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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(9): e19001, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intranasal dexmedetomidine is a relatively new way to sedate young children undergoing nonpainful diagnostic procedures. We performed a meta-analysis to compare the efficacy and safety of intranasal dexmedetomidine in young children with those of oral chloral hydrate, which has been a commonly used method for decades. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for all randomized controlled trials that compared intranasal dexmedetomidine with oral chloral hydrate in children undergoing diagnostic procedures. Data on success rate of sedation, onset time, recovery time, and adverse effects were extracted and respectively analyzed. RESULTS: Five studies with a total of 720 patients met the inclusion criteria. Intranasal dexmedetomidine provided significant higher success rate of sedation (relative risk [RR], 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 1.24; P = .02; I = 74%) than oral chloral hydrate. Furthermore, it experienced significantly shorter onset time (weight mean difference [WMD], -1.79; 95% CI, -3.23 to -0.34; P = .02; I = 69%). Nevertheless, there were no statistically differences in recovery time (WMD, -10.53; 95% CI, -24.17 to 3.11; P = .13; I = 92%) and the proportion of patients back to normal activities (RR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.77-1.60; P = .57; I = 0%). Intranasal dexmedetomidine was associated with a significantly lower incidence of nausea and vomiting (RR, 0.05; 95% CI, 0.01-0.22; P < .0001; I = 0%) than oral chloral hydrate. Although adverse events such as bradycardia, hypotension and hypoxia were not synthetized due to lack of data, no clinical interventions except oxygen supplementation were required in any patients. CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis revealed that intranasal dexmedetomidine is possibly a more effective and acceptable sedation method for infants and toddlers undergoing diagnostic procedures than oral chloral hydrate. Additionally, it shows similar safety profile and could be a potential alternative to oral chloral hydrate.


Assuntos
Hidrato de Cloral/administração & dosagem , Sedação Profunda/métodos , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Administração Intranasal , Administração Oral , Pré-Escolar , Hidrato de Cloral/efeitos adversos , Dexmedetomidina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/efeitos adversos , Lactente
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(3): e18825, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) has been suggested as an effective method of pain relief. There are several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of dexmedetomidine (DEX) combined with tramadol for PCIA in Chinese surgical patients. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of DEX combined with tramadol for PCIA in Chinese surgical patients from current data. METHODS: The RCTs of DEX combined with tramadol for PCIA were gathered from the PubMed, Excerpta Medica Database, Cochrane Library, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure database, and VIP databases. After data extraction and quality assessment of the included RCTs, RevMan 5.3 software was employed for the meta-analysis of visual analog scale (VAS) scores, Ramsay sedation scores, effective pressure times for PCIA, tramadol consumption, and safety. RESULTS: Fourteen RCTs were included. Compared with tramadol alone, postoperative intravenous tramadol-DEX combination PCA led to lower VAS scores (weighted mean differences [WMD]12h = 0.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] v1.50 to 1.79; WMD24h = 0.78, 95% CI -0.92 to -0.62; WMD48h = 0.51, 95% CI -0.66 to -0.38; all P < .05), lower Ramsay sedation scores (WMD24h = 0.08, 95% CI -0.14 to -0.02; WMD48h = 0.09, 95% CI -0.11 to -0.07; all P < .05), and less postoperative tramadol consumption (WMD0-24h = -102.59 mg, 95% CI -149.68 to -55.49; WMD0-48h = -152.91 mg, 95% CI -259.93 to -45.89; all P < .05). With regard to safety, there was a significant difference between DEX-tramadol and tramadol for PCIA in terms of the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting, dizziness, chills, and restlessness (all P < .05). CONCLUSION: According to the domestic evidence, this systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that DEX-tramadol PCIA is superior to tramadol in terms of analgesic efficacy and safety for Chinese surgical patients. However, because of some clear limitations (sample size and heterogeneity), these results should be interpreted with caution. Further large-scale and well-designed studies are needed to summarize and analyze the data to draw a more convincing conclusion.


Assuntos
Analgesia Controlada pelo Paciente , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Tramadol/administração & dosagem , Administração Intravenosa , China , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos
3.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 868-873, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926517

RESUMO

Blue poison dart frogs (Dendrobates tinctorius azureus) are commonly maintained in zoological institutions and are becoming popular in the pet trade industry. Sedation or light anesthesia is required for safe and effective handling of this species. In this study, the sedative effects of subcutaneously administered alfaxalone-midazolam-dexmedetomidine (AMD) (20, 40, 5 mg/kg, respectively) and ketamine-midazolam-dexmedetomidine (KMD) (100, 40, 5 mg/kg, respectively) were compared in a prospective, randomized, blinded, crossover study in juvenile blue poison dart frogs (n = 10). Both protocols were partially reversed 45 min after administration of either protocol with subcutaneously administered flumazenil (0.05 mg/kg) and atipamezole (50 mg/kg). Heart rate, pulmonic respiratory rate, various reflexes, and behavioral parameters were monitored after drug administration. Both protocols resulted in rapid loss of righting reflex [median (range): AMD, 5 min (5-5 min); KMD, 5 min (5-10 min)]. Time to complete recovery was similar with both protocols (mean ± SD: AMD, 97.5 ± 11.4 min; KMD, 96.5 ± 25.4 min). The AMD protocol resulted in pulmonic respiratory depression, whereas no significant difference in heart rate was found between the two protocols. All frogs were observed eating within 24 hr of chemical restraint. Gastric prolapses occurred in four frogs (AMD 3, KMD 1) that were easily reduced with a cotton-tip application. No other adverse reactions were observed. The results of this study provide two different subcutaneous chemical restraint protocols in juvenile blue poison dart frogs.


