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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 752: 141648, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have explored the associations between ambient air pollution and blood lipid levels. This study aimed to fill this knowledge gap based on a routine health examination cohort in Shijiazhuang, China. METHODS: We included 7063 participants who took the routine health examination for 2-3 times at Hebei General Hospital from January 2016 to December 2018. Individual serum levels of cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were measured. Their three-month average exposure to air pollution prior to the routine health examinations was estimated using inverse distance weighted method. We used linear mixed-effects regression models to examine the associations between air pollution and levels of blood lipids while controlling for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol drinking, temperature, humidity, with a random effect for each individual. RESULTS: Particles with diameters ≤2.5 µm and ≤10 µm (PM2.5 and PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O3) were all positively associated with TC, TG, and LDL-C and negatively associated with HDL-C, in single pollutant models. Each 10 µg/m3 increment of 3-month average PM2.5 was associated with 0.65% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03%-1.28%], 0.56% (95%CI: 0.33%-0.79%) and 0.63% (95%CI: 0.35%-0.91%) increment in TG, TC, and LDL-C, and 0.91% (95%CI: 0.68%-1.13%) decrease in HDL-C. In two-pollutant models, the effects of gaseous pollutants on blood lipids were weakened, while those of PMs were strengthened. Stronger associations were presented in the elderly (≥60 years) and overweight/obese (BMI ≥ 24) participants. CONCLUSIONS: Ambient air pollution had significantly adverse effects on blood lipid levels, especially in overweight/obese and elderly individuals. CAPSULE: Significant associations between increased air pollution and worse blood lipid levels were found, especially in overweight/obese and elderly individuals.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , China/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Lipídeos , Estudos Longitudinais , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise
2.
BMJ ; 370: m2791, 2020 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816747

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors (air pollution and family related) for the onset of asthma and persistent wheezing in children. DESIGN: Nationwide case-control study. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: All Danish children born from 1997 to 2014 and followed for asthma onset and persistent wheezing from age 1 year to 15 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Onset of asthma and persistent wheezing. RESULTS: A higher incidence of asthma was found in children of parents with asthma (adjusted hazard ratio 2.29 (95% confidence interval 2.22 to 2.35) and mothers who smoked during pregnancy (1.20, 1.18 to 1.22), whereas a lower incidence was found in children of parents with high educational attainment (0.72, 0.69 to 0.75) and high incomes (0.85, 0.81 to 0.89). Exposure to particulate matter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) and ≤10 µm (PM10) and nitrate was associated with an increased risk of asthma and persistent wheezing, with hazard ratios per 5 µg/m3 increase in pollutant concentrations 1.05 (1.03 to 1.07) for PM2.5, 1.04 (1.02 to 1.06) for PM10, and 1.04 (1.03 to 1.04) for nitrogen dioxide. Only the positive association of PM2.5 with asthma and persistent wheezing remained robust across the different models and in sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that children exposed to higher levels of PM2.5 are more likely to develop asthma and persistent wheezing than children who are not exposed. Other risk factors associated with these outcomes were parental asthma, parental education, and maternal smoking during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Asma/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Sons Respiratórios , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Nitratos/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos
3.
Int J Infect Dis ; 97: 278-282, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502664

