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1.
Microb Cell Fact ; 18(1): 161, 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have shown that stress induction and genetic engineering can effectively increase lipid accumulation, but lead to a decrease of growth in the majority of microalgae. We previously found that elevated CO2 concentration increased lipid productivity as well as growth in Phaeodactylum tricornutum, along with an enhancement of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (OPPP) activity. The purpose of this work directed toward the verification of the critical role of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), the rate-limiting enzyme in the OPPP, in lipid accumulation in P. tricornutum and its simultaneous rapid growth rate under high-CO2 (0.15%) cultivation. RESULTS: In this study, G6PDH was identified as a target for algal strain improvement, wherein G6PDH gene was successfully overexpressed and antisense knockdown in P. tricornutum, and systematic comparisons of the photosynthesis performance, algal growth, lipid content, fatty acid profiles, NADPH production, G6PDH activity and transcriptional abundance were performed. The results showed that, due to the enhanced G6PDH activity, transcriptional abundance and NAPDH production, overexpression of G6PDH accompanied by high-CO2 cultivation resulted in a much higher of both lipid content and growth in P. tricornutum, while knockdown of G6PDH greatly decreased algal growth as well as lipid accumulation. In addition, the total proportions of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid, especially the polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5, n-3), were highly increased in high-CO2 cultivated G6PDH overexpressed strains. CONCLUSIONS: The successful of overexpression and antisense knockdown of G6PDH well demonstrated the positive influence of G6PDH on algal growth and lipid accumulation in P. tricornutum. The improvement of algal growth, lipid content as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids in high-CO2 cultivated G6PDH overexpressed P. tricornutum suggested this G6PDH overexpression-high CO2 cultivation pattern provides an efficient and economical route for algal strain improvement to develop algal-based biodiesel production.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Diatomáceas/genética , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/genética , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Engenharia Genética , Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Microalgas/genética , Microalgas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microalgas/metabolismo , NADP/metabolismo , Via de Pentose Fosfato , Fotossíntese
2.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121879, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377048

RESUMO

Along with the increase in global awareness of rising CO2 levels, microalgae have attracted considerable interest as a promising CO2 reduction platforms since they exhibit outstanding biomass productivity and are capable of producing numerous valuable products. At this moment, however, two major barriers, relatively low photosynthetic CO2 fixation efficiency and necessity of carbon-intensive microalgal process, obstruct them to be practically utilized. This review suggests effective approaches to improve life-cycle CO2 reduction of microalgal biorefinery. In order to enhance photosynthetic CO2 fixation, strategies to augment carbon content and to increase biomass productivity should be considered. For reducing CO2 emissions associated with the process operations, introduction of efficient process elements, designing of energy-saving process routes, reuse of waste resources and utilization of process integration can be noteworthy options. These comprehensive strategies will provide guidance for microalgal biorefineries to become a practical CO2 reduction technology in near future.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Microalgas/metabolismo , Biomassa , Carbono/metabolismo , Fotossíntese
3.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121850, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358426

RESUMO

Biological CO2 capture using microalgae is a promising new method for reducing CO2 emission of coal-fired flue gas. The strain of microalgae used in this process plays a vital role in determining the rate of CO2 fixation and characteristics of biomass production. High requirements are put forward for algae strains due to high CO2 concentration and diverse pollutants in flue gas. CO2 can directly diffuse into the cytoplasm of cells by extra- and intracellular CO2 osmotic pressure under high CO2 concentrations. The flue gas pollutants, such as SOx, NOx and fly ashes, have negative effects on the growth of microalgae. This work reviewed the state-of-the-art advances on microalgae strains used for CO2 fixation, focusing on the modification and improvement of strains that are used for coal-fired flue gas. Methods such as genetic engineering, random mutagenesis, and adaptive evolution have the potential to facilitate photosynthesis, improve growth rate and reduce CO2 emission.