Assuntos
Dexmedetomidina/farmacologia , Midazolam/farmacologia , Pregnanodionas/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/farmacologia , Envelhecimento , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Anestésicos/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos/farmacologia , Animais , Antídotos/administração & dosagem , Antídotos/farmacologia , Anuros , Sedação Consciente , Estudos Cross-Over , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Quimioterapia Combinada , Flumazenil/administração & dosagem , Flumazenil/farmacologia , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Ketamina/farmacologia , Midazolam/administração & dosagem , Pregnanodionas/administração & dosagem
4.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 53(1): e8645, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859910

RESUMO

Data about the feasibility and safety of thoracoscopic surgery under non-intubated anesthesia and regional block are limited. In this prospective study, 57 consecutive patients scheduled for thoracoscopic surgery were enrolled. Patients were sedated with dexmedetomidine and anesthetized with propofol and remifentanil. Ropivacaine was used for intercostal nerve and paravertebral block. Lidocaine was used for vagal block. The primary outcomes were mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), oxygen saturation, and end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (ETCO2) at T0 (pre-anesthesia), T1 (immediately after laryngeal mask/nasopharyngeal airway placement), T2 (immediately after skin incision), T3 (10 min after opening the chest), T4 (end of surgery), and T5 (immediately after laryngeal mask/nasopharyngeal airway removal). One patient required conversion to intubation, 15 developed intraoperative hypotension, and two had hypoxemia. MAP at T0 and T5 was higher than at T1-T4; MAP at T3 was lower (P<0.05 vs other time points). HR at T0 and T5 was higher (P<0.05 vs other time points). ETCO2 at T2 and T3 was higher (P<0.05 vs other time points). Arterial pH, PCO2, and lactic acid at T1 differed from values at T0 and T2 (P<0.05). The Quality of Recovery-15 (QoR-15) score at 24 h was lower (P<0.05). One patient experienced dysphoria during recovery. Thoracoscopic surgery with regional block under direct thoracoscopic vision is a feasible and safe alternative to conventional surgery under general anesthesia, intubation, and one-lung ventilation.


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral/métodos , Máscaras Laríngeas , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Toracoscopia/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Propofol/administração & dosagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Remifentanil/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
5.
Acta Cir Bras ; 34(9): e201900905, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800679

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate efficacy of combined use of parecoxib and dexmedetomidine on postoperative pain and early cognitive dysfunction after laparoscopic cholecystectomy for elderly patients. METHODS: The present prospective randomized controlled study included a total of 80 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy surgery during January 2016 to November 2017 in our hospital. All patients were randomly divided into 4 groups, the parecoxib group, the dexmedetomidine group, the parecoxib and dexmedetomidine combined group, and the control group. Demographic data and clinical data were collected. Indexes of heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), levels of jugular venous oxygen saturation (SjvO2) and jugular venous oxygen pressure (PjvO2) were recorded at different time points before and during the surgery. The mini-mental state examination (MMSE) score, Ramsay score and Visual Analogue Score (VAS) were measured. RESULTS: Levels of both SjvO2 and PjvO2 were significantly higher in parecoxib group, dexmedetomidine group and the combined group than the control group. Meanwhile, levels of both SjvO2 and PjvO2 in the combined group were the highest. VAS scores were significantly lower in the combined group than all other groups, and total patient controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) pressing times within 48 h after surgery were the lowest in the combined group. Both Ramsay and MMSE scores were the highest in the combined group compared with other groups, while were the lowest in the control group. CONCLUSION: The combined use of parecoxib and dexmedetomidine could reduce the postoperative pain and improve the postoperative sedation and cognitive conditions of patients after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/administração & dosagem , Colecistectomia Laparoscópica/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/administração & dosagem , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Isoxazóis/administração & dosagem , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , /tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise de Variância , Pressão Arterial/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(48): e17983, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The anesthetic-sparing effect of dexmedetomidine has led to its use as a general adjuvant. The present study aimed to determine intravenous infusion of dexmedetomidine to epidural analgesia after open thoracotomy. METHODS: Forty-four patients scheduled for admission to the intensive care unit after open thoracotomy were divided into 2 groups. An epidural catheter was placed at T4 to T7. Thirty minutes before the end of thoracotomy, group D was injected with 0.3 µg/kg/h of dexmedetomidine and group C received an equal dose of normal saline. For patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA), 150 mL of levobupivacaine 300 mg was infused at a rate of 1 mL/h, plus a bolus dose of 3 mL with a lockout time of 30 minutes. The primary outcome evaluated was analgesic efficacy using a visual analog scale (VAS) 48 hours postoperatively. Other outcomes included additional analgesic use, total consumed local analgesia via PCEA, sedation score, blood pressure, heart rate, arterial blood gases, patient satisfaction, and adverse effects. RESULTS: The VAS scores in group D were significantly lower than that in group C immediately, 1, 4, 12, 36, and 48 hours after admission to the intensive care unit (P = .016, .009, .015, .002, .001, and .042, respectively). The total dose of additional analgesic was also significantly lower in group D (P = .011). Patient satisfaction was higher in group D (P < .05). There were no significant differences in the other outcomes between groups. CONCLUSION: Intravenous infusion of dexmedetomidine amplifies thoracic epidural analgesic effect after open thoracotomy.