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although COVID-19 is known to be caused by human-to-human transmission, it remains largely unclear whether ambient air pollutants and meteorological parameters could promote its transmission. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted to study whether air quality index (AQI), four ambient air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, NO2 and CO) and five meteorological variables (daily temperature, highest temperature, lowest temperature, temperature difference and sunshine duration) could increase COVID-19 incidence in Wuhan and XiaoGan between Jan 26th to Feb 29th in 2020. RESULTS: First, a significant correlation was found between COVID-19 incidence and AQI in both Wuhan (R2=0.13, p<0.05) and XiaoGan (R2=0.223, p<0.01). Specifically, among four pollutants, COVID-19 incidence was prominently correlated with PM2.5 and NO2 in both cities. In Wuhan, the tightest correlation was observed between NO2 and COVID-19 incidence (R2=0.329, p<0.01). In XiaoGan, in addition to the PM2.5 (R2=0.117, p<0.01) and NO2 (R2=0.015, p<0.05), a notable correlation was also observed between the PM10 and COVID-19 incidence (R2=0.105, p<0.05). Moreover, temperature is the only meteorological parameter that constantly correlated well with COVID-19 incidence in both Wuhan and XiaoGan, but in an inverse correlation (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: AQI, PM2.5, NO2, and temperature are four variables that could promote the sustained transmission of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Temperatura , Betacoronavirus , Monóxido de Carbono/efeitos adversos , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Incidência , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Pandemias , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 47, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a pervasive urban pollutant originating primarily from vehicle emissions. Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is associated with a considerable public health burden worldwide, but whether NO2 exposure is causally related to IHD morbidity remains in question. Our objective was to determine whether short term exposure to outdoor NO2 is causally associated with IHD-related morbidity based on a synthesis of findings from case-crossover and time-series studies. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, Global Health and Toxline databases were searched using terms developed by a librarian. Screening, data extraction and risk of bias assessment were completed independently by two reviewers. Conflicts between reviewers were resolved through consensus and/or involvement of a third reviewer. Pooling of results across studies was conducted using random effects models, heterogeneity among included studies was assessed using Cochran's Q and I2 measures, and sources of heterogeneity were evaluated using meta-regression. Sensitivity of pooled estimates to individual studies was examined using Leave One Out analysis and publication bias was evaluated using Funnel plots, Begg's and Egger's tests, and trim and fill. RESULTS: Thirty-eight case-crossover studies and 48 time-series studies were included in our analysis. NO2 was significantly associated with IHD morbidity (pooled odds ratio from case-crossover studies: 1.074 95% CI 1.052-1.097; pooled relative risk from time-series studies: 1.022 95% CI 1.016-1.029 per 10 ppb). Pooled estimates for case-crossover studies from Europe and North America were significantly lower than for studies conducted elsewhere. The high degree of heterogeneity among studies was only partially accounted for in meta-regression. There was evidence of publication bias, particularly for case-crossover studies. For both case-crossover and time-series studies, pooled estimates based on multi-pollutant models were smaller than those from single pollutant models, and those based on older populations were larger than those based on younger populations, but these differences were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that there is a likely causal relationship between short term NO2 exposure and IHD-related morbidity, but important uncertainties remain, particularly related to the contribution of co-pollutants or other concomitant exposures, and the lack of supporting evidence from toxicological and controlled human studies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Morbidade , Isquemia Miocárdica/induzido quimicamente , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 51, 2020 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32410699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air pollution and pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) are still serious worldwide problems, especially in areas of developing countries. Whether there is an association between high ambient air pollutant concentrations and PTB has not been fully explored. METHODS: Bayesian spatial-temporal models were constructed to analyse the association between ambient air pollutants (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters of ≤10 µm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)) and PTB incidence, adjusting for socioeconomic covariates. We collected data on pulmonary TB, ambient air pollution (PM10, SO2 and NO2) concentrations and socioeconomic covariates from 17 prefectures in the central Chinese province of Hubei between Jan 1, 2006, and Dec 31, 2015. RESULTS: For every annual 10 µg/m3 increase in SO2, the relative risk (RR) of PTB incidence was 1.046 (95% credible interval [CI], 1.038-1.054) in the study area. Moreover, we found positive associations with each annual 10 µg/m3 increase in ambient air pollutants (PM10, SO2 and NO2) in females but only with SO2 in males. A significant association for each 10 µg/m3 increase in SO2 was observed in all the age groups, with a significant association for PM10 only in children under 14 years of age. A significant response relationship was also observed at a 0-1 month moving average lag for each 10 µg/m3 increase in SO2. CONCLUSIONS: High ambient air pollution concentrations in areas of developing countries might increase the risk of regional PTB incidence, especially for women and young people. Precautions and protective measures and efforts to reduce ambient air pollutant concentrations should be strengthened in developing countries.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Enxofre/efeitos adversos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Tuberculose Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Infect ; 81(2): 255-259, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447007

