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1.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(10)2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-841363

RESUMO

In March 2020, a 74-year-old man affected by end-stage renal disease and on peritoneal dialysis was referred to an emergency room in Modena, Northern Italy, due to fever and respiratory symptoms. After ruling out COVID-19 infection, a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation was confirmed and he was thus transferred to the nephrology division. Physical examination and blood tests revealed a positive fluid balance and insufficient correction of the uraemic syndrome, although peritoneal dialysis prescription was maximised. After discussion with the patient and his family, the staff decided to start hybrid dialysis, consisting of once-weekly in-hospital haemodialysis and home peritoneal dialysis for the remaining days. He was discharged at the end of the antibiotic course, after an internal jugular vein central venous catheter placement and the first haemodialysis session. This strategy allowed improvement of depuration parameters and avoidance of frequent access to the hospital, which is crucial in limiting exposure to SARS-CoV-2 in an endemic setting.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Falência Renal Crônica , Pandemias , Diálise Peritoneal/métodos , Pneumonia Viral , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Diálise Renal/métodos , Idoso , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Terapia Combinada/tendências , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Unidades Hospitalares de Hemodiálise , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Falência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Falência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Inovação Organizacional , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Exacerbação dos Sintomas
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22240, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019398

RESUMO

Children with end stage renal disease (ESRD) are liable to various health disorders that possibly impair their quality of life (QoL). Low dietary intake of Omega-3 fatty acids also called marine n-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA) may be associated with health problems which are among the leading causes of impaired QoL.The objective of this study was to assess the effect of omega-3 Fatty acid (n-3 FA) supplements on quality of life among children on dialysis and to evaluate its use regarding adequacy of dialysis and inflammatory markers.A prospective cohort study was conducted on 31 hemodialysis children. Quality of life was measured for patients and an equal number of matched controls using the PedsQL Inventory where the higher the score the poorer is the quality of life. n-3FA supplementation had been given to the patients for 3 months to study its effects on QoL. Laboratory investigations like hemoglobin, lipid profile, inflammatory markers, and tests for adequacy of dialysis had been carried out.Patients had significantly higher QoL scores (42.22 ±â€Š13.31) than controls (22.70 ±â€Š1.31) (P < .001). Young ages showed higher score of physical functioning (18.23 ±â€Š4.22) than older ones (13.92 ±â€Š6.84) (P = .049). Females had significantly higher total QoL score (25.53 ±â€Š6.61) than males (20.06 ±â€Š7.09) (P = .010). The total QoL score was significantly lower post than pre administration of n-3FA (35.41 ±â€Š10.36 vs 42.22 ±â€Š13.31) (P < .001). Triglycerides and CRP were significantly lower post than pre n-3FA supplementation (160.64 ±â€Š32.55 vs 169.35 ±â€Š31.82) (P < .001) and (10.29 ±â€Š4.39 vs 11.19 ±â€Š4.83) (P = .006) respectively. Means of Kt/V and urea reduction ratio (URR) were significantly higher post (1.37 ±â€Š0.09, 70.0 ±â€Š5.99 respectively) than pre n-3FA (1.31 ±â€Š0.07 and 65.25 ±â€Š6.06 respectively) (P = .005, .001 respectively).Quality of life and adequacy of dialysis get improved after n-3FA supplementation among children on dialysis which encourages its testing for more patients to evaluate its long term effects and support its routine use.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Qualidade de Vida , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Diálise Renal/psicologia
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22637, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019486