Assuntos
Analgesia Epidural/métodos , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Toracotomia/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Analgesia Controlada pelo Paciente/métodos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Levobupivacaína/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Estudos Prospectivos , Vértebras Torácicas , Toracotomia/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 21(1): 4, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728769

RESUMO

The purpose of present study was to develop a controlled release drug-in-adhesive patch for transdermal delivery of dexmedetomidine (Dex) using ion-pair technique. Based on the in vitro transdermal experiment, the role of ion-pair on the Dex release behavior and percutaneous absorption process was also investigated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), molecular modeling, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and rheological test were conducted to probe the effect of ion-pair on the Dex release from patch. Besides, the tape stripping test, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), and molecular simulation were carried out to elaborate the action of ion-pair on the Dex percutaneous permeation process. Results showed that the optimized patch prepared with Dex-salicylic acid (SA) showed zero-order skin permeation profile within 24 h; Dex-SA had greater hydrogen bonding formation potential with pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) than Dex, which resulted in the decrease in the formation ability of free volume of PSA and the increase with the improvement of mechanical strength and chain stiffness of PSA and thus controlled the release rate of Dex from transdermal patch. Besides, the physicochemical properties of Dex such as molecular weight and octanol/water partition coefficient were changed after forming ion-pair with SA, which decreased the permeation ability of Dex. In conclusion, a controlled release drug-adhesive patch for Dex was developed and the mechanism study of ion-pair on the Dex release and percutaneous permeation process was proposed at molecular level.


Assuntos
Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Adesivos , Animais , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Dexmedetomidina/química , Dexmedetomidina/farmacocinética , Ligações de Hidrogênio , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/química , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacocinética , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Peso Molecular , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Reologia , Ácido Salicílico/química , Absorção Cutânea , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Termodinâmica , Adesivo Transdérmico
8.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 13: 3307-3319, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571832

RESUMO

Purpose: Hyaluronic acid-poly(ethylene glycol)-distearoyl phosphoethanolamine (HA-PEG-DSPE) modified and tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) contained nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) were prepared loading ropivacaine and dexmedetomidine to improve the topical anesthetic analgesic anesthesia efficiency. Methods: NLCs were prepared by the solvent diffusion method. The average particle size, zeta potential, release behavior, and cytotoxicity of the NLCs were tested. Ex vivo skin permeation was studied using a Franz diffusion cell mounted with depilated rat skin. Local anesthesia antinociceptive efficiency was evaluated by rat tail flick latency study in vivo. Results: NLCs have sizes of about 100 nm, with negative zeta potentials. All the NLCs formulations were found to be significantly less cytotoxic than free drugs at equivalent concentrations. The cumulative amount of drugs penetrated through rat skin from NLCs was 2.0-4.7 folds higher than that of the drugs solution. The in vivo anesthesia antinociception study displayed that NLCs showed stronger and longer anesthesia antinociceptive effect when compared with single drugs loaded NLCs and drugs solution even at a lower dosage of drugs. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that the HA modified, TPGS contained, dual drugs loaded NLCs could perform a synergistic effect and may reduce the amount of drugs, which can lower the toxicity of the system and at the meanwhile, increase the anesthesia antinociceptive efficiency.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Ropivacaina/administração & dosagem , Administração Cutânea , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Anestésicos Locais/farmacologia , Animais , Células 3T3 BALB , Dexmedetomidina/farmacologia , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Ácido Hialurônico , Lipídeos , Camundongos , Nanopartículas , Nanoestruturas/administração & dosagem , Tamanho da Partícula , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/administração & dosagem , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/farmacologia , Polietilenoglicóis/administração & dosagem , Polietilenoglicóis/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ropivacaina/farmacologia , Absorção Cutânea , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem
9.
Br J Anaesth ; 123(6): 839-852, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine (DEX) is increasingly used intraoperatively in infants undergoing cardiac surgery. This phase 1 multicentre study sought to: (i) determine the safety of DEX for cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass; (ii) determine the pharmacokinetics (PK) of DEX; (iii) create a PK model and dosing for steady-state DEX plasma levels; and (iv) validate the PK model and dosing. METHODS: We included 122 neonates and infants (0-180 days) with D-transposition of the great arteries, ventricular septal defect, or tetralogy of Fallot. Dose escalation was used to generate NONMEM® PK modelling, and then validation was performed to achieve low (200-300 pg ml-1), medium (400-500 pg ml-1), and high (600-700 pg ml-1) DEX plasma concentrations. RESULTS: Five of 122 subjects had adverse safety outcomes (4.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-9.2%). Two had junctional rhythm, two had second-/third-degree atrioventricular block, and one had hypotension. Clearance (CL) immediately postoperative and CL on CPB were reduced by approximately 50% and 95%, respectively, compared with pre-CPB CL. DEX clearance after CPB was 1240 ml min-1 70 kg-1. Age at 50% maximum clearance was approximately 2 days, and that at 90% maximum clearance was 18 days. Overall, 96.1% of measured DEX concentrations fell within the 5th-95th percentile prediction intervals in the PK model validation. Dosing strategies are recommended for steady-state DEX plasma levels ranging from 200 to 1000 pg ml-1. CONCLUSIONS: When used with a careful dosing strategy, DEX results in low incidence and severity of adverse safety events in infants undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. This validated PK model should assist clinicians in selecting appropriate dosing. The results of this phase 1 trial provide preliminary data for a phase 3 trial of DEX neuroprotection. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT01915277.