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In areas of SARS-CoV-2 outbreak worldwide mean air pollutants concentrations vastly exceed the maximum limits. Chronic exposure to air pollutants have been associated with lung ACE-2 over-expression which is known to be the main receptor for SARS-CoV-2. The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between air pollutants concentration (PM 2.5 and NO2) and COVID-19 outbreak, in terms of transmission, number of patients, severity of presentation and number of deaths. METHODS: COVID-19 cases, ICU admissions and mortality rate were correlated with severity of air pollution in the Italian regions. RESULTS: The highest number of COVID-19 cases were recorded in the most polluted regions with patients presenting with more severe forms of the disease requiring ICU admission. In these regions, mortality was two-fold higher than the other regions. CONCLUSIONS: From the data available we propose a "double-hit hypothesis": chronic exposure to PM 2.5 causes alveolar ACE-2 receptor overexpression. This may increase viral load in patients exposed to pollutants in turn depleting ACE-2 receptors and impairing host defences. High atmospheric NO2 may provide a second hit causing a severe form of SARS-CoV-2 in ACE-2 depleted lungs resulting in a worse outcome.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/etiologia , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Itália/epidemiologia , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Pandemias , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
7.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 34, 2020 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32178683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Communities need to efficiently estimate the burden from specific pollutants and identify those most at risk to make timely informed policy decisions. We developed a risk-based model to estimate the burden of black carbon (BC) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on coronary heart disease (CHD) across environmental justice (EJ) and non-EJ populations in Allegheny County, PA. METHODS: Exposure estimates in census tracts were modeled via land use regression and analyzed in relation to US Census data. Tracts were ranked into quartiles of exposure (Q1-Q4). A risk-based model for estimating the CHD burden attributed to BC and NO2 was developed using county health statistics, census tract level exposure estimates, and quantitative effect estimates available in the literature. RESULTS: For both pollutants, the relative occurrence of EJ tracts (> 20% poverty and/or > 30% non-white minority) in Q2 - Q4 compared to Q1 progressively increased and reached a maximum in Q4. EJ tracts were 4 to 25 times more likely to be in the highest quartile of exposure compared to the lowest quartile for BC and NO2, respectively. Pollutant-specific risk values (mean [95% CI]) for CHD mortality were higher in EJ tracts (5.49 × 10- 5 [5.05 × 10- 5 - 5.92 × 10- 5]; 5.72 × 10- 5 [5.44 × 10- 5 - 6.01 × 10- 5] for BC and NO2, respectively) compared to non-EJ tracts (3.94 × 10- 5 [3.66 × 10- 5 - 4.23 × 10- 5]; 3.49 × 10- 5 [3.27 × 10- 5 - 3.70 × 10- 5] for BC and NO2, respectively). While EJ tracts represented 28% of the county population, they accounted for about 40% of the CHD mortality attributed to each pollutant. EJ tracts are disproportionately skewed toward areas of high exposure and EJ residents bear a greater risk for air pollution-related disease compared to other county residents. CONCLUSIONS: We have combined a risk-based model with spatially resolved long-term exposure estimates to predict CHD burden from air pollution at the census tract level. It provides quantitative estimates of effects that can be used to assess possible health disparities, track temporal changes, and inform timely local community policy decisions. Such an approach can be further expanded to include other pollutants and adverse health endpoints.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Fuligem/efeitos adversos , Emissões de Veículos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Doença das Coronárias/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Modelos Teóricos , Pennsylvania , Áreas de Pobreza , Medição de Risco
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024216