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive malignancy that progresses rapidly and easily relapses. To the best of our knowledge, advances have been minimal for decades and the first-line treatment is still platinum-etoposide and radiotherapy. However, elderly patients with severe renal failure who suffer from SCLC usually show more serious drug-related side effects. A large proportion of them cannot tolerate the standard treatment, and their prognosis is poorer compared with that of younger patients. Presently, oral etoposide capsules may be accepted as a replaceable option. We report the case of a male patient with SCLC on hemodialysis who was successfully treated with concurrent oral etoposide monotherapy and radiotherapy and achieved excellent outcomes. PATIENT'S CONCERNS: A 63-year-old man with severe renal failure was diagnosed with SCLC. PRIMARY DIAGNOSES: SCLC was diagnosed using transbronchial biopsy. INTERVENTIONS: He received concomitant single-agent oral etoposide (6 cycles) and local radiotherapy. Etoposide 100 mg once daily combined with thoracic radiation treatment (2 Gy/f, total DT: 50 Gy/25 f), was subsequently followed by prophylactic cranial irradiation plus anlotinib. OUTCOMES: The patient achieved complete response after 1 cycle and the subsequent treatment was effective without any kidney damage and other severe side effects. CONCLUSION: Though etoposide capsule is an old drug, its use should be considered in SCLC patients with renal insufficiency undergoing hemodialysis. However, treatment guidelines and research data for such patients are still lacking and further studies are needed. Although recent research focuses mainly on new drugs, some old drugs like etoposide which can bring unexpected positive effects should not be neglected.


Assuntos
Etoposídeo/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/radioterapia , Inibidores da Topoisomerase II/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Terapia Combinada , Irradiação Craniana/métodos , Etoposídeo/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , Diálise Renal/métodos , Insuficiência Renal/terapia , Inibidores da Topoisomerase II/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
G Ital Nefrol ; 37(5)2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026199

RESUMO

Lombardy was violently hit by Covid-19 between the end of February and the beginning of March 2020. On 09.05.2020 there were 81225 total registered Covid-19+ cases (8051 / million inhabitants) with 14924 deaths (1479 deaths / million inhabitants). The province of Cremona presented a higher number of Covid-19+ cases and a worse relative mortality than the already high regional average. Patients on regular hemodialysis treatment present a high risk of infection due to the co-pathologies present, while healthcare workers may represent a risk for themselves and for the patients, due to the treatment environment and the close contact with them. All patients and healthcare workers of the Dialysis Center in Crema were evaluated (oro-pharyngeal swab for viral RNA research, qualitative anti-Covid-19 antibodies, quantitative IgG antibodies, co-pathologies), regardless of the symptomatology, over a 60-day period. Hemodialysis patients have a risk of infection that is 12.7 times that of the local population, while healthcare workers outperform the patients for Covid-positivity (30.3% vs 21.6%). Lethality in infected patients is high (31% of Covid-19+ subjects), while it is zero among healthcare professionals. The antibody response (qualitative and quantitative) in Covid-19+ patients is adequate, when compared to that of Covid-19+ healthcare staff. In our Center, the most critical phase lasted about 45 days but, thanks to the measures taken, it was possible to make the dialysis area Covid-free, as it remains after 128 days.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Diálise Renal , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Emergências , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Unidades Hospitalares de Hemodiálise/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Profissional para o Paciente/prevenção & controle , Itália/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Orofaringe/virologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
5.
G Ital Nefrol ; 37(5)2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026200

RESUMO

The epidemic wave that hit Italy from February 21st, 2020, when the Italian National Institute of Health confirmed the first case of SARS­CoV­2 infection, led to a rapid and efficient reorganization of Dialysis Centers' activities, in order to contain large-scale spread of disease in this clinical setting. We herein report the experience of the Hemodialysis Unit of Parma University Hospital (Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria, Parma, Italy) and the Dialysis Centers of Parma territory, in the period from March 1st, 2020 to June 15, 2020. Among patients undergoing chronic haemodialysis, 37/283 (13%) had positive swabs for SARS­CoV­2, 9/37 (24%) died because of COVID-19. Twenty-three patients required hospitalization, while the remaining were managed at home. The primary measures applied to contain the infection were: the strengthening of personal protective equipment use by doctors and nurses, early identification of infected subjects by performing oro-pharyngeal swabs in every patient and in the healthcare personnel, the institution of a triage protocol when entering Dialysis Room, and finally the institution of two separate sections, managed by different doctors and dialysis nurses, to physically separate affected from unaffected patients and to manage "grey" patients. Our experience highlights the importance and effectiveness of afore-mentioned measures in order to contain the spread of the virus; moreover, we observed a higher lethality rate of COVID-19 in dialysis patients as compared to the general population.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Unidades Hospitalares de Hemodiálise/organização & administração , Reestruturação Hospitalar , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Diálise Renal , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Diagnóstico Precoce , Emergências , Unidades Hospitalares de Hemodiálise/estatística & dados numéricos , Hemodiálise no Domicílio/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitais Universitários/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Itália/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Nasofaringe/virologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Isolamento de Pacientes , Diálise Peritoneal , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Utilização de Procedimentos e Técnicas , Triagem
6.
G Ital Nefrol ; 37(5)2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026201

