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1.
Environ Res ; 177: 108660, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have estimated the association between meteorological factors and mumps outbreaks without assessing the influence of air pollution. In this research, we explored the effects of short-term exposure to air pollution on the incidence of mumps. METHODS: Our time-series analysis was conducted using data collected in Wuhan, China from 2015 to 2017. Daily number of mumps cases was obtained from Disease Reporting System in Hubei Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Data on air pollution was obtained from 10 national air quality monitoring stations, including nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ground-level ozone (O3), particulate matter less than or equal to 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), and particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5). Daily meteorological data including temperature and relative humidity were obtained from Hubei Meteorological Bureau. We performed a Poisson regression in generalized additive models (GAM) to explore the association between the incidence of mumps and exposure to air pollution. RESULTS: We observed that the effects of air pollutants were statistically significant mainly in two periods, lag 0 to lag 5 and lag 20 to lag 25, with the strongest effects appearing at lag 2 and lag 23. The cumulative effects were stronger than single-day lag effects. The stratified analysis showed the effect of pollutants during the hot season was stronger than that during the cold season, especially for NO2 and SO2. CONCLUSIONS: We found that exposure to NO2 and SO2 was significantly associated with higher risk of developing mumps. Our findings could help deepen the understanding of how air pollution exposure affects the incidence of mumps.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Caxumba/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Estações do Ano , Dióxido de Enxofre/efeitos adversos
2.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 877, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study uses bibliometric analysis to describe the state of research about the association of NO2, PM2.5 and noise exposures - three traffic-related pollutants - with cardiometabolic disorders. METHODS: We retrieved references published 1994-2017 from Scopus and classified references with respect to exposure, health outcome and study design using index keywords. Temporal trend, top cited references, used index keywords and the number of hypothesis testing and non-hypothesis testing study design for each group were identified. RESULTS: Results show PM2.5 is the most frequently studied exposure (47%), followed by both NO2 and PM2.5 exposure (29%). Only 3% of references considered multiple exposures between NO2 and/or PM2.5 and noise, and these were published after 2008. While we observed a growing trend in studies with NO2 and/or PM2.5 and noise and diabetes in the last decade, there is a diminishing trend in studies with noise and diabetes. Different patterns of study designs were found through H/NH ratio, the number of references classified as having a hypothesis (H)-testing design relative to the number of references classified as having a non-hypothesis (NH)-testing design. Studies with NO2 and/or PM2.5 exposure are more likely to have a H-testing design, while those with noise exposure are more likely to have a NH-testing design, such as cross-sectional study design. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude with three themes about research trends. First, the study of simultaneous exposures to multiple pollutants is a current trend, and likely to continue. Second, the association between traffic-related pollutants and diabetes and metabolic symptoms is an area for growth in research. Third, the transition to the use of H-testing study designs to explore associations between noise and cardiometabolic outcomes may be supported by improved understanding of the mechanism of action, and/or improvements to the accuracy and precision of air pollution and noise exposure assessments for environmental health research.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade , Bibliometria , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos
3.
JAMA ; 321(19): 1906-1915, 2019 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112259

RESUMO

Importance: Exposure to air pollutants is a well-established cause of asthma exacerbation in children; whether air pollutants play a role in the development of childhood asthma, however, remains uncertain. Objective: To examine whether decreasing regional air pollutants were associated with reduced incidence of childhood asthma. Design, Setting, and Participants: A multilevel longitudinal cohort drawn from 3 waves of the Southern California Children's Health Study over a period of air pollution decline. Each cohort was followed up from 4th to 12th grade (8 years): 1993-2001, 1996-2004, and 2006-2014. Final follow-up for these data was June 2014. Population-based recruitment was from public elementary schools. A total of 4140 children with no history of asthma and residing in 1 of 9 Children's Health Study communities at baseline were included. Exposures: Annual mean community-level ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter less than 10 µm (PM10) and less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) in the baseline year for each of 3 cohorts. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prospectively identified incident asthma, collected via questionnaires during follow-up. Results: Among the 4140 children included in this study (mean [SD] age at baseline, 9.5 [0.6] years; 52.6% female [n = 2 179]; 58.6% white [n = 2273]; and 42.2% Hispanic [n = 1686]), 525 incident asthma cases were identified. For nitrogen dioxide, the incidence rate ratio (IRR) for asthma was 0.80 (95% CI, 0.71-0.90) for a median reduction of 4.3 parts per billion, with an absolute incidence rate decrease of 0.83 cases per 100 person-years. For PM2.5, the IRR was 0.81 (95% CI, 0.67-0.98) for a median reduction of 8.1 µg/m3, with an absolute incidence rate decrease of 1.53 cases per 100 person-years. For ozone, the IRR for asthma was 0.85 (95% CI, 0.71-1.02) for a median reduction of 8.9 parts per billion, with an absolute incidence rate decrease of 0.78 cases per 100 person-years. For PM10, the IRR was 0.93 (95% CI, 0.82-1.07) for a median reduction of 4.0 µg/m3, with an absolute incidence rate decrease of 0.46 cases per 100 person-years. Conclusions and Relevance: Among children in Southern California, decreases in ambient nitrogen dioxide and PM2.5 between 1993 and 2014 were significantly associated with lower asthma incidence. There were no statistically significant associations for ozone or PM10.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Asma/epidemiologia , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Asma/etiologia , California/epidemiologia , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise
4.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 406, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study explored the role of outdoor air pollution [nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulphur dioxide (SO2)] and indoor air quality (measured with damp or condensation and secondhand smoke exposures) at age 9 months in emotional, conduct and hyperactivity problems at age 3 years. METHOD: Data from 11,625 Millennium Cohort Study children living in England and Wales were modelled using multilevel regression. RESULTS: After adjusting for a host of confounders, having a damp or condensation problem at home was related to both emotional and conduct problems. Secondhand smoke exposure was associated with all three problem types. Associations with outdoor air pollution were less consistent. CONCLUSIONS: Exposures to damp or condensation and secondhand smoke in the home are likely to be risk factors for child emotional and behavioural problems. Parents should continue to be educated about the dangers of exposing their children to poor air quality at home.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/etiologia , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Bem-Estar da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Dióxido de Enxofre/efeitos adversos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , País de Gales
5.
Environ Pollut ; 250: 14-22, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981931