RESUMO

: Studies have reported associations between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer. However, there have been inconsistent reports of such associations with lung cancer by histological type. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the association of long-term exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter up to 10 µm (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) with lung cancer incidence by histological subtype in South Korea. This population-based cohort study included 6,567,909 cancer-free subjects from the Korean National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) database for 2006-2007. We linked population data to Korea Central Cancer Registry data to confirm lung cancer incidence for 2006-2013. Individual exposures to PM10 and NO2 were assessed as five-year average concentrations predicted at subjects' district-specific home addresses for 2002-2007. We divided these exposures into two categories based on the 75th percentile. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of lung cancer incidence for the upper 25% exposure compared to the low 75% by histological subtypes at diagnosis after adjusting for potential confounders. A total of 27,518 lung cancer were found between 2006 to 2013. The incidence of lung cancer was higher in males, smokers, drinkers and subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Overall, we did not find an increased risk of lung cancer with higher exposure to PM10 or NO2. However, high exposure to PM10 was associated with increased risk of adenocarcinoma in comparison with lower exposure in males and current smokers (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.03-1.25). This study showed that long-term air pollution exposures were associated with an elevated risk of lung adenocarcinoma in male smokers in Korea.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952187

RESUMO

Long-term exposure to air pollutants significantly increases the morbidity and mortality associated with various diseases. However, little is known about the relationship between air pollutants and end-stage renal disease (ESRD)-related mortality. A total of 5041 patients who started dialysis between 2008 and 2015 were prospectively enrolled in the Clinical Research Center for End-Stage Renal Disease (CRC-ESRD) cohort study. We assigned a daily mean concentration of air pollutants (PM10, NO2, and SO2) to each participant. Time-varying Cox models were used to investigate the relationship between air pollutants and mortality in ESRD patients. During the follow-up period (mean 4.18 years), 1475 deaths occurred among 5041 participants. We found a significant long-term relationship between mortality risk and PM10 (HR 1.33, CI 1.13-1.58), NO2 (HR 1.46, CI 1.10-1.95), and SO2 (HR 1.07, CI 1.03-1.11). Elderly patients and patients who lived in metropolitan areas had an increased risk associated with PM10. Elderly patients also had increased risks associated NO2 and SO2. Long-term exposure to air pollutants had negative effects on mortality in ESRD patients. These effects were prominent in elderly patients who lived in metropolitan areas, suggesting that ambient air pollution, in addition to traditional risk factors, is important for the survival of these patients.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Enxofre/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991627

RESUMO

There is a discussion in Europe about the dominant role of air pollution for health effects, most researchers claim that the particulate matter is responsible for inflammatory processes in the respiratory system, while others underline the role of nitrogen dioxide. The aim of the study was to assess the risk related to NOx, NO2 and PM2.5 concentration increase and daily outpatient visits or hospitalization due to bronchitis and asthma exacerbation in the entire population of Silesian Voivodeship, Poland. To assess the relationship between daily pollutants concentrations and the number of outpatient visits or hospitalizations due to bronchitis and asthma (available in the regional registry), the multivariable log-linear Poisson regression model was used. Results were presented by relative risk (RR) of health outcomes related to the increase in pollutant concentration by unit (interquartile range). Obtained results confirmed a statistically significant association between outpatient visits and hospitalizations due to bronchitis and asthma exacerbation and daily nitrogen oxides concentrations in Silesian voivodeship, Poland. The strongest relationship was observed in the case of NO2 and outpatient visits due to bronchitis, e.g., RR = 1.434 (1.308-1.571) for exposure expressed by the 50-day moving average concentration. In the case of hospitalizations, the health effect was lagged a few days in relation to the increase in exposure.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Asma/epidemiologia , Bronquite/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Smog/efeitos adversos , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Bronquite/induzido quimicamente , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado , Polônia/epidemiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia
11.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124954, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726583