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 is an infectious respiratory syndrome caused by the virus called SARS-CoV-2, belonging to the family of coronaviruses. The first ever cases were detected during the 2019-2020 pandemic. Coronaviruses can cause a common cold or more serious diseases such as Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndromes (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). They can cause respiratory, lung and gastrointestinal infections with a mild to severe course, sometimes causing the death of the infected person. This new strain has no previous identifiers and its epidemic potential is strongly associated with the absence of immune response/reactivity and immunological memory in the world population, which has never been in contact with this strain before. Most at risk are the elderly, people with pre-existing diseases and/or immunodepressed, dialyzed and transplanted patients, pregnant women, people with debilitating chronic diseases. They are advised to avoid contacts with other people, unless strictly necessary, and to stay away from crowded places, also observing scrupulously the recommendations of the Istituto Superiore di Sanità. In this article we detail the recommendations that must be followed by the nursing care staff when dealing with chronic kidney disease patients in dialysis or with kidney transplant patients. We delve into the procedures that are absolutely essential in this context: social distancing of at least one meter, use of PPI, proper dressing and undressing procedures, frequent hand washing and use of gloves, and finally the increase of dedicated and appropriately trained health personnel on ward.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/enfermagem , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Transplante de Rim/enfermagem , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/enfermagem , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Diálise Renal/enfermagem , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/enfermagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Desinfecção , Desinfecção das Mãos , Humanos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Profissional para o Paciente/prevenção & controle , Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Processo de Enfermagem/normas , Registros de Enfermagem , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Isolamento de Pacientes , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/cirurgia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Precauções Universais
7.
G Ital Nefrol ; 37(5)2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026202

RESUMO

We report the case of a 68-year-old patient who arrived at the hospital with a fever and a cough for 7 days, a history of high blood pressure and chronic kidney failure stage 2 according to CKD-EPI (GFR: 62 ml/minute with creatinine: 1.2 mg/dl). Home therapy included lercanidipine and clonidine. A chest radiograph performed in the emergency department immediately showed images suggestive of pneumonia from COVID-19, confirmed in the following days by a positive swab for coronavirus. Kidney function parameters progressively deteriorated towards a severe acute kidney failure on the 15th day, with creatinine values of 6.6 mg/dl and urea of 210 mg/dl. The situation was managed first in the intensive care unit with CRRT cycles (continuous renal replacement therapy) and then in a "yellow area" devoted to COVID patients, where the patient was dialyzed by us nephrologists through short cycles of CRRT. In our short experience we have used continuous techniques (CRRT) in positive patients hemodynamically unstable and intermittent dialysis (IRRT) in our stable chronic patients with asymptomatic COVID -19. We found CRRT to be superior in hemodynamically unstable patients hospitalized in resuscitation and in the "yellow area". Dialysis continued with high cut-off filters until the normalization of kidney function; the supportive medical therapy has also improved the course of the pathology and contributed to the favorable outcome for our patient. During the COVID-19 pandemic, our Nephrology Group at Savona's San Paul Hospital has reorganized the department to better manage both chronic dialyzed patients and acute patients affected by the new coronavirus.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Lesão Renal Aguda/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Creatinina/sangue , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Gerenciamento Clínico , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Masculino , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Isolamento de Pacientes , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Diálise Renal/métodos , Respiração Artificial , Ureia/sangue
8.
G Ital Nefrol ; 37(5)2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026203

RESUMO

We report the case of a 93-year-old woman on haemodialysis treatment for more than 30 months and with multiple comorbidities who recovered from a Covid-19 infection without any significant clinical problems. The patient has shown a delay in viral clearance with swab test negativization (confirmed) after 33 days; after testing positive again, she has resulted persistently negative, (confirmed after 49 days). After the first negative swab, IgG and IgM antibodies have been found; these have remained persistently positive after a month. As well as highlighting an unexpected resilience in an extremely fragile context, the analysis of this case draws attention to patients' management and, potentially, to the need to arrange dialysis treatments in isolation for some time after their "laboratory recovery".


