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1.
Chemosphere ; 242: 125196, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896208

RESUMO

Lanzhou, an ex-heavily polluted city, was awarded "The Award for Today's Transformative Step" in 2015 World Climate Conference at Paris for its great efforts on air quality improvement since 2012. However, the health benefits from this improvement remain unclear. Therefore, we collected time-series data covering deaths, weather variables and air pollutants during the two periods (2004-2009, 2014-2017) and fitted single-pollutant models using the generalized additive models to evaluate the change of mortality risks associated with air pollutants in Lanzhou. Results showed that the annual average concentrations of respirable particulate matter (PM10) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) dropped by 19.28% and 66.29%, while the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) increased by 16.61% in 2014-2017 compared to 2004-2009. During the period 2004-2009, we found a 10-µg/m3 increase in PM10 (lag 2), SO2 (lag 0-5) and NO2 (lag 0-5) were associated with mortality increments of 0.12% (95% CI: 0.01, 0.22), 0.86% (95% CI: 0.42, 1.31) and 1.29% (95% CI: 0.70, 1.90), respectively. During the period 2014-2017, the association between PM10 and daily deaths was not significant, but we observed a 10-µg/m3 increase in SO2 (lag 0-5) and NO2 (lag 4) were related to mortality increments of 4.23% (95% CI: 1.82, 6.70) and 0.85% (95% CI: 0.19, 1.52), respectively. From 2004-2009 to 2014-2017, we observed markedly decline of mortality risk due to PM10, but not SO2 or NO2. In conclusion, the mortality risk of PM10 in Lanzhou has declined obviously after the substantially improved air quality due to the enforcement of air pollution controlling policies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade/tendências , Poluição do Ar/análise , China/epidemiologia , Clima , Poluentes Ambientais , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Tempo (Meteorologia)
2.
Chemosphere ; 241: 125031, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610459

RESUMO

Severe air pollution episodes with high SO2 loading have been frequently observed during the last decades in Beijing and have caused a noticeable damage to human health. To advance the spatiotemporal prediction of SO2 exposure in Beijing, we developed the monthly land use regression (LUR) models using daily SO2 concentration data collected from 34 monitoring stations during 2016 and 7 categories of potential independent variables (socio-economic factors, traffic and transport, emission source, land use, meteorological data, building morphology and Geographic location) in Beijing. The average adjusted R2 of 12 final LUR models was 0.62, and the root-mean-squared error (RMSE) was 4.12 µg/m3. The LOOCV R2 and RMSE of LUR models reached 0.56 and 5.43 µg/m3, respectively, suggesting that the LUR models achieved the satisfactory performance. The prediction results suggested that the average SO2 level in Beijing was 11.06 µg/m3 with the highest one up to 22.49 µg/m3 but the lowest one down to 3.86 µg/m3. The SO2 exposure showed strong spatial heterogeneity, which was much higher in the southern area than that in the northern in Beijing. The mortality and morbidity due to the excessive SO2 concentration were estimated to be 73 (95% CI:(38-125)) and 27854 (95% CI:(13852-41659)) cases per year in Beijing, leading to economic cost of 35.76 (95% CI:(16.45-54.06)) and 441.47 (95% CI:(318.31-562.04)) million RMB Yuan in 2016, respectively. This study clarified the intra- and inter-regional transport modeling of the SO2 pollution in Beijing and supplied an important support for the future air-quality and public health management strategies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Pequim , Humanos , Mortalidade , Material Particulado/análise , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Dióxido de Enxofre/economia , Dióxido de Enxofre/uso terapêutico
3.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124853, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563712

