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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(14): e25272, 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832091

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ropivacaine is considered the most commonly used for epidural anesthesia. We compared the efficiency and safety of ropivacaine alone (R group) and ropivacaine combined with dexmedetomidine (RD group). METHOD: PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, Ovid Medline, the Web of Science, Scopus, Embase, and ScienceDirect were searched. We considered sensory and motor block, duration of anesthesia, time to rescue, hemodynamics, and adverse effects as the primary endpoints. RESULTS: Eleven randomized controlled trials were included with 337 patients in the R group and 336 patients in the RD group. The RD group had a shorter time to onset of sensory (mean difference [MD]: 3.97 [1.90-6.04] minutes; P = .0002) and motor (MD: 2.43 [0.70-4.16] minutes; P = .006) block and a longer duration of anesthesia (MD: -164.17 [-294.43 to -33.91]; P = .01) than the R group. Comparison of the time to rescue between the groups showed no significant difference (MD: -119.01[-254.47-16.46] minutes; P = 0.09). The R group showed more stable hemodynamics than the RD group in heart rate and arterial pressure at 10 minutes. The R group had a lower incidence of bradycardia and a higher incidence of shivering than the RD group. CONCLUSION: RD may be a more suitable choice for epidural anesthesia with better anesthetic outcomes than R alone. However, the safety of the combination must be carefully assessed.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/administração & dosagem , Anestesia Epidural/métodos , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Ropivacaina/administração & dosagem , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/efeitos adversos , Fatores Etários , Anestésicos Locais/efeitos adversos , Dexmedetomidina/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Ropivacaina/efeitos adversos
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(14): e25324, 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Awake fiberoptic endoscope intubation (AFOI) is the primary strategy for managing anticipated difficult airways. Adequate sedation, most commonly being achieved with remifentanil and dexmedetomidine, is integral to this procedure. This meta-analysis aimed to compare the safety and efficacy of these 2 sedatives. METHODS: We conducted electronic searches in Embase, Web of Science, PubMed, Google Scholar, Medline, Springer, and Web of Science with no language restrictions. Studies comparing safety and efficacy between the sole use of remifentanil and dexmedetomidine among patients who underwent AFOI were included. Eight randomized controlled trials, comprising 412 patients, met the inclusion criteria. The primary outcomes were first attempt intubation success rate and incidence of hypoxia. The secondary outcomes were the Ramsay Sedation Scale score at intubation, memory recall of endoscopy, and unstable hemodynamic parameters during intubation. RESULTS: Dexmedetomidine significantly reduced the incidence of hypoxemia during AFOI (risk ratio: 2.47; 95% confidence [CI]: 1.32-4.64]) compared with remifentanil; however, the first intubation success rates were equivalent (risk ratio: 1.12; 95% CI: 0.87-1.46]. No significant differences between the 2 sedatives were found for the Ramsay Sedation Scale score at intubation (mean difference: -0.14; 95% CI: -0.66-0.38) or unstable hemodynamic parameters during intubation (risk ratio: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.59-1.17). Dexmedetomidine reduced memory recall of endoscopy (risk ratio: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.13-1.72). CONCLUSIONS: While both remifentanil and dexmedetomidine are effective for AFOI and well-tolerated, dexmedetomidine may be more effective in reducing the incidence of hypoxemia and memory recall of endoscopy. PROSPERP REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020169612.


Assuntos
Sedação Consciente/métodos , Dexmedetomidina/uso terapêutico , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Remifentanil/uso terapêutico , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Dexmedetomidina/efeitos adversos , Endoscopia/instrumentação , Endoscopia/métodos , Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/efeitos adversos , Hipóxia/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Remifentanil/administração & dosagem , Remifentanil/efeitos adversos
3.
N Engl J Med ; 384(15): 1424-1436, 2021 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guidelines currently recommend targeting light sedation with dexmedetomidine or propofol for adults receiving mechanical ventilation. Differences exist between these sedatives in arousability, immunity, and inflammation. Whether they affect outcomes differentially in mechanically ventilated adults with sepsis undergoing light sedation is unknown. METHODS: In a multicenter, double-blind trial, we randomly assigned mechanically ventilated adults with sepsis to receive dexmedetomidine (0.2 to 1.5 µg per kilogram of body weight per hour) or propofol (5 to 50 µg per kilogram per minute), with doses adjusted by bedside nurses to achieve target sedation goals set by clinicians according to the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS, on which scores range from -5 [unresponsive] to +4 [combative]). The primary end point was days alive without delirium or coma during the 14-day intervention period. Secondary end points were ventilator-free days at 28 days, death at 90 days, and age-adjusted total score on the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status questionnaire (TICS-T; scores range from 0 to 100, with a mean of 50±10 and lower scores indicating worse cognition) at 6 months. RESULTS: Of 432 patients who underwent randomization, 422 were assigned to receive a trial drug and were included in the analyses - 214 patients received dexmedetomidine at a median dose of 0.27 µg per kilogram per hour, and 208 received propofol at a median dose of 10.21 µg per kilogram per minute. The median duration of receipt of the trial drugs was 3.0 days (interquartile range, 2.0 to 6.0), and the median RASS score was -2.0 (interquartile range, -3.0 to -1.0). We found no difference between dexmedetomidine and propofol in the number of days alive without delirium or coma (adjusted median, 10.7 vs. 10.8 days; odds ratio, 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74 to 1.26), ventilator-free days (adjusted median, 23.7 vs. 24.0 days; odds ratio, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.63 to 1.51), death at 90 days (38% vs. 39%; hazard ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.74 to 1.52), or TICS-T score at 6 months (adjusted median score, 40.9 vs. 41.4; odds ratio, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.66 to 1.33). Safety end points were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among mechanically ventilated adults with sepsis who were being treated with recommended light-sedation approaches, outcomes in patients who received dexmedetomidine did not differ from outcomes in those who received propofol. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01739933.).