RESUMO

While exposure to places with higher greenness shows health benefits, evidence is scarce on its lipidemic effects. We assessed the associations between residential greenness and blood lipids and effect mediations by air pollution, physical activity, and adiposity in China. Our study included 15,477 adults from the population-based 33 Communities Chinese Health Study, conducted between April and December 2009, in Northeastern China. We measured total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Residential greenness was estimated using two satellite-derived vegetation indices - the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI). We used both nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particles ≤2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) as proxies of outdoor air pollution. Associations were assessed using linear mixed effects regression models and logistic mixed effects regression models, and mediation analyses were also performed. Living in higher greenness areas was consistently associated with lower TC, TG, and LDL-C levels and higher HDL-C levels (e.g., change in TC, TG, LDL-C, and HDL-C per 0.1-unit increase in NDVI500-m was -1.52%, -3.05%, -1.91%, and 0.52%, respectively). Similar results were obtained for the corresponding dyslipidemias. These associations were generally stronger in women and older adults. While educational levels showed effect modifications, the effect pattern was inconsistent. Both outdoor air pollution and body mass index mediated 9.1-62.3% and 5.6-40.1% of the associations for greenness and blood lipids, respectively, however, physical activity did not. Our results suggest beneficial associations between residing in places with higher greenness and blood lipid levels, especially in women and the elder individuals. The associations were partly mediated by lower air pollution and adiposity.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Ambiente Construído , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Lipídeos/sangue , População Urbana , Adiposidade , Idoso , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Índice de Massa Corporal , China , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
6.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 37, 2019 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution is associated with numerous adverse health outcomes, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood; epigenetic effects including altered DNA methylation could play a role. To evaluate associations of long-term air pollution exposure with DNA methylation in blood, we conducted an epigenome-wide association study in a Korean chronic obstructive pulmonary disease cohort (N = 100 including 60 cases) using Illumina's Infinium HumanMethylation450K Beadchip. Annual average concentrations of particulate matter ≤ 10 µm in diameter (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were estimated at participants' residential addresses using exposure prediction models. We used robust linear regression to identify differentially methylated probes (DMPs) and two different approaches, DMRcate and comb-p, to identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs). RESULTS: After multiple testing correction (false discovery rate < 0.05), there were 12 DMPs and 27 DMRs associated with PM10 and 45 DMPs and 57 DMRs related to NO2. DMP cg06992688 (OTUB2) and several DMRs were associated with both exposures. Eleven DMPs in relation to NO2 confirmed previous findings in Europeans; the remainder were novel. Methylation levels of 39 DMPs were associated with expression levels of nearby genes in a separate dataset of 3075 individuals. Enriched networks were related to outcomes associated with air pollution including cardiovascular and respiratory diseases as well as inflammatory and immune responses. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that long-term ambient air pollution exposure impacts DNA methylation. The differential methylation signals can serve as potential air pollution biomarkers. These results may help better understand the influences of ambient air pollution on human health.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Metilação de DNA , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/induzido quimicamente , República da Coreia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30901873