RESUMO

Co-combustion of coal and wheat straw (WS) was conducted in a lab-scale BFB combustor. Fuel composition (coal, 70%coal+30%WS), temperature (750, 800, 850, 900, 950 °C), secondary air ratio (0, 10%, 20%, 30%) were varied to on the release of gaseous pollutant was studied. CO, NOx and SO2 concentration in flue gas (FG) were measured on-line by a flue gas analyzer. Fly ash (FA), bottom slag (BS) and bed material (BM) were collected, digested and analyzed by ICP-OES to determine the distribution of heavy metals (e.g. Pb, Zn, Cr and Cd). Results indicated that co-combustion could improve the combustion of coal alone by reducing CO, NOx and SO2 emission and carbon content in fly ash effectively. In co-combustion the increasing secondary air could reduce CO emission and SO2 by enhancing disturbance and promoting sulfation respectively while the minimum NO emission was reached at the ratio of 20%. Co-combustion restrained the release of Zn, Cd and Pb compared with coal combustion alone. In co-combustion, high temperature increased their portion in the flue gas. For Zn, Pb and Cd, their content in the bottom solids increased while the portion of Cr decreased. Secondary air decreased their content in fly ash and transferred into flue gas significantly and in bottom solids content of Zn and Pb decreased while Cd increased.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Carvão Mineral , Metais Pesados/análise , Triticum , Cinza de Carvão/análise , Gases , Incineração/instrumentação , Caules de Planta , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Temperatura Ambiente
4.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 775-784, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bottle storage can affect color, aroma and phenolic composition of white wine. Very little information is reported about the bottle evolution during storage of white wines without added sulfites and/or using other antioxidants. This work is aimed at studying the evolution of the main enological parameters, phenolic and volatile profiles of a white wine without added sulfites, during 15 months of storage in bottle at different light and temperature conditions, compared with a control stored with sulfur dioxide. Dark storage at 12 °C (D12-S, D12-NS) and 30 °C (D30-S, D30-NS) were compared to investigate the temperature effect, meanwhile uncontrolled temperature and light condition (UTL-S, UTL-NS) simulated improper storage conditions. RESULTS: Volatile acidity, absorbance at 420 nm and total phenols were higher in UTL-NS and D30-NS wines. The trans forms of hydroxycinnamic esters decreased, whereas, the cis forms, as well as caffeic acid derivatives, significantly increased in samples without added sulfites. The storage without sulfites also accelerated the hydrolysis of acetate esters. However, it did not affect most of the ethyl esters whose content remained almost the same between sulfite added (S) and no sulfite added (NS) wines. CONCLUSION: The presence of sulfites in the bottle helped to preserve the volatile compounds of young wines; however, even more important seemed to be the optimal storage (dark and low temperature), as unsuitable conditions favored aroma degradation of bottled wine, regardless of sulfite protective action. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Fenóis/análise , Sulfitos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Vinho/análise , Cor , Humanos , Hidrólise , Espectrometria de Massas , Odorantes/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Paladar , Temperatura Ambiente
5.
Food Chem ; 302: 125340, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419775

RESUMO

In this study, 83 wines representating four commercial categories: "Argentinean Malbec", "Brazilian Merlot", "Uruguayan Tannat" and "Chilean Carménère" were analyzed according to their phenolic and volatile compounds. The objective was to identify the chemical compounds that would typify each category. From approximately about 600 peaks obtained by chromatographic techniques, 169 were identified and 53 of them were selected for multivariate statistical analysis. Chilean Carménère was the best discriminated group by the methods applied in our study, followed by Argentinean Malbec. Brazilian Merlot mixed mainly with some Carménère, whileTannat mixed with all wines categories, especially Malbec. In general, Chilean Carménère wines can be characterized by a bluish color, higher amounts of sulphur dioxide, higher content of octanoic acid, isobutanol, ethyl isoamyl succinate and catechin and a smaller amount of quercetin. These data can contribute for further process of authenticity or typification of South American red wines.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fenóis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Vinho/análise , Butanóis/análise , Caprilatos/análise , Catequina/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Multivariada , Quercetina/análise , América do Sul , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Vinho/classificação
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847502