Assuntos
Carvão Mineral , Microalgas/metabolismo , Biomassa , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Cinza de Carvão/química , Centrais Elétricas
4.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121760, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352165

RESUMO

A lab-scale stirred-tank bioreactor was reversibly retrofitted to a packed-bed and a trickle-bed biofilm reactor to study and compare the conversion of CO2/H2 with immobilised Clostridiumaceticum. The biofilm reactors were characterised and their functionality confirmed. Up to 8.6 g of C. aceticum were immobilised onto 300 g sintered ceramic carrier material, proving biofilm formation to be a robust means for cell retention of C. aceticum. Continuous CO2/H2-fermentation studies were performed with both biofilm reactor configurations as function of dilution rates, partial gas pressures and gas flow rates. The experiments showed that in the packed-bed biofilm reactor, the acetate space-time yield was independent of the dilution rate, because of low H2 gas-liquid mass transfer rates (≤17 mmol H2 L-1 h-1). The continuous operation of the trickle-bed biofilm reactor increased the gas-liquid mass transfer rates to up to 56 mmol H2 L-1 h-1. Consequently, the acetate space-time yield of up to 14 mmol acetate L-1 h-1 was improved 3-fold at hydrogen conversions of up to 96%.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Reatores Biológicos , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Clostridium/fisiologia , Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Ácido Acético/metabolismo , Fermentação
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(31): 8441-8451, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339045

RESUMO

The increase in the atmospheric CO2 concentration is predicted to influence wheat production and grain quality and nutritional properties. In the present study, durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. cv. Sula) was grown under two different CO2 (400 versus 700 µmol mol-1) concentrations to examine effects on the crop yield and grain quality at different phenological stages (from grain filling to maturity). Exposure to elevated CO2 significantly increased aboveground biomass and grain yield components. Growth at elevated CO2 diminished the elemental N content as well as protein and free amino acids, with a typical decrease in glutamine, which is the most represented amino acid in grain proteins. Such a general decrease in nitrogenous compounds was associated with altered kinetics of protein accumulation, N remobilization, and N partitioning. Our results highlight important modifications of grain metabolism that have implications for its nutritional quality.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/química , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Cinética , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Triticum/química , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
Bioresour Technol ; 289: 121706, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279320

RESUMO

Microbial electrosynthesis (MES) is a promising technology to convert CO2 and electricity into the biofuel methane using methanogens. Until now, most investigations on electro-methanogenesis are "proof-of-principle" studies. In this paper, different strains were quantitatively compared in regard to final methane concentration, yields based on CO2-conversion, productivities as well as Coulombic efficiencies in order to identify suitable organisms for MES. Methanococcus vannielii, Methanococcus maripaludis, Methanolacinia petrolearia, Methanobacterium congolense, and Methanoculleus submarinus were able to produce methane via MES at -700 mV vs. standard hydrogen electrode (SHE). Beside methane also biological H2 production was detected during MES, which might be due to the involvement of hydrogenases. A direct electron transfer pathway is most likely. Obviously, M. maripaludis is the most resource efficient methane producer in microbial electrosynthesis regarding the methane productivity (8.81 ±â€¯0.51 mmol m-2 d-1) and the Coulombic efficiency (58.9 ±â€¯0.8%).


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Metano/biossíntese , Mathanococcus/metabolismo , Methanomicrobiaceae/metabolismo , Eletrodos , Hidrogenase/metabolismo , Methanobacterium/metabolismo
7.
Bioresour Technol ; 289: 121685, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323715

RESUMO

In this study, immobilized Scenedesmus obliquus (S. obliquus) was proposed to simultaneously alleviate the carbon dioxide (CO2) and ammonium (NH4+-N). Two trophic modes of autotrophy and mixotrophy were conducted by batch experiments with a period of 5 days. The results shown that NH4+-N could be removed more efficiently if algal cells were immobilized, and the trophic mode change had no significant effect on immobilized S. obliquus to NH4+-N removal under 5% CO2 sparging. Specifically, immobilized S. obliquus could remove NH4+-N completely at initial concentrations of 30 and 50 mg/L and reached about 80% removal rate of NH4+-N at the concentration of 70 mg/L under both trophic modes. The protein synthesis was its main removal mechanism and the dominant amino acid components including glutamic acid (Glu), cystine (Cys), arginine (Arg), methionine (Met) and lysine (Lys) were sensitive to NH4+-N assimilation.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Scenedesmus/metabolismo , Ciclo do Carbono
8.
Plant Mol Biol ; 101(1-2): 183-202, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286324