RESUMO

In this study, the effects on daily mortality in Stockholm associated with short-term exposure to ultrafine particles (measured as number of particles with a diameter larger than 4 nm, PNC4), black carbon (BC) and coarse particles (PM2.5⁻10) have been compared with the effects from more common traffic-pollution indicators (PM10, PM2.5 and NO2) and O3 during the period 2000⁻2016. Air pollution exposure was estimated from measurements at a 20 m high building in central Stockholm. The associations between daily mortality lagged up to two days (lag 02) and the different air pollutants were modelled by using Poisson regression. The pollutants with the strongest indications of an independent effect on daily mortality were O3, PM2.5⁻10 and PM10. In the single-pollutant model, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in O3 was associated with an increase in daily mortality of 2.0% (95% CI: 1.1⁻3.0) for lag 01 and 1.9% (95% CI: 1.0⁻2.9) for lag 02. An IQR increase in PM2.5⁻10 was associated with an increase in daily mortality of 0.8% (95% CI: 0.1⁻1.5) for lag 01 and 1.1% (95% CI: 0.4⁻1.8) for lag 02. PM10 was associated with a significant increase only at lag 02, with 0.8% (95% CI: 0.08⁻1.4) increase in daily mortality associated with an IQR increase in the concentration. NO2 exhibits negative associations with mortality. The significant excess risk associated with O3 remained significant in two-pollutant models after adjustments for PM2.5⁻10, BC and NO2. The significant excess risk associated with PM2.5⁻10 remained significant in a two-pollutant model after adjustment for NO2. The significantly negative associations for NO2 remained significant in two-pollutant models after adjustments for PM2.5⁻10, O3 and BC. A potential reason for these findings, where statistically significant excess risks were found for O3, PM2.5⁻10 and PM10, but not for NO2, PM2.5, PNC4 and BC, is behavioral factors that lead to misclassification in the exposure. The concentrations of O3 and PM2.5⁻10 are in general highest during sunny and dry days during the spring, when exposure to outdoor air tend to increase, while the opposite applies to NO2, PNC4 and BC, with the highest concentrations during the short winter days with cold weather, when people are less exposed to outdoor air.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Mortalidade/tendências , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano , Suécia/epidemiologia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897769

RESUMO

There is an increasing body of evidence showing the impact of air pollutants on human health such as on the respiratory, and cardio- and cerebrovascular systems. In China, as people begin to pay more attention to air quality, recent research focused on the quantitative assessment of the effects of air pollutants on human health. To assess the health effects of air pollutants and to construct an indicator placing emphasis on health impact, a generalized additive model was selected to assess the health burden caused by air pollution. We obtained Baidu indices (an evaluation indicator launched by Baidu Corporation to reflect the search popularity of keywords from its search engine) to assess daily query frequencies of 25 keywords considered associated with air pollution-related diseases. Moreover, we also calculated the daily concentrations of major air pollutants (including PM10, PM2.5, SO2, O3, NO2, and CO) and the daily air quality index (AQI) values, and three meteorological factors: daily mean wind level, daily mean air temperature, and daily mean relative humidity. These data cover the area of Beijing from 1 March 2015 to 30 April 2017. Through the analysis, we produced the relative risks (RRs) of the six main air pollutants for respiratory, and cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases. The results showed that O3 and NO2 have the highest health impact, followed by PM10 and PM2.5. The effects of any pollutant on cardiovascular diseases was consistently higher than on respiratory diseases. Furthermore, we evaluated the currently used AQI in China and proposed an RR-based index (health AQI, HAQI) that is intended for better indicating the effects of air pollutants on respiratory, and cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases than AQI. A higher Pearson correlation coefficient between HAQI and RRTotal than that between AQI and RRTotal endorsed our efforts.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Nível de Saúde , Fatores Etários , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Pequim , Monóxido de Carbono/administração & dosagem , Monóxido de Carbono/efeitos adversos , China , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Dióxido de Enxofre/administração & dosagem , Dióxido de Enxofre/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Vento
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30781540

RESUMO

Air pollutants existing in the environment may have negative impacts on human health depending on their toxicity and concentrations. Remote sensing data enable researchers to map concentrations of various air pollutants over vast areas. By combining ground-level concentrations with population data, the spatial distribution of health impacts attributed to air pollutants can be acquired. This study took five highly populated and severely polluted provinces along the Huaihe River, China, as the research area. The ground-level concentrations of four major air pollutants including nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfate dioxide (SO2), particulate matters with diameter equal or less than 10 (PM10) or 2.5 micron (PM2.5) were estimated based on relevant remote sensing data using the geographically weighted regression (GWR) model. The health impacts of these pollutants were then assessed with the aid of co-located gridded population data. The results show that the annual average concentrations of ground-level NO2, SO2, PM10, and PM2.5 in 2016 were 31 µg/m³, 26 µg/m³, 100 µg/m³, and 59 µg/m³, respectively. In terms of the health impacts attributable to NO2, SO2, PM10, and PM2.5, there were 546, 1788, 10,595, and 8364 respiratory deaths, and 1221, 9666, 46,954, and 39,524 cardiovascular deaths, respectively. Northern Henan, west-central Shandong, southern Jiangsu, and Wuhan City in Hubei are prone to large health risks. Meanwhile, air pollutants have an overall greater impact on cardiovascular disease than respiratory disease, which is primarily attributable to the inhalable particle matters. Our findings provide a good reference to local decision makers for the implementation of further emission control strategies and possible health impacts assessment.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Doenças Respiratórias/etiologia , Dióxido de Enxofre/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , China/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Rios , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise
10.
Environ Health ; 18(1): 13, 2019 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30764837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spatio-temporal models are increasingly being used to predict exposure to ambient outdoor air pollution at high spatial resolution for inclusion in epidemiological analyses of air pollution and health. Measurement error in these predictions can nevertheless have impacts on health effect estimation. Using