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1.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238696, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911520

RESUMO

Due to the rapid economic growth and the heavy reliance on fossil fuels, China has become one of the countries with the highest sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions, which pose a severe challenge to human health and the sustainable development of social economy. In order to cope with the serious problem of SO2 pollution, this study attempts to explore the spatial temporal variations of industrial SO2 emissions in China utilizing the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) nighttime stable light (NSL) data. We first explored the relationship between the NSL data and the statistical industrial SO2 emissions at the provincial level, and confirmed that there was a positive correlation between these two datasets. Consequently, 17 linear regression models were established based on the NSL data and the provincial statistical emissions to model the spatial-temporal dynamics of China's industrial SO2 emissions from 1997 to 2013. Next, the NSL-based estimated results were evaluated utilizing the prefectural statistical industrial SO2 emissions and emission inventory data, respectively. Finally, the distribution of China's industrial SO2 emissions at 1 km spatial resolution were estimated, and the temporal and spatial dynamics were explored from multiple scales (national scale, regional scale and scale of urban agglomeration). The results show that: (1) The NSL data can be successfully applied to estimate the dynamic changes of China's industrial SO2 emissions. The coefficient of determination (R2) values of the NSL-based estimation results in most years were greater than 0.6, and the relative error (RE) values were less than 10%, when validated by the prefectural statistical SO2 emissions. Moreover, compared with the inventory emissions, the adjusted coefficient of determination (Adj.R-Square) reached 0.61, with the significance at the 0.001 level. (2) During the observation period, the temporal and spatial dynamics of industrial SO2 emissions varied greatly in different regions. The high growth type was largely distributed in China's Western region, Central region, and Shandong Peninsula, while the no-obvious-growth type was concentrated in Western region, Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan and Middle south of Liaoning. The high grade of industrial SO2 emissions was mostly concentrated in China's Eastern region, Western region, Shanghai-Nanjing-Hangzhou and Shandong Peninsula, while the low grade mainly concentrated in China's Western region, Middle south of Liaoning and Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan. These results of our research can not only enhance the understanding of the spatial-temporal dynamics of industrial SO2 emissions in China, but also offer some scientific references for formulating feasible industrial SO2 emission reduction policies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Indústrias , Modelos Teóricos , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , China , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Comunicações Via Satélite , Fatores de Tempo , Urbanização
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(10): 646, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32939661

RESUMO

We investigated the associations between the daily variations of coarse particulate matter (PM10) and/or sulfur dioxide (SO2) and hospital admissions for asthma and/or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) diseases in Kirsehir, Center of Anatolia of Turkey. We analyzed the poison generalized linear model (GLM) to analyze the association between ambient air pollutants such as PM10 and SO2 and asthma and/or COPD admissions. We investigated single-lag days and multi-lag days for the risk increase in asthma, COPD, asthma, and/or COPD hospital admissions PM10, SO2, and PM10 with SO2 per 10 µg/m3. In single-lag day model a 10 µg/m3 increase in the current day (lag 0) concentrations of PM10 and SO2 corresponded to increase of 1.027 (95% CI:1.022-1.033) and 1.069 (95% CI:1.062, 1.077) for asthma. A 10 µg/m3 increase in the current day (lag 0) concentrations of PM10 and SO2 corresponded to increase of 1.029 (95% CI:1.022-1.035) and 1.065 (95% CI:1.056, 1.075) for COPD. A 10 µg/m3 increase in the current day (lag 0) concentrations of PM10 and SO2 corresponded to increase of 1.028 (95% CI:1.024-1.032) and 1.068 (95% CI:1.062, 1.074) for asthma and/or COPD. It was found that some lag structures were related with PM10 and SO2. Significant lags were detected in some lag structures from the previous first day until the previous eighth day (lag 1 to lag 7) in the asthma, COPD, and asthma and/or COPD hospital admissions in the model created with PM10 with SO2 both in the single-lag day model and in the multi-lag day model. Our study that used GLM in time series analysis showed that PM10 and/or SO2 short-term exposure in single-lag day and multi-lag day models was related with increased asthma, COPD, and asthma and/or COPD hospital admissions in the city between 2016 and 2019 until the previous-eighth day.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Asma , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Turquia
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 747: 141321, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771791