Assuntos
Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Dexmedetomidina/efeitos adversos , Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino
10.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 60(12): 3830-3834, 2019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529079

RESUMO

Purpose: To compare the effects of both injectable anesthesia (ketamine/dexmedetomidine versus ketamine/xylazine) and inhalant anesthesia (isoflurane) on IOP using continuous, bilateral IOP telemetry in nonhuman primates (NHP). Methods: Bilateral IOP was recorded continuously using a proven implantable telemetry system in five different sessions at least 2 weeks apart in four male rhesus macaques under two conditions: ketamine (3 mg/kg) with dexmedetomidine (50 µg/kg) or ketamine with xylazine (0.5 mg/kg) for induction, both followed by isoflurane for maintenance. IOP transducers were calibrated via anterior chamber manometry. Bilateral IOP was averaged over 2 minutes after injectable anesthetic induction and again after isoflurane inhalant had stabilized the anesthetic plane, then compared to baseline IOP measurements acquired immediately prior to anesthesia (both before and after initial human contact). Results: When compared to pre-contact baseline measurements, ketamine/dexmedetomidine injectable anesthesia lowers IOP by 1.5 mm Hg on average (P < 0.05), but IOP did not change with ketamine/xylazine anesthesia. IOP returned to baseline levels shortly after isoflurane gas anesthesia was initiated. However, injectable anesthesia lowered IOP by an average of 5.4 mm Hg when compared to that measured after initial human contact (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Anesthetic effects on IOP are generally small when compared to precontact baseline but much larger when compared to IOP measures taken after human contact, indicating that IOP is temporarily elevated due to acute stress (similar to a "white coat effect") and then decreased with anesthetic relaxation. Anesthetic induction with ketamine/xylazine and maintenance with isoflurane gas should be used when IOP is measured postanesthesia.


Assuntos
Anestesia/métodos , Anestésicos Combinados/administração & dosagem , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Pressão Intraocular/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoflurano/administração & dosagem , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Xilazina/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Dissociativos/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Inalatórios/administração & dosagem , Animais , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Telemetria/métodos , Tonometria Ocular
11.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 6782-6787, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND This study aimed to investigate effects of intra-operative administration with dexmedetomidine (Dex) on hemodynamics and renal function in patients with malignant obstructive jaundice. MATERIAL AND METHODS Our randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was conducted among 40 patients with malignant obstructive jaundice between August 2009 and March 2011 in The Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University. The 40 patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: the Dex group (receiving Dex 0.5 µg/kg 10-minutes before induction and then a 0.5 µg/kg/hour maintenance infusion until end of operation 30 minutes) and the Control group (receiving normal saline of same amount and at same rate). The adverse events, including incidence of cardiovascular complications and nausea and vomiting, and length of hospital stay were determined. The level of cystatin C (CysC), retinol-binding protein (RBP), creatinine (Scr), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were also evaluated. RESULTS Dexmedetomidine administration significantly decreased heart rate (HR) and stroke volume variation (SVV) and significantly increased capital venous pressure (CVP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) values compared to that in the Control group (P<0.05). Dexmedetomidine administration significantly upregulated urine volume and significantly downregulated atropine levels compared to the Control group (P<0.05). Dexmedetomidine administration significantly improved renal functions, by modulating CysC, RBP, Scr and BUN levels compared to the Control group (P<0.05). Dexmedetomidine administration demonstrated no additional side-effects. Dexmedetomidine administration significantly shortened length of hospitalization in the Dex group compared to the Control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Dexmedetomidine plays preventive effects on renal dysfunction and hemodynamic stability in malignant obstructive jaundice patients during peri-operative period.