RESUMO

Previous studies have reported that air pollution negatively affects the tourism industry. This paper attempted to answer the following question: among different air pollutants, which one acts as the most adverse factor? The study was based on a sample of panel data covering 337 Chinese cities for the period between 2007 and 2016. Four pollutant indicators were inspected: PM 2 . 5 (particulate matter 2.5 micrometers or less in size), PM 10 (particulate matter 10 micrometers or less in size), SO 2 (sulfur dioxide), and NO 2 (nitrogen dioxide). It was found that PM 2 . 5 had a significantly negative impact on both domestic and inbound tourist arrivals. Regarding the other three pollutant indicators, except for the negative influence of NO 2 on inbound tourist arrivals, no statistically significant impact was found. This study suggests that tourism policy makers should primarily focus on PM 2 . 5 , when considering the nexus between air quality and tourism development. According to our estimates, the negative impact of PM 2 . 5 on tourism is substantial. If the PM 2 . 5 concentration in the ambient air increases by 1 µ g/m 3 (=0.001 mg/m 3 ), domestic and inbound tourist arrivals will decline by 0.482% and 1.227%, respectively. These numbers imply an average reduction of 81,855 person-times in annual domestic tourist arrivals and 12,269 in inbound tourist arrivals in each city.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Viagem , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Cidades , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise
7.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1496, 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air pollution is a global public health concern. The World Health Organization has recently set up a goal of saving 7 million people globally by 2030 from air pollution related death. We conducted an ecological study of geographical variation to explore the association between air pollution (specifically, particulate matter <2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter [PM2.5], particulate matter <10 µm in aerodynamic diameter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitric oxide, and ozone) and cancer incidence in Taiwan, from 2012 to 2016. METHODS: In this study, the yearly average concentrations of each air pollutant at 75 air quality monitoring stations were calculated, and using the kriging method, the concentrations were extrapolated to each and every geographical central point of 349 local administrative areas of Taiwan. Spearman rank correlation coefficients between the age-adjusted cancer incidence rates and various air pollutants were calculated by stratifying genders and urbanization degrees of the local administrative areas. A total of 70 correlation coefficients were calculated. RESULTS: In total, 17 correlation coefficients were significantly positive at an alpha level of 0.05. Among these, four correlation coefficients between the age-adjusted cancer incidence rates and PM2.5 levels remained significant after Bonferroni correction. For men in developing towns, general towns, and aged towns and for women in aged towns, the age-adjusted cancer incidence rates increased 13.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.8-17.6), 11 (95% CI, 5.6-16.4), 16.7 (95% CI, 6.9-26.4), and 11.9 (95% CI, 5.6-18.2) per 100,000 populations, respectively, for every 1 µg/m3 increment in PM2.5 concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: A significantly positive correlation was observed between the PM2.5 level and cancer incidence rate after multiple testing correction.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Poluição do Ar/análise , Causalidade , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Saúde Pública , Projetos de Pesquisa , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(12): 712, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676942

