.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 493, 2020 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Administration of dexmedetomidine has been reported to improve inflammatory response in animals. We explored the effects of administering dexmedetomidine on the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin, and thus on inflammation, in patients with sepsis enrolled in a randomized clinical trial. METHODS: The DESIRE trial was a multicenter randomized clinical trial in which adult patients with sepsis were sedated with (DEX group) or without (non-DEX group) dexmedetomidine while on mechanical ventilators. As a prespecified sub-analysis, we compared CRP and procalcitonin levels during the first 14 days of treatment between the two groups. The 14-day mortality rate, albumin level, and the number of patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) were also assessed. We used generalized linear models to estimate the differences in these outcomes between groups. We also used the Kaplan-Meier method to estimate the 14-day mortality rate and the log-rank test to assess between-group differences. RESULTS: Our study comprised 201 patients: 100 in the DEX group and 101 in the non-DEX group. CRP and procalcitonin levels were lower in the DEX vs. non-DEX group during the 14-day treatment period [CRP-range, 5.6-20.3 vs. 8.3-21.1 mg/dL (P = 0.03); procalcitonin-range, 1.2-37.4 vs. 1.7-52.9 ng/mL (P = 0.04)]. Albumin levels were higher in the DEX group (range, 2.3-2.6 g/dL) than in the non-DEX group (range, 2.1-2.7 g/dL; P = 0.01). The percentage of patients with DIC did not significantly differ between the groups (range, 21-59% and 17-56% for the DEX and non-DEX groups, respectively; P = 0.49). The 14-day mortality rates in the DEX and non-DEX groups were 13 and 21%, respectively (P = 0.16). CONCLUSION: Sedation using dexmedetomidine reduced inflammation in patients with sepsis requiring mechanical ventilation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01760967 . Registered on 4 January 2013.


Assuntos
Dexmedetomidina/uso terapêutico , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Respiração Artificial , Sepse/terapia , Idoso , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pró-Calcitonina/sangue , Sepse/sangue , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21008, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756086

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine (Dex) and chloral hydrate (CH) are the most frequently used sedative agents in pediatric patients. We aimed to systematically review the literature comparing the efficacy and safety of Dex and CH for sedation in pediatric patients. METHODS: Seven electronic databases and 3 clinical trial registry platforms were searched for articles published prior to October 2019. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy and safety of Dex versus CH for sedation in children were examined by 2 reviewers. The extracted information included the success rate of sedation, sedation latency, sedation duration, sedation recovery time, and adverse events. Moreover, the extracted data included 5 subgroups: the effects of 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 µg/kg doses of Dex were compared with the effect of CH on the success rate of sedation. We also formed separate subgroups for different types of adverse events (incidence of vomiting, hypotension, bradycardia, etc). The outcomes were analyzed by Review Manager 5.3 software and are expressed as relative risks (RR) or the mean difference (MD) with the 95% confidence interval (CI). Heterogeneity was assessed with I-squared (I) statistics. RESULTS: A total of 15 RCTs involving 2128 children with Dex versus CH for sedation were included in the meta-analysis. The dose range of Dex ranged from 1 to 3 µg/kg. Compared with CH, the Dex group had a significantly higher success rate of sedation (RR = 1.14, 95% CI [1.05, 1.25], I = 79%, P = .003). Additionally, subgroup analysis revealed that there was no significant difference in the success rate of sedation between the CH group and the 1, 1.5, 2.5, and 3 µg/kg Dex groups; only the 2 µg/kg Dex group had a significantly higher success rate than the CH group (RR = 1.15, 95% CI [1.03, 1.29], I = 80%, P = .02). There was no significant difference in the number of subjects who required 2 doses or the duration of sedation between the CH and Dex groups. Furthermore, compared with the Dex group, the CH group had a significantly longer sedation latency (MD = -3.54, 95% CI [-5.94, -1.15], I = 95%, P = .004), sedation recovery time (MD = -30.08, 95% CI [-46.77, -13.39], I = 99%, P = .0004), and total time from sedative administration to discharge (MD = -12.73, 95% CI [-15.48, -9.97], I = 0%, P < .05), as well as a higher number of adverse events in total (RR = 0.25, 95% CI [0.11, 0.61], I = 89%, P = .002). Moreover, the subgroup analysis of adverse events revealed that CH was associated with higher risks of vomiting (RR = 0.07, 95% CI [0.03, 0.17], I = 0%, P < .0001), crying or resisting (RR = 0.22, 95% CI [0.07, 0.71], I = 60%, P = .01), and cough (RR = 0.15, 95% CI [0.05, 0.44], I = 0%, P = .0006); there was no significant difference in the risk of hypotension, supplemental oxygen, or respiratory events between CH and Dex. However, Dex was associated with a higher risk of bradycardia (RR = 4.08, 95% CI [1.63, 10.21], I = 0%, P = .003). CONCLUSIONS: Dex is an appropriate effective alternative to CH for sedation in pediatrics. However, considering the possibility of bradycardia, Dex should be used with caution.