Assuntos
Sedação Consciente/métodos , Dexmedetomidina , Hipnóticos e Sedativos , Propofol , Respiração Artificial , Sepse/terapia , Adulto , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Estado Terminal , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/efeitos adversos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Propofol/administração & dosagem , Sepse/mortalidade
4.
Heart Surg Forum ; 24(1): E019-E021, 2021 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635242

RESUMO

Pneumonia caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious disease. Unfortunately, research on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) assisted treatments for patients with COVID-19 infection is limited. In this case study, a patient who was in late pregnancy (35+2 weeks of pregnancy) and suffering from severe COVID-19 was extremely irritable during ECMO-assisted treatment after she underwent a cesarean section. Her Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS) score reached +3. Nevertheless, the patient successfully was treated with a continuous single/combined application of propofol, midazolam, dexmedetomidine, hibernation mixture, and other drugs for several days (maintaining RASS -2 to -4) and provided with anti-infection, mechanical ventilation, nutritional support, fluid balance under hemodynamic monitoring, liver support, and other organ function support treatments. ECMO-assisted sedation strategy for patients was introduced and discussed in this case to provide a certain reference for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of such patients.


Assuntos
/terapia , Cesárea , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Midazolam/administração & dosagem , Propofol/administração & dosagem , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Hidratação , Humanos , Monitorização Fisiológica , Apoio Nutricional , Gravidez , Respiração Artificial
5.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(4): 834-840, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480563

RESUMO

Captured free-ranging North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) were immobilized for the placement of intra-abdominal radio transmitters in cooperation with the Iowa Department of Natural Resources. Twenty-four otters were induced with dexmedetomidine (0.03 mg/kg, IM), butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg, IM), and midazolam (0.15 mg/kg, IM) combined in one syringe. The otters were maintained on isoflurane during the surgical procedure. Heart rate and rhythm, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, and peripheral capillary oxygen saturation were recorded every 5 min for the duration of the procedures. The otters were reversed with atipamezole (0.3-2 mg/kg, IM), naltrexone (0.6 mg/kg, IM), and flumazenil (0.05 mg/kg, IM). Rapid and smooth induction was seen, with lateral recumbency reached within 6.2 ± 5.6 min. Episodes of resedation were seen in four otters that received 0.3 mg/kg atipamezole so the dose was increased to 1 mg/kg, and no further resedation events were noted. Two fatal complications occurred secondary to suspected respiratory arrest during recovery. This drug protocol provided a smooth and rapid induction in free-ranging river otters, but further research is required to determine the safety of this protocol for river otters in both zoo and free-ranging situations.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Butorfanol/farmacologia , Dexmedetomidina/farmacologia , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Midazolam/farmacologia , Lontras/fisiologia , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Anestesia/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Butorfanol/administração & dosagem , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Midazolam/administração & dosagem
6.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(4): 994-998, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480580

RESUMO

Ketamine-free, midazolam-based protocols have successfully immobilized cervids in the past but their impact on physiological function has not yet been thoroughly investigated. Six deer received IM dexmedetomidine (30.96 ± 3.06 µg/kg) and midazolam (0.31 ± 0.03 mg/kg). Heart rates (HR), respiratory rates (f ), rectal temperature, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and oxygen saturation (SpO2) were recorded 25 min after drug delivery (T25) and every 5 min until T55. An arterial blood sample was collected at T40. Mean HR and temperature significantly decreased throughout sedation, but were maintained above critical values (> 60 beats/ min and 37°C, respectively). Although not statistically different, f clinically decreased during sedation. MAP remained within acceptable ranges (60-80 mmHg) and SpO2 above 95%. Mean PaO2 was normal (>80 mmHg), but a mild hypoxemia was observed on two occasions. Recovery was smooth yet prolonged, as the first head movement, attempt to stand, sternal recumbency, and standing position were recorded within 9.36 ± 3.47, 10.32 ± 1.37, 13.13 ± 2.70, and 15.34 ± 2.57 min after IM atipamezole, respectively. This protocol was effective for short-term procedures in captive brown brocket deer, and appeared to be safe on the basis of arterial blood gases and cardiorespiratory variables.