RESUMO

The outbreak of COVID-19 has now created the largest pandemic and the World health organization (WHO) has declared social distancing as the key precaution to confront such type of infections. Most of the countries have taken protective measures by the nationwide lockdown. The purpose of this study is to understand the effect of lockdown on air pollutants and to analyze pre-monsoon (April and May) cloud-to-ground and inter-cloud lightning activity in relation to air pollutants i.e. suspended Particulate matter (PM10), Nitrogen dioxides (NO2) Sulfur dioxide (SO2), Ozone (O3) and Aerosol concentration (AC) in a polluted tropical urban megacities like Kolkata. After the strict lockdown the pollutants rate has reduced by more than 40% from the pre-lockdown period in the Kolkata megacity. So, decreases of PM10, NO2, SO2, O3 and AC have a greater effect on cloud lightning flashes in the pre-monsoon period. In the previous year (2019), the pre-monsoon average result shows a strong positive relation between the lightning and air pollutants; PM10 (R2 = 0.63), NO2 (R2 = 0.63), SO2 (R2 = 0.76), O3 (R2 = 0.68) and AC (R2 = 0.83). The association was relatively low during the lock-down period (pre-monsoon 2020) and the R2 values were 0.62, 0.60, 0.71, 0.64 and 0.80 respectively. Another thing is that the pre-monsoon (2020) lightning strikes decreased by 49.16% compared to the average of previous years (2010 to 2019). The overall study shows that the reduction of surface pollution in the thunderstorm environment is strongly related to the reduction of lightning activity where PM10 and AC are the key pollutants in the Kolkata megacity.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Infecções por Coronavirus , Relâmpago , Ozônio , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Índia , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise
4.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127572, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758771

RESUMO

Beijing is one of the most polluted cities in the world. However, the "Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan" (APPCAP), introduced since 2013 in China, has created an unprecedented drop in pollution concentrations for five major pollutants, except O3, with a significant drop in mortalities across most parts of the city. To assess the effects of APPCAP, air pollution data were collected from 35 sites (divided into four types, namely, urban, suburban, regional background, and traffic) in Beijing, from 2014 to 2018 and analyzed. Simultaneously, health-risk based air quality index (HAQI) and district-specific pollution (PM2.5 and O3) attributed mortality were calculated for Beijing. The results show that the annual PM2.5 concentration exceeded the Chinese national ambient air quality standard Grade II (35 µg/m3) in all sites, ranging from 88.5 ± 77.4 µg/m3 for the suburban site to 98.6 ± 89.0 µg/m3 for the traffic site in 2014, but was reduced to 50.6 ± 46.6 µg/m3 for the suburban site, and 56.1 ± 47.0 µg/m3 for the regional background in 2018. O3 was another most important pollutant that exceeded the Grade II standard (160 µg/m3) for a total of 291 days. It peaked at 311.6 µg/m3 in 2014 for the urban site and 290.6 µg/m3 in 2018 in the suburban site. APPCAP led to a significant reduction in PM2.5, PM10, NO2, SO2 and CO concentrations by 7.4, 8.1, 2.4, 1.9 and 80 µg/m3/year respectively, though O3 concentration was increased by 1.3 µg/m3/year during the five-years. HAQI results suggest that during the high pollution days, the more vulnerable groups, such as the children, and the elderly, should take additional precautions, beyond the recommendations currently put forward by Beijing Municipal Environmental Monitoring Center (BJMEMC). In 2014, PM2.5 and O3 attributed to 29,270 and 3,030 deaths respectively, though in 2018 their mortalities were reduced by 5.6% and 18.5% respectively. The highest mortality was observed in Haidian and Chaoyang districts, two of the most densely populated areas in Beijing. Beijing's air quality has seen a dramatic improvement over the five-year period, which can be attributable to the implementation of APPCAP and the central government's determination, with significant drops in the mortalities due to PM2.5 and O3 in parallel. To further improve air quality in Beijing, more stringent regulatory measures should be introduced to control volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and reduce O3 concentrations. Consistent air pollution control interventions will be needed to ensure long-term prosperity and environmental sustainability in Beijing, China's most powerful city. This study provides a robust methodology for analyzing air pollution trends, health risks and mortalities in China. The crucial evidence generated forms the basis for the governments in China to introduce location-specific air pollution policy interventions to further reduce air pollution in Beijing and other parts of China. The methodology presented in this study can form the basis for future fine-grained air pollution and health risk study at the city-district level in China.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Pequim/epidemiologia , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Criança , Monitoramento Ambiental , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Mortalidade , Material Particulado/análise , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008406, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776919