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Diálise Renal , Sobreviventes , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Calcitriol/uso terapêutico , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Heparina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Nasofaringe/virologia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Tempo
9.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(10)2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028570

RESUMO

In March 2020, a 74-year-old man affected by end-stage renal disease and on peritoneal dialysis was referred to an emergency room in Modena, Northern Italy, due to fever and respiratory symptoms. After ruling out COVID-19 infection, a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation was confirmed and he was thus transferred to the nephrology division. Physical examination and blood tests revealed a positive fluid balance and insufficient correction of the uraemic syndrome, although peritoneal dialysis prescription was maximised. After discussion with the patient and his family, the staff decided to start hybrid dialysis, consisting of once-weekly in-hospital haemodialysis and home peritoneal dialysis for the remaining days. He was discharged at the end of the antibiotic course, after an internal jugular vein central venous catheter placement and the first haemodialysis session. This strategy allowed improvement of depuration parameters and avoidance of frequent access to the hospital, which is crucial in limiting exposure to SARS-CoV-2 in an endemic setting.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Falência Renal Crônica , Pandemias , Diálise Peritoneal/métodos , Pneumonia Viral , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Diálise Renal/métodos , Idoso , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Terapia Combinada/tendências , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Unidades Hospitalares de Hemodiálise , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Falência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Falência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Inovação Organizacional , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Exacerbação dos Sintomas
10.
Wiad Lek ; 73(8): 1723-1725, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055341

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To study the status of pro- and anticoagulant components of hemostasis in patients with stage VD CKD depending on residual renal function. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: 88 patients with stage VD CKD were studied, 16 of them had preserved residual renal function (RRF). Hemostatic parameters - soluble fibrin, D-dimer and protein C - were determined in the patients. RESULTS: Results: Significant increase in soluble fibrin and fibrinogen levels along with depressive reaction of D-dimer and protein C were found in patients with stage VD CKD having lost RRF. Preserved RRF in those patients had positive influence on hemostatic profile, decreasing the degree of hypercoagulation. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: 1. In long term dialysis patients with stage VD CKD and lost RRF, significantly increased levels in soluble fibrin and fibrinogen along with decreased D-dimer concentration were found, being a key factor in the development of thrombotic complications. 2. There was significant decrease in protein C activity in patients with lost RRF. 3. Preserved RRF in patients with stage VD CKD had positive influence on hemostatic profile.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Hemostasia , Humanos , Proteína C , Diálise Renal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações
11.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(9): 1229-1234, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027450

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and renal transplantation on the quality of life of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and analyze the influencing factors. METHODS: A total of 162 ESRD patients who received maintenance hemodialysis, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, and renal transplantation from February 2017 to March 2018 in our hospital were divided into a hemodialysis group, a peritoneal dialysis group, and a renal transplantation group. The baseline clinical data, serum indices, as well as environmental factors such as education level, marital status, work, residential pattern, household income, and expenditure were recorded. The quality of life was assessed using the short-form 36-item (SF-36) scale reflecting the Physical Component Summary (PCS) and the Mental Component Summary (MCS). One-way analysis of variance and logistic stepwise multiple regression analysis were performed to analyze the factors influencing the quality of life. RESULTS: The renal transplantation group had the highest average scores for all dimensions of the SF-36 scale. The PCS and MCS scores of this group were higher than those of the hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis groups. The peritoneal dialysis group had higher scores for physical functioning, physical role, bodily pain, general health, mental health, PCS, and MCS than those of the hemodialysis group. Age, HGB, GLU, and ALP were the main factors influencing PCS. Age, education level, residential pattern, medication expenditure, and monthly per capita income mainly affected MCS. CONCLUSION: In terms of quality of life, renal transplantation is superior to peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica , Transplante de Rim , Diálise Peritoneal , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Diálise Renal
12.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 2434-2437, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018498