Assuntos
Hidrato de Cloral/uso terapêutico , Sedação Consciente/métodos , Dexmedetomidina/uso terapêutico , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Humanos
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21397, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756133

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of caudal dexmedetomidine in pediatric caudal anesthesia (CA). METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embased, and Cochrane Library (from inception to June 2019) for eligible studies. The primary outcomes were the time to first analgesia, time of postoperative eye opening, intraoperative endtidal sevoflurane concentration, and postoperative sedation score. We calculated pooled risk ratios (RR) and 95% CIs using random- or fixed-effects models. RESULTS: Thirteen trials involving 793 patients were found. Meta-analysis showed that the time to first rescue pain medication and the time from the end of anesthesia to eye opening in the CA+dexmedetomidine group were significantly longer than in the CA group (P < .00001). The intraoperative end-tidal sevoflurane concentration in the CA+dexmedetomidine group was significantly decreased (P < .00001). Dexmedetomidine appeared to increase the rate of bradycardia in the CA+dexmedetomidine group (P = .04). Additionally, the sedation score in the CA+ dexmedetomidine group was significantly higher at 2 hours after the operation compared with the CA group (P < .00001 at 2 hours). CONCLUSIONS: Caudally administered dexmedetomidine is a good alternative for prolonging postoperative analgesia with less pain, decreased intraoperative end-tidal sevoflurane concentration, and full postoperative sedation.


Assuntos
Anestesia Caudal , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Criança , Humanos , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle
10.
Lancet ; 396(10245): 177-185, 2020 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation and delirium are common consequences of cardiac surgery. Dexmedetomidine has unique properties as sedative agent and might reduce the risk of each complication. This study coprimarily aimed to establish whether dexmedetomidine reduces the incidence of new-onset atrial fibrillation and the incidence of delirium. METHODS: A randomised, placebo-controlled trial was done at six academic hospitals in the USA. Patients who had had cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1, stratified by site, to dexmedetomidine or normal saline placebo. Randomisation was computer generated with random permuted block size 2 and 4, and allocation was concealed by a web-based system. Patients, caregivers, and evaluators were all masked to treatment. The study drug was prepared by the pharmacy or an otherwise uninvolved research associate so that investigators and clinicians were fully masked to allocation. Participants were given either dexmedetomidine infusion or saline placebo started before the surgical incision at a rate of 0·1 µg/kg per h then increased to 0·2 µg/kg per h at the end of bypass, and postoperatively increased to 0·4 µg/kg per h, which was maintained until 24 h. The coprimary outcomes were atrial fibrillation and delirium occurring between intensive care unit admission and the earlier of postoperative day 5 or hospital discharge. All analyses were intention-to-treat. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02004613 and is closed. FINDINGS: 798 patients of 3357 screened were enrolled from April 17, 2013, to Dec 6, 2018. The trial was stopped per protocol after the last designated interim analysis. Among 798 patients randomly assigned, 794 were analysed, with 400 assigned to dexmedetomidine and 398 assigned to placebo. The incidence of atrial fibrillation was 121 (30%) in 397 patients given dexmedetomidine and 134 (34%) in 395 patients given placebo, a difference that was not significant: relative risk 0·90 (97·8% CI 0·72, 1·15; p=0·34). The incidence of delirium was non-significantly increased from 12% in patients given placebo to 17% in those given dexmedetomidine: 1·48 (97·8% CI 0·99-2·23). Safety outcomes were clinically important bradycardia (requiring treatment) and hypotension, myocardial infarction, stroke, surgical site infection, pulmonary embolism, deep venous thrombosis, and death. 21 (5%) of 394 patients given dexmedetomidine and 8 (2%) of 396 patients given placebo, had a serious adverse event as determined by clinicians. 1 (<1%) of 391 patients given dexmedetomidine and 1 (<1%) of 387 patients given placebo died. INTERPRETATION: Dexmedetomidine infusion, initiated at anaesthetic induction and continued for 24 h, did not decrease postoperative atrial arrhythmias or delirium in patients recovering from cardiac surgery. Dexmedetomidine should not be infused to reduce atrial fibrillation or delirium in patients having cardiac surgery. FUNDING: Hospira Pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Delírio/prevenção & controle , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 33(4): 533-538, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628400