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Isoforms of 2-OGDH E1 subunit are not functionally redundant in plant growth and development of A. thaliana. The tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (2-OGDH) converts 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) to succinyl-CoA concomitant with the reduction of NAD+. 2-OGDH has an essential role in plant metabolism, being both a limiting step during mitochondrial respiration as well as a key player in carbon-nitrogen interactions. In Arabidopsis thaliana two genes encode for E1 subunit of 2-OGDH but the physiological roles of each isoform remain unknown. Thus, in the present study we isolated Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion knockout mutant lines for each of the genes encoding the E1 subunit of 2-OGDH enzyme. All mutant plants exhibited substantial reduction in both respiration and CO2 assimilation rates. Furthermore, mutant lines exhibited reduced levels of chlorophylls and nitrate, increased levels of sucrose, malate and fumarate and minor changes in total protein and starch levels in leaves. Despite the similar metabolic phenotypes for the two E1 isoforms the reduction in the expression of each gene culminated in different responses in terms of plant growth and seed production indicating distinct roles for each isoform. Collectively, our results demonstrated the importance of the E1 subunit of 2-OGDH in both autotrophic and heterotrophic tissues and suggest that the two E1 isoforms are not functionally redundant in terms of plant growth in A. thaliana.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/enzimologia , Carbono/metabolismo , Complexo Cetoglutarato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Complexo Cetoglutarato Desidrogenase/genética , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Mutagênese Insercional , Nitratos/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/enzimologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Isoformas de Proteínas , Subunidades Proteicas , Plântula/enzimologia , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/enzimologia , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 182: 109393, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299473

RESUMO

This research evaluated the influence of organic matter (OM) and CO2 addition on the bioremediation potential of two microalgae typically used for wastewater treatment: Chlorella vulgaris (CV) and Scenedesmus almeriensis (SA). The heavy metal (HM) removal efficiencies and biosorption capacities of both microalgae were determined in multimetallic solutions (As, B, Cu, Mn, and Zn) mimicking the highest pollutant conditions found in the Loa river (Northern Chile). The presence of OM decreased the total biosorption capacity, specially in As (from 2.2 to 0.0 mg/g for CV and from 2.3 to 1.7 mg/g for SA) and Cu (from 3.2 to 2.3 mg/g for CV and from 2.1 to 1.6 mg/g for SA), but its influence declined over time. CO2 addition decreased the total HM biosorption capacity for both microalgae species and inhibited CV growth. Finally, metal recovery using different eluents (HCl, NaOH, and CaCl2) was evaluated at two different concentrations. HCl 0.1 M provided the highest recovery efficiencies, which supported values over 85% of As, 92% of Cu, and ≈100% of Mn and Zn from SA. The presence of OM during the loaded stage resulted in a complete recovery of As, Cu, Mn, and Zn when using HCl 0.1 M as eluent.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Chlorella vulgaris/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Scenedesmus/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Chile , Metais Pesados/análise , Microalgas , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
10.
Aquat Toxicol ; 212: 247-258, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170659

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the combined effects of varying dissolved CO2 concentration (ambient CO2, 3˜17 µmol L-1, elevated CO2, 48˜81 µmol L-1) and light intensity (high light, c. 150 µmol photon m-2 s-1, low light, c. 25 µmol photon m-2 s-1) on the bioaccumulation and phytotoxicity of cadmium (Cd) in a macrophyte Potamogeton crispus, under constant Cd exposure. The data confirmed that 100 µM Cd led to adverse changes in morphology, ultrastructure and biochemistry in P. crispus. The toxic effects depended strongly on CO2 concentration and light intensity: elevated CO2 and high light both increased Cd concentrations in P. crispus, and there was a significant interaction between the two factors. Compared to high light grown plants, the photochemical efficiency and chlorophyll content of low light grown P. crispus were much less affected and the MDA content was lower, when exposed to 100 µM Cd. In addition, an antioxidative response was observed with a significant increase in SOD, POD and GST activities, indicating that low light grown P. crispus are more protected against Cd toxicity. When compared with ambient CO2 concentrations, chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthetic rate and starch content, as well as the activity of SOD and GST, were significantly enhanced in Cd treated P. crispus under elevated CO2. This suggests that elevated CO2 reduced Cd toxicity in P. crispus by increasing photosynthesis and enhancing the antioxidant system. Moreover, the statistical results showed that dissolved CO2 and light had additive effects on Cd toxicity in P. crispus, reflected by the physiological parameters of total chlorophyll content, SOD activity and MDA content, indicating that the combination of high CO2 and low light produced more protection against Cd toxicity than did the factors alone. Based on the results of this study, it appears clear that referring to a specific site in aquatic ecosystem, dissolved CO2 concentration and light availability should be considered when assessing and managing Cd impacts on aquatic plants.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Meio Ambiente , Luz , Potamogetonaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Potamogetonaceae/efeitos da radiação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Clorofila/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
11.
Plant Sci ; 285: 239-247, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203889