RESUMO

We hypothesized that Cholera (Vibrio cholerae) that appeared along Lake Kivu in the African Rift in the seventies, might be controlled by volcano-tectonic activity, which, by increasing surface water and groundwater salinity and temperature, may partly rule the water characteristics of Lake Kivu and promote V. cholerae proliferation. Volcanic activity (assessed weekly by the SO2 flux of Nyiragongo volcano plume over the 2007-2012 period) is highly positively correlated with the water conductivity, salinity and temperature of the Kivu lake. Over the 2007-2012 period, these three parameters were highly positively correlated with the temporal dynamics of cholera cases in the Katana health zone that border the lake. Meteorological variables (air temperature and rainfall), and the other water characteristics (namely pH and dissolved oxygen concentration in lake water) were unrelated to cholera dynamics over the same period. Over the 2016-2018 period, we sampled weekly lake water salinity and conductivity, and twice a month vibrio occurrence in lake water and fish. The abundance of V. cholerae in the lake was positively correlated with lake salinity, temperature, and the number of cholera cases in the population of the Katana health zone. V. cholerae abundance in fishes was positively correlated with V. cholerae abundance in lake water, suggesting that their consumption directly contaminate humans. The activity of the volcano, by controlling the physico-chemical characteristics of Lake Kivu, is therefore a major determinant of the presence of the bacillus in the lake. SO2 fluxes in the volcano plume can be used as a tool to predict epidemic risks.


Assuntos
Cólera/epidemiologia , Lagos/química , Lagos/microbiologia , Erupções Vulcânicas/efeitos adversos , Animais , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Condutividade Elétrica , Peixes/microbiologia , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Oxigênio/análise , Ruanda , Salinidade , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Temperatura , Vibrio , Microbiologia da Água
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110923, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800210

RESUMO

Many studies have reported that exposure to ambient air pollution has adverse effects on health. However, there are little researches to explore the relationship between ambient air pollution and chronic sinusitis (CS). From January 1 2015 to December 31 2018, a time-series study were carried out to investigate the acute adverse roles of six criteria ambient air pollutants (fine particulate matter [PM2.5], inhalable particulate matter [PM10], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], sulfur dioxide [SO2], ozone [O3], and carbon monoxide [CO]) in hospital outpatients with CS in Xinxiang, China. Then, an over-dispersed Poisson generalized additive model was utilized to analyzed the relationships. In total, 183,943 hospital outpatient cases of CS were identified during the study period. We found that a 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, and CO corresponded to 0.48% (95% confidence interval: 0.22-0.74%), 0.33% (0.16-0.50%), 0.88% (0.13-1.62%), 1.98% (1.31-2.64%), and 0.05% (0.03-0.07%) increments, respectively, in CS outpatients on the current day. The young group (<15 years of age) was more susceptible than the adult or elderly groups. These results suggested that outdoor air pollutants might increase CS outpatient, especially among youth in Xinxiang. Precautions and protective measures should be strengthened to reduce the air pollution level in the future.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Sinusite/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , China/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Sinusite/induzido quimicamente , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Adulto Jovem
7.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 1): 115369, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810816