Assuntos
Cervos , Dexmedetomidina/farmacologia , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Midazolam/farmacologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Respiratórios/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/farmacologia , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Dióxido de Carbono/sangue , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Eletrólitos/sangue , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Midazolam/administração & dosagem , Oxigênio/sangue
7.
Br J Anaesth ; 126(3): 684-691, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the increasing prevalence of children who are overweight and with obesity, anaesthesiologists must determine the optimal dosing of medications given the altered pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in this population. We therefore determined the single dose of dexmedetomidine that provided sufficient sedation in 95% (ED95) of children with and without obesity as measured by a minimum Ramsay sedation score (RSS) of 4. METHODS: Forty children with obesity (BMI >95th percentile for age and gender) and 40 children with normal weight (BMI 25th-84th percentile), aged 3-17 yr, ASA physical status 1-2, undergoing elective surgery, were recruited. The biased coin design was used to determine the target dose. Positive responses were defined as achievement of adequate sedation (RSS ≥4). The initial dose for both groups was dexmedetomidine 0.3 µg kg-1 i.v. infusion for 10 min. An increment or decrement of 0.1 µg kg-1 was used depending on the responses. Isotonic regression and bootstrapping methods were used to determine the ED95 and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), respectively. RESULTS: The ED95 of dexmedetomidine for adequate sedation in children with obesity was 0.75 µg kg-1 with 95% CI of 0.638-0.780 µg kg-1, overlapping the CI of the ED95 estimate of 0.74 µg kg-1 (95% CI: 0.598-0.779 µg kg-1) for their normal-weight peers. CONCLUSIONS: The ED95 values of dexmedetomidine administered over 10 min were 0.75 and 0.74 µg kg-1 in paediatric subjects with and without obesity, respectively, based on total body weight. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR1800014266.


Assuntos
Sedação Consciente/métodos , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Cálculos da Dosagem de Medicamento , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Obesidade/metabolismo , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Sedação Consciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Dexmedetomidina/farmacocinética , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacocinética , Infusões Intravenosas
8.
Br J Anaesth ; 126(3): 665-673, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative delirium (POD) is a frequent complication in older patients. Dexmedetomidine might be effective in decreasing the incidence of POD. We hypothesised that adding low-dose rate dexmedetomidine infusion to a propofol sedation regimen would have fewer side-effects and would counteract the possible delirium producing properties of propofol, resulting in a lower risk of POD than propofol with placebo. METHODS: In this double-blind placebo-controlled trial, patients ≥60 yr old undergoing on-pump cardiac surgery were randomised 1:1 to the following postoperative sedative regimens: a propofol infusion and dexmedetomidine (0.4 µg kg-1 h-1) or a propofol infusion and saline 0.9% (placebo group). The study drug was started at chest closure and continued for 10 h. The primary endpoint was in-hospital POD, assessed using the Confusion Assessment Method and chart review method. RESULTS: POD over the course of hospital stay occurred in 31/177 (18%) and 33/172 (19%) patients in the dexmedetomidine and placebo arm, respectively (P=0.687; odds ratio=0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-1.54). The incidence of POD in the intensive care alone, or on the ward alone, was also not significantly different between the groups. Subjects in the dexmedetomidine group spent less median time in a delirious state (P=0.026). Median administered postoperative norepinephrine was significantly higher in the dexmedetomidine group (P<0.001). One patient in the dexmedetomidine group and 10 patients in the placebo group died in the hospital. CONCLUSIONS: Adding low-dose rate dexmedetomidine to a sedative regimen based on propofol did not result in a different risk of in-hospital delirium in older patients undergoing cardiac surgery. With a suggestion of both harm and benefit in secondary outcomes, supplementing postoperative propofol with dexmedetomidine cannot be recommended based on this study. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03388541.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Delírio/prevenção & controle , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Propofol/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Dexmedetomidina/uso terapêutico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Propofol/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(50): e23667, 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the analgesic and antiemetic effects of adjuvant dexmedetomidine (DEX) for breast cancer surgery using a meta-analysis. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched to collect the studies that performed randomized controlled trials. The effect size was estimated by odd ratio (OR) or standardized mean difference (SMD). Statistical analysis was performed using the STATA 13.0 software. RESULTS: Twelve published studies involving 396 DEX treatment patients and 395 patients with control treatment were included. Pooled analysis showed that the use of DEX significantly prolonged the time to first request of analgesia (SMD = 1.67), decreased the postoperative requirement for tramadol (SMD = -0.65) and morphine (total: SMD = -2.23; patient-controlled analgesia: SMD = -1.45) as well as intraoperative requirement for fentanyl (SMD = -1.60), and lower the pain score at 1 (SMD = -0.30), 2 (SMD = -1.45), 4 (SMD = -2.36), 6 (SMD = -0.63), 8 (SMD = -2.47), 12 (SMD = -0.81), 24 (SMD = -1.78), 36 (SMD = -0.92), and 48 (SMD = -0.80) hours postoperatively compared with the control group. Furthermore, the risks to develop postoperative nausea/vomiting (PONV) (OR = 0.38) and vomiting (OR = 0.54) were significantly decreased in the DEX group compared with the control group. The pain relief at early time point (2, 6, 12, 24 hours postoperatively) and the decrease in the incidence of PONV were especially obvious for the general anesthesia subgroup (P < .05) relative to local anesthesia subgroup (P >.05). CONCLUSION: DEX may be a favorable anesthetic adjuvant in breast cancer surgery, which could lower postoperative pain and the risk to develop PONV. DEX should be combined especially for the patients undergoing general anesthesia.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Dexmedetomidina/uso terapêutico , Mastectomia/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/prevenção & controle , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Dexmedetomidina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Medição da Dor , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(43): e22712, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although dexmedetomidine has been used as either the anesthetic agent for light sedation or as an adjunct to other sedatives, no study has investigated the usefulness of dexmedetomidine as the main sedative agent for invasive and painful procedures. The purpose of this study was to compare the safety of dexmedetomidine-remifentanil and propofol-remifentanil during monitored anesthesia care (MAC) for hysteroscopy. METHODS: Female patients undergoing hysteroscopy were randomly assigned to either the dexmedetomidine (group D) or the propofol group (group P). The study drug (0.6 ml/kg; dexmedetomidine 2 µg/ml or propofol 4 mg/ml) was loaded for 10 minutes followed by 0.1 to 0.5 ml/kg/hour to maintain a bispectral index of 60 to 80 during the procedure. In both groups, remifentanil was infused using a target-controlled-infusion system with a target concentration of 2 ng/ml and titrated during the procedure. The incidence rates of intraoperative respiratory depression in both groups were compared. Postoperative pain and patients satisfaction were also compared. RESULTS: A total of 69 female patients were included in this study. Dexmedetomidine significantly decrease the incidence of respiratory depression compared with propofol (15/34 [44.1%] vs 5/35 [14.3%], P = .006, group P and D, respectively). Postoperative pain and patients satisfaction score did not differ between the groups. CONCLUSION: The combination of dexmedetomidine-remifentanil can reduce the incidence of respiratory depression without increasing hemodynamic complications compared with propofol-remifentanil for MAC during hysteroscopy.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Intravenosos/administração & dosagem , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Histeroscopia , Monitorização Intraoperatória , Propofol/administração & dosagem , Remifentanil/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Método Simples-Cego
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e21691, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899001

