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1.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 447, 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children are especially vulnerable to pneumonia and the effects of air pollution. However, little is known about the impacts of air pollutants on pediatric admissions for Mycoplasma pneumonia. This study was conducted to investigate the impacts of air pollutants on pediatric hospital admissions for Mycoplasma pneumonia in Shanghai, China. METHODS: A cross-sectional design was applied to explore the association between pediatric hospital admissions and levels of air pollutants (fine particulate matter, particulate matter, ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide). Data on hospital admissions for pneumonia and levels of ambient air pollutants were obtained for the period of 2015 to 2018. Associations between pediatric admissions for Mycoplasma pneumonia and ambient air pollutants were calculated using logistic regression and described by the odds ratio and relevant 95% confidence interval. The hysteresis effects of air pollutants from the day of hospital admission to the previous 7 days were evaluated in single-pollutant models and multi-pollutant models with adjustments for weather variables and seasonality. Lag 0 was defined as the day of hospital admission, lag 1 was defined as the day before hospital admission, and so forth. RESULTS: In the single-pollutant models (without adjustment for other pollutants), pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia were positively associated with elevated concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and fine particulate matter. A 0.5% increase in daily admissions per 10-µg/m3 increase in the nitrogen dioxide level occurred at lag 1 and lag 2, and a 0.3% increase in daily admissions per 10-µg/m3 increase in fine particulate matter occurred at lag 1. In the multi-pollutant models, nitrogen dioxide and fine particulate matter remained significant after inclusion of particulate matter, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide. CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrated that higher levels of nitrogen dioxide and fine particulate matter increase the risk of pediatric hospitalization for Mycoplasma pneumonia in Shanghai, China. These findings imply that the high incidence of Mycoplasma pneumonia in children in Asia might be attributed to the high concentration of specific air pollutants in Asia.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Pediátricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/toxicidade , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Razão de Chances , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/etiologia , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade , Tempo (Meteorologia)
2.
Environ Pollut ; 258: 113559, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005488

