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1.
Environ Health ; 18(1): 38, 2019 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People are exposed to mixtures of highly correlated gaseous, liquid and solid pollutants. However, in previous studies, the assessment of air pollution effects was mainly based on single-pollutant models or was simultaneously included as multiple pollutants in a model. It is essential to develop appropriate methods to accurately estimate the health effects of multiple pollutants in the presence of a high correlation between pollutants. METHODS: The flexible tensor product smooths of multiple pollutants was applied for the first time in a quasi-Poisson model to estimate the health effects of SO2, NO2 and PM10 on daily all-cause deaths during 2005-2012 in Guangzhou, China. The results were compared with those from three other conventional models, including the single-pollutant model and the three-pollutant model with and without first-order interactions. RESULTS: The tensor product model revealed a complex interaction among three pollutants and significant combined effects of PM10, NO2 and SO2, which revealed a 2.53% (95%CI: 1.03-4.01%) increase in mortality associated with an interquartile-range (IQR) increase in the concentrations of all three pollutants. The combined effect estimated by the single-pollutant model was 5.63% (95% CI: 3.96-7.34%). Although the conventional three-pollutant models produced combined effect estimates (2.20, 95%CI, 1.18-3.23%; 2.78, 95%CI: 1.35-4.23%) similar to those of the tensor product model, they distorted the estimates and inflated the variances of the estimates when attributing the combined health effects to individual pollutants. CONCLUSIONS: The single-pollutant model or conventional multi-pollutant model may yield misleading results in the presence of collinearity. The tensor product quasi-Poisson regression provides a novel approach to the assessment of the health impacts of multiple pollutants by flexibly fitting the interaction effects and avoiding the collinearity problem.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Modelos Teóricos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Análise de Regressão , Medição de Risco , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade
2.
Environ Pollut ; 249: 629-637, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933760

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested a change of birth weight linked with elevated ambient air pollutant concentrations during the pregnancy. However, investigations of the influence of higher pollutant levels on birth weight change are limited. The goal of this study is to evaluate whether the air pollution of Ningbo is associated with birth weight, and which trimester could be a window period for maternal exposure to air pollution. A total of 170,008 live births were selected in the Ningbo city of Zhejiang, China, from 2015 to 2017. We estimated the association between the decreased birth weight and the increased air pollutant concentrations in the three trimesters and full gestation. The effects of interaction among pollutants were identified using a co-pollutant adjustment model. An interquartile range increases in PM2.5 (10.55 µg/m3), SO2(4.6 µg/m3), CO (125.59 µg/m3), and O3 (14.54 µg/m3) concentrations during the entire gestation were associated with 3.65 g (95% confidence interval: -6.02 g, -1.29 g), 5.02 g (-6.89 g, -3.14 g), 2.64 g (-4.65 g, -0.63 g) and 2.9 g (-4.8 g, 1 g) decreases, respectively, in birth weight. With each interquartile range increment in NO2 concentration was associated with an 8.05 g (6.24 g, 9.85 g) increase in birth weight. In the first trimester, only the PM2.5 exposure seemed to be associated with the greatest decline in birth weight. After adjustment for co-pollutant, both PM2.5 and SO2 were still associated with birth weight, except for CO for O3 adjustment, O3 for SO2 adjustment, and O3 for NO2 adjustment. Maternal exposure to air pollution may be associated with a decrease of birth weight, but the contribution of various pollutants is necessary to verify by future research.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/toxicidade , China , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Gravidez , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade , Adulto Jovem
3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(16): 16195-16209, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30972683