RESUMO

Long-term air pollution exposure has been suggested to increase the risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the association between short-term air pollution exposure and ADHD-related outcomes is still unknown. We investigated the associations between short-term exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm (PM10), nitrogen oxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) and hospital admissions with a principal diagnosis of ADHD among adolescents (age 10-19 years) in 16 regions of the Republic of Korea from 2013 to 2015. We estimated the region-specific relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from quasi-Poisson regressions adjusted for potential confounders, considering single-day and moving average lag. Consequently, we performed meta-analyses to pool the region-specific estimates. The risks of ADHD-related hospital admissions were increased in the single-day and moving average lag models for PM10 (largest association for lag 1 in the single-day lag model, RR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.20; lag 0-2 in the moving average lag model, RR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.27), NO2 (lag 3, RR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.25, 1.73; lag 1-3, RR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.38, 2.04), and SO2 (lag 1, RR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.14, 1.41; lag 1-3, RR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.49). The associations were similar between boys and girls, but they were stronger among adolescents aged 15-19 years than those aged 10-14 years for NO2 and SO2. In conclusion, the results indicate that short-term exposure to PM10, NO2, and SO2 may be a risk factor for the exacerbation of ADHD symptoms, leading to hospitalization.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , República da Coreia , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 743: 140547, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659550

RESUMO

Sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) in the atmosphere are significantly correlated with various respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. High doses of each of these gases or a mixture can change the physical and chemical properties of the lung membrane, thus leading to an increased pulmonary vascular permeability and structural failure of the alveolar cell membrane. In the present study, detailed molecular dynamic (MD) modeling was applied to investigate the effects of SO2, NO2, O3 and mixtures of these gases on the dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) phospholipid bilayer. The results showed that several key physical properties, including the mass density, lipid ordering parameter, lipid diffusion, and electrostatic potential of the cell membrane, have been changed by the binding of different compounds. This resulted in significant variations and more disorder in the DPPC bilayer. The multiple analyses of membrane properties proved the toxicity of NO2, O3, and SO2 to the DPPC bilayer, providing a theoretical basis for the experimental phenomenon that SO2, NO2 and O3 can cause lung cell apoptosis. For the single systems, the damage to DPPC bilayer caused by O3 was more serious than NO2 and SO2. More importantly, the MD simulations using the mixtures of SO2, NO2, and O3 showed a much greater decline of membrane fluidity and the aggravation of membrane damage than the single systems, indicating a synergistic effect when NO2, SO2, and O3 coexisted in the atmosphere, which could lead to much more severe damage and greater toxicities to the lung.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Ozônio/análise , Atmosfera , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Tensoativos
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 741: 140469, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32610244

RESUMO

Environmental factors have been suspected to have effects on the development of Kawasaki disease. However, the associations have been conflicting. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of air pollution, weather conditions, and epidemic infections on the risks for Kawasaki disease in Japan. The concentrations of air pollutants (nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide); ambient weather conditions (temperature, atmospheric pressure, relative air humidity, precipitation, sunshine duration, and wind velocity); and the epidemic conditions of 14 infectious diseases in hospitalized patients with Kawasaki disease were monitored from 2011 to 2018 in Beppu, Japan. The overdispersed generalized additive model was used to evaluate the effects, and a combination model with a distributed lag nonlinear model was used to estimate the cumulative effects. The incidence of Kawasaki disease had positive associations with preceding hot temperature and increased concentrations of nitric oxide and sulfur dioxide and a negative association with epidemic herpangina. The cumulative relative risk of Kawasaki disease at 5 lagged days of increased temperature was 1.76 (95% confidence interval: 1.01-3.07). This city-level observational study suggested that the incidence of Kawasaki disease was associated with air pollution and increased temperature and may be indirectly influenced by epidemic herpangina.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Epidemias , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos , Cidades , Humanos , Japão , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Tempo (Meteorologia)
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(31): 39274-39282, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32642903

RESUMO

Epidemiological evidence has suggested that ambient air pollution is an increasingly important risk factor for respiratory diseases without assessing its influence on laryngeal neoplasms incidence in China. We constructed two-way fixed effect models and Poisson regression models to explore the effects of ambient air pollutants including nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter less than or equal to 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) on incidence of laryngeal neoplasms in twelve major cities in China over the period 2006-2013. The annual average concentration for PM10, SO2, and NO2 was 107.22 µg/m3, 44.07 µg/m3, and 46.71 µg/m3 with standard deviations of 24.84 µg/m3, 13.68 µg/m3, and 9.19 µg/m3, respectively. We observed that ambient air pollutants were significantly positively correlated with the incidence of laryngeal neoplasms, especially for NO2. The relative risks of overall incidence of laryngeal neoplasms in the current period were 1.20, 1.04, and 1.00 for NO2, SO2, and PM10, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of 1.01-1.43, 0.93-1.16, and 0.96-1.05, respectively. Moreover, this deleterious impact was stronger in the male than in the female, likely due to genetic predisposition caused by longer exposure to more serious air pollution for men. Our findings complement the epidemiological evidence of laryngeal neoplasms due to ambient air pollution and reinforce the necessity of policy efforts to control the noxious air pollution emissions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Neoplasias Laríngeas , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Laríngeas/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Laríngeas/epidemiologia , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise
11.
Food Chem ; 332: 127417, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629332