RESUMO

This retrospective study explored the efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine in treating early postoperative cognitive dysfunction (EPPNCD) after video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy (VATL) in elderly male patients with lung cancer (LC).This study included a total of 80 elderly male patients with LC who received VATL. All of them were equally assigned to a treatment group and a control group, with 40 patients each group. The primary outcome included cognitive dysfunction, as evaluated by mini-mental state examination scale. The secondary outcomes consisted of incidence of EPPNCD, lung function (as measured by forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, peak expiratory flow, and maximal voluntary ventilation), and adverse events. All outcome data were analyzed before and 3 days after surgery.After surgery, all patients in the treatment group exerted better efficacy in mini-mental state examination scale (P < .01) and incidence of EPPNCD (P = .03), than patients in the control group. However, no significant differences were detected in forced vital capacity (P = .65), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (P = .50), peak expiratory flow (P = .73), and maximal voluntary ventilation (P = .27) between 2 groups. In addition, there is similar safety profile between 2 groups.The findings of this study showed that dexmedetomidine may benefit EPPNCD after VATL in elderly male patients with LC. Future studies are needed to warrant the present conclusions.


Assuntos
Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Complicações Cognitivas Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Cirurgia Torácica Vídeoassistida/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/efeitos adversos , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois , Dexmedetomidina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e22113, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899094

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Effective analgesia during delivery can not only decrease pain, but also have a significant function in ensuring the safety of baby and mother. Sufentanil is generally used opioid with ropivacaine in epidural anesthesia in labor pain management; however it can cause some adverse reaction. Dexmedetomidine is an a2-adrenoceptor agonist with high selectivity. It possesses opioid-sparing and analgesic effects and it is suitable for the long-term and short-term intraoperative sedation. The purpose of this present study is to compare the analgesic effect of ropivacaine with dexmedetomidine against ropivacaine with sufentanyl in epidural labor. METHODS: This is a single center, placebo-controlled randomized trial which will be performed from May 2020 to May 2021. It was authorized via the Institutional Review Committee in the first medical center of Chinese PLA General Hospital (S2018-211-0). One hundred sixty full-term protozoa are included in this work. They are randomly divided into four groups (n = 40 per group): the RD1 group (with the epidural administration of 0.125% ropivacaine + dexmedetomidine of 0.5 µg/mL), and the RD2 group (with the epidural administration of 0.08% ropivacaine + dexmedetomidine 0.5 µg/mL), the RS1 group (with the epidural administration of 0.125% ropivacaine + sufentanil of 0.5 µg/mL), as well as RS2 group (with the epidural administration of 0.08% ropivacaine + sufentanil of 0.5 µg/mL). Clinical outcomes are pain score, a modified Bromage scale, the Ramsay Sedation Scale, and adverse reactions during analgesia. All the needed analyses are implemented through utilizing SPSS for Windows Version 20.0. RESULTS: The first table shows the clinical outcomes between these four groups. CONCLUSION: This current work can provide a primary evidence regarding the clinical outcomes of dexmedetomidine versus sufentanil for labor epidural analgesia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study protocol was registered in Research Registry (researchregistry5877).