RESUMO

Particulate material 10 µm (PM10) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are representative air pollutants in Northeast China and may contribute more to the morbidity of respiratory and cardiovascular disease than may other pollutants. Up to now, there have been few studies on the relation between health effect and air pollution by PM10 and SO2 in Northeast China, which may be due to the lack of a model for determination of air pollution exposure. For the first time, we used daily concentration data and influencing factors (different type of land use, road length and population density, and weather conditions as well) to develop land use regression models for spatial distribution of PM10 and SO2 in a central city in Northeast China in both heating and non-heating months. The final models of SO2 and PM10 estimation showed good performance (heating months: R2 = 0.88 for SO2, R2 = 0.88 for PM10; non-heating months: R2 = 0.79 for SO2; R2 = 0.87 for PM10). Estimated concentrations of air pollutants were more affected by population density in heating seasons and land use area in non-heating seasons. We used the land use regression (LUR) models developed to predict pollutant levels in nine districts in Shenyang and conducted a correlation analysis between air pollutant levels and hospital admission rates for childhood asthma. There were high associations between asthma hospital admission rates and air pollution levels of SO2 and PM10, which indicated the usability of the LUR models and the need for more concern about the health effects of SO2 and PM10 in Northeast China. This study may contribute to epidemiological research on the relation between air pollutant exposure and typical chronic disease in Northeast China as well as providing the government with more scientific recommendations for air pollution prevention.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Calefação , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Estações do Ano , Tempo (Meteorologia)
9.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 24(1): 66, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children in Ulaanbaatar are exposed to air pollution, but few epidemiological studies have been conducted on the effects of environmental risk factors on children's health. Also, no studies have yet examined the prevalence of respiratory symptoms in children in suburban areas, where air quality-monitoring stations have not yet been installed. This cross-sectional study evaluated the associations between outdoor air pollution and respiratory symptoms among schoolchildren in urban and suburban districts of Ulaanbaatar. METHODS: The ATS-DLD-78 C questionnaire was used to investigate the respiratory symptoms of schoolchildren aged 6-12 years (n = 1190) who lived in one of three urban districts or a suburban district of Ulaanbaatar. In each district, the outdoor concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were measured at two sites (at ≤100 m and > 100 m from the nearest major road) in the 2-year period from 2015 to 2016. The associations between health outcomes and exposure to air pollutants were estimated using the multinomial logistic regression method. RESULTS: The outdoor concentration of SO2 was significantly associated with persistent cough symptom (OR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.04-1.22). Furthermore, the outdoor concentration of NO2 was significantly associated with the current wheezing symptom (OR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.01-1.75) among children in urban and suburban. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of persistent cough symptom was markedly high among the schoolchildren in urban/suburban districts of Ulaanbaatar. Overall, the increases in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among children might be associated with ambient air pollution in Ulaanbaatar.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Respiratórios/etiologia , Dióxido de Enxofre/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Criança , Carvão Mineral/análise , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mongólia/epidemiologia , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Prevalência , Transtornos Respiratórios/epidemiologia , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635054

RESUMO

The Chinese government has made some good achievements in reducing sulfur dioxide emissions through end-of-pipe treatment. However, in order to implement the stricter target of sulfur dioxide emission reduction during the 13th "Five-Year Plan" period, it is necessary to find a new solution as quickly as possible. Thus, it is of great practical significance to identify driving factors of regional sulfur dioxide emissions to formulate more reasonable emission reduction policies. In this paper, a distinctive decomposition approach, the generalized Divisia index method (GDIM), is employed to investigate the driving forces of regional industrial sulfur dioxide emissions in Jiangsu province and its three regions during 2004-2016. The contribution rates of each factor to emission changes are also assessed. The decomposition results demonstrate that: (i) the factors promoting the increase of industrial sulfur dioxide emissions are the economic scale effect, industrialization effect, and energy consumption effect, while technology effect, energy mix effect, sulfur efficiency effect, energy intensity effect, and industrial structure effect play a mitigating role in the emissions; (ii) energy consumption effect, energy mix effect, technology effect, sulfur efficiency effect, and industrial structure effect show special contributions in some cases; (iii) industrial structure effect and energy intensity effect need to be further optimized.


Assuntos
Indústrias/estatística & dados numéricos , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , China , Fontes de Energia Elétrica/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1366, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many studies have reported the impact of air pollution on cardiovascular disease (CVD), but few of these studies were conducted in severe haze-fog areas. The present study focuses on the impact of different air pollutant concentrations on daily CVD outpatient visits in a severe haze-fog city. METHODS: Data regarding daily air pollutants and outpatient visits for CVD in 2013 were collected, and the association between six pollutants and CVD outpatient visits was explored using the least squares mean (LSmeans) and logistic regression. Adjustments were made for days of the week, months, air temperature and relative humidity. RESULTS: The daily CVD outpatient visits for particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3) in the 90th-quantile group were increased by 30.01, 29.42, 17.68, 14.98, 29.34%, and - 19.87%, respectively, compared to those in the <10th-quantile group. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the increase in daily CVD outpatient visits in PM10 300- and 500-µg/m3, PM2.5 100- and 300-µg/m3 and CO 3-mg/m3 groups were 2.538 (1.070-6.020), 7.781 (1.681-36.024), 3.298 (1.559-6.976), 8.72 (1.523-49.934), and 5.808 (1.016-33.217), respectively, and their corresponding attributable risk percentages (AR%) were 60.6, 87.15, 69.68, 88.53 and 82.78%, respectively. The strongest associations for PM10, PM2.5 and CO were found only in lag 0 and lag 1. The ORs for the increase in CVD outpatient visits per increase in different units of the six pollutants were also analysed. CONCLUSIONS: All five air pollutants except O3 were positively associated with the increase in daily CVD outpatient visits in lag 0. The high concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and CO heightened not only the percentage but also the risk of increased daily CVD outpatient visits. PM10, PM2.5 and CO may be the main factors of CVD outpatient visits.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Ambulatório Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Monóxido de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Adulto Jovem
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533231