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review provides an overview of the different fields of procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA), describing the evidence from recently published studies concerning anxiety and moderate pain, cardiac interventions, gastrointestinal interventions, and PSA use in infants. It also provides guidance for practitioners of both unscheduled and scheduled procedural sedation, and a summary of the current guideline for PSA. RECENT FINDINGS: Safety always has to be first priority. Recently published literature is focusing on the combination of different well established drugs such as dexmedetomidine, remifentanil, propofol, and ketamine. These traditional and well known drugs are commonly used for PSA. The combinational use of multiple drugs seems to have benefits for both the provider and patient. Furthermore, there is growing interest into specific protocols and adaption for special circumstances. The preferred medications used for PSA should be both effective and well tolerated. SUMMARY: Procedural sedation deserves to have high degree of attention for potential adverse events. New combinations of well established drugs provide a better pharmacokinetic profile, fit to different indications and offer multiple benefits for both provider and patient.


Assuntos
Analgesia/métodos , Anestesia/métodos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Sedação Consciente , Dexmedetomidina , Humanos , Ketamina , Salas Cirúrgicas , Propofol , Remifentanil
12.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 32(6): 677-680, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32684211

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the therapeutic effects and safety of dexmedetomidine and midazolam on patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who received non-invasive ventilation. METHODS: Patients with COVID-19 who needed non-invasive ventilation in one critical care medicine ward of Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital during the team support period from the department of critical care medicine of Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from January 23rd to February 15th in 2020 were investigated retrospectively. Ramsay score, mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) before sedation and at 1, 12, 24 hours after sedation, sleep time were collected, and the side effects such as excessive sedation, fall of tongue, abdominal distension, aspiration, bradycardia, escalation to invasive mechanical ventilation during 24 hours were also collected. According to different sedative drugs, patients were divided into the control group (without sedative drugs), dexmedetomidine group and midazolam group. The changes of indicators among the three groups were compared. RESULTS: Fourteen patients were injected with dexmedetomidine (loading dose of 1 µg/kg for 10 minutes, maintained at 0.2-0.7 µg×kg-1×h-1); 9 patients were injected with midazolam (loading dose of 0.05 mg/kg for 2 minutes, maintained at 0.02-0.10 mg×kg-1×h-1); 12 patients didn't use sedative drugs due to limitations of previous hospital or patients' rejection. In dexmedetomidine group and midazolam group, the Ramsay score was maintained at 2-3 points after sedation, which were higher than those of control group at different time points after sedation, and there was no significant difference between dexmedetomidine group and midazolam group. MAP of dexmedetomidine group and midazolam group decreased gradually after sedation. MAP after 1-hour sedation was significantly lower than that before sedation, and MAP after 24 hours sedation was significantly lower than that in the control group [mmHg (1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa): 109.7±11.5, 107.1±12.3 vs. 121.1±13.3, both P < 0.05]. HR decreased gradually after sedation treatment, which was significantly lower after 12 hours of sedation than that before sedation, and HR in dexmedetomidine group was significantly lower than that in control group after 12 hours of sedation (bpm: 84.0±13.9 vs. 92.8±15.4 at 12 hours; 81.0±16.7 vs 92.6±12.7 at 24 hours, both P < 0.05). PaO2 increased and RR decreased in all three groups after ventilation. PaO2 in dexmedetomidine group and midazolam group were significantly higher than that in the