RESUMO

The authors have observed that the function linking health outcomes with exposure to particulate-matter (PM) follows a biphasic pattern. It peaks around levels of PM10≤100 µg/m3, then weakens and rises again at PM10 levels in the range of hundreds. This could be due to a different nature of PM, the first peak reflecting a stronger anthropogenic and the second - weaker non-anthropogenic particles' effect. The current analysis is focused at the biphasic pattern on the association between PM levels with BG and asthma exacerbations. Pollutants were assessed by local monitoring stations and a satellitebased model. Local weekends/holidays were used to define nonanthropogenic levels of pollutants featured by lower Nitrogen Dioxide, the proxy for anthropogeneity. The association of PM10 with health outcomes within 24-48h lag was explored using spline functions of generalized additive models. Analysis of 546,420 BG tests (43,569 subjects) showed an almost linear association of PM10 with asthma with BG during the days with anthropogenic activity and no trend on other days. Analysis of asthmatic exacerbations within 1576 children showed no heterogeneity in association with PM10 by anthropogeneity levels, possibly indicating a mechanical impact on alveolar as the main trigger for exacerbations rather than PM10 chemical composition.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Atividades Humanas , Material Particulado/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Antropologia/métodos , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/etiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Tamanho da Partícula
12.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 12(21): 785-789, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is a common respiratory disease, which is linked to air pollution. However, little is known about the effect of specific air pollution sources on asthma occurrence. OBJECTIVES: To assess individual asthma risk in three urban areas in Israel characterized by different primary sources of air pollution: predominantly traffic-related air pollution (Tel Aviv) or predominantly industrial air pollution (Haifa bay area and Hadera). METHODS: The medical records of 13,875, 16- 19-year-old males, who lived in the affected urban areas prior to their army recruitment and who underwent standard pre-military health examinations during 2012-2014, were examined. Nonparametric tests were applied to compare asthma prevalence, and binary logistic regressions were used to assess the asthma risk attributed to the residential locations of the subjects, controlling for confounders, such as socio-demographic status, body mass index, cognitive abilities, and education. RESULTS: The asthma rate among young males residing in Tel Aviv was 8.76%, compared to 6.96% in the Haifa bay area and 6.09% in Hadera. However, no statistically significant differences in asthma risk among the three urban areas was found in controlled logistic regressions (P > 0.20). This finding indicates that exposure to both industrial- and traffic-related air pollution is associated with asthma prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: Both industrial- and traffic-related air pollution have a negative effect on asthma risk in young males. Studies evaluating the association between asthma risk and specific air pollutants (e.g., sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, and nitrogen dioxide) are needed to ascertain the effects of individual air pollutants on asthma occurrence.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Asma , Exposição Ambiental , Material Particulado , Emissões de Veículos , Adolescente , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Saúde da População Urbana/normas , Saúde da População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Emissões de Veículos/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
13.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(4): 566-571, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885229