RESUMO

Water vapor is a pivotal obstacle when measuring ambient air pollutants. The effects of water vapor removal devices which are called KPASS (Key-compound PASSer) and Cooler. On the measurement of O3, SO2, and CO at ambient levels were investigated. Concentrations of O3, SO2, and CO were 100 ppb, 150 ppb, and 25 ppm, respectively. The amount of water vapor varied at different relative humidity levels of 30%, 50%, and 80% when the temperature was 25 °C and the pressure was 1 atm. Water vapor removal efficiencies and recovery rates of target gases were also determined. The KPASS showed a better performance than the Cooler device, removing 93.6% of water vapor and the Cooler removing 59.2%. In terms of recovery, the KPASS showed a better recovery of target gases than the Cooler. Consequently, it is suggested that the KPASS should be an alternative way to remove water vapor when measuring O3, SO2, and CO.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Umidade/prevenção & controle , Ozônio/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Compostos Inorgânicos/análise
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(32): 33181-33191, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520377

RESUMO

Fine particulate matter (i.e., PM2.5) has gained extensive attention owing to its adverse effects. The impacts of PM2.5 may vary in time and space due to the spatiotemporal variations of PM2.5 number size distribution and chemical compositions. This research analyzed the latest PM2.5 chemical compositions measurements with an aim to better understand the dynamic changes of PM2.5 in response to emission reductions due to the new regulations. The particulate measurements from the Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH) network between 2001 and 2016 were analyzed for the spatiotemporal variations of PM2.5 and inorganic PM2.5 (iPM2.5 = SO42- + NH4+ + NO3-) chemical compositions in the Southeastern United States (U.S.). It was discovered that PM2.5 and iPM2.5 mass concentrations exhibited significant downward trends in 2001-2016. Both PM2.5 and iPM2.5 mass concentrations were higher at urban and inland sites than rural/suburban and coastal sites. The higher iPM2.5 concentrations at agricultural sites were attributed to the influences of ammonia (NH3) emissions from animal feeding operations (AFOs). The iPM2.5 was the dominant contributor to PM2.5 in 2001-2016 at the coastal sites, whereas organic carbon matter (OCM) was the major contributor to PM2.5 after 2011 at the inland sites. Our data analysis suggests that significant decrease of PM2.5 concentrations is attributed to the reductions in nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions in 2001-2016. Findings from this research provide insights into the development of effective PM2.5 control strategies and assessment of air pollutants exposure.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Aerossóis/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Amônia/análise , Animais , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise
14.
Environ Pollut ; 254(Pt A): 113030, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conjunctivitis has hazardous effects on patients' quality of life through influencing school performance, work productivity, and daily activities such as driving. However, limited evidence is available on the contributory role of air pollution on conjunctivitis, particularly in China. METHODS: We obtained data of 81,351 conjunctivitis outpatients from the largest comprehensive hospitals of four cities, China, between Jan 1, 2013 and Dec 31, 2014. Data on air pollutants, including particulate matter ≤2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5), particulate matter ≤10 µm in diameter (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) were collected from China National Environmental Monitoring Centre. Conjunctivitis outpatient visits were linked with air pollution concentrations by the visiting dates. A time-stratified case-crossover design with conditional logistic regression model was used to examine the effect of short-term exposure to air pollution on conjunctivitis outpatient visits. RESULTS: We found that the associations between air pollutants (per 10 µg/m3 increase) and hospital outpatient visits for asthma were [odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals]: 1.004(1.002-1.007) for PM2.5, 1.004 (1.002-1.005) for PM10, 1.012(1.005-1.020) for NO2, 1.006 (1.001-1.011) for SO2, and 1.007 (1.003-1.010) for O3, respectively at lag0 day. Outpatients aged 35-64 years showed significant associations with exposure to PM2.5 (1.005, 1.001-1.010), PM10 (1.005, 1.002-1.008), NO2 (1.014, 1.003-1.026), and O3 (1.005, 1.000-1.011), while those aged 15-34 years showed significant associations with exposure to O3 (1.010, 1.004-1.017). CONCLUSIONS: Short-term exposure to air pollution has impacts on outpatient visits for conjunctivitis in China. This study suggests that improving air quality could protect eye health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Conjuntivite/induzido quimicamente , Conjuntivite/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Asma/epidemiologia , China , Cidades , Estudos Cross-Over , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Razão de Chances , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Qualidade de Vida , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade , Adulto Jovem
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547235