RESUMO

Dialysis causes blood flow defects in the heart that may augment electrophysiological heterogeneity in the form of increased number of ischemic zones in the human left ventricle. We computationally tested whether a larger number of ischemic zones aggravate arrhythmia using a 2D electrophysiological model of the human ventricle.A human ventricle cardiomyocyte model capable of simulating ischemic action potentials was adapted in this study. The cell model was incorporated into a spatial 2D model consisting of known number of ischemic zones. Inter-cellular gap junction coupling within ischemic zones was reduced to simulate slow conduction. Arrhythmia severity was assessed by inducing a re-entry, and quantifying the ensuing breakup and tissue pacing rates.Ischemia elevated the isolated cardiomyocyte's resting potential and reduced its action potential duration. In the absence of ischemic zones, the propensity in the 2D model to induce multiple re-entrant waves was low. The inclusion of ischemic zones provided the substrate for initiation of re-entrant waves leading to fibrillation. Dominant frequency, which measured the highest rate of pacing in the tissue, increased drastically with the inclusion of multiple ischemic zones. Re-entrant wave tip maximum numbers increased from 1 tip (no ischemic zone) to 34 tips when a large number (20) of ischemic zones were included. Computational limiting factors of our platform were identified using software profiling.Clinical significance. Dialysis may promote deleterious arrhythmias by increasing tissue level action potential dispersion.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas , Diálise Renal , Arritmias Cardíacas/etiologia , Eletrofisiologia Cardíaca , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Isquemia
13.
Enferm. nefrol ; 23(3): 244-251, jul.-sept. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193707

RESUMO

La prevalencia de malnutrición en paciente con Enfermedad Renal Crónica es elevada, aumentando en pacientes con infección por SARS-CoV-2. La relación existente entre inflamación y nutrición es conocida en la enfermedad renal, por lo que la presencia previa de cuadros de malnutrición empeora el pronóstico de la infección. El objetivo del presente artículo es la creación de recomendaciones dietéticas específicas para pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica e infección o post-infección por SARS-CoV-2, adaptadas al estadio de enfermedad y a la etapa del proceso de infección. El abordaje nutricional comienza por la valoración del estado nutricional, para lo que se recomiendan minimizar el contacto físico mediante la utilización de los criterios Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM), y el cuestionario rápido de sarcopenia (SARC-F). Las recomendaciones dietéticas deben considerar el estadio de enfermedad renal crónica, la etapa de infección por SARS-CoV-2 y las complicaciones surgidas que comprometan la ingesta oral, entre las más comunes se encuentran: anorexia, ageusia, disfagia y diarrea. En el presente documento se han elaborado tablas de raciones de ingestas diarias adaptadas a las diferentes situaciones. En aquellos pacientes que no cubran los requerimientos nutricionales se recomienda comenzar con la suplementación nutricional de manera precoz, considerando las consecuencias de la infección descrita. Debido al elevado riesgo de malnutrición en pacientes con enfermedad renal cónica e infección por SARS-CoV-2, se recomienda la adaptación de la valoración del estado nutricional y su tratamiento, así como realizar una monitorización tras la fase de infección activa


The prevalence of malnutrition in patients with Chronic Kidney Disease is high, increasing in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The relationship between inflammation and nutrition in kidney disease is known, so the previous presence of malnutrition conditions worsens the prognosis of infection. The objective of this article is the creation of specific dietary recommendations for patients with chronic kidney disease and infection or post-infection by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, adapted to the stage of the disease and the stage of the infection process. The nutritional approach begins with the assessment of nutritional status, recommending minimizing physical contact through the use of the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) criteria and the rapid sarcopenia questionnaire (SARC-F). The dietary recommendations should consider the stage of chronic kidney disease, the stage of infection by SARS-CoV-2 and the complications arising that compromise oral intake, among the most common are: anorexia, ageusia, dysphagia and diarrhea. In this document, tables of daily intakes have been prepared adapted to different situations. In those patients who do not meet the nutritional requirements, it is recommended to start with an early nutritional supplementation, considering the consequences of the infection described. Due to the high risk of malnutrition in patients with chronic kidney disease and SARS-CoV-2 infection, it is recommended to adapt the assessment of nutritional status and treatment, as well as to carry out monitoring after the active infection phase