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Air pollution is one of the most important issues of our times. Air quality assessment is based on the measurement of the concentration of substances formed during the combustion process and micro-particles suspended in the air in the form of an aerosol. Microscopic atmospheric particulate matters (PM) 2.5 and 10 are mixtures of organic and inorganic pollutants smaller than 2.5 and 10 µm, respectively. They are the main cause of negative phenomena in the earth's atmosphere of Earth and human health, especially on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Particulates have the ability to cause permanent mutations of tissue, leading to neoplasms and even premature deaths. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is one of the main pollutants which arises mainly during the burning of fossil fuels. Based on numerous scientific researches, it has been proved that long-term exposure to NO2 could increase morbidity of cancer due to inflammatory processes increasing abnormal mutations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data available in the Polish National Cancer Registry, Chief Inspectorate for Environmental Protection and Map of Health Needs in the Field of Oncology for Poland, WHO Air Quality Guidelines 2005 were analyzed. Air pollution was also evaluated: PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and compared with lung cancer morbidity. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Based on the available data and literature, it can be concluded that in 2009-2017, on average, each Pole smoked ten cigarettes a day +/- 2. Therefore, it can be estimated that after 60 years everyone had 30 package-years of smoking, leading to a high risk of lung cancer and other smoking related diseases. Additionally air quality in Poland is not satisfactory, exceeding the standards presented in the WHO Guidelines 2005. It can be assumed that this may translate into an additional, independent continuous increase in morbidity and mortality dependent on smoking.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Produtos do Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Saúde , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Polônia/epidemiologia , Produtos do Tabaco/análise
14.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 24(1): 66, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children in Ulaanbaatar are exposed to air pollution, but few epidemiological studies have been conducted on the effects of environmental risk factors on children's health. Also, no studies have yet examined the prevalence of respiratory symptoms in children in suburban areas, where air quality-monitoring stations have not yet been installed. This cross-sectional study evaluated the associations between outdoor air pollution and respiratory symptoms among schoolchildren in urban and suburban districts of Ulaanbaatar. METHODS: The ATS-DLD-78 C questionnaire was used to investigate the respiratory symptoms of schoolchildren aged 6-12 years (n = 1190) who lived in one of three urban districts or a suburban district of Ulaanbaatar. In each district, the outdoor concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were measured at two sites (at ≤100 m and > 100 m from the nearest major road) in the 2-year period from 2015 to 2016. The associations between health outcomes and exposure to air pollutants were estimated using the multinomial logistic regression method. RESULTS: The outdoor concentration of SO2 was significantly associated with persistent cough symptom (OR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.04-1.22). Furthermore, the outdoor concentration of NO2 was significantly associated with the current wheezing symptom (OR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.01-1.75) among children in urban and suburban. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of persistent cough symptom was markedly high among the schoolchildren in urban/suburban districts of Ulaanbaatar. Overall, the increases in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among children might be associated with ambient air pollution in Ulaanbaatar.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Respiratórios/etiologia , Dióxido de Enxofre/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Criança , Carvão Mineral/análise , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mongólia/epidemiologia , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Prevalência , Transtornos Respiratórios/epidemiologia , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise
15.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1366, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many studies have reported the impact of air pollution on cardiovascular disease (CVD), but few of these studies were conducted in severe haze-fog areas. The present study focuses on the impact of different air pollutant concentrations on daily CVD outpatient visits in a severe haze-fog city. METHODS: Data regarding daily air pollutants and outpatient visits for CVD in 2013 were collected, and the association between six pollutants and CVD outpatient visits was explored using the least squares mean (LSmeans) and logistic regression. Adjustments were made for days of the week, months, air temperature and relative humidity. RESULTS: The daily CVD outpatient visits for particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3) in the 90th-quantile group were increased by 30.01, 29.42, 17.68, 14.98, 29.34%, and - 19.87%, respectively, compared to those in the <10th-quantile group. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the increase in daily CVD outpatient visits in PM10 300- and 500-µg/m3, PM2.5 100- and 300-µg/m3 and CO 3-mg/m3 groups were 2.538 (1.070-6.020), 7.781 (1.681-36.024), 3.298 (1.559-6.976), 8.72 (1.523-49.934), and 5.808 (1.016-33.217), respectively, and their corresponding attributable risk percentages (AR%) were 60.6, 87.15, 69.68, 88.53 and 82.78%, respectively. The strongest associations for PM10, PM2.5 and CO were found only in lag 0 and lag 1. The ORs for the increase in CVD outpatient visits per increase in different units of the six pollutants were also analysed. CONCLUSIONS: All five air pollutants except O3 were positively associated with the increase in daily CVD outpatient visits in lag 0. The high concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and CO heightened not only the percentage but also the risk of increased daily CVD outpatient visits. PM10, PM2.5 and CO may be the main factors of CVD outpatient visits.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Ambulatório Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Monóxido de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Adulto Jovem
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547235