RESUMO

Since the 2000s, air pollution has generally continued to decrease in the U.S. To investigate preterm birth (PTB) risk associated with air pollutants in two consecutive pregnancies, we estimated exposures using modified Community Multiscale Air Quality models linked to the NICHD Consecutive Pregnancy Study. Electronic medical records for delivery admissions were available for 50,005 women with singleton births in 20 Utah-based hospitals between 2002-2010. We categorized whole pregnancy average exposures as high (>75th percentile), moderate (25-75) and low (<25). Modified Poisson regression estimated second pregnancy PTB risk associated with persistent high and moderate exposure, and increasing or decreasing exposure, compared to persistent low exposure. Analyses were adjusted for prior PTB, interpregnancy interval and demographic and clinical characteristics. Second pregnancy PTB risk was increased when exposure stayed high for sulfur dioxide (32%), ozone (17%), nitrogen oxides (24%), nitrogen dioxide (43%), carbon monoxide (31%) and for particles < 10 microns (29%) versus consistently low exposure. PTB risk tended to increase to a lesser extent for repeated PTB (19-21%) than for women without a prior PTB (22-79%) when exposure increased or stayed high. Area-level changes in air pollution exposure appear to have important consequences in consecutive pregnancies with increasing exposure associated with higher risk.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Monóxido de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Nascimento Prematuro/induzido quimicamente , Dióxido de Enxofre/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Utah
16.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(75): 11263-11266, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475257

RESUMO

A reversible fluorescent probe (NP) for sensing SO2 and FA was rationally constructed. With the outstanding attributes of NP, the fluctuation of endogenous SO2 and FA was successfully traced, not only at the cellular level, but also in living mice for the first time. Significantly, it was first found that the interaction of SO2 and FA can attenuate the cytotoxicity.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Formaldeído/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Corantes Fluorescentes/administração & dosagem , Corantes Fluorescentes/síntese química , Formaldeído/farmacologia , Células HeLa , Humanos , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Imagem Óptica , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Dióxido de Enxofre/farmacologia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491942

RESUMO

Sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) are important atmospheric pollutants that affect air quality. The long-term variations of SO2 and NO2 in 2008-2018 and O3 in 2015-2018 in the relatively less populated ecological and economic zones of Western Sichuan Plateau, Southwest China were analyzed. In 2008-2018, the variations in SO2 and NO2 in the ecological zone were not significant, but Ganzi showed a slight upward trend. SO2 decreased significantly in the economic zone, especially in Panzhihua, where NO2 changes were not obvious. From 2015 to 2018, the concentration of O3 in the ecological zone increased significantly, while the economic zone showed a downward trend. The rising trend of the concentration ratio of SO2 to NO2 in the ecological zone and the declining trend in the economic zone indicate that the energy consumption structure of these two zones is quite different. The lower correlation coefficients between NO2 and O3 in the Western Sichuan Plateau imply that the variations of O3 are mainly affected by the regional background. The effects of meteorological factors on SO2, NO2, and O3 were more obvious in the economic zone where there are high anthropometric emissions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390724