control group after 12 hours of sedation [cmH2O (1 cmH2O = 0.098 kPa): 79.0±6.5, 79.0±8.9 vs. 70.0±7.8, both P < 0.05]; the decreases of RR in dexmedetomidine group and midazolam group were significant than that in control group after 1 hour of sedation (bpm: 34.0±3.9, 33.8±4.6 vs. 39.0±3.6, both P < 0.05). There were no differences of MAP, HR, PaO2 and RR between dexmedetomidine group and midazolam group at different time points. The sleep duration in dexmedetomidine group and midazolam group were significantly longer than that in the control group (hours: 4.9±1.9, 5.8±2.4 vs. 3.0±1.8, both P < 0.05), but there was no difference between dexmedetomidine group and midazolam group (P > 0.05). Adverse events occurred in all three groups. In midazolam group, there were 2 cases of excessive sedation with fall of tongue and abdominal distension, including 1 case of aspiration, 1 case receiving intubation due to refractory hypoxemia and 1 case due to unconsciousness. In dexmedetomidine group, there were 2 cases of bradycardia, 1 case of intubation due to refractory hypoxemia. In control group, 4 cases underwent intubation due to refractory hypoxemia. CONCLUSIONS: Non-invasive mechanical ventilation is an important respiratory support technology for patients with severe COVID-19. Appropriate sedation can increase the efficiency of non-invasive mechanical ventilation. Dexmedetomidine is more effective and safer than midazolam in these patients, but attention should be paid to HR and blood pressure monitoring.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Dexmedetomidina/uso terapêutico , Midazolam/uso terapêutico , Ventilação não Invasiva , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678526

RESUMO

The Psychiatric Consultation Service at Massachusetts General Hospital sees medical and surgical inpatients with comorbid psychiatric symptoms and conditions. During their twice-weekly rounds, Dr Stern and other members of the Consultation Service discuss diagnosis and management of hospitalized patients with complex medical or surgical problems who also demonstrate psychiatric symptoms or conditions. These discussions have given rise to rounds reports that will prove useful for clinicians practicing at the interface of medicine and psychiatry.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Desprescrições , Dexmedetomidina/uso terapêutico , Delírio do Despertar/diagnóstico , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/diagnóstico , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Delírio do Despertar/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Exame Neurológico , Pandemias , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Propofol/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/terapia
14.
Life Sci ; 257: 118004, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) often develop acute kidney injury (AKI) caused by myocardial ischemia reperfusion (MI/R), and this renal injury can be resolved notably by dexmedetomidine. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was reported to get involved in organ injury including AKI. OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to address the correlation between MI/R induced AKI with ER stress and to assess the effects of dexmedetomidine pretreatment on AKI protection. METHOD: Patients selected for heart valve replacement surgery were randomly assigned to NS group (pre-anesthesia with 0.9% NaCl) and DEX group (pre-anesthesia with dexmedetomidine). Rat MI/R model was induced by occluding coronary artery for 30 min followed by 48-hour reperfusion. Rats were randomized into Sham (0.9% NaCl), I/R (MI/R + 0.9% NaCl) and I/R + DEX (MI/R + dexmedetomidine). Organ function and ER stress condition were evaluated by blood chemistry, pathology, and molecular test. RESULTS: Clinical data indicated dexmedetomidine pretreatment attenuated AKI and oxidative stress as well as postischemic myocardial injury in patients. Accordingly animal results suggested dexmedetomidine reduced cellular injury and improved postischemic myocardial and renal function. Dexmedetomidine also reduced myocardial and renal cells apoptosis and down-regulated ER stress. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that dexmedetomidine pretreatment attenuates MI/R injury-induced AKI by relieving the ER stress.