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/dietoterapia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/dietoterapia , Desnutrição/dietoterapia , Diálise Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Iran J Kidney Dis ; 14(5): 389-398, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943594

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Seven months after the emergence of SARS-COV-2 virus, there is paucity of data regarding the epidemiology of the virus in hemodialysis patients. We aim to present the results of the screening program implied after outbreak of COVID-19 in a referral hemodialysis ward. METHODS: We started clinical screening and obligatory mask wearing for dialysis patients and personnel on 20-Feb-2020. However 11 symptomatic COVID-19 patients emerged till day +36. On days +39 and +40 a screening program was implied including measurement of SARS-COV-2 PCR and immunoglobulin G and M (IgG/IgM) and chest computerized tomography (CCT) scan. The results of CCT scan, classified according to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Reporting and Data System (CO-RADS) classification; as with very low (grade 1-normal), low, indeterminate, high, and very high likelihood of COVID-19 (grades 2, 3, 4, and 5; respectively), were used for compartmentalization of patients. RESULTS: Among 178 patients (68.2% male, mean age = 58.7 ± 16.6 years), 11 got COVID-19 before screening, two of whom died. CCT scans were normal in 71.3% and grade 2, 3, 4, and 5 in 7.9%, 4.5%, 5.6%, and 10.7%; respectively. PCR and IgG and/or IgM were positive in 27 and 32 patients. Eighty-three patients had evidence of COVID-19 infection, who were significantly older (62.2 ± 16.6 vs. 56.1 ± 16.02, P < .05). There was no difference in the rate of infection considering gender, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and different blood groups. CONCLUSION: Asymptomatic SARS- COV 2 infection may affect a large number of dialysis patients. We highly recommend a screening strategy whenever the number of patients is increasing.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Unidades Hospitalares de Hemodiálise , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Incidência , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Diálise Renal , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 35(8): 1338-1411, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are only scarce data regarding the presentation, incidence, severity and outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients undergoing long-term haemodialysis (HD). A prospective observational study was conducted in eight HD facilities in Alsace, France, to identify clinical characteristics of HD patients with COVID-19 and to assess the determinants of the risk of death. METHODS: All HD patients tested positive for COVID-19 from 5 March to 28 April 2020 were included. Collected data included patient characteristics, clinical features at diagnosis, laboratory data, treatments and outcomes. RESULTS: Among 1346 HD patients, 123 tested positive for COVID-19. Patients had a median age of 77 years (interquartile range 66-83), with a high number of comorbidities (3.2 ± 1.6 per patient). Symptoms were compatible in 63% of patients. Asthenia (77%), diarrhoea (34%) and anorexia (32%) were frequent at diagnosis. The delay between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis, death or complete recovery was 2 (0-5), 7 (4-11) and 32 (26.5-35) days, respectively. Treatment, including lopinavir/ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine and corticosteroids, was administered in 23% of patients. The median C-reactive protein (CRP) and lymphocyte count at diagnosis was 55 mg/L (IQR 25-106) and 690 Ly/µL (IQR 450-960), respectively. The case fatality rate was 24% and determinants associated with the risk of death were body temperature {hazard ratio [HR] 1.96 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-3.44]; P = 0.02} and CRP at diagnosis [HR 1.01 (95% CI 1.005-1.017); P < 0.0001]. CONCLUSIONS: HD patients were found to be at high risk of developing COVID-19 and exhibited a high rate of mortality. While patients presented severe forms of the disease, they often displayed atypical symptoms, with the CRP level being highly associated with the risk of death.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , DNA Viral/análise , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Diálise Renal/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/sangue , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(33): e21676, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872035