Assuntos
Analgesia Obstétrica/métodos , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Anestésicos Locais/uso terapêutico , Dexmedetomidina/uso terapêutico , Ropivacaina/uso terapêutico , Sufentanil/uso terapêutico , Analgesia Epidural/métodos , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Locais/efeitos adversos , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Dexmedetomidina/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Ropivacaina/administração & dosagem , Ropivacaina/efeitos adversos , Sufentanil/administração & dosagem , Sufentanil/efeitos adversos
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21397, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756133

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of caudal dexmedetomidine in pediatric caudal anesthesia (CA). METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embased, and Cochrane Library (from inception to June 2019) for eligible studies. The primary outcomes were the time to first analgesia, time of postoperative eye opening, intraoperative endtidal sevoflurane concentration, and postoperative sedation score. We calculated pooled risk ratios (RR) and 95% CIs using random- or fixed-effects models. RESULTS: Thirteen trials involving 793 patients were found. Meta-analysis showed that the time to first rescue pain medication and the time from the end of anesthesia to eye opening in the CA+dexmedetomidine group were significantly longer than in the CA group (P < .00001). The intraoperative end-tidal sevoflurane concentration in the CA+dexmedetomidine group was significantly decreased (P < .00001). Dexmedetomidine appeared to increase the rate of bradycardia in the CA+dexmedetomidine group (P = .04). Additionally, the sedation score in the CA+ dexmedetomidine group was significantly higher at 2 hours after the operation compared with the CA group (P < .00001 at 2 hours). CONCLUSIONS: Caudally administered dexmedetomidine is a good alternative for prolonging postoperative analgesia with less pain, decreased intraoperative end-tidal sevoflurane concentration, and full postoperative sedation.


Assuntos
Anestesia Caudal , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Criança , Humanos , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle
14.
Lima; IETSI; 24 ago. 2020.
Não convencional em Espanhol | LILACS, BRISA/RedTESA | ID: biblio-1119647

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: Uno de los mayores intereses en el campo de la salud y en torno a la pandemia de COVID-19 es el desarrollo de estrategias para reducir la transmisión de la infección por SARS-CoV-2, incluyendo la protección de los trabajadores de salud, grupo de riesgo frente a la infección por este virus (Ng et al. 2020). La extubación es un procedimiento generador de aerosoles debido a la respuesta refleja del sistema respiratorio durante esta actividad, manifestada como la presencia de tos en algunos pacientes a los que se les realiza destete del ventilador mecánico (Brewster et al. 2020). Realizar la extubación requiere la proximidad de los trabajadores de salud con los pacientes, los cuales, incluyendo los casos de pacientes con COVID-19, suelen seguir siendo infecciosos al momento de la extubación (Brewster et al. 2020, Zhou et al. 2020, Ng et al. 2020), por lo que realizar esta actividad incrementaría la probabilidad de transmisión de esta infección viral. Ante ello, diversos grupos relacionados a la anestesiología señalan como útil el empleo de medicación que reduzca la generación de tos durante la extubación, que, junto a otras medidas de protección, disminuiría la probabilidad de transmisión de la infección por SARS-CoV-2 (Brown et al. 2020, Cook et al. 2020, D'Silva et al. 2020, Tan Li et al 2020). En EsSalud, se dispone de lidocaína y fentanilo, medicamentos descritos en la literatura científica como útiles para reducir la tos en pacientes a los que se les realizará el destete de la ventilación mecánica. Sin embargo, algunos especialistas argumentan que estos agentes sedantes podrían causar depresión respiratoria, retraso en el despertar e incrementar el riesgo de delirio si son administrados por periodos largos. Adicionalmente, los especialistas argumentan que dexmedetomidina es una alternativa que ofrecería la ventaja un despertar más rápido y una menor incidencia de delirio, además de reducir la incidencia de tos durante la extubación, estos efectos facilitarían la extubación del paciente y disminuiría la transmisión del SARS-CoV-2 al equipo médico tratante en la UCI. En ese sentido, el presente documento tuvo como objetivo evaluar la eficacia y seguridad de dexmedetomidina comparado con lidocaína y fentanilo para destete de ventilación mecánica invasiva en pacientes con COVID-19. TECNOLOGÍA DE INTERÉS: Dexmedetomidina es un agonista selectivo de los receptores alfa-2 con efectos ansiolíticos, sedantes (mediados por la inhibición del locus coeruleus, el núcleo noradrenérgico predominante, situado en el tronco cerebral) y analgésicos, produciendo además un efecto simpaticolítico al disminuir la liberación de noradrenalina en las terminaciones nerviosas simpáticas. METODOLOGÍA: Se buscó la evidencia disponible al 24 de agosto del 2020 en las siguientes bases de datos bibliográficas: PubMed, The Cochrane Library y LILACS. Asimismo, se realizó una búsqueda en sitios web pertenecientes a grupos que realizan evaluaciones de tecnologías sanitarias y guías de práctica clínica, incluyendo: The Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH), Scottish Medicines Consortium (SMC), The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Healthcare (IQWiG), Haute Authorité de Santé (HAS), Institute for Clinical and Economic Review (ICER) y el portal BRISA (Base Regional de Informes de Evaluación de Tecnologías en Salud de las Américas). Adicionalmente, se realizó búsqueda de evidencia en sitios web de organizaciones internacionales en anestesiología o de instituciones que estén desarrollando protocolos para el manejo de pacientes con COVID-19. RESULTADOS: En la búsqueda de la evidencia no se identificaron estudios que evalúen la eficacia y seguridad de dexmedetomidina, comparado con lidocaína y fentanilo, para el destete de ventilación mecánica invasiva, en pacientes con COVID-19. Sin embargo, se identificaron: tres GPC o consensos de expertos elaborados por la Safe Airway Society, Alfred ICU y la Difficult Airway Society e instituciones colaboradoras; una RS con metaanálisis en red realizada por Tung et al., así como dos ensayos clínicos controlados, aleatorizados (ECA) que no fueron incluidos en la RS. Se debe precisar que esta RS y estos ECA no fueron realizados en la población de interés del presente reporte breve (pacientes con COVID-19); por lo que fueron incluidos como evidencia indirecta. CONCLUSIONES: En el presente documento, se evaluó la mejor evidencia científica disponible hasta la actualidad sobre eficacia y seguridad de dexmedetomidina comparado con lidocaína y fentanilo para destete de ventilación mecánica en pacientes con COVID-19. Se encontraron: tres GPC o consensos de expertos, una RS y dos ECA. La RS y los ECA incluidos aportan al reporte breve como evidencia indirecta; al no haber sido desarrollados en pacientes con COVID-19. Las guías de la Safe Airway Society (SAS), Alfred ICU y de la Difficult Airway Society (DAS) e instituciones colaboradoras que fueron elaboradas para dar recomendaciones para el proceso de extubación en pacientes con COVID-19, hacen mención a dexmedetomidina (SAS, Alfred ICU), opioides como el fentanilo (SAS y DAS) y la lidocaína (SAS, DAS) para reducir la tos durante el proceso de extubación, aunque precisan la ausencia de evidencia sobre el uso de este medicamentos en pacientes con COVID-19, señalando que se debe evaluar el balance riesgo-beneficio para el uso de los mismos. En general, las recomendaciones descritas en estos documentos proceden de consensos por opinión de expertos, y no establecen una preferencia de un medicamento sobre los otros. En cuanto a los resultados de la RS con MA en red de Tung et al., y los ECA de Kothari et al., y Hu et al., no han podido encontrar evidencia que apoye la hipótesis que el efecto de la dexmedetomidina sea superior al de lidocaína y fentanilo sobre el manejo de la tos (esto es, no se encontraron diferencias entre estos). Estos resultados deben ser interpretados con cautela debido a que la población de estudio de los mismos no son pacientes COVID-19. No obstante, la información que proporcionan puede ayudar a tener una idea del efecto que se podría esperar con el uso de cada uno de los medicamentos mencionados, tanto en eficacia como en seguridad. Al respecto, frente a una ausencia de diferencia entre dexmedetomidina en comparación con lidocaína y fentanilo, se tiene evidencia que la primera tiene un mayor riesgo de bradicardia que los dos últimos. Esto se condice con la literatura previa acerca de dicho medicamento (dexmedetomidina), donde además se describe que los adultos mayores y personas con comorbilidades presentan una mayor proporción de eventos de bradicardia atribuibles al uso de dexmedetomidina lo que, siendo que estos grupos poblacionales son los más afectados por COVID-19, sería esperable una mayor presencia de bradicardia como evento adverso en pacientes con COVID-19 que reciben dexmedetomidina, lo que llama a la precaución cuando se considera el uso de esta tecnología en estos pacientes. De este modo, la mejor evidencia disponible a la fecha (24 de agosto del 2020), procedente de tres GPC o consensos de expertos, una RS con metaanálisis en red y dos ECA, apunta a que el balance de riesgo-beneficio del empleo de dexmedetomidina comparado con el uso de lidocaína o fentanilo, en la reducción de la tos durante el destete de ventilación mecánica en pacientes con COVID-19 es de alta incertidumbre, especialmente por el hecho que la dexmedetomidina está asociada a un mayor riesgo de reacciones adversas frente a los otros dos medicamentos, especialmente en lo referente a bradicardia. Por ello, con este cuerpo de evidencia, el IETSI no ha encontrado sustento técnico que pueda apoyar una recomendación a favor del uso de dexmedetomidina por sobre el de lidocaína o fentanilo en pacientes COVID-19 para reducir la tos al momento de la extubación.