Assuntos
Dexmedetomidina/farmacologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Renal Aguda/metabolismo , Lesão Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , China , Dexmedetomidina/metabolismo , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Isquemia/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/metabolismo , Reperfusão Miocárdica/métodos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/patologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Prospectivos , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Gene ; 758: 144973, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707303

RESUMO

Renal ischemia-reperfusion (rI/R) is a risk factor for acute lung injury (ALI). Alveolar macrophages (AMs) activation mediated by rI/R-induced ALI is one of the pathogeneses associated with the development of ALI. In rI/R, α2-adrenergic receptor agonists have been indicated to be effective in decreasing urea nitrogen concentrations. In this study, we explored the underlying pathogenesis of the clinically obtainable α2-adrenergic receptor agonist dexmedetomidine (DEX) in protecting against rI/R -mediated AMs activation. We incubated AMs with the serum of sham and rI/R rats in the presence or absence of various concentrations of DEX. We used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect the secretion levels of GSH, LDH, IL-18, IL-1ß, and HMGB1 in the culture supernatant. We employed real-time polymerase chain reaction to assess the expression of NOX-4 mRNA, and western blotting to observe the protein levels of NOX-4, the NLRP3 inflammasome, AMPK, and eNOS. In addition, we used immunofluorescence to analyze ROS and MMP activity. Incubation of AMs with DEX suppressed rI/R-mediated cellular LDH production and ROS release. DEX also abolished the rI/R-mediated decrease in the activity of GSH and increased the levels of the rI/R-related NADPH oxidase protein NOX-4. Furthermore, DEX reduced the amelioration of the mitochondrial potential induced by rI/R. Our study showed that DEX inhibits rI/R-mediated levels of the NLRP3 inflammasome proteins ASC, NLRP3, HMGB1 and p20, and ameliorates rI/R-mediated AMPK signaling inactivation. Therefore, DEX reduces the levels of two mediators that are activated by the NLRP3 inflammasome: IL-18 and IL-1ß. Finally, our study established that DEX mitigates the rI/R-mediated decrease in eNOS, demonstrating its protective functions against AMs activation. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that the protective action of DEX in AMs is induced through amelioration of HMGB1-NLRP3 inflammasome-AMPK signaling. Our results suggest that the anesthetic reagent DEX exerts beneficial effects to ameliorate rI/R-induced ALI.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/prevenção & controle , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/farmacologia , Dexmedetomidina/farmacologia , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , Isquemia/patologia , Macrófagos Alveolares/patologia , NADPH Oxidase 4/biossíntese , NADPH Oxidase 4/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Ratos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
16.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 40(7): 1013-1017, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701242

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of dexmedetomidine combined with pulmonary protective ventilation against lung injury in patients undergoing surgeries for esophageal cancer with one-lung ventilation (OLV). METHODS: Forty patients with undergoing surgery for esophageal cancer with OLV were randomly divided into pulmonary protective ventilation strategy group (F group) and dexmedetomidine combined with protective ventilation strategy group (DF group; n=20). In F group, lung protective ventilation strategy during anesthesia was adopte, and in DF group, the patients received intravenous infusion of dexmedetomidine hydrochloride (0.3 µg · kg-1 ·h-1) during the surgery starting at 10 min before anesthesia induction in addition to protective ventilation strategy. Brachial artery blood was sampled before ventilation (T0), at 30 and 90 min after the start of OLV (T1 and T2, respectively) and at the end of the surgery (T3) for analysis of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), arterial oxygenation pressure (PaO2), oxygenation index (OI) and lung compliance (CL). RESULTS: At the time points of T1, T2 and T3, SOD level was significantly higher and IL-6 level was significantly lower in the DF group than in F group (P < 0.05). The patients in DF group showed significantly higher PaO2, OI and CL index than those in F group at all the 3 time points. CONCLUSIONS: Dexmedetomidine combined with pulmonary protective ventilation strategy can reduce perioperative lung injury in patients undergoing surgery for esophageal cancer with OLV by suppressing inflammation and oxidative stress to improve lung function and reduce adverse effects of the surgery.