RESUMO

Hip fractures in older patients requiring dialysis are associated with high mortality. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the specific burden of dialysis on 30-day mortality following hip fracture surgery. The secondary aim was to determine the burden of dialysis on overall survival as well as several postoperative complications.A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from the Korean National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients were aged ≥65 years and underwent hip fracture surgery during the period from 2009 to 2015. To construct a matched cohort, each dialysis patient was matched to 4 non-dialysis patients based on age, sex, hospital type, anesthesia type, and comorbidities. Survival status was determined 30 days after surgery and at the end of the study period.In total, 96,289 patients were identified. Among them, 1614 dialysis patients were included and matched to 6198 non-dialysis patients. During the 30-day postoperative period, there were 102 mortality events in the dialysis group and 127 in the non-dialysis group, for an adjusted hazard ratio of 3.12 (95% confidence interval, 2.42-4.09). Overall, by the end of the study period, there were 1120 mortality events in the dialysis group and 2731 in the non-dialysis group, for an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.97 (95% confidence interval, 1.83-2.1). These findings may be limited by the characteristics of the administrative database.The 30-day mortality rate was 3-fold higher in the dialysis group than in the non-dialysis group, while the overall mortality rate was approximately 2-fold higher in the dialysis group than in the non-dialysis group. These findings suggest that caution in the perioperative period is required in dialysis patients undergoing hip fracture surgery. The results of our study represent only an association between dialysis and mortality. Further studies are necessary to investigate the possible causal effect of dialysis on mortality and complications after hip fracture surgery.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Quadril/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Diálise Renal/mortalidade , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
19.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (8): 42-48, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869614

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze AVF patency rates after balloon angioplasty and palliative open surgery in patients with native AVF and central vein stenosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 39 patients who underwent percutaneous balloon angioplasty (main group) and 41 patients who underwent palliative interventions (comparison group): thrombectomy, proximalization of arteriovenous anastomosis, AVF blood flow reduction. All patients were diagnosed with stenosis of subclavian vein, innominate vein, inferior vena cava or multiple lesions. RESULTS: Primary annual patency rate in the main group was 15.4% [95% CI 6.2; 28.3], in the comparison group - 0% (p=0.0011). Secondary annual patency rate was 66.7% [95% CI 49.6; 79.1] and 19.5% [95% CI 9.2; 32.7], respectively (p<0.0001). In the main group, a strong negative correlation between primary patency rate and stenosis-free period was revealed (r= -0.627 [95%CI -0.787; -0.388], p<0.0001). We did not find such correlation in the comparison group (r=0,049 [95% CI -0.262; 0.351], p=0.7599). Thus, balloon angioplasty is less effective for delayed stenosis. This feature should be considered in planning vascular approach. Different primary and secondary patency rates in the comparison group indicate that AVF blood flow reduction is an effective palliative treatment. CONCLUSION: Balloon angioplasty can significantly increase duration of AVF patency. Effectiveness of this procedure significantly depends on the period of manifestation of central vein stenosis. Balloon angioplasty cannot be considered a radical method in case of significant stenosis. This method only prolongs period for creation of new permanent contralateral vascular approach. Reduction of AVF blood flow can significantly reduce clinical severity of central vein stenosis and slightly extends the period of AVF patency.


Assuntos
Angioplastia com Balão/métodos , Derivação Arteriovenosa Cirúrgica , Constrição Patológica/cirurgia , Insuficiência Venosa/cirurgia , Humanos , Diálise Renal , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (8): 107-109, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869623

RESUMO

Aneurysmal transformation of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is a common complication and associated with increased risk of arrosive bleeding. Ligation of fistulous vein is conventional surgery for bleeding. This is followed by AVF malfunction and need for implantation of central venous catheter. We report reconstructive surgery and maintaining the function of AVF in a patient with aneurysmal transformation of AVF after arrosive bleeding. Reconstructive vascular surgery can significantly extend the period of patent AVF for hemodialysis. This is extremely important in patients with reduced resources of native vessels suitable for AVF formation. The same is true if conversion of the type of renal replacement therapy is associated with significant difficulties.


Assuntos
Aneurisma/cirurgia , Derivação Arteriovenosa Cirúrgica/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/métodos , Aneurisma/etiologia , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Ligadura , Diálise Renal , Resultado do Tratamento , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular , Veias/cirurgia
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