Assuntos
Dexmedetomidina/uso terapêutico , Hemodinâmica , Icterícia Obstrutiva/fisiopatologia , Icterícia Obstrutiva/cirurgia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Atropina/urina , Transfusão de Sangue , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Dexmedetomidina/farmacologia , Feminino , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Micção/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Vet J ; 251: 105346, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492384

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to compare the sedative and cardiovascular effects of dexmedetomidine (DEX) administrated via intranasal (IN) and intramuscular (IM) routes. This masked, randomised, crossover study used six male beagle dogs, receiving 0.02 mg/kg dexmedetomidine either IN (DEX-IN) or IM (DEX-IM), and an equal volume of saline by the alternative route. Dexmedetomidine plasma concentration was measured before (TB) and at time points (T) 2, 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after drug administration (T0). Physiological variables, sedation scores and sedation times were recorded until recovery. Echocardiography was performed at TB and between T20-T40. Repeated data over time were analysed using a Scheirer-Ray-Hare test. Other data were compared using a Wilcoxon or Student's t test. Times from T0 to sternal position and from lateral to sternal position were longer for DEX-IN than DEX-IM (P = 0.018 and P = 0.009, respectively). Time from sternal to standing position was shorter for DEX-IN than DEX-IM (P = 0.03). Dexmedetomidine plasma concentrations were significantly lower for DEX-IN than DEX-IM from T10 to T120. Heart rate was significantly lower for DEX-IM than DEX-IN from T5 to T20. Echocardiography showed a decrease in systolic function and calculated cardiac output in DEX-IM as compared to baseline. The DEX concentration-sedation curve for DEX-IN as compared to DEX-IM was leftward shifted, whereas the IN and IM DEX concentration-variation-in-heart-rate curves overlapped. Although reaching lower plasma concentrations, IN dexmedetomidine produced similar sedation to IM dexmedetomidine without affecting cardiovascular function.


Assuntos
Administração Intranasal/veterinária , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Dexmedetomidina/farmacocinética , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacocinética , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Débito Cardíaco/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Cross-Over , Dexmedetomidina/sangue , Cães , Ecocardiografia/veterinária , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória
13.
Am J Vet Res ; 80(10): 969-975, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556717

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of the injectable formulation of dexmedetomidine administered via the oral transmucosal (OTM) route to healthy dogs. ANIMALS: 6 healthy dogs. PROCEDURES: Injectable dexmedetomidine was administered IV (5 µg/kg) or via the OTM route (20 µg/kg) in a blinded, single-observer, randomized crossover study. Dogs received dexmedetomidine and a sham treatment at each administration. Serial blood samples were collected from a catheter in a saphenous vein. Heart rate, respiratory rate, and subjective sedation score were assessed for 24 hours after administration. Plasma samples were analyzed for dexmedetomidine concentrations by use of ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: For the OTM route, the mean ± SD maximum plasma concentration was 3.8 ± 1.3 ng/mL, which was detected 73 ± 33 minutes after administration. The mean maximum concentration for the IV dose, when extrapolated to the time of administration, was 18.6 ± 3.3 ng/mL. The mean terminal-phase half-life was 152 ± 146 minutes and 36 ± 6 minutes for OTM and IV administration, respectively. After IV administration, total clearance was 8.0 ± 1.6 mL/min/kg and volume of distribution at steady state was 371 ± 72 mL/kg. Bioavailability for OTM administration of dexmedetomidine was 11.2 ± 4.5%. Peak sedation scores did not differ significantly between routes of administration. Decreases in heart rate, respiratory rate, and peak sedation score were evident sooner after IV administration. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: OTM administration of the injectable formulation of dexmedetomidine resulted in a similar degree of sedation and prolonged duration of action, compared with results for IV administration, despite relatively low bioavailability.


Assuntos
Dexmedetomidina/farmacocinética , Cães/metabolismo , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacocinética , Administração Intravenosa , Administração através da Mucosa , Administração Oral , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cromatografia Líquida , Estudos Cross-Over , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Meia-Vida , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Taxa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Vet Anaesth Analg ; 46(5): 627-635, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395482