Assuntos
Humanos , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Desmame do Respirador/instrumentação , Fentanila/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Lidocaína/administração & dosagem , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Avaliação em Saúde
15.
Lancet ; 396(10245): 177-185, 2020 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation and delirium are common consequences of cardiac surgery. Dexmedetomidine has unique properties as sedative agent and might reduce the risk of each complication. This study coprimarily aimed to establish whether dexmedetomidine reduces the incidence of new-onset atrial fibrillation and the incidence of delirium. METHODS: A randomised, placebo-controlled trial was done at six academic hospitals in the USA. Patients who had had cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1, stratified by site, to dexmedetomidine or normal saline placebo. Randomisation was computer generated with random permuted block size 2 and 4, and allocation was concealed by a web-based system. Patients, caregivers, and evaluators were all masked to treatment. The study drug was prepared by the pharmacy or an otherwise uninvolved research associate so that investigators and clinicians were fully masked to allocation. Participants were given either dexmedetomidine infusion or saline placebo started before the surgical incision at a rate of 0·1 µg/kg per h then increased to 0·2 µg/kg per h at the end of bypass, and postoperatively increased to 0·4 µg/kg per h, which was maintained until 24 h. The coprimary outcomes were atrial fibrillation and delirium occurring between intensive care unit admission and the earlier of postoperative day 5 or hospital discharge. All analyses were intention-to-treat. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02004613 and is closed. FINDINGS: 798 patients of 3357 screened were enrolled from April 17, 2013, to Dec 6, 2018. The trial was stopped per protocol after the last designated interim analysis. Among 798 patients randomly assigned, 794 were analysed, with 400 assigned to dexmedetomidine and 398 assigned to placebo. The incidence of atrial fibrillation was 121 (30%) in 397 patients given dexmedetomidine and 134 (34%) in 395 patients given placebo, a difference that was not significant: relative risk 0·90 (97·8% CI 0·72, 1·15; p=0·34). The incidence of delirium was non-significantly increased from 12% in patients given placebo to 17% in those given dexmedetomidine: 1·48 (97·8% CI 0·99-2·23). Safety outcomes were clinically important bradycardia (requiring treatment) and hypotension, myocardial infarction, stroke, surgical site infection, pulmonary embolism, deep venous thrombosis, and death. 21 (5%) of 394 patients given dexmedetomidine and 8 (2%) of 396 patients given placebo, had a serious adverse event as determined by clinicians. 1 (<1%) of 391 patients given dexmedetomidine and 1 (<1%) of 387 patients given placebo died. INTERPRETATION: Dexmedetomidine infusion, initiated at anaesthetic induction and continued for 24 h, did not decrease postoperative atrial arrhythmias or delirium in patients recovering from cardiac surgery. Dexmedetomidine should not be infused to reduce atrial fibrillation or delirium in patients having cardiac surgery. FUNDING: Hospira Pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Delírio/prevenção & controle , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Anaesthesia ; 75(11): 1461-1468, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32533791