Assuntos
Dexmedetomidina , Neoplasias Esofágicas , Ventilação Monopulmonar , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/farmacologia , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Dexmedetomidina/farmacologia , Dexmedetomidina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirurgia , Humanos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/cirurgia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(29): e21060, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative sore throat (POST) is an important concern in surgical patients undergoing endotracheal intubation. Its prevalence after thyroidectomy is up to 80%. The current study aimed to assess the effect of dexmedetomidine and remifentanil on postoperative sore throat. METHODS: Seventy-four patients who underwent thyroidectomy were randomized to receive either dexmedetomidine (group D) or remifentanil (group R). At anesthesia induction, group D received dexmedetomidine 1 µg/kg over 10 minutes, followed by continuous dexmedetomidine infusion at 0.3 to 0.6 µg/kg/hour during surgery. Group R received remifentanil of 3 to 4 ng/ml during induction, followed by 1.5 to 2.5 ng/ml remifentanil infusion during surgery. POST at rest and swallowing was assessed during the first 24 hours in serial time periods (0-1, 1-6, and 6-24 hours). Hoarseness and postoperative pain score were also assessed. RESULTS: POST incidence at rest (0-1, 1-6, and 6-24 hours) and swallowing (1-6 and 6-24 hours) was lower in group D than in group R. POST severity was significantly lower in group D than in group R during each time period. The incidence of postoperative hoarseness was also lower in group D than in group R at 1 to 6 and 6 to 24 hours. The postoperative pain score was lower in group D than in group R during each time period. CONCLUSION: Intraoperative dexmedetomidine infusion reduced the incidence and severity of POST for 24 hours after thyroidectomy.


Assuntos
Dexmedetomidina/uso terapêutico , Faringite/tratamento farmacológico , Faringite/etiologia , Período Pós-Operatório , Remifentanil/uso terapêutico , Tireoidectomia/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/normas , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos Opioides/normas , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Dexmedetomidina/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Remifentanil/normas , Tireoidectomia/métodos
20.
s.l; s.n; 3 jun. 2020.
Não convencional em Espanhol | LILACS, BRISA/RedTESA, PIE | ID: biblio-1099470

RESUMO

O Informe Diário de Evidências é uma produção do Ministério da Saúde que tem como objetivo acompanhar diariamente as publicações científicas sobre tratamento farmacológico e vacinas para a COVID-19. Dessa forma, são realizadas buscas estruturadas em bases de dados biomédicas, referente ao dia anterior desse informe. Não são incluídos estudos pré-clínicos (in vitro, in vivo, in silico). A frequência dos estudos é demonstrada de acordo com a sua classificação metodológica (revisões sistemáticas, ensaios clínicos randomizados, coortes, entre outros). Para cada estudo é apresentado um resumo com avaliação da qualidade metodológica. Essa avaliação tem por finalidade identificar o grau de certeza/confiança ou o risco de viés de cada estudo. Para tal, são utilizadas ferramentas já validadas e consagradas na literatura científica, na área de saúde baseada em evidências. Cabe ressaltar que o documento tem caráter informativo e não representa uma recomendação oficial do Ministério da Saúde sobre a temática. Foram encontrados 16 artigos.


Assuntos
Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Interferons/uso terapêutico , Ciclosporina/uso terapêutico , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Dexmedetomidina/uso terapêutico , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Leflunomida/uso terapêutico , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico
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