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine dexmedetomidine plasma concentrations at two infusion rates in isoflurane anaesthetized horses and compare cardiovascular effects and anaesthetic recovery between treatments. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, masked clinical study. ANIMALS: Healthy, adult, client-owned, non-food producing horses presented for castration. METHODS: Premedication consisted of acepromazine, romifidine and morphine, and anaesthesia was induced with ketamine and midazolam. The horses were randomized to receive dexmedetomidine 0.5 µg kg-1 hour-1 (treatment DL, n = 7) or 1.75 µg kg-1 hour-1 (treatment DH, n = 7) for 90 minutes of isoflurane anaesthesia at an end-tidal concentration of 1.2%. Venous plasma concentrations were determined with liquid chromatography-electrospray-ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Jugular venous and arterial blood was sampled for blood gas analysis at the start and end of the infusion. Changes in cardiovascular variables from the start to the end of the infusion, and recovery parameters were statistically compared between treatments. RESULTS: Fourteen male horses, 2-6 years old, 325-536 kg were included. Mean ± standard deviation dexmedetomidine plasma concentrations at 30, 60 and 90 minutes with treatment DL were 0.22 ± 0.05, 0.29 ± 0.07 and 0.33 ± 0.08 ng mL-1, and with treatment DH were 0.65 ± 0.11, 0.89 ± 0.10 and 1.01 ± 0.10 ng mL-1. The 95% confidence interval for change minute-1 in dexmedetomidine plasma concentrations between 75 and 90 minutes was 0-1% for both treatments. With treatment DH, the heart rate decreased significantly more from the beginning to the end of the infusion compared to DL (p = 0.043). No other significant differences were found between treatments in cardiovascular or recovery parameters. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Infusion of dexmedetomidine in isoflurane anaesthetized horses resulted in plasma concentrations with low variation at both infusion rates, approaching stable levels after 75 minutes of infusion. No differences of clinical importance were found when comparing cardiovascular variables and quality of recovery between treatments.


Assuntos
Anestesia/veterinária , Anestésicos Inalatórios , Dexmedetomidina/farmacocinética , Cavalos/fisiologia , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacocinética , Isoflurano , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Animais , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Dexmedetomidina/sangue , Cavalos/metabolismo , Cavalos/cirurgia , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/sangue , Masculino , Orquiectomia , Estudos Prospectivos , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
J Clin Psychopharmacol ; 39(5): 446-454, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433347

RESUMO

PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: As a sole agent, ketamine acutely compromises driving ability; however, performance after coadministration with the adjuvant sedating agents dexmedetomidine or fentanyl is unclear. METHODS/PROCEDURES: Using a randomized within-subject design, 39 participants (mean ± SD age, 28.4 ± 5.8 years) received 0.3 mg/kg bolus followed by 0.15 mg kg h infusion of ketamine (3-hour duration), in addition to either (i) 0.7 µg kg h infusion of dexmedetomidine for 1.5 hours (n = 19; KET/DEX) or (ii) three 25 µg fentanyl injections for 1.5 hours (n = 20; KET/FENT). Whole blood drug concentrations were determined during ketamine only, at coadministration (KET/DEX or KET/FENT) and at 2 hours after treatment. Subjective effects were determined using a standardized visual analog scale. Driving performance was assessed at baseline and at posttreatment using a validated computerized driving simulator. Primary outcomes included SD of lateral position (SDLP) and steering variability (SV). FINDINGS/RESULTS: Administration of ketamine with dexmedetomidine but not fentanyl significantly increased SDLP (F1,18 = 22.60, P < 0.001) and reduced SV (F1,18 = 164.42, P < 0.001) 2 hours after treatment. These deficits were comparatively greater for the KET/DEX group than for the KET/FENT group (t37 = -5.21 [P < 0.001] and t37 = 5.22 [P < 0.001], (respectively). For the KET/DEX group, vehicle control (SV) and self-rated performance (visual analog scale), but not SDLP, was inversely associated with ketamine and norketamine blood concentrations (in nanograms per milliliter). Greater subjective effects were moderately associated with driving deficits. IMPLICATIONS/CONCLUSIONS: Driving simulator performance is significantly compromised after coadministration of analgesic range doses of ketamine with dexmedetomidine but not fentanyl. An extended period of supervised driver abstinence is recommended after treatment, with completion of additional assessments to evaluate home readiness.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Fentanila/administração & dosagem , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Simulação por Computador , Dexmedetomidina/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Fentanila/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/efeitos adversos , Ketamina/efeitos adversos , Ketamina/análogos & derivados , Ketamina/farmacocinética , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
16.
Rev Bras Anestesiol ; 69(4): 369-376, 2019.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: One of the disadvantages of unilateral spinal anesthesia is the short duration of post-operative analgesia, which can be addressed by adding adjuvants to local anesthetics. The aim of current study was to compare the effects of adding dexmedetomidine, fentanyl, or saline to bupivacaine on the properties of unilateral spinal anesthesia in patients undergoing calf surgery. METHODS: In this double-blind clinical trial, 90 patients who underwent elective calf surgery were randomly divided into three groups. The spinal anesthetic rate in each of the three groups was 1mL bupivacaine 0.5% (5mg). In groups BD, BF and BS, 5µg of dexmedetomidine, 25µg of fentanyl and 0.5mL saline were added, respectively. The duration of the motor and sensory blocks in both limbs and the rate of pain during 24h after surgery were calculated. Hemodynamic changes were also measured during anesthesia for up to 90min. RESULTS: The duration of both of motor and sensory block was significantly longer in dependent limb in the BF (96 and 169min) and BD (92 and 166min) groups than the BS (84 and 157min) group. Visual Analog Scale was significantly lower in the two groups of BF (1.4) and BD (1.3), within 24h after surgery, than the BS (1.6) group. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of fentanyl and dexmedetomidine to bupivacaine in unilateral spinal anesthesia can increase the duration of the motor and sensory block in dependent limb and prolong the duration of postoperative pain. However, fentanyl is more effective than dexmedetomidine.