RESUMO

Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is a nutrient-rich food source traditionally grown in arid and semi-arid areas, as it is well adapted to drought climate. Yet there is limited information as how the crop responses to the changing climate. In order to investigate the response of foxtail millet to elevated [CO2] and the underlying mechanism, the crop was grown at ambient [CO2] (400 µmol mol-1) and elevated [CO2] (600 µmol mol-1) in an open-top chamber (OTC) experimental facility in North China. The changes in leaf photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence, biomass, yield and global gene expression in response to elevated [CO2] were determined. Despite foxtail millet being a C4 photosynthetic crop, photosynthetic rates (PN) and intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUEi), were increased under elevated [CO2]. Similarly, grain yield and above-ground biomass also significantly increased (P <  0.05) for the two years of experimentation under elevated [CO2]. Increases in seeds and tiller number, spike and stem weight were the main contributors to the increased grain yield and biomass. Using transcriptomic analyses, this study further identified some genes which play a role in cell wall reinforcement, shoot initiation, stomatal conductance, carbon fixation, glycolysis / gluconeogenesis responsive to elevated [CO2]. Changes in these genes reduced plant height, increased stem diameters, and promote CO2 fixation. Higher photosynthetic rates at elevated [CO2] demonstrated that foxtail millet was not photosynthetically saturated at elevated [CO2] and its photosynthesis response to elevated [CO2] were analogous to C3 plants.


Assuntos
Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Setaria (Planta)/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomassa , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Produção Agrícola , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Setaria (Planta)/genética , Setaria (Planta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Setaria (Planta)/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 144: 173-180, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179985

RESUMO

We investigated how elevated CO2 affects the responses of Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis and Ulva lactuca to NH4+ enrichments. All algae were incubated under four nutritional conditions (zero addition, 100, 500, and 2500 µM NH4+), and two CO2 levels (390 ppm and 1000 ppm). The growth, photosynthesis, and soluble protein contents of both species increased under the eutrophication condition (100 µM NH4+). However, the growth and carotenoid contents of the two species declined when NH4+ concentration increased. Under the super eutrophication condition (2500 µM NH4+), all indexes measured in G. lemaneiformis were suppressed, while the growth and photosynthesis in U. lactuca changed indistinctively, both compared with the control. Moreover, under the super eutrophication condition, elevated CO2 reduced the suppression in the growth of G. lemaneiformis, but decreased the growth of U. lactuca. Nonetheless, G. lemaneiformis displayed much lower growth rates than U. lactuca under the super eutrophication and elevated CO2 condition.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio/toxicidade , Dióxido de Carbono/toxicidade , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Rodófitas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ulva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Compostos de Amônio/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Eutrofização , Modelos Teóricos , Rodófitas/metabolismo , Água do Mar/química , Ulva/metabolismo
13.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 78(2): 173-179, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147886