RESUMO

Rapid urbanization and industrialization in developing countries have caused an increase in air pollutant concentrations, and this has attracted public concern due to the resulting harmful effects to health. Here we present, through the spatial-temporal characteristics of six criteria air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, CO, and O3) in Sichuan, a human health risk assessment framework conducted to evaluate the health risk of different age groups caused by ambient air pollutants. Public health resilience was evaluated with respect to the risk resulting from ambient air pollutants, and a spatial inequality analysis between the risk caused by ambient air pollutants and hospital density in Sichuan was performed based on the Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient. The results indicated that high concentrations of PM2.5 (47.7 µg m-3) and PM10 (75.9 µg m-3) were observed in the Sichuan Basin; these two air pollutants posed a high risk to infants. The high risk caused by PM2.5 was mainly distributed in Sichuan Basin (1.14) and that caused by PM10 was principally distributed in Zigong (1.01). Additionally, the infants in Aba and Ganzi had high health resilience to the risk caused by PM2.5 (3.89 and 4.79, respectively) and PM10 (3.28 and 2.77, respectively), which was explained by the low risk in these two regions. These regions and Sichuan had severe spatial inequality between the infant hazard quotient caused by PM2.5 (G = 0.518, G = 0.493, and G = 0.456, respectively) and hospital density. This spatial inequality was also caused by PM10 (G = 0.525, G = 0.526, and G = 0.466, respectively), which is mainly attributed to the imbalance between hospital distribution and risk caused by PM2.5 (PM10) in these two areas. Such research could provide a basis for the formulation of medical construction and future air pollution control measures in Sichuan.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Saúde Pública , Fatores Etários , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Lactente , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Análise Espacial , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Urbanização
19.
Environ Pollut ; 254(Pt A): 112952, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369913

RESUMO

We have carried out a comprehensive analysis of six air pollutants (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) and less than 10 µm (PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3)) in western China, including the spatiotemporal characteristics of air pollutants, their relationship with meteorological factors and emission sources, and the efficiency of emission control strategies for the region. Based hourly observations at 23 sites in western China from June 2016 to May 2017, concentrations of most pollutants were higher outside the Tibetan Plateau, lowest in summer and highest in winter, the exception being O3. This was partially because meteorological conditions in winter were found to the most unfavorable to pollutant dispersion and dilution than other seasons. Pollutant concentrations at most sites were correlated with the residential emissions which were higher in winter, but anti-correlated with the industrial emissions which were lower during the winter holiday period. The Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) simulations of four pollution control strategies indicated that reduction of residential emissions is crucial to alleviate PM2.5, PM10, and CO pollution in western China, although reduction of industrial and transport emissions can reduce SO2 and NO2, respectively. Since PM2.5 and PM10 were also found to be the species most and next frequently responsible for extremely serious pollution in western China, respectively, we recommend pollution control regulations that target residential emissions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , China , Habitação , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Meteorologia , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Tempo (Meteorologia)
20.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 149: 110506, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425843

RESUMO

As a global factory and trade power, China has paid a high ecological price. Heavy shipping traffic is observed around the nation's most highly populated areas, including the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), Pearl River Delta (PRD), and Bohai Rim (BR) regions. Among the various shipping pollutants, sulfur dioxide (SO2) has received increased attention because of its significant adverse health effects. China delimited three emission-control areas (ECAs) in three key waters of these regions to control the sulfur emissions from ships and improve the air-quality in China's coastal areas. Using the difference-in-difference model, this study determines that the ECA policy has a positive impact on reduction of SO2 concentrations in the YRD and BR regions. The results of this study show that the ECA policy has some time lag, possibly because enforcement has gradually become more stringent. Surprisingly, the ECA policy does not play a positive role in reducing the SO2 concentration in the PRD region. This lack of response could be caused by a series of measures that have been implemented before implementing the ECA policy in the PRD to reduce the impact of ship pollutant emissions on the local air quality.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Material Particulado/análise , Navios , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , China , Cidades , Rios/química
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