RESUMO

Since the 2000s, air pollution has generally continued to decrease in the U.S. To investigate preterm birth (PTB) risk associated with air pollutants in two consecutive pregnancies, we estimated exposures using modified Community Multiscale Air Quality models linked to the NICHD Consecutive Pregnancy Study. Electronic medical records for delivery admissions were available for 50,005 women with singleton births in 20 Utah-based hospitals between 2002-2010. We categorized whole pregnancy average exposures as high (>75th percentile), moderate (25-75) and low (<25). Modified Poisson regression estimated second pregnancy PTB risk associated with persistent high and moderate exposure, and increasing or decreasing exposure, compared to persistent low exposure. Analyses were adjusted for prior PTB, interpregnancy interval and demographic and clinical characteristics. Second pregnancy PTB risk was increased when exposure stayed high for sulfur dioxide (32%), ozone (17%), nitrogen oxides (24%), nitrogen dioxide (43%), carbon monoxide (31%) and for particles < 10 microns (29%) versus consistently low exposure. PTB risk tended to increase to a lesser extent for repeated PTB (19-21%) than for women without a prior PTB (22-79%) when exposure increased or stayed high. Area-level changes in air pollution exposure appear to have important consequences in consecutive pregnancies with increasing exposure associated with higher risk.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Monóxido de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Nascimento Prematuro/induzido quimicamente , Dióxido de Enxofre/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Utah
17.
Environ Res ; 177: 108660, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have estimated the association between meteorological factors and mumps outbreaks without assessing the influence of air pollution. In this research, we explored the effects of short-term exposure to air pollution on the incidence of mumps. METHODS: Our time-series analysis was conducted using data collected in Wuhan, China from 2015 to 2017. Daily number of mumps cases was obtained from Disease Reporting System in Hubei Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Data on air pollution was obtained from 10 national air quality monitoring stations, including nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ground-level ozone (O3), particulate matter less than or equal to 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), and particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5). Daily meteorological data including temperature and relative humidity were obtained from Hubei Meteorological Bureau. We performed a Poisson regression in generalized additive models (GAM) to explore the association between the incidence of mumps and exposure to air pollution. RESULTS: We observed that the effects of air pollutants were statistically significant mainly in two periods, lag 0 to lag 5 and lag 20 to lag 25, with the strongest effects appearing at lag 2 and lag 23. The cumulative effects were stronger than single-day lag effects. The stratified analysis showed the effect of pollutants during the hot season was stronger than that during the cold season, especially for NO2 and SO2. CONCLUSIONS: We found that exposure to NO2 and SO2 was significantly associated with higher risk of developing mumps. Our findings could help deepen the understanding of how air pollution exposure affects the incidence of mumps.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Caxumba/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Estações do Ano , Dióxido de Enxofre/efeitos adversos
18.
Environ Int ; 132: 105004, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387019

RESUMO

Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular mortality, but the associations with incidence of major cardiovascular diseases are not fully understood, especially at low concentrations. We aimed to investigate the associations between exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), redox-weighted average of NO2 and O3 (Ox) and incidence of congestive heart failure (CHF) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Our study population included all long-term residents aged 35-85 years who lived in Ontario, Canada, from 2001 to 2015 (~5.1 million). Incidence of CHF and AMI were ascertained from validated registries. We assigned estimates of annual concentrations of pollutants to the residential postal codes of subjects for each year during follow-up. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for each pollutant separately using Cox proportional hazards models. We examined the shape of concentration-response associations using shape-constrained health impact functions. From 2001 to 2015, there were 422,625 and 197,628 incident cases of CHF and AMI, respectively. In the fully adjusted analyses, the HRs of CHF corresponding to each interquartile range increase in exposure were 1.05 (95% CI: 1.04-1.05) for PM2.5, 1.02 (95% CI: 1.01-1.04) for NO2, 1.03 (95% CI: 1.02-1.03) for O3, and 1.02 (95% CI: 1.02-1.03) for Ox, respectively. Similarly, exposure to PM2.5, O3, and Ox were positively associated with AMI. The concentration-response relationships were different for individual pollutant and outcome combinations (e.g., for PM2.5 the relationship was supralinear with CHF, and linear with AMI).