RESUMO

Ticks are subject to various environmental constrains, such as dehydration, desiccation and long-waiting for hosts to attach. These factors are crucial for tick survival in the environment. Ticks have developed physiological mechanisms and/or strategies that allow adaptability and survival in the environment in which they live, such as spiracle control and cyclical or discontinuous gas exchanges. However, details of gas exchange profile have been reported only in a few tick species in the past. The present study aims to identify and describe respiratory gas exchange patterns in a tropical population of the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and effects of blood feeding. Adult female ticks were fed on rabbit hosts. Partially fed (4 to 6 days) and completely fed (> 9 days) ticks were collected daily during feeding, weighed and subjected to CO2 emission measurement at 25 °C using flow-through respirometry. Unfed adult females showed a well-defined periodical burst of CO2 emissions, followed by short periods of low-emission intercepts. The fed groups had drastic changes in respiratory profiles with semi-engorged females showing a high-intensity respiratory pattern alternating between continuous and discontinuous and the engorged females showing a continuous respiratory pattern with high frequency and intensity. The findings from this study contribute to a better understanding of the respiratory physiological process of a tropical population of the dog tick, which may help future investigations on other biological aspects of this ectoparasite and development of control measures.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Rhipicephalus sanguineus/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar , Coelhos
14.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 255, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the mechanisms of crops in response to elevated CO2 concentrations is pivotal to estimating the impacts of climate change on the global agricultural production. Based on earlier results of the "doubling-CO2 concentration" experiments, many current climate models may overestimate the CO2 fertilization effect on crops, and meanwhile, underestimate the potential impacts of future climate change on global agriculture ecosystem when the atmospheric CO2 concentration goes beyond the optimal levels for crop growth. RESULTS: This study examined the photosynthetic response of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) to elevated CO2 concentration associated with changes in leaf structure, non-structural carbohydrates and nitrogen content with environmental growth chambers where the CO2 concentration was controlled at 400, 600, 800, 1000, 1200, 1400, 1600 ppm. We found CO2-induced down-regulation of leaf photosynthesis as evidenced by the consistently declined leaf net photosynthetic rate (An) with elevated CO2 concentrations. This down-regulation of leaf photosynthesis was evident in biochemical and photochemical processes since the maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax) and the maximum electron transport rate (Jmax) were dramatically decreased at higher CO2 concentrations exceeding their optimal values of about 600 ppm and 400 ppm, respectively. Moreover, the down-regulation of leaf photosynthesis at high CO2 concentration was partially attributed to the reduced stomatal conductance (Gs) as demonstrated by the declines in stomatal density and stomatal area as well as the changes in the spatial distribution pattern of stomata. In addition, the smaller total mesophyll size (palisade and spongy tissues) and the lower nitrogen availability may also contribute to the down-regulation of leaf photosynthesis when soybean subjected to high CO2 concentration environment. CONCLUSIONS: Down-regulation of leaf photosynthesis associated with the changes in stomatal traits, mesophyll tissue size, non-structural carbohydrates, and nitrogen availability of soybean in response to future high atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate change.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Mudança Climática , Regulação para Baixo , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Estômatos de Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Soja/anatomia & histologia
15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2365, 2019 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147540

RESUMO

Sensory perception modulates health and aging across taxa. Understanding the nature of relevant cues and the mechanisms underlying their action may lead to novel interventions that improve the length and quality of life. We found that in the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, exposure to dead conspecifics in the environment induced cues that were aversive to other flies, modulated physiology, and impaired longevity. The effects of exposure to dead conspecifics on aversiveness and lifespan required visual and olfactory function in the exposed flies. Furthermore, the sight of dead flies was sufficient to produce aversive cues and to induce changes in the head metabolome. Genetic and pharmacologic attenuation of serotonergic signaling eliminated the effects of exposure on aversiveness and lifespan. Our results indicate that Drosophila have an ability to perceive dead conspecifics in their environment and suggest conserved mechanistic links between neural state, health, and aging; the roots of which might be unearthed using invertebrate model systems.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Morte , Longevidade , Percepção Olfatória , Serotonina/metabolismo , Percepção Visual , Animais , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Drosophila , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster , Drosophila simulans , Metaboloma , Fosfolipase C beta/genética , Receptores Odorantes/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
17.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 54(7): 560-568, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246136

RESUMO

After application, herbicides often reach the soil and affect non-target soil microorganisms, decreasing their population, diversity or affecting metabolic activity. Therefore, laboratory studies were performed to evaluate the effects of diuron, hexazinone and sulfometuron-methyl alone and mixed upon carbon transformation by soil microorganisms in clayey and sandy soils and the effect on bacterial diversity and structure. Control treatment without herbicide application was also performed. Sub-samples from the control and herbicide treatments (10 g - in triplicate) were collected before herbicide application and 7, 14, 28 and 42 days after treatment (DAT), then 1 mL of 14C-glucose solution was applied. The released 14CO2 was trapped in 2 M NaOH solution and the radioactivity was analyzed by liquid scintillation counting (LSC), 12 h after glucose application. The effect of herbicides on bacterial diversity was evaluated by T-RFLP. The experiment was conducted in a complete randomized design. Hexazinone did not affect 14CO2 evolution. Diuron showed a greater 14CO2 evolution in sandy and clayey soil, while sulfometuron-methyl led to an increase in sandy soil, at 42 DAT. A greater evolution of carbon was observed in the treatment with herbicide mixture in sandy soil, compared with the same treatment in clayey soil or control. However, the herbicide mixture application did not affect the soil biological activity measured by the respiration rate induced by substrate. On the other hand, the herbicide mixtures affected the bacterial diversity in both soils, being the strongest effect to diuron and sulfometuron-methyl in clayey soil and hexazinone in sandy soil.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Diurona/toxicidade , Microbiologia do Solo , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/toxicidade , Triazinas/toxicidade , Bactérias/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
18.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(5): 78, 2019 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087167