RESUMO

Children may develop changes in their behaviour following general anaesthesia. Some examples of negative behaviour include temper tantrums and nightmares, as well as sleep and eating disorders. The aim of this study was to determine whether dexmedetomidine reduces the incidence of negative behaviour change after anaesthesia for day case surgery in children aged two to seven years. Children were randomly allocated to one of three groups: a premedication group received 2 mg.kg-1 intranasal dexmedetomidine; an intra-operative group received 1 mg.kg-1 intravenous dexmedetomidine; and a control group. The primary outcome was the incidence of negative behaviour on postoperative day 3 using the Post-Hospitalisation Behaviour Questionnaire for Ambulatory Surgery (PHBQ-AS) and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Secondary outcomes included: the incidence of negative behaviour on postoperative days 14 and 28; anxiety at induction; emergence delirium; pain; length of recovery and hospital stay; and any adverse events. The data for 247 patients were analysed. Negative behaviour change on postoperative day 3 was similar between all three groups when measured with the PHBQ-AS (47%, 44% and 51% respectively; adjusted p=0.99) and the SDQ (median scores 7.5, 6.0 and 8.0 respectively; adjusted p=0.99). The incidence of negative behaviour in the group who received dexmedetomidine intra-operatively was less at postoperative day 28 (15% compared with 36% in the dexmedetomidine premedication group and 41% in the control group, p<0.001). We conclude that dexmedetomidine does not reduce the incidence of negative behaviour on postoperative day 3 in two to seven-year olds having day case procedures.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Dexmedetomidina/farmacologia , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Pré-Medicação/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ambulatórios , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Dexmedetomidina/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(20): e20001, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443302

RESUMO

Elderly patients with femoral fractures are anticipated to endure the most pain caused by positional changes required for spinal anesthesia. To improve pain relief, we compared the analgesic effects of intravenous dexmedetomidine-ketamine and dexmedetomidine-fentanyl combinations to facilitate patient positioning for spinal anesthesia in elderly patients with proximal femoral fractures. Forty-six patients were randomly assigned to two groups and received either 1 mg/kg of intravenous ketamine (group K) or 1 µg/kg of intravenous fentanyl (group F) concomitant with a loading dose of dexmedetomidine 1 µg/kg over 10 minutes, then dexmedetomidine infusion only was continued at 0.6 µg/kg/h for following 20 minutes, and titrated at a rate of 0.2 to 0.6 µg/kg/h until the end of surgery. After completion of the infusion of either ketamine or fentanyl, the patients were placed in the lateral position with the fracture site up. The pain score (0 = calm, 1 = facial grimacing, 2 = moaning, 3 = screaming, and 4 = unable to proceed because of restlessness or agitation) was used to describe the pain intensity in each step during the procedure (lateral positioning, hip flexion, and lumbar puncture), and quality score (0 = poor hip flexion, 1 = satisfactory hip flexion, 2 = good hip flexion, and 3 = optimal hip flexion) was used to describe the quality of posture. Group K showed a median pain score of 0 (0-1), 0 (0-0) and 0 (0-0) in lateral positioning, hip flexion and lumbar puncture, respectively, while group F showed a score of 3 (2.75-3), 3 (2-3) and 0 (0-1), respectively. The pain score in lateral positioning (P < .0001) and hip flexion (P < .0001) was significantly lower in group K than group F. Group K showed the significantly higher quality scores of spinal anesthesia positioning (P = .0044) than group F. Hemodynamic adverse effects, such as bradycardia, hypotension, and desaturation, were not significantly different between the groups. The administration of dexmedetomidine-ketamine showed a greater advantage in reducing pain intensity and increasing the quality with patient positioning during spinal anesthesia in elderly patients with proximal femoral fractures, without any serious adverse effects.