Assuntos
Raquianestesia/métodos , Bupivacaína/administração & dosagem , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Fentanila/administração & dosagem , Adjuvantes Anestésicos/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
17.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 276(11): 3095-3104, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363901

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Intense bleeding of the surgical field is a potential factor influencing success of functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). Hypotensive anesthesia with α2 intravenous agonists reduces intraoperative bleeding, but which is the best agent is unknown. The main objective of this trial was to compare the current standard adjuvant drug for hypotensive anesthesia, clonidine, with the recently available alternative dexmedetomidine. METHODS: A randomized clinical trial compared the efficacy of clonidine and dexmedetomidine during FESS. Treatment was open label for the anesthesiologist and operating surgeon, but blind for an external evaluator who evaluated video-recorded surgeries. A Boezaart scale was assessed every 30 min during FESS until surgery completion. Main end-point was the proportion of patients with mean Boezaart scores > 2 (heavy bleeding) by external blinded evaluator. Secondary end-points included other bleeding parameters, surgery duration, hemodynamic measures and surgical complications. RESULTS: 94 patients were randomized. There were no significant differences in the proportion of patients with mean Boezaart scores > 2 in clonidine (42.6%) and dexmedetomidine (42.6%). Consistently, no differences were observed in secondary variables of bleeding, duration or complications. Small differences in mean heart rate were observed that might reflect different pharmacological profiles of the products, but are of uncertain clinical relevance. CONCLUSIONS: No significant differences were observed between clonidine and dexmedetomidine when used as anesthetic adjuvants in the reduction of surgical bleeding in FESS. A longer experience with clonidine and its lower costs suggest it may be a preferable option as an adjuvant for hypotensive anesthesia.


Assuntos
Anestesia/métodos , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Clonidina , Dexmedetomidina , Endoscopia , Seios Paranasais/cirurgia , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/administração & dosagem , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/efeitos adversos , Doença Crônica , Clonidina/administração & dosagem , Clonidina/efeitos adversos , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Dexmedetomidina/efeitos adversos , Endoscopia/efeitos adversos , Endoscopia/métodos , Feminino , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pólipos Nasais/cirurgia , Duração da Cirurgia , Rinite/cirurgia , Sinusite/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(35): e17012, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Percutaneous tracheostomy, almost associated with cough reflex and hemodynamic fluctuations, is a common procedure for traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients, especially those in neurosurgery intensive care units (NICUs). However, there are currently a lack of effective preventive measures to reduce the risk of secondary brain injury. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of dexmedetomidine (DEX) vs sufentanil during percutaneous tracheostomy in TBI patients. METHODS: The 196 TBI patients who underwent percutaneous tracheostomy were randomized divided into 3 groups: group D1 (n = 62, DEX infusion at 0.5 µg·kg for 10 minutes, then adjusted to 0.2-0.7 µg·kg·hour), group D2 (n = 68, DEX infusion at 1 µg·kg for 10 minutes, then adjusted to 0.2-0.7 µg·kg·hour), and group S (n = 66, sufentanil infusion 0.3 µg·kg for 10 minutes, then adjusted to 0.2-0.4 µg·kg·hour). The bispectral index (BIS) of all patients was maintained at 50 to 70 during surgery. Anesthesia onset time, hemodynamic variables, total cumulative dose of DEX/sufentanil, total doses of rescue propofol and fentanyl, time to first dose of rescue propofol and fentanyl, number of intraoperative patient movements and cough reflexes, adverse events, and surgeon satisfaction score were recorded. RESULTS: Anesthesia onset time was significantly lower in group D2 than in both other groups (14.35 ±â€Š3.23 vs 12.42 ±â€Š2.12 vs 13.88 ±â€Š3.51 minutes in groups D1, D2, and S, respectively; P < .001). Both heart rate and mean arterial pressure during percutaneous tracheostomy were more stable in group D2. Total doses of rescue propofol and fentanyl were significantly lower in group D2 than in group D1 (P < .001). The time to first dose of rescue propofol and fentanyl were significantly longer in group D2 than in both other groups (P < .001). The number of patient movements and cough reflexes during percutaneous tracheostomy were lower in group D2 than in both other groups (P < .001). The overall incidences of tachycardia and hypertension (which required higher doses of esmolol and urapidil, respectively) were also lower in group D2 than in both other groups (P < .05). Three patients in group S had respiratory depression compared to X in the D1 group and X in the D2 group. The surgeon satisfaction score was significantly higher in group D2 than in both other groups (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: During percutaneous tracheostomy, compared with sufentanil, DEX (1 µg·kg for 10 minutes, then adjusted to 0.2-0.7 µg·kg·hour) can provide the desired attenuation of the hemodynamic response without increased adverse events. Consequently, DEX could be used safely and effectively during percutaneous tracheostomy in TBI patients.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/cirurgia , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Sufentanil/administração & dosagem , Traqueostomia/métodos , Adulto , Tosse/prevenção & controle , Dexmedetomidina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/efeitos adversos , Laringismo/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sufentanil/efeitos adversos
19.
Gene ; 719: 144080, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454541