RESUMO

The increase in the CO2 concentration in the Earth's atmosphere has been a topic of worldwide concern since anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases began increasing considerably during the industrial period. The effects of these mass emissions are probably the main cause of global warming, which has been observed over recent decades. Among the various techniques of CO2 capture, microalgal biofixation by photosynthesis is considered a promising technology due to the efficiency of these microorganisms in converting this gas into organic compounds through its use as a nutrient in the culture medium. Over the years, several research centers have developed studies on this subject, which have focused on mainly the development of bioreactors, the growth conditions that increase the efficiency of the process and the production of biomass with applicability in several areas. The biological mitigation of CO2 by microalgae has many advantages, including reductions in the concentration of an industrially sourced greenhouse gas and the energy or food obtained from the produced photosynthetic biomass. This versatility allows for the cultivation of economically useful biomass while reducing the environmental impacts of industrial facilities. In this context, this mini-review aims to discuss new technologies and strategies along with the main challenges and future prospects in the field and the ecological and economic impacts of CO2 biofixation by microalgae.


Assuntos
Ciclo do Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Microalgas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microalgas/metabolismo , Biomassa , Reatores Biológicos , Ecologia , Economia , Aquecimento Global , Gases de Efeito Estufa
19.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(5): 77, 2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069553

RESUMO

Ethylene is a volatile alkene which is used in large commercial scale as a precursor in plastic industry, and is currently derived from petroleum refinement. As an alternative production strategy, photoautotrophic cyanobacteria Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 have been previously evaluated as potential biotechnological hosts for producing ethylene directly from CO2, by the over-expression of ethylene forming enzyme (efe) from Pseudomonas syringae. This work addresses various open questions related to the use of Synechococcus as the engineering target, and demonstrates long-term ethylene production at rates reaching 140 µL L-1 h-1 OD750-1 without loss of host vitality or capacity to produce ethylene. The results imply that the genetic instability observed earlier may be associated with the expression strategies, rather than efe over-expression, ethylene toxicity or the depletion of 2-oxoglutarate-derived cellular precursors in Synechococcus. In context with literature, this study underlines the critical differences in expression system design in the alternative hosts, and confirms Synechococcus as a suitable parallel host for further engineering.


Assuntos
Etilenos/biossíntese , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Synechococcus/genética , Synechococcus/metabolismo , Biotecnologia , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular , Tolerância a Medicamentos , Escherichia coli/genética , Etilenos/toxicidade , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Instabilidade Genômica , Ácidos Cetoglutáricos/metabolismo , Liases/genética , Liases/metabolismo , Pseudomonas syringae/genética , Pseudomonas syringae/metabolismo , Synechococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Synechococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transformação Genética
20.
Bioresour Technol ; 287: 121406, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103017

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the biofixation and production of biocompounds by Chlorella fusca LEB 111 cultivated with different concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorbent nanofibers in their free form or retained. Cultures were grown in 15% (v v-1) CO2 with 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 g L-1 nanofibers developed with 10% (w v-1) polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/dimethylformamide (DMF), with or without nanoparticles; retained or not. The addition of 0.1 g L-1 nanofibers with nanoparticles in their free form to the cultures promoted the accumulation of approximately 3 times more carbon in the medium (46.6 mg L-1), a 45% higher biofixation rate (89.2 mg L-1 d-1) and increased carbohydrate production by approximately 2.3% (w w-1) of that observed in cultures grown without nanofibers. Therefore, nanofibers showed promising potential as physical adsorbents of CO2 in the cultivation to increase gas fixation and promote the synthesis of macromolecules.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Chlorella/metabolismo , Substâncias Macromoleculares/metabolismo , Nanofibras , Carbono/metabolismo
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