Assuntos
Analgesia/métodos , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Raquianestesia , Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Posicionamento do Paciente , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Fentanila/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Masculino
18.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0224720, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348301

RESUMO

Small intestinal strangulation associated with ischaemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is common in horses. In laboratory animals IRI can be ameliorated by ischaemic preconditioning (IPC) and pharmacological preconditioning (PPC) with dexmedetomidine. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of PPC with dexmedetomidine or IPC in an equine model of small intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion (IR). In a randomized controlled experimental trial, 15 horses were assigned to three groups: control (C), IPC, and PPC with dexmedetomidine (DEX). All horses were placed under general anaesthesia and 90% jejunal ischaemia was induced for 90 minutes, followed 30 minutes of reperfusion. In group IPC, three short bouts of ischaemia and reperfusion were implemented, and group DEX received a continuous rate infusion of dexmedetomidine prior to the main ischaemia. Jejunal biopsies were collected before ischaemia (P), and at the end of ischaemia (I) and reperfusion (R). Mucosal injury was assessed by the Chiu-Score, inflammatory cells were stained by cytosolic calprotectin. The degree of apoptosis and cell necrosis was assessed by cleaved-caspase-3 and TUNEL. Parametric data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA for repeated measurements followed by Dunnetts t-test. Non parametric data were compared between groups at the different time points by a Kruskal-Wallis-Test and a Wilcoxon-2-Sample-test. The mucosal injury score increased during I in all groups. After reperfusion, IRI further progressed in group C, but not in IPC and DEX. In all groups the number of cleaved caspase-3 and TUNEL positive cells increased from P to I. The number of TUNEL positive cells were lower in group DEX compared to group C after I and R. Infiltration with calprotectin positive cells was less pronounced in group DEX compared to group C, whereas in group IPC more calprotectin positive cells were seen. In conclusion, IPC and DEX exert protective effects in experimental small intestinal ischaemia in horses.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/uso terapêutico , Dexmedetomidina/uso terapêutico , Isquemia/terapia , Precondicionamento Isquêmico/métodos , Jejuno/irrigação sanguínea , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/terapia , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/administração & dosagem , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/farmacologia , Animais , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Dexmedetomidina/farmacologia , Cavalos , Isquemia/tratamento farmacológico , Jejuno/efeitos dos fármacos , Jejuno/patologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico
19.
Ann Palliat Med ; 9(2): 447-450, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the effectiveness and rationality of different administration modes of dexmedetomidine with 0.5% ropivacaine on intercostal nerve block. METHODS: In total, 150 patients aged from 20-45 years with a body mass index (BMI): 18.5-23.9 kg/m2, met the criteria from the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class: I-II, and underwent lumpectomy in our center were equally randomized into three groups using a table of random numbers. Group D1: perineural administration of dexmedetomidine 0.5 µg/kg + intercostal nerve block with 0.5% ropivacaine; group D2: intravenous infusion of dexmedetomidine0.5 µg/kg + intercostal nerve block with 0.5% ropivacaine; and group R: intercostal nerve block with 0.5% ropivacaine. The Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) of pain and the Ramsay Sedation Scale were used for assessing pain and sedation levels 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after the operation. The total duration of analgesia, total requirement of rescue analgesia, and adverse reactions were recorded. RESULTS: The NRS scores in groups D1 and D2 were significantly lower than that in group R, 8 hours after the operation (both P<0.05), and the NRS score in group D1 was significantly lower than in group D2 12 hours after the operation (P<0.05). The Ramsay scores showed no significant differences among all three groups at all time points after surgery. The duration of analgesia in group D1 was significantly longer than in group D2 (P<0.05). No rescue analgesia was needed in all three groups, and no adverse reactions such as dizziness, dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, and respiratory depression were reported. CONCLUSIONS: The combinations of dexmedetomidine with ropivacaine for intercostal nerve blocking can prolong the duration of analgesia after lumpectomy; however, the duration of analgesia is longer via the perineural route than via the intravenous route.


Assuntos
Analgesia/métodos , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Ropivacaina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Nervos Intercostais/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Anesth Analg ; 130(5): 1211-1221, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32287128

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brain monitors tracking quantitative brain activities from electroencephalogram (EEG) to predict hypnotic levels have been proposed as a labor-saving alternative to behavioral assessments. Expensive clinical trials are required to validate any newly developed processed EEG monitor for every drug and combinations of drugs due to drug-specific EEG patterns. There is a need for an alternative, efficient, and economical method. METHODS: Using deep learning algorithms, we developed a novel data-repurposing framework to predict hypnotic levels from sleep brain rhythms. We used an online large sleep data set (5723 clinical EEGs) for training the deep learning algorithm and a clinical trial hypnotic data set (30 EEGs) for testing during dexmedetomidine infusion. Model performance was evaluated using accuracy and the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC). RESULTS: The deep learning model (a combination of a convolutional neural network and long short-term memory units) trained on sleep EEG predicted deep hypnotic level with an accuracy (95% confidence interval [CI]) = 81 (79.2-88.3)%, AUC (95% CI) = 0.89 (0.82-0.94) using dexmedetomidine as a prototype drug. We also demonstrate that EEG patterns during dexmedetomidine-induced deep hypnotic level are homologous to nonrapid eye movement stage 3 EEG sleep. CONCLUSIONS: We propose a novel method to develop hypnotic level monitors using large sleep EEG data, deep learning, and a data-repurposing approach, and for optimizing such a system for monitoring any given individual. We provide a novel data-repurposing framework to predict hypnosis levels using sleep EEG, eliminating the need for new clinical trials to develop hypnosis level monitors.


Assuntos
Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Análise de Dados , Aprendizado Profundo , Sono/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ondas Encefálicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Eletroencefalografia/efeitos dos fármacos , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos
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