RESUMO

Trigeminal neuropathic pain is seen as a huge clinical challenge. Although numerous drugs have been developed to treat the condition, some patients have shown intolerance to the drugs and thus continue to suffer. In the present study, a rat model of trigeminal neuropathic pain was established using incorrectly positioned dental implants, which had various manifestations that were similar to human trigeminal neuropathic pain. Using this model, we investigated the differential regulation of JAK2 and PTEN. Firstly, we examined the expression of JAK2 and PTEN in the medullary dorsal horn. After inhibiting JAK2/PTEN, we evaluated nociception-related behavioral alterations. The rat models were established by replacing the left lower second molar with a mini dental implant. Immunoblot assay and immunofluorescence experiments indicated high expression of JAK2 and PTEN in medullary dorsal horn after the nerve injury, which attained plateau levels on post-operative day (POD) 5-10 and 10-20. Administration of adenovirus-shRNA-JAK2 on POD 1 reduced mechanical allodynia and downstream STAT activation. Meanwhile, the administration of adenovirus-shRNA-PTEN on POD 1 attenuated mechanical allodynia while upregulating AKT. In addition to postoperative JAK2 and PTEN activation, dexmedetomidine treatment (10 mg/kg) also modulated the downstream sensors of these signaling molecules. These data suggest that JAK2 and PTEN are pivotal to the development of trigeminal neuropathic pain, and that JAK2 and PTEN suppression alleviates the neuropathic pain.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Janus Quinase 2/genética , Neuralgia/diagnóstico , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Neuralgia do Trigêmeo/genética , Animais , Implantes Dentários/efeitos adversos , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Dexmedetomidina/uso terapêutico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hiperalgesia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperalgesia/etiologia , Janus Quinase 2/antagonistas & inibidores , Masculino , Neuralgia/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/antagonistas & inibidores , Medição da Dor , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(33): e16772, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pneumoperitoneum and steep Trendelenburg position during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) can increase intracranial pressure (ICP). Dexmedetomidine, a highly selective alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonist, can cause cerebral vasoconstriction and decrease cerebral blood flow by stimulating the postsynaptic alpha-2 adrenergic receptors on cerebral blood vessels. However, the effects of dexmedetomidine on ICP are controversial and have not been evaluated during RALP under the establishment of pneumoperitoneum in the steep Trendelenburg position. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of dexmedetomidine on optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) as a surrogate for assessing ICP during RALP. METHODS: Patients were randomly allocated to receive dexmedetomidine (n = 63) (loading dose, 1 µg/kg for 10 minutes and continuous infusion, 0.4 µg/kg/hr) or normal saline (n = 63). The ONSD was measured at 10 minutes after induction of anesthesia in the supine position (T1), 30 minutes (T2) and 60 minutes (T3) after establishment of pneumoperitoneum in the steep Trendelenburg position, and at closing the skin in the supine position (T4). Hemodynamic and respiratory variables were measured at every time point. RESULTS: ONSDs at T2, T3, and T4 were significantly smaller in the dexmedetomidine group than in the control group (5.26 ±â€Š0.25 mm vs 5.71 ±â€Š0.26 mm, 5.29 ±â€Š0.24 mm vs 5.81 ±â€Š0.23 mm, and 4.97 ±â€Š0.24 mm vs 5.15 ±â€Š0.28 mm, all P <.001). ONSDs at T2, T3, and T4 were significantly increased compared to T1 in both groups. Hemodynamic and respiratory variables, except heart rate, did not significantly differ between the 2 groups. The bradycardia and atropine administration were not significantly different between the 2 groups. CONCLUSION: Dexmedetomidine attenuates the increase of ONSD during RALP, suggesting that intraoperative dexmedetomidine administration may effectively attenuate the ICP increase during pneumoperitoneum in the Trendelenburg position.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/farmacologia , Dexmedetomidina/farmacologia , Hipertensão Intracraniana/prevenção & controle , Pressão Intracraniana/efeitos dos fármacos , Nervo Óptico/efeitos dos fármacos , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Decúbito Inclinado com Rebaixamento da Cabeça , Humanos , Período Intraoperatório , Laparoscopia , Masculino , Nervo Óptico/diagnóstico por imagem , Prostatectomia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Resultado do Tratamento
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