RESUMO

The current air pollution by SO2 due to anthropogenic pressure in Poland was assessed based on sulfur concentrations in pine needles (Pinus sylvestris L.). On 308 monitoring sample plots located in pine stands distributed across Poland, measurements were conducted in mineral soil layers (0-10 cm, 10-40 cm, 40-100 cm) and in the soil organic layer (+5-0 cm). Samples of Scots pine foliage (current-year needles) were then collected, and the sulfur concentration in these needles was determined. Based on these data, a map of the spatial variability of sulfur concentrations in pine needles was drawn. The mean sulfur concentration in the pine needles was 854.8 mg kg-1 in dry mass. Higher SO2 emissions were noted in regions influenced by industry, such as the Upper Silesia and regions under strong urban pressure. Sulfur concentrations in Scots pine needles were related to the stands' degrees of defoliation. A comparison of the current sulfur concentrations in pine needles from biomonitoring in 2015-2016 with those from previous biomonitoring (in 1983-1985, by Dmuchowski and Bytnerowicz (1995) showed that air quality has improved and SO2 emissions have decreased.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental , Pinus sylvestris/química , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade , Humanos , Pinus , Folhas de Planta , Polônia , Enxofre
3.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 132(19): 2269-2277, 2019 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air pollutants and their pathogenic effects differ among regions and seasons. We aimed to explore the relationship between fine particulate matter (PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and ozone-8 hours (O3-8h) concentrations in heating and non-heating seasons and the associated death risk due to cardiovascular diseases (CDs), respiratory diseases (RDs), and malignant tumors. METHODS: Data were collected in Shenyang, China, from April 2013 to March 2016. We analyzed the correlation or lagged effect of atmospheric pollutant concentration, meteorological conditions, and death risk due to disorders of the circulatory system, respiratory system, and malignant tumor in heating and non-heating seasons. We also used multivariate models to analyze the association of air pollutants during holidays with the death risk due to the evaluated diseases while considering the presence or absence of meteorological factors. RESULTS: An increase in the daily average SO2 concentration by 10 µg/m increased the death risk by CDs, which reached a maximum of 2.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3%-2.7%) on lagging day 4 during the non-heating season and 0.2% (95% CI: 0.1%-0.4%) on lagging day 3 during the heating season. The risk of death caused by RDs peaked on lagging day 1 by 0.8% (95% CI: 0.4%-1.2%) during the heating season. An increase in O3-8h concentration by 10 µg/m increased the risk of RD-related death on lagging day 2 by 1.0% (95% CI: 0.4%-1.7%) during the non-heating season, which was significantly higher than the 0.1% (95% CI: 0-0.9%) increase during the heating season. Further, an increase in the daily average PM2.5 concentration by 10 µg/m increased the risk of death caused by RDs by 0.3% and 0.8% during heating and non-heating seasons, respectively, which peaked on lagging day 0. However, air pollution was not significantly associated with the risk of death caused by malignant tumors. CONCLUSION: Short-term exposure to PM2.5, SO2, and O3 during the non-heating season resulted in higher risks of CD-related death, followed by RD-related death.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Humanos , Risco , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Environ Pollut ; 254(Pt A): 113030, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conjunctivitis has hazardous effects on patients' quality of life through influencing school performance, work productivity, and daily activities such as driving. However, limited evidence is available on the contributory role of air pollution on conjunctivitis, particularly in China. METHODS: We obtained data of 81,351 conjunctivitis outpatients from the largest comprehensive hospitals of four cities, China, between Jan 1, 2013 and Dec 31, 2014. Data on air pollutants, including particulate matter ≤2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5), particulate matter ≤10 µm in diameter (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) were collected from China National Environmental Monitoring Centre. Conjunctivitis outpatient visits were linked with air pollution concentrations by the visiting dates. A time-stratified case-crossover design with conditional logistic regression model was used to examine the effect of short-term exposure to air pollution on conjunctivitis outpatient visits. RESULTS: We found that the associations between air pollutants (per 10 µg/m3 increase) and hospital outpatient visits for asthma were [odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals]: 1.004(1.002-1.007) for PM2.5, 1.004 (1.002-1.005) for PM10, 1.012(1.005-1.020) for NO2, 1.006 (1.001-1.011) for SO2, and 1.007 (1.003-1.010) for O3, respectively at lag0 day. Outpatients aged 35-64 years showed significant associations with exposure to PM2.5 (1.005, 1.001-1.010), PM10 (1.005, 1.002-1.008), NO2 (1.014, 1.003-1.026), and O3 (1.005, 1.000-1.011), while those aged 15-34 years showed significant associations with exposure to O3 (1.010, 1.004-1.017). CONCLUSIONS: Short-term exposure to air pollution has impacts on outpatient visits for conjunctivitis in China. This study suggests that improving air quality could protect eye health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Conjuntivite/induzido quimicamente , Conjuntivite/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Asma/epidemiologia , China , Cidades , Estudos Cross-Over , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Razão de Chances , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Qualidade de Vida , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade , Adulto Jovem
5.
Thorax ; 74(11): 1055-1062, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31534032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute pollutant-related lung function changes among children varies across pollutants and lag periods. We examined whether short-term air pollutant fluctuations were related to daily lung function among a panel of children and whether these effects are modified by airway hyperresponsiveness, location and asthma severity. METHODS: Students from randomly selected grade 4 classrooms at seven primary schools in Durban, participated, together with asthmatic children from grades 3-6 (n=423). The schools were from high pollutant exposed communities (south) and compared with schools from communities with lower levels of pollution (north), with similar socioeconomic profiles. Interviews, spirometry and methacholine challenge testing were conducted. Bihourly lung function measurements were performed over a 3-week period in four phases. During all schooldays, students blew into their personal digital monitors every 1.5-2 hours. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen oxide (NO), sulphur dioxide and particulate matter (<10 µm diameter) (PM10) were measured at each school. Generalised estimating equations assessed lag effects, using single-pollutant (single or distributed lags) models. RESULTS: FEV1 declines ranged from 13 to 18 mL per unit increase in IQR for NO and 14-23 mL for NO2. Among the 5-day average models, a 20 mL and 30 mL greater drop in FEV1 per IQR for NO2 and NO, respectively, among those with airway hyperresponsiveness compared with those without. Effects were seen among those with normal airways. CONCLUSIONS: This first panel study in sub-Saharan Africa, showed significant declines in lung function, in response to NO and NO2 with effects modified by airway hyperresponsiveness or persistent asthma.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Asma/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Animais , Broncoconstritores/farmacologia , Criança , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Cloreto de Metacolina/farmacologia , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Instituições Acadêmicas , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , África do Sul , Espirometria , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 181: 572-578, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252212

RESUMO

Arsenic (As) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are two environmental pollutants that have been shown to promote the development of human cancer. In recent years, due to increased pollution, humans are often exposed to SO2, in addition to As. Despite the development and implementation of standards for environment and air quality, cases of disease caused by As or SO2 continue to rise alarmingly. It is currently unknown whether simultaneous exposure to As and SO2 results in increased cancer promoting activity. In this study, concentrations of As and SO2 below the limits established by the world health organization (WHO) in force environmental standards (concentrations of As should be lower than 1×10-2 mg/L and SO2 should be lower than 50 µg/m3), were employed to investigate possible, long-term, synergistic effects of As and SO2, by using cell-based assays. We found that co-exposure to these pollutants significantly promotes HepG2 cancer cell migration, while As or SO2 alone have no remarkable effects. Integrins αvß3 play a key role in this process, as cilengitide, an integrin αvß3 inhibitor, substantially prevented As and SO2-induced cell migration. MMPs, IL-8, and TGF-ß were also involved in the induced cell migration. In summary, combined exposure to As and SO2 promotes integrin-dependent cell migration and may be of relevance for the activation of mechanisms underlying liver cancer progression.


Assuntos
Arsênico/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Integrina alfaVbeta3/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Integrina alfaVbeta3/antagonistas & inibidores , Venenos de Serpentes/farmacologia
7.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 317(1): R93-R97, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995073

RESUMO

A distinct association between airway eosinophilia and chronic cough is well documented. Eosinophil granule-derived cationic proteins, such as major basic protein (MBP), have been shown to activate and enhance the excitability of bronchopulmonary C-fiber sensory nerves, which may then lead to an increase in cough sensitivity. This study was carried out to determine whether cough responses to inhaled irritant gases were altered by delivery of MBP into the airways. An awake mouse moved freely in a recording chamber that was ventilated with a constant flow of air or irritant gas mixture. Cough responses to separate inhalation challenges of sulfur dioxide (SO2; 300 and 600 ppm) and ammonia (NH3; 0.1 and 0.2%), each for 5-min duration, were measured daily for 3 days before and for up to 8 days after MBP (10-20 µg) instillation into the trachea. During control, inhalations of SO2 and NH3 consistently elicited cough responses in a dose-dependent manner. After MBP treatment, cough responses to both SO2 and NH3 increased significantly and progressively and reached peaks 2-3 days after the treatment before returning to control level in 3-7 days. In sharp contrast, cough responses to these irritant gases were not affected by the treatment with the vehicle of MBP. These results suggest that the MBP-induced lingering elevation of cough responsiveness may be a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of chronic cough associated with eosinophilic infiltration of the airways.


Assuntos
Amônia/toxicidade , Tosse/induzido quimicamente , Proteína Básica Maior de Eosinófilos/farmacologia , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade , Administração por Inalação , Amônia/administração & dosagem , Animais , Irritantes/administração & dosagem , Irritantes/toxicidade , Camundongos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Respiratórios , Dióxido de Enxofre/administração & dosagem , Vigília
8.
Environ Pollut ; 249: 629-637, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933760

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested a change of birth weight linked with elevated ambient air pollutant concentrations during the pregnancy. However, investigations of the influence of higher pollutant levels on birth weight change are limited. The goal of this study is to evaluate whether the air pollution of Ningbo is associated with birth weight, and which trimester could be a window period for maternal exposure to air pollution. A total of 170,008 live births were selected in the Ningbo city of Zhejiang, China, from 2015 to 2017. We estimated the association between the decreased birth weight and the increased air pollutant concentrations in the three trimesters and full gestation. The effects of interaction among pollutants were identified using a co-pollutant adjustment model. An interquartile range increases in PM2.5 (10.55 µg/m3), SO2(4.6 µg/m3), CO (125.59 µg/m3), and O3 (14.54 µg/m3) concentrations during the entire gestation were associated with 3.65 g (95% confidence interval: -6.02 g, -1.29 g), 5.02 g (-6.89 g, -3.14 g), 2.64 g (-4.65 g, -0.63 g) and 2.9 g (-4.8 g, 1 g) decreases, respectively, in birth weight. With each interquartile range increment in NO2 concentration was associated with an 8.05 g (6.24 g, 9.85 g) increase in birth weight. In the first trimester, only the PM2.5 exposure seemed to be associated with the greatest decline in birth weight. After adjustment for co-pollutant, both PM2.5 and SO2 were still associated with birth weight, except for CO for O3 adjustment, O3 for SO2 adjustment, and O3 for NO2 adjustment. Maternal exposure to air pollution may be associated with a decrease of birth weight, but the contribution of various pollutants is necessary to verify by future research.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/toxicidade , China , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Gravidez , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade , Adulto Jovem
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(16): 16195-16209, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30972683

RESUMO

CO2, SO2, and NO are the main components of flue gas and can cause serious environmental issues. Utilization of these compounds in oleaginous microalgae cultivation not only could reduce air pollution but could also produce feedstock for biodiesel production. However, the continuous input of SO2 and NO inhibits microalgal growth. In this study, the toxicity of simulated flue gas (15% CO2, 0.03% SO2, and 0.03% NO, balanced with N2) was reduced through automatic pH feedback control. Integrated lipid production and CO2 fixation with the removal of SO2 and NO was achieved. Using this technique, a lipid content of 38.0% DW was achieved in Chlorella pyrenoidosa XQ-20044. The lipid composition and fatty acid profile indicated that lipid production by C. pyrenoidosa XQ-20044 cultured with flue gas is suitable as a biodiesel feedstock; 81.2% of the total lipids were neutral lipids and 99.5% of the total fatty acids were C16 and C18. The ratio of saturated fatty acids to monounsaturated fatty acids in the microalgal lipid content was 74.5%. In addition, CO2, SO2, and NO from the simulated flue gas were fixed and converted to biomass and lipids with a removal efficiency of 95.9%, 100%, and 84.2%, respectively. Furthermore, the utilization efficiencies of CO2, SO2, and NO were equal to or very close to their removal efficiencies. These results provide a novel strategy for combining biodiesel production with biofixation of flue gas.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia/métodos , Chlorella/efeitos dos fármacos , Chlorella/metabolismo , Lipídeos/biossíntese , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Poluentes Atmosféricos/isolamento & purificação , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Biocombustíveis , Biomassa , Biotecnologia/instrumentação , Dióxido de Carbono/isolamento & purificação , Dióxido de Carbono/toxicidade , Chlorella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Microalgas/efeitos dos fármacos , Microalgas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microalgas/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/isolamento & purificação , Óxido Nítrico/toxicidade , Dióxido de Enxofre/isolamento & purificação , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade
10.
Environ Health ; 18(1): 38, 2019 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People are exposed to mixtures of highly correlated gaseous, liquid and solid pollutants. However, in previous studies, the assessment of air pollution effects was mainly based on single-pollutant models or was simultaneously included as multiple pollutants in a model. It is essential to develop appropriate methods to accurately estimate the health effects of multiple pollutants in the presence of a high correlation between pollutants. METHODS: The flexible tensor product smooths of multiple pollutants was applied for the first time in a quasi-Poisson model to estimate the health effects of SO2, NO2 and PM10 on daily all-cause deaths during 2005-2012 in Guangzhou, China. The results were compared with those from three other conventional models, including the single-pollutant model and the three-pollutant model with and without first-order interactions. RESULTS: The tensor product model revealed a complex interaction among three pollutants and significant combined effects of PM10, NO2 and SO2, which revealed a 2.53% (95%CI: 1.03-4.01%) increase in mortality associated with an interquartile-range (IQR) increase in the concentrations of all three pollutants. The combined effect estimated by the single-pollutant model was 5.63% (95% CI: 3.96-7.34%). Although the conventional three-pollutant models produced combined effect estimates (2.20, 95%CI, 1.18-3.23%; 2.78, 95%CI: 1.35-4.23%) similar to those of the tensor product model, they distorted the estimates and inflated the variances of the estimates when attributing the combined health effects to individual pollutants. CONCLUSIONS: The single-pollutant model or conventional multi-pollutant model may yield misleading results in the presence of collinearity. The tensor product quasi-Poisson regression provides a novel approach to the assessment of the health impacts of multiple pollutants by flexibly fitting the interaction effects and avoiding the collinearity problem.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Modelos Teóricos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Análise de Regressão , Medição de Risco , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(16): 16261-16273, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30977004

RESUMO

We performed a time series analysis to investigate the potential association between exposure to ambient air pollution and type 2 diabetes (T2D) incidence in the Chinese population. Monthly time series data between 2008 and 2015 on ambient air pollutants and incident T2D (N = 25,130) were obtained from the Environment Monitoring Center of Ningbo and the Chronic Disease Surveillance System of Ningbo. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of incident T2D per 10 µg/m3 increases in ambient air pollutants were estimated from Poisson generalized additive models. Exposure to particulate matter < 10 µm (PM10) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) was associated with increased T2D incidence. The relative risks (RRs) of each increment in 10 µg/m3 of PM10 and SO2 were 1.62 (95% CI, 1.16-2.28) and 1.63 (95% CI, 1.12-2.38) for overall participants, whereas for ozone (O3) exposure, the RRs were 0.78 (95% CI, 0.68-0.90) for overall participants, 0.78 (95% CI, 0.69-0.90) for males, and 0.78 (95% CI, 0.67-0.91) for females, respectively. Exposure to PM10 and SO2 is positively associated with T2D incidence, whereas O3 is negatively associated with T2D incidence.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Intervalos de Confiança , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade
12.
Chemosphere ; 224: 280-288, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30825854

RESUMO

Although emerging evidence suggests positive association of arsenic (As) or sulfur dioxide (SO2) exposure with human diseases, reports concerning the effects of co-exposure of As and SO2 are lacking. Moreover, there is insufficient information in the literature about As and SO2 co-exposure to renal injury. In this study, we focus on the environmental problems of excessive As and SO2 that co-exist in many coal consumption areas. We used both C57BL/6 mice and 293T cells to detect toxicities of As and SO2 exposure alone or in combination. Our results showed that co-exposure significantly increased the hazard compared with exposure to As or SO2 alone. Mouse kidney tissue slices showed that co-exposure caused more severe diffuse sclerosing glomerulonephritis than As and SO2 exposure alone. Meanwhile experiments showed that apoptosis was aggravated by co-exposure of As and SO2 in 293T cells. Because As and SO2 cause cell toxicity through increasing oxidative stress, next we detected ROS and other oxidative stress parameters, and the results showed oxidative stress was increased by co-exposure compared with the other three groups. The expression levels of downstream genes in the NF-κB and caspase pathways were higher in the co-exposure group than in the groups of As or SO2 exposure alone in mice and 293T cells. Based on the above results, co-exposure could induce higher toxicity in vitro and in vivo compared with single exposure to As or SO2, indicating that people living in places that contaminated by As and SO2 may have higher chance to get renal injury.


Assuntos
Arsenitos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Nefropatias/induzido quimicamente , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Compostos de Sódio/toxicidade , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Nefropatias/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais
13.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 24(1): 20, 2019 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885130

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The association between concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and emergency ambulance dispatches (EADs) for asthma was explored in the central Sichuan Basin of southwestern China for the first time. METHODS: EADs for asthma were collected from the Chengdu First-Aid Command Center. Pollutant concentrations were collected from 24 municipal environmental monitoring centers and including SO2, NO2, CO, daily 8-h mean concentrations of O3 (O3-8 h), and particulate matter less than 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5). The climatic data were collected from the Chengdu Municipal Meteorological Bureau. All data were collected from years spanning 2013-2017. A time-stratified case-crossover design was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: After controlling for temperature, relative humidity, and atmospheric pressure, IQR increases in SO2 (13 µg/m3), NO2 (17 µg/m3), and CO (498 µg/m3) were associated with 18.8%, 11.5%, and 3.1% increases in EADs for asthma, respectively. The associations were strongest for EADs and SO2, NO2, and CO levels with 3-, 5-, and 1-day lags, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides additional data to the limited body of literature for potential health risks arising from ambient gaseous pollutants. The results of the study suggest that increased concentrations of SO2, NO2, and CO were positively associated with emergency ambulance dispatches for asthma in Chengdu, China. Further studies are needed to investigate the effects of individual air pollutants on asthma.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Asma/epidemiologia , Despacho de Emergência Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/toxicidade , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/toxicidade , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Risco , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30717374

RESUMO

Introduction: Residents of Macassar, South Africa, were exposed to sulphur dioxide vapours (SO2) caused by an ignited sulphur stockpile, which produced peak hourly SO2 levels of 20⁻200 ppm. The aim of this study was to assess the risk factors associated with persistent lower respiratory symptoms (LRS) or asthma six years after acute exposure to high SO2 levels. Methods: A case-control study of residents that presented for a health evaluation six years after the incident was conducted. Survey instruments included a questionnaire, clinical examination and medical record review by an expert panel. A "case" was defined as a resident with persistent LRS/asthma. The Industrial Source Complex Short Term Model (ISCST 3) was used to predict time-averaged hourly SO2 levels. Results: A previous history of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) was associated with persistent LRS/asthma (ORudj: 3.49, CI: 1.46⁻8.35). Cases were more likely to report chest tightness (ORudj: 9.93; CI: 5.15⁻19.11) at the time of the incident. Peak exposure at hour 15 was associated with persistent LRS/asthma (ORadj: 1.04; CI: 1.01⁻1.07). Conclusion: LRS/asthma persisted in some individuals six years after acute SO2 exposure. Aside from peak exposures, initial chest tightness and a previous history of PTB were the strong predictors of persistent LRS/asthma.


Assuntos
Asma/etiologia , Fogo , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Respiratórios/etiologia , Enxofre , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Asma/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Respiratórios/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(9): 8758-8767, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30712210

RESUMO

Epidemiological evidence suggests that the incidence and mortality of cardiovascular diseases are closely related to sulfur dioxide (SO2). In the present study, H9C2 cells were incubated with 100 µM NaHSO3 with or without pretreatment of an antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). The changes of apoptosis rate, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), ATP content, caspase-3 activity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected. Rats were inhaled 7 mg/m3 SO2 and/or intraperitoneal injected with 50 mg/kg (bw) of NAC for 30 days. RT-PCR and Western blot were used to detect the mRNA and protein levels of apoptosis-related genes. We found that the apoptosis of H9C2 cells was induced by NaHSO3, which decreased the content of MMP and ATP, and induced the expression of caspase-3. NAC can inhibit the apoptosis induced by NaHSO3 treatment. SO2 and NaHSO3 decreased the expression of Bcl-2 and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, increased the expression of Bax and P53 accumulation and phosphorylation, and activated caspase-9 and caspase-3. Whereas NAC can reduce the changes of apoptosis-related proteins in rat heart. Our results suggest that SO2 induces ROS-mediated P53 and caspase-dependent mitochondrial signaling pathways in H9C2 cells and rat hearts. Antioxidant therapy can reduce the adverse reactions of SO2 and lead to a decline in the cardiovascular disease induced by SO2.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade , Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Caspases/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Masculino , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Environ Int ; 124: 161-169, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30641260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few epidemiological studies have explored the effects of air pollution on the risk of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the short and long term residential concentrations of ambient air pollutants (particulate matter <10 µm in diameter (PM10) and particulate matter≤2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), and carbon monoxide (CO)) in relation to the risk of DR-TB in a typical air pollution city, Jinan city, China. METHODS: A total of 752 new culture-confirmed TB cases reported in TB prevention and control institutions of Jinan from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2015 were included. Average individual-level concentrations of air pollution for 5 different exposure windows, vary from 90 days to 720 days to diagnosis were estimated using measurements from monitor closest to the patient home addresses. Logistic regression model adjusted for potential confounders was employed to evaluate correlation between air pollution and DR-TB risk at different five exposure windows individually. RESULTS: There were substantially increased mono-drug resistance and poly-drug resistance risks for ambient PM2.5, PM10, O3, and CO exposures. High exposure to PM2.5, PM10, and CO was also significantly associated with increased incidence of multi-drug resistance (MDR) both in the single- and multi-pollutants regression models. The dominant positive associations for PM2.5was observed at 540 days exposure, for O3 was observed at 180 days exposure, and for PM10 and CO was observed from 90 days to 540 days exposures. CONCLUSIONS: Our finding suggest that exposure to ambient air pollution (PM2.5, PM10, O3, and CO) are associated with increased risk of DR-TB. We provided epidemiological evidence of association between pollution exposure and mono-, poly- and multi-drug resistance.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/etiologia , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/toxicidade , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 171: 122-129, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597316

RESUMO

To explore the toxicity and action mechanism of acute sulfur dioxide (SO2) on urban landscape plants, a simulated SO2 stress environment by using fumigation chamber involving increasing SO2 concentration (0, 25, 50, 100, 200 mg m-3) was carried out among three species. After 72 h of exposure, SO2-induced oxidative damage indicated by electrolyte leakage increased with higher dose of SO2. Meanwhile, SO2 decreased the contents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoid and increased the contents of sulfur. Net photosynthetic rate (Pn) decreased as a result of stomatal closure when SO2 dose was lower than 50 mg m-3, out of this range, non-stomatal limitation play a dominant role in the decline of Pn. Simultaneous measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence imaging (CFI) also revealed that the maximal quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry in dark-adapted state (Fv/Fm) and the realized operating efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fq'/Fm') was reduced by SO2 in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry in light-adapted state (Fv'/Fm') and the PSII efficiency factor (Fq'/Fv') decreased when exposure to SO2. These results implied that acute SO2 exposure induced photoinhibition of PSII reaction centers in landscape plants. Our study also indicated that different urban landscape plant species resist differently to SO2: Euonymus kiautschovicus > Ligustrum vicaryi > Syringa oblata according to gas-exchange characteristics and chlorophyll fluorescence responses.


Assuntos
Euonymus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligustrum/efeitos dos fármacos , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade , Syringa/efeitos dos fármacos , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Euonymus/fisiologia , Fluorescência , Ligustrum/fisiologia , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Syringa/fisiologia
18.
Environ Int ; 123: 444-450, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30622069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early-life air pollution exposure is associated with lung function in children and adolescents. However, whether the association of prenatal and early postnatal exposure to air pollution with lung function continues into adulthood remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations of early exposure to air pollution with lung function at ~17.5 years in a non-western developed setting with more concentrated air pollutants. METHODS: We examined the associations of exposure to particular matter with an aerodynamic diameter of <10 µm (PM10), nitrogen dioxides (NO2), nitric oxide (NO), sulfur dioxide (SO2) in standard deviations (SD)) at different early life stages with lung function (indicated by forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced expiratory flow at 25%-75% of the pulmonary volume (FEF25%-75%)) in SD at ~17.5 years, personal history of wheezing and asthma in the population-representative Hong Kong Chinese birth cohort "Children of 1997"(n = 2942). RESULTS: Higher in utero and infancy and toddlerhood NO2 were associated with lower FEV1 (-0.022, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.029 to -0.015 and - 0.026, 95% CI -0.033 to -0.019), FEV1/FVC (-0.035, 95% CI -0.050 to -0.021 and -0.052, 95% CI -0.066 to -0.038) and FEF25%-75% (-0.031, 95% CI -0.040 to -0.022 and -0.043, 95% CI -0.051 to -0.035). A similar association was observed for NO. Weak associations of NO2 and NO with FVC were observed (-0.011, 95% CI -0.018 to -0.003 and -0.010, 95% CI -0.020 to -0.001). NOx was associated with higher risk of wheezing (1.08, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.14) but not asthma (1.02, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.11). SO2 and PM10 were not clearly associated with lung function, wheezing or asthma. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that early exposure to air pollution from NO2 may have long-term effects on lung function, which could affect respiratory health throughout life.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Adolescente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Asma , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Hong Kong , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico/toxicidade , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Testes de Função Respiratória , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade , Capacidade Vital
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 171: 290-300, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30612017

RESUMO

Rapid urbanisation in Malaysian cities poses risks to the health of residents. This study aims to estimate the relative risk (RR) of major air pollutants on cardiovascular and respiratory hospitalisations in Kuala Lumpur. Daily hospitalisations due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases from 2010 to 2014 were obtained from the Hospital Canselor Tuanku Muhriz (HCTM). The trace gases, PM10 and weather variables were obtained from the Department of Environment (DOE) Malaysia in consistent with the hospitalisation data. The RR was estimated using a Generalised Additive Model (GAM) based on Poisson regression. A "lag" concept was used where the analysis was segregated into risks of immediate exposure (lag 0) until exposure after 5 days (lag 5). The results showed that the gases could pose significant risks towards cardiovascular and respiratory hospitalisations. However, the RR value of PM10 was not significant in this study. Immediate effects on cardiovascular hospitalisations were observed for NO2 and O3 but no immediate effect was found on respiratory hospitalisations. Delayed effects on cardiovascular and respiratory hospitalisations were found with SO2 and NO2. The highest RR value was observed at lag 4 for respiratory admissions with SO2 (RR = 1.123, 95% CI = 1.045-1.207), followed by NO2 at lag 5 for cardiovascular admissions (RR = 1.025, 95% CI = 1.005-1.046). For the multi-pollutant model, NO2 at lag 5 showed the highest risks towards cardiovascular hospitalisations after controlling for O3 8 h mean lag 1 (RR = 1.026, 95% CI = 1.006-1.047), while SO2 at lag 4 showed highest risks towards respiratory hospitalisations after controlling for NO2 lag 3 (RR = 1.132, 95% CI = 1.053-1.216). This study indicated that exposure to trace gases in Kuala Lumpur could lead to both immediate and delayed effects on cardiovascular and respiratory hospitalisations.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Malásia , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade , Urbanização , Tempo (Meteorologia)
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(4): e14253, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30681619

RESUMO

This study was performed to assess whether air pollution was positively associated with birth defects and if a specific pregnancy stage played a role. This was a population-based case-control study comprising 153,822 perinatal births in four cities located in Hunan province, China, during the period 2014 to 2016. Exposure to SO2, NO2, and PM10 in each pregnant woman in the first 3 months before pregnancy, and in the first and third trimester was assessed. The risk of birth defects related to SO2 in the first 3 months before pregnancy was between 1.191 and 1.566. In the first trimester stage the risk was between 1.104 and 1.348. The risk of birth defects related to NO2 before pregnancy was 1.285 (95%CI: 1.180-1.399), in the first trimester stage the risk was between 1.280 (95%CI: 1.197-1.368) and 1.380 (95%CI: 1.293-1.473). In the third month before delivery the risk was 1.484 (95%CI: 1.366-1.613). The risk of birth defects related to PM10 in the first month of pregnancy was 1.098 (95%CI: 1.057-1.140), and in the third month before delivery the risk was 1.296 (95%CI: 1.222-1.375). SO2 had a greater effect on the prophase of pregnancy, while NO2 and PM10 had an effect in the late third trimester.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Anormalidades Congênitas/etiologia , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Idade Materna , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Gravidez , Trimestres da Gravidez , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade , Adulto Jovem
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