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Poluição do Ar/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ontário/epidemiologia , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
19.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 877, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study uses bibliometric analysis to describe the state of research about the association of NO2, PM2.5 and noise exposures - three traffic-related pollutants - with cardiometabolic disorders. METHODS: We retrieved references published 1994-2017 from Scopus and classified references with respect to exposure, health outcome and study design using index keywords. Temporal trend, top cited references, used index keywords and the number of hypothesis testing and non-hypothesis testing study design for each group were identified. RESULTS: Results show PM2.5 is the most frequently studied exposure (47%), followed by both NO2 and PM2.5 exposure (29%). Only 3% of references considered multiple exposures between NO2 and/or PM2.5 and noise, and these were published after 2008. While we observed a growing trend in studies with NO2 and/or PM2.5 and noise and diabetes in the last decade, there is a diminishing trend in studies with noise and diabetes. Different patterns of study designs were found through H/NH ratio, the number of references classified as having a hypothesis (H)-testing design relative to the number of references classified as having a non-hypothesis (NH)-testing design. Studies with NO2 and/or PM2.5 exposure are more likely to have a H-testing design, while those with noise exposure are more likely to have a NH-testing design, such as cross-sectional study design. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude with three themes about research trends. First, the study of simultaneous exposures to multiple pollutants is a current trend, and likely to continue. Second, the association between traffic-related pollutants and diabetes and metabolic symptoms is an area for growth in research. Third, the transition to the use of H-testing study designs to explore associations between noise and cardiometabolic outcomes may be supported by improved understanding of the mechanism of action, and/or improvements to the accuracy and precision of air pollution and noise exposure assessments for environmental health research.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade , Bibliometria , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos
20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(6): e196553, 2019 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251382

RESUMO

Importance: Epidemiologic evidence of the mechanisms of the association between long-term exposure to air pollution and coronary heart disease (CHD) is limited and relies heavily on studies performed in Europe and the United States, where air pollution levels are relatively low. In particular, the association between air pollution and CHD in patients with underlying risks for CHD is understudied. Objective: To determine whether air pollution and proximity to traffic are associated with the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score, a key atherosclerotic marker. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this prospective, population-based cross-sectional study in a large-scale setting in China, 8867 consecutive patients aged 25 to 92 years with suspected CHD were recruited between November 17, 2015, and September 13, 2017. Participants were excluded if they had previous myocardial infarction, stenting, or coronary artery bypass grafting or incomplete risk factors and exposure data. Each participant underwent assessment of CAC and CHD risk factors at baseline. Data were analyzed from December 2017 to November 2018. Exposures: Annual means of fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) were estimated at the participants' residences using a validated geostatistical prediction model. Exposure to a nearby roadway was also estimated. Main Outcomes and Measures: Computed tomography measurement of CAC score. Results: The mean (SD) age of the 8867 participants was 56.9 (10.4) years; 4378 (53.6%) were men. Annual mean (SD) PM2.5, NO2, and O3 measurements were 70.1 (20.0), 41.4 (14.7), and 93.9 (10.5) µg/m3, respectively. The mean (SD) CAC score was 91.4 (322.2) Agatston units. Exposure to PM2.5 and NO2, adjusting for CHD risk factors and multiple pollutants, were independently associated with increases in CAC scores of 27.2% (95% CI, 10.8% to 46.1%) per 30 µg/m3 PM2.5 and 24.5% (95% CI, 3.6% to 49.7%) per 20 µg/m3 NO2. For PM2.5, odds of both detectable CAC (Agatston score >0; odds ratio, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.45) and severe CAC (Agatston score >400; odds ratio, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.20 to 2.12) were increased. Associations of CAC with PM2.5 and NO2 were greater among male participants (PM2.5: 42.2%; 95% CI, 24.3% to 62.7%; NO2: 45.7%; 95% CI, 25.3% to 69.5%) and elderly participants (PM2.5: 50.1%; 95% CI, 28.8% to 75.0%; NO2: 55.5%; 95% CI, 31.8% to 83.6%) and those with diabetes (PM2.5: 62.2%; 95% CI, 30.9% to 101.0%; NO2: 31.2%; 95% CI, 13.9% to 51.0%). Independent association with CAC score was 9.0% (95% CI, -1.4% to 20.4%) for O3 per 15 µg/m3 and 2.4% (95% CI, -0.6% to 5.4%) for distance near roadway per 50% decrease. Conclusions and Relevance: In this large Chinese study, long-term exposures to PM2.5 and NO2 were independently associated with severity of CAC. This finding may provide support for the pathophysiological role of coronary atherosclerosis through which air pollution exposure may be associated with CHD.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Poluição Relacionada com o Tráfego/efeitos adversos , Calcificação Vascular/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Poluição do Ar/análise , Pequim/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , China/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição Relacionada com o Tráfego/análise , Calcificação Vascular/etiologia
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