RESUMO

The use of UHPH sterilization in the absence of SO2 has been used to eliminate wild microorganisms and inactivate oxidative enzymes. A white must of the Muscat of Alexandria grape variety was continuously processed by UHPH at 300 MPa (inlet temperature: 23-25 °C). The initial microbial load of the settled must was 4-log CFU/mL for both yeast and moulds, and slightly lower for bacteria. After UHPH processing, no microorganisms were detected in 1 mL. UHPH musts remain without fermentative activity for more than 60 days. Concentrations of the thermal markers indicated the absence of thermal damage in the UHPH-treated musts, since 5-hydroxymethylfurfural was not detected. In addition, the must treated by UHPH keeps terpene concentrations similar to those of the untreated controls. A strong inactivation of the oxidative enzymes was observed, with no browning at room temperature for more than 3 days. The antioxidant value of the UHPH-treated must was 156% higher than the control.


Assuntos
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esterilização/métodos , Vinho/análise , Bactérias/enzimologia , Bactérias/metabolismo , Fermentação , Manipulação de Alimentos , Fungos/enzimologia , Fungos/genética , Fungos/metabolismo , Humanos , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Paladar , Temperatura , Vitis/química
12.
Environ Pollut ; 265(Pt A): 114833, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544661

RESUMO

Several epidemiological studies have evaluated the fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) of ambient air pollution but the results were controversial. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the associations between short-term exposure to air pollutants and FeNO level. We searched PubMed and Web of Science and included a total of 27 articles which focused on associations between ambient air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, black carbon (BC), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3)) exposure and the change of FeNO. Random effect model was used to calculate the percent change of FeNO in association with a 10 or 1 µg/m3 increase in air pollutants exposure concentrations. A 10 µg/m3 increase in short-term PM10, PM2.5, NO2, and SO2 exposure was associated with a 3.20% (95% confidence interval (95%CI): 1.11%, 5.29%), 2.25% (95%CI: 1.51%, 2.99%),4.90% (95%CI: 1.98%, 7.81%), and 8.28% (95%CI: 3.61%, 12.59%) change in FeNO, respectively. A 1 µg/m3 increase in short-term exposure to BC was associated with 3.42% (95%CI: 1.34%, 5.50%) change in FeNO. The association between short-term exposure to O3 and FeNO level was insignificant (P>0.05). Future studies are warranted to investigate the effect of multiple pollutants, different sources and composition of air pollutants on airway inflammation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Ozônio/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Óxido Nítrico , Material Particulado/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise
13.
Science ; 369(6504): 702-706, 2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554754

RESUMO

The absence of motor vehicle traffic and suspended manufacturing during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in China enabled assessment of the efficiency of air pollution mitigation. Up to 90% reduction of certain emissions during the city-lockdown period can be identified from satellite and ground-based observations. Unexpectedly, extreme particulate matter levels simultaneously occurred in northern China. Our synergistic observation analyses and model simulations show that anomalously high humidity promoted aerosol heterogeneous chemistry, along with stagnant airflow and uninterrupted emissions from power plants and petrochemical facilities, contributing to severe haze formation. Also, because of nonlinear production chemistry and titration of ozone in winter, reduced nitrogen oxides resulted in ozone enhancement in urban areas, further increasing the atmospheric oxidizing capacity and facilitating secondary aerosol formation.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Material Particulado/análise , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Umidade , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio , Pandemias , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Vento
14.
Chemosphere ; 257: 127233, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505953