RESUMO

CO2, SO2, and NO are the main components of flue gas and can cause serious environmental issues. Utilization of these compounds in oleaginous microalgae cultivation not only could reduce air pollution but could also produce feedstock for biodiesel production. However, the continuous input of SO2 and NO inhibits microalgal growth. In this study, the toxicity of simulated flue gas (15% CO2, 0.03% SO2, and 0.03% NO, balanced with N2) was reduced through automatic pH feedback control. Integrated lipid production and CO2 fixation with the removal of SO2 and NO was achieved. Using this technique, a lipid content of 38.0% DW was achieved in Chlorella pyrenoidosa XQ-20044. The lipid composition and fatty acid profile indicated that lipid production by C. pyrenoidosa XQ-20044 cultured with flue gas is suitable as a biodiesel feedstock; 81.2% of the total lipids were neutral lipids and 99.5% of the total fatty acids were C16 and C18. The ratio of saturated fatty acids to monounsaturated fatty acids in the microalgal lipid content was 74.5%. In addition, CO2, SO2, and NO from the simulated flue gas were fixed and converted to biomass and lipids with a removal efficiency of 95.9%, 100%, and 84.2%, respectively. Furthermore, the utilization efficiencies of CO2, SO2, and NO were equal to or very close to their removal efficiencies. These results provide a novel strategy for combining biodiesel production with biofixation of flue gas.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia/métodos , Chlorella/efeitos dos fármacos , Chlorella/metabolismo , Lipídeos/biossíntese , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Poluentes Atmosféricos/isolamento & purificação , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Biocombustíveis , Biomassa , Biotecnologia/instrumentação , Dióxido de Carbono/isolamento & purificação , Dióxido de Carbono/toxicidade , Chlorella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Microalgas/efeitos dos fármacos , Microalgas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microalgas/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/isolamento & purificação , Óxido Nítrico/toxicidade , Dióxido de Enxofre/isolamento & purificação , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade
4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(16): 16261-16273, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30977004

RESUMO

We performed a time series analysis to investigate the potential association between exposure to ambient air pollution and type 2 diabetes (T2D) incidence in the Chinese population. Monthly time series data between 2008 and 2015 on ambient air pollutants and incident T2D (N = 25,130) were obtained from the Environment Monitoring Center of Ningbo and the Chronic Disease Surveillance System of Ningbo. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of incident T2D per 10 µg/m3 increases in ambient air pollutants were estimated from Poisson generalized additive models. Exposure to particulate matter < 10 µm (PM10) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) was associated with increased T2D incidence. The relative risks (RRs) of each increment in 10 µg/m3 of PM10 and SO2 were 1.62 (95% CI, 1.16-2.28) and 1.63 (95% CI, 1.12-2.38) for overall participants, whereas for ozone (O3) exposure, the RRs were 0.78 (95% CI, 0.68-0.90) for overall participants, 0.78 (95% CI, 0.69-0.90) for males, and 0.78 (95% CI, 0.67-0.91) for females, respectively. Exposure to PM10 and SO2 is positively associated with T2D incidence, whereas O3 is negatively associated with T2D incidence.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Intervalos de Confiança , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade
5.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 24(1): 20, 2019 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885130

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The association between concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and emergency ambulance dispatches (EADs) for asthma was explored in the central Sichuan Basin of southwestern China for the first time. METHODS: EADs for asthma were collected from the Chengdu First-Aid Command Center. Pollutant concentrations were collected from 24 municipal environmental monitoring centers and including SO2, NO2, CO, daily 8-h mean concentrations of O3 (O3-8 h), and particulate matter less than 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5). The climatic data were collected from the Chengdu Municipal Meteorological Bureau. All data were collected from years spanning 2013-2017. A time-stratified case-crossover design was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: After controlling for temperature, relative humidity, and atmospheric pressure, IQR increases in SO2 (13 µg/m3), NO2 (17 µg/m3), and CO (498 µg/m3) were associated with 18.8%, 11.5%, and 3.1% increases in EADs for asthma, respectively. The associations were strongest for EADs and SO2, NO2, and CO levels with 3-, 5-, and 1-day lags, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides additional data to the limited body of literature for potential health risks arising from ambient gaseous pollutants. The results of the study suggest that increased concentrations of SO2, NO2, and CO were positively associated with emergency ambulance dispatches for asthma in Chengdu, China. Further studies are needed to investigate the effects of individual air pollutants on asthma.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Asma/epidemiologia , Despacho de Emergência Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/toxicidade , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/toxicidade , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Risco , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade
6.
Chemosphere ; 224: 280-288, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30825854

RESUMO

Although emerging evidence suggests positive association of arsenic (As) or sulfur dioxide (SO2) exposure with human diseases, reports concerning the effects of co-exposure of As and SO2 are lacking. Moreover, there is insufficient information in the literature about As and SO2 co-exposure to renal injury. In this study, we focus on the environmental problems of excessive As and SO2 that co-exist in many coal consumption areas. We used both C57BL/6 mice and 293T cells to detect toxicities of As and SO2 exposure alone or in combination. Our results showed that co-exposure significantly increased the hazard compared with exposure to As or SO2 alone. Mouse kidney tissue slices showed that co-exposure caused more severe diffuse sclerosing glomerulonephritis than As and SO2 exposure alone. Meanwhile experiments showed that apoptosis was aggravated by co-exposure of As and SO2 in 293T cells. Because As and SO2 cause cell toxicity through increasing oxidative stress, next we detected ROS and other oxidative stress parameters, and the results showed oxidative stress was increased by co-exposure compared with the other three groups. The expression levels of downstream genes in the NF-κB and caspase pathways were higher in the co-exposure group than in the groups of As or SO2 exposure alone in mice and 293T cells. Based on the above results, co-exposure could induce higher toxicity in vitro and in vivo compared with single exposure to As or SO2, indicating that people living in places that contaminated by As and SO2 may have higher chance to get renal injury.


Assuntos
Arsenitos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Nefropatias/induzido quimicamente , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Compostos de Sódio/toxicidade , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Nefropatias/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30717374

RESUMO

Introduction: Residents of Macassar, South Africa, were exposed to sulphur dioxide vapours (SO2) caused by an ignited sulphur stockpile, which produced peak hourly SO2 levels of 20⁻200 ppm. The aim of this study was to assess the risk factors associated with persistent lower respiratory symptoms (LRS) or asthma six years after acute exposure to high SO2 levels. Methods: A case-control study of residents that presented for a health evaluation six years after the incident was conducted. Survey instruments included a questionnaire, clinical examination and medical record review by an expert panel. A "case" was defined as a resident with persistent LRS/asthma. The Industrial Source Complex Short Term Model (ISCST 3) was used to predict time-averaged hourly SO2 levels. Results: A previous history of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) was associated with persistent LRS/asthma (ORudj: 3.49, CI: 1.46⁻8.35). Cases were more likely to report chest tightness (ORudj: 9.93; CI: 5.15⁻19.11) at the time of the incident. Peak exposure at hour 15 was associated with persistent LRS/asthma (ORadj: 1.04; CI: 1.01⁻1.07). Conclusion: LRS/asthma persisted in some individuals six years after acute SO2 exposure. Aside from peak exposures, initial chest tightness and a previous history of PTB were the strong predictors of persistent LRS/asthma.


Assuntos
Asma/etiologia , Fogo , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Respiratórios/etiologia , Enxofre , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Asma/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Respiratórios/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(9): 8758-8767, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30712210

RESUMO

Epidemiological evidence suggests that the incidence and mortality of cardiovascular diseases are closely related to sulfur dioxide (SO2). In the present study, H9C2 cells were incubated with 100 µM NaHSO3 with or without pretreatment of an antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). The changes of apoptosis rate, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), ATP content, caspase-3 activity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected. Rats were inhaled 7 mg/m3 SO2 and/or intraperitoneal injected with 50 mg/kg (bw) of NAC for 30 days. RT-PCR and Western blot were used to detect the mRNA and protein levels of apoptosis-related genes. We found that the apoptosis of H9C2 cells was induced by NaHSO3, which decreased the content of MMP and ATP, and induced the expression of caspase-3. NAC can inhibit the apoptosis induced by NaHSO3 treatment. SO2 and NaHSO3 decreased the expression of Bcl-2 and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, increased the expression of Bax and P53 accumulation and phosphorylation, and activated caspase-9 and caspase-3. Whereas NAC can reduce the changes of apoptosis-related proteins in rat heart. Our results suggest that SO2 induces ROS-mediated P53 and caspase-dependent mitochondrial signaling pathways in H9C2 cells and rat hearts. Antioxidant therapy can reduce the adverse reactions of SO2 and lead to a decline in the cardiovascular disease induced by SO2.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade , Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Caspases/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Masculino , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Environ Int ; 123: 444-450, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30622069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early-life air pollution exposure is associated with lung function in children and adolescents. However, whether the association of prenatal and early postnatal exposure to air pollution with lung function continues into adulthood remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations of early exposure to air pollution with lung function at ~17.5 years in a non-western developed setting with more concentrated air pollutants. METHODS: We examined the associations of exposure to particular matter with an aerodynamic diameter of <10 µm (PM10), nitrogen dioxides (NO2), nitric oxide (NO), sulfur dioxide (SO2) in standard deviations (SD)) at different early life stages with lung function (indicated by forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced expiratory flow at 25%-75% of the pulmonary volume (FEF25%-75%)) in SD at ~17.5 years, personal history of wheezing and asthma in the population-representative Hong Kong Chinese birth cohort "Children of 1997"(n = 2942). RESULTS: Higher in utero and infancy and toddlerhood NO2 were associated with lower FEV1 (-0.022, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.029 to -0.015 and - 0.026, 95% CI -0.033 to -0.019), FEV1/FVC (-0.035, 95% CI -0.050 to -0.021 and -0.052, 95% CI -0.066 to -0.038) and FEF25%-75% (-0.031, 95% CI -0.040 to -0.022 and -0.043, 95% CI -0.051 to -0.035). A similar association was observed for NO. Weak associations of NO2 and NO with FVC were observed (-0.011, 95% CI -0.018 to -0.003 and -0.010, 95% CI -0.020 to -0.001). NOx was associated with higher risk of wheezing (1.08, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.14) but not asthma (1.02, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.11). SO2 and PM10 were not clearly associated with lung function, wheezing or asthma. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that early exposure to air pollution from NO2 may have long-term effects on lung function, which could affect respiratory health throughout life.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Adolescente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Asma , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Hong Kong , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico/toxicidade , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Testes de Função Respiratória , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade , Capacidade Vital
10.
Environ Int ; 124: 161-169, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30641260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few epidemiological studies have explored the effects of air pollution on the risk of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the short and long term residential concentrations of ambient air pollutants (particulate matter <10 µm in diameter (PM10) and particulate matter≤2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), and carbon monoxide (CO)) in relation to the risk of DR-TB in a typical air pollution city, Jinan city, China. METHODS: A total of 752 new culture-confirmed TB cases reported in TB prevention and control institutions of Jinan from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2015 were included. Average individual-level concentrations of air pollution for 5 different exposure windows, vary from 90 days to 720 days to diagnosis were estimated using measurements from monitor closest to the patient home addresses. Logistic regression model adjusted for potential confounders was employed to evaluate correlation between air pollution and DR-TB risk at different five exposure windows individually. RESULTS: There were substantially increased mono-drug resistance and poly-drug resistance risks for ambient PM2.5, PM10, O3, and CO exposures. High exposure to PM2.5, PM10, and CO was also significantly associated with increased incidence of multi-drug resistance (MDR) both in the single- and multi-pollutants regression models. The dominant positive associations for PM2.5was observed at 540 days exposure, for O3 was observed at 180 days exposure, and for PM10 and CO was observed from 90 days to 540 days exposures. CONCLUSIONS: Our finding suggest that exposure to ambient air pollution (PM2.5, PM10, O3, and CO) are associated with increased risk of DR-TB. We provided epidemiological evidence of association between pollution exposure and mono-, poly- and multi-drug resistance.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/etiologia , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/toxicidade , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(4): e14253, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30681619

RESUMO

This study was performed to assess whether air pollution was positively associated with birth defects and if a specific pregnancy stage played a role. This was a population-based case-control study comprising 153,822 perinatal births in four cities located in Hunan province, China, during the period 2014 to 2016. Exposure to SO2, NO2, and PM10 in each pregnant woman in the first 3 months before pregnancy, and in the first and third trimester was assessed. The risk of birth defects related to SO2 in the first 3 months before pregnancy was between 1.191 and 1.566. In the first trimester stage the risk was between 1.104 and 1.348. The risk of birth defects related to NO2 before pregnancy was 1.285 (95%CI: 1.180-1.399), in the first trimester stage the risk was between 1.280 (95%CI: 1.197-1.368) and 1.380 (95%CI: 1.293-1.473). In the third month before delivery the risk was 1.484 (95%CI: 1.366-1.613). The risk of birth defects related to PM10 in the first month of pregnancy was 1.098 (95%CI: 1.057-1.140), and in the third month before delivery the risk was 1.296 (95%CI: 1.222-1.375). SO2 had a greater effect on the prophase of pregnancy, while NO2 and PM10 had an effect in the late third trimester.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Anormalidades Congênitas/etiologia , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Idade Materna , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Gravidez , Trimestres da Gravidez , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade , Adulto Jovem
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 171: 290-300, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30612017

RESUMO

Rapid urbanisation in Malaysian cities poses risks to the health of residents. This study aims to estimate the relative risk (RR) of major air pollutants on cardiovascular and respiratory hospitalisations in Kuala Lumpur. Daily hospitalisations due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases from 2010 to 2014 were obtained from the Hospital Canselor Tuanku Muhriz (HCTM). The trace gases, PM10 and weather variables were obtained from the Department of Environment (DOE) Malaysia in consistent with the hospitalisation data. The RR was estimated using a Generalised Additive Model (GAM) based on Poisson regression. A "lag" concept was used where the analysis was segregated into risks of immediate exposure (lag 0) until exposure after 5 days (lag 5). The results showed that the gases could pose significant risks towards cardiovascular and respiratory hospitalisations. However, the RR value of PM10 was not significant in this study. Immediate effects on cardiovascular hospitalisations were observed for NO2 and O3 but no immediate effect was found on respiratory hospitalisations. Delayed effects on cardiovascular and respiratory hospitalisations were found with SO2 and NO2. The highest RR value was observed at lag 4 for respiratory admissions with SO2 (RR = 1.123, 95% CI = 1.045-1.207), followed by NO2 at lag 5 for cardiovascular admissions (RR = 1.025, 95% CI = 1.005-1.046). For the multi-pollutant model, NO2 at lag 5 showed the highest risks towards cardiovascular hospitalisations after controlling for O3 8 h mean lag 1 (RR = 1.026, 95% CI = 1.006-1.047), while SO2 at lag 4 showed highest risks towards respiratory hospitalisations after controlling for NO2 lag 3 (RR = 1.132, 95% CI = 1.053-1.216). This study indicated that exposure to trace gases in Kuala Lumpur could lead to both immediate and delayed effects on cardiovascular and respiratory hospitalisations.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Malásia , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade , Urbanização , Tempo (Meteorologia)
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 171: 122-129, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597316

RESUMO

To explore the toxicity and action mechanism of acute sulfur dioxide (SO2) on urban landscape plants, a simulated SO2 stress environment by using fumigation chamber involving increasing SO2 concentration (0, 25, 50, 100, 200 mg m-3) was carried out among three species. After 72 h of exposure, SO2-induced oxidative damage indicated by electrolyte leakage increased with higher dose of SO2. Meanwhile, SO2 decreased the contents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoid and increased the contents of sulfur. Net photosynthetic rate (Pn) decreased as a result of stomatal closure when SO2 dose was lower than 50 mg m-3, out of this range, non-stomatal limitation play a dominant role in the decline of Pn. Simultaneous measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence imaging (CFI) also revealed that the maximal quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry in dark-adapted state (Fv/Fm) and the realized operating efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fq'/Fm') was reduced by SO2 in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry in light-adapted state (Fv'/Fm') and the PSII efficiency factor (Fq'/Fv') decreased when exposure to SO2. These results implied that acute SO2 exposure induced photoinhibition of PSII reaction centers in landscape plants. Our study also indicated that different urban landscape plant species resist differently to SO2: Euonymus kiautschovicus > Ligustrum vicaryi > Syringa oblata according to gas-exchange characteristics and chlorophyll fluorescence responses.


Assuntos
Euonymus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligustrum/efeitos dos fármacos , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade , Syringa/efeitos dos fármacos , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Euonymus/fisiologia , Fluorescência , Ligustrum/fisiologia , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Syringa/fisiologia
14.
Rev Environ Contam Toxicol ; 246: 33-64, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29526018

RESUMO

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is an atmospheric pollutant that is moderately persistent in the atmosphere and highly water soluble. When applied as a pesticide, SO2 may be transported, deposited, or transformed in various chemical reactions. SO2 participates in the sulfur biogeochemical cycle, which involves complex reactions of sulfur-containing compounds between abiotic and biotic components of ecosystems. The main degradation route of SO2 is atmospheric oxidation, and sulfur oxides may undergo long-distance transport prior to removal from the atmosphere by wet or dry deposition. According to the Pesticide Use Reporting (PUR) database maintained by the California Department of Pesticide Regulation (DPR), SO2 use in California from 2010 to 2015 was primarily for fumigations (96%), including treatments of postharvest grape products and winery equipment sterilizations. Other site uses contributed less than 5% of reported statewide SO2 use from 2010 to 2015. A slight increasing trend in use of SO2 as a pesticide was observed from 2010 to 2015, with the highest reported uses of SO2 within California counties during the months of July-November. Although the primary sources of SO2 in the environment are anthropogenic emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels, emissions of SO2 from pesticide uses have the potential to contribute to the environmental and public welfare impacts of SO2 pollution. Oxidation of atmospheric SO2 may contribute to the negative environmental and public welfare impacts of acid rain, which include toxicity to aquatic organisms, fish, and terrestrial vegetation, and corrosion of man-made materials.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Praguicidas , Dióxido de Enxofre , California , Corrosão , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/química , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/química , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/química , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 167: 317-323, 2019 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30343146

RESUMO

To interpret the relationship of the seasonal pattern of air pollution exposure associated with increased risk of congenital anomalies (CA) and the trimester-specific effects. In this work, 55,428 hospital records with 847 doctor-diagnosed CA from July 2013 to December 2016 were collected in Hohhot, China. Maternal exposure to critical air pollutants (SO2, CO, PM10, O3, NO2 and PM2.5) were estimated using an inverse distance weighted (IDW) method on the basis of the ambient air quality monitoring stations. Logistic regression analysis was employed to determine the association of CA (in terms of odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI)) in three trimesters with heating/none heating season exposure. The results showed that CO exposure was found a significant association with ORs (95% CI) 1.58 (1.09, 2.27) changing from IQR2-3 and 1.40 (1.01, 1.93) changing from IQR3-IQR4 in 1st trimester and 1.51 (1.12, 2.04) changing from IQR2-3 in 2nd trimester, respectively. PM10 also presented significant association with ORs (95% CI) 1.42(1.08, 1.86) changing from IQR3-4 in 2nd trimester. Exposure effects were found more obvious in heating season, i.e. CO exposure levels were associated with the risks of CA with IQR changing ORs (95% CI) of 5.21(2.02, 7.44), 2.24 (1.21, 4.15) and 1.84 (1.10, 3.11) in 1st trimester, respectively; PM2.5 exposure levels were associated with the risks of CA with IQR changing ORs (95% CI) of 3.76 (1.48, 6.55), 2.45 (1.10, 5.44) and 3.30 (1.63, 6.67) in 2nd trimester, respectively. Our findings suggested some positive associations of pregnancy and CA with maternal exposure to ambient CO and PM2.5 during the 1st and 2nd trimester after controlling for maternal comorbidities general covariates and other pollutants. PM10 was also found significantly associated with increased risk of CA in 2nd trimester besides seasons. There was no association found in 3rd trimester.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Anormalidades Congênitas/diagnóstico , Estações do Ano , Monóxido de Carbono/toxicidade , China , Anormalidades Congênitas/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Gravidez , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 658: 116-121, 2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30577010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is an important component of air pollution, adversely impacting human health worldwide. This study aimed to examine the association between short-term exposure to SO2 and childhood hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in Hefei, China. METHODS: A Poisson generalized additive model (GAM) combining the time-series regression analyses was used to fit the SO2-HFMD association. The effect of SO2 was estimated using the single-day lag models (lag0, lag1, lag2) and the moving average lag models (lag01, lag02) We also conducted stratified analyses by season, ages (0-4 years old, 5-14 years old), gender (male, female), childcare patterns (scattered children, kindergarten children) and residence areas (urban, rural). Two-pollutant models were adopted to test the robustness of the results. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant association between SO2 and the risk of childhood HFMD. For total cases, the relative risk (RR) at lag0 was 1.038 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.018-1.057) in whole-period and 1.088 (95% CI: 1.059-1.118) in cold season. During cold season, we observed significant associations between SO2 and HFMD among all subgroups except for children aged 5-14 years old and the adverse effects occurred on lag0, lag1, lag01, lag02. However, in hot season, SO2 were significant only for females (lag01 with RR = 1.054; 95%CI = 1.007-1.101) and scattered children (lag01 with RR = 1.054; 95%CI = 1.007-1.101). In general, females and scattered children appeared to be more vulnerable to SO2. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests a significant association between SO2 and HFMD. especially during cold season. Compared with males and kindergarten children, females and scattered children are at higher risk of developing HFMD.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/epidemiologia , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano
17.
Hipertens. riesgo vasc ; 35(4): 177-184, oct.-dic. 2018. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-180578

RESUMO

La contaminación atmosférica es un factor preocupante y con impacto sobre la salud pública. Múltiples estudios relacionan la exposición a contaminantes atmosféricos con el aumento de eventos cardiovasculares, mortalidad cardiovascular y mortalidad por todas las causas. También se ha demostrado relación entre el aumento de contaminación y la elevación de la presión arterial, así como con una mayor prevalencia de hipertensión arterial. Los contaminantes que desempeñan un papel más relevante en esta asociación son las partículas aéreas en suspensión, el dióxido de nitrógeno y el dióxido de azufre. El objetivo de esta revisión es entender los mecanismos implicados en este aumento y conocer las publicaciones más recientes que relacionan contaminación atmosférica, riesgo cardiovascular e hipertensión arterial


Air pollution is a worrying factor and has an impact on public health. Multiple studies relate exposure to air pollutants with an increase in cardiovascular events, cardiovascular mortality and mortality for all causes. A relationship has also been demonstrated between increased pollution and high blood pressure, as well as a higher prevalence of hypertension. Pollutants that play a more relevant role in this association are particulate matters, nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide. The objective of this review is to understand the mechanisms involved in this increase and to find the most recent publications that relate pollution, cardiovascular risk and hypertension


Assuntos
Humanos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Calefação/efeitos adversos , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Dióxido de Enxofre/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade
18.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 50(2): 734-744, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30308495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: We investigated the combined toxic effect of sodium fluoride (NaF) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) on kidney morphological changes and DNA damage in male Wistar rats. METHODS: In this study we selected totally 96 male Wistar rats (12-week-old) then randomly group-housed them into four cages, treated with deionized water, NaF, SO2 and co-treatment of NaF and SO2 respectively. Morphological changes of kidney were detected by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining at 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks. Correspondingly, tailing ratio and comet length were measured by BAB Bs Comet Assay System, including DNA damage special unit were calculated to evaluate the grades of kidney DNA damage at the same time. RESULTS: Treated groups showed a body weight decrease when compared to control group. However, no significant difference in the relative weight of kidney was found in all four groups. It is noteworthy that at 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after exposure, the morphological alteration of renal tubules were observed in all treated groups, especially in group-IV. Also, at 4 and 6 weeks, notable DNA damage was found in all treated groups, as assessed by significantly increasing trend of comet length tailing ratio. CONCLUSION: The study manifests that presence of NaF and SO2 will not only induce renal tissue lesions but also impact DNA integrity. In addition, this combined exposure exhibits a synergistic effect, characterizing a dose-dependence and time correlation. These findings may provide novel insights regarding perturbations of DNA damage and its functions as a potential new mechanism, by which cautious interpretation of NaF and SO2 co-exposure evolved in both animals and human beings is necessary.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/patologia , Fluoreto de Sódio/toxicidade , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaio Cometa , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
19.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 34(8): 105, 2018 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29971504

RESUMO

Vale dos Vinhedos appellation of origin has a very recent history as industrial wine making region. In this study we investigated the genetic and phenotypic variability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from South-Brazilian vineyards in order to evaluate strain fermentation aptitude and copper and sulphites tolerance. Merlot grape bunches were collected from three vineyards and yeast isolation was performed after single bunch fermentation. High genotypic variability was found and most of the genotypes revealed to be vine-specific. No industrial strain dissemination was present in the sampled vineyards, although it has been wildly reported in traditional winemaking countries. From the phenotypic traits analysis these Brazilian native strains showed good fermentation performances, good tolerance to sulphites and, in particular, a high copper tolerance level. Copper is the most important metal in the formulation of fungicides against downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola), one of the most harmful disease of the vines, and other fungal pests. The high tolerance to copper suggests an environmental adaptation to the strong use of copper-based fungicides, requested by the wet subtropical climate.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/fisiologia , Agricultura , Brasil , Cobre/toxicidade , Sulfato de Cobre/toxicidade , DNA Fúngico/genética , Tolerância a Medicamentos , Fazendas , Fermentação , Fungicidas Industriais/química , Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Genes Fúngicos , Mapeamento Geográfico , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Cinética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/isolamento & purificação , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade , Vitis/química , Vitis/microbiologia , Vinho/microbiologia
20.
Environ Pollut ; 242(Pt A): 90-97, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29960929

RESUMO

Recently, health damage to children exposed to synthetic polyurethane (PU) running tracks has aroused social panic in China. Some possible toxic volatiles may be responsible for these damages. However, the exact cause remains unclear. We have detected a low concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO2; 1.80-3.30 mg/m3) on the surface of the PU running track. Surprisingly, we found that SO2 was generated from the PU running track, and even such a low concentration of SO2 could induce severe lung inflammation with hemorrhage, inflammatory cell infiltration, and inflammatory factor secretion in mice after 2-week exposure. Prolonged exposure (5 weeks) to the SO2 caused chronic pulmonary inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis in the mice. Peripheral hemogram results showed that platelet concentration increased significantly in the SO2 group compared to that in the control group, and the proportion of blood neutrophils and monocytes among total leukocytes was more imbalanced in the SO2 group (16.6%) than in the control group (8.0%). Further histopathology results of sternal marrow demonstrated that hematopoietic hyperplasia was severely suppressed with increased reticular stroma and adipocytes under SO2 exposure. These data indicate that a low concentration of SO2 generated spontaneously from PU running track outdoors as a secondary product is still harmful to health, as it impairs the respiratory system, hematopoiesis, and immunologic function. This indicates that the low-concentration SO2 could be a major cause of diseases induced by air pollution, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Poliuretanos/química , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Animais , Medula Óssea/patologia , China , Hematopoese/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/patologia , Contagem de Leucócitos , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Corrida , Equipamentos Esportivos , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Volatilização
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