RESUMO

According to the epidemiological surveys, ambient air pollution has directly related to mortality and different diseases such as cardiovascular and respiratory defects. Among the atmospheric contaminants, criteria air ones (NO2, O3, PM2.5/10, SO2) demonstrated that have particular importance in the community disease. The overall goal of this paper was to study the impact of criteria air contaminants on the health of the inhabitants of Shiraz city, Iran. To accomplish this, the AirQ2.2.3 software was applied. The results of the study revealed that the annual average NO2, SO2, PM2.5, PM10, and O3 concentrations are 39.98, 27.6, 14.35, 46.16, and 120.03 µg/m3 in 2016 and 30.27, 23.97, 16.45, 51.65, and 52.58 µg/m3 in 2017. The total International Classification of Diseases (ICD), cardiovascular, and respiratory mortalities caused by air contaminants in Shiraz was predicted as 911, 628, and 182 cases in 2016, and 346, 370, and 82 cases in 2017, respectively. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) had the greatest rate of total mortality with the attributable equivalent of 4.3% in 2016, but this value has been decreased to 0.42% in 2017. The findings of this research revealed that air contamination has caused problems in Shiraz city according to the predicted results. The findings of this work provide useful data for regional and national health policymakers, who should take decisions to develop strategies for control air contaminants and estimate the cost-effectiveness of interventions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Cidades , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 735: 139541, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-305988

RESUMO

Covid-19 was first reported in Morocco on March 2, 2020. Since then, to prevent its propagation, the Moroccan government declared a state of health emergency. A set of rapid and strict countermeasures have taken, including locking down cities, limiting population's mobility and prohibiting almost all avoidable activities. In the present study, we attempted to evaluate the changes in levels of some air pollutants (mainly PM10, NO2 and SO2) in Salé city (North-Western Morocco) during the lockdown measures. In this context, a continuous measurement of PM10, SO2 and NO2 was carried before and during the Covid-19 lockdown period. As a consequence of the security measures and control actions undertaken, the emissions from vehicle exhaust and industrial production were significantly reduced, which contribute to the decrease in the concentrations of the studied pollutants. The obtained results showed that the difference between the concentrations recorded before and during the lockdown period were respectively 75%, 49% and 96% for PM10, SO2 and NO2. PM10 levels were much less reduced than NO2. The three-dimensional air mass backward trajectories, using the HYSPLIT model, demonstrated the benefits of PM10 local emission reductions related to the lockdown were overwhelmed by the contribution of long-range transported aerosols outside areas. In addition, noteworthy differences in the air mass back trajectories and the meteorology between these two periods were evidenced.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Infecções por Coronavirus , Monitoramento Ambiental , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Betacoronavirus , Cidades , Humanos , Marrocos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise
16.
Food Chem ; 326: 127009, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438230

RESUMO

A rapid Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) method to detect SO2 in wine is presented, exploiting the preferential binding of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with sulfur-containing species. This interaction promotes the agglomeration of the AgNPs and inducing the formation of SERS "hot spots" responsible for SO2 signals enhancement. For increasing SO2 concentrations from 0 to100 mg/l in wine simulant, SERS intensity showed an increasing trend, following a Langmuir absorption function (R2 = 0.94). Due to the wine matrix variability, a standard additions method was then employed for quantitative analysis in red and white wines. This method does not require the SO2 separation but only a matrix pre-cleaning by solid phase extraction. The limit of detection (LOD) was defined for each wine tested, ranging from 0.6 mg/l to 9.6 mg/l. The results obtained were validated by comparison with the International Organization of Vine and Wine method (OIV-MA-AS323-04A).


Assuntos
Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Vinho/análise , Coloides/química , Limite de Detecção , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Prata/química , Extração em Fase Sólida , Análise Espectral Raman
17.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447898

RESUMO

Major air pollutants include particulate matter, ozone, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide, etc. Recent posts have confirmed that air pollution has a variety of adverse health effects on people's health.For professional people, because of occupational hazards of these major atmospheric pollutants also exist in the workplace, is likely to suffer from the double hazards of occupational hazards and air pollutants in the workplace, if similar pollutants are present in the home, the daily exposure concentration of the occupational population may be significantly higher than that of the general population. Exposure limits and testing methods for major atmospheric pollutants (particulate matter or dust, ozone, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide) are set by relevant standards in workplace air, ambient air and indoor air. However, due to different places and different management departments, there are differences in the detection methods of the same indicators, which brings difficulties to estimate the total daily exposure level. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the "consistency" of the detection method of relevant pollutants in the air, in order to provide scientific basis for estimating the daily exposure level of pollutants in different populations.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/normas , Local de Trabalho , Poeira/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(20): 25801-25812, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350840

RESUMO

This paper probes the impact and working mechanism of e-commerce development on prevention and control of SO2 air pollution in cities in China. The research reveals that, first, e-commerce development can significantly reduce the SO2 air pollution degree in cities in China, which helps improve air quality, and compared with e-commerce services, an e-commerce application is more effective at reducing SO2 air pollution degree and improving air quality. Second, e-commerce development can significantly reduce SO2 emissions in cities in China, decreasing SO2 emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) of cities. Compared with e-commerce services, an e-commerce application has a greater effect on reducing SO2 emissions in urban unit GDP. Finally, by reducing SO2 emissions in cities in China, e-commerce can reduce SO2 emissions in unit GDP, reducing SO2 air pollution degree and improving air quality, and in comparison with e-commerce services, an e-commerce application can reduce SO2 emissions in city unit GDP more significantly, thus significantly reducing SO2 air pollution degree and improving air quality in cities in China.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Internet , Material Particulado/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(22): 27515-27540, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415453

RESUMO

Numerous mitigation techniques have been incorporated to capture or remove SO2 with flue gas desulfurization (FGD) being the most common method. Regenerative FGD method is advantageous over other methods due to high desulfurization efficiency, sorbent regenerability, and reduction in waste handling. The capital costs of regenerative methods are higher than those of commonly used once-through methods simply due to the inclusion of sorbent regeneration while operational and management costs depend on the operating hours and fuel composition. Regenerable sorbents like ionic liquids, deep eutectic solvents, ammonium halide solutions, alkyl-aniline solutions, amino acid solutions, activated carbons, mesoporous silica, zeolite, and metal-organic frameworks have been reported to successfully achieve high SO2 removal. The presence of other gases in flue gas, e.g., O2, CO2, NOx, and water vapor, and the reaction temperature critically affect the sorption capacity and sorbent regenerability. To obtain optimal SO2 removal performance, other parameters such as pH, inlet SO2 concentration, and additives need to be adequately governed. Due to its high removal capacity, easy preparation, non-toxicity, and low regeneration temperature, the use of deep eutectic solvents is highly feasible for upscale utilization. Metal-organic frameworks demonstrated highest reported SO2 removal capacity; however, it is not yet applicable at industrial level due to its high price, weak stability, and robust formulation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Carvão Vegetal , Temperatura
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 735: 139541, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32445829

RESUMO

Covid-19 was first reported in Morocco on March 2, 2020. Since then, to prevent its propagation, the Moroccan government declared a state of health emergency. A set of rapid and strict countermeasures have taken, including locking down cities, limiting population's mobility and prohibiting almost all avoidable activities. In the present study, we attempted to evaluate the changes in levels of some air pollutants (mainly PM10, NO2 and SO2) in Salé city (North-Western Morocco) during the lockdown measures. In this context, a continuous measurement of PM10, SO2 and NO2 was carried before and during the Covid-19 lockdown period. As a consequence of the security measures and control actions undertaken, the emissions from vehicle exhaust and industrial production were significantly reduced, which contribute to the decrease in the concentrations of the studied pollutants. The obtained results showed that the difference between the concentrations recorded before and during the lockdown period were respectively 75%, 49% and 96% for PM10, SO2 and NO2. PM10 levels were much less reduced than NO2. The three-dimensional air mass backward trajectories, using the HYSPLIT model, demonstrated the benefits of PM10 local emission reductions related to the lockdown were overwhelmed by the contribution of long-range transported aerosols outside areas. In addition, noteworthy differences in the air mass back trajectories and the meteorology between these two periods were evidenced.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Infecções por Coronavirus , Monitoramento Ambiental , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Betacoronavirus , Cidades , Humanos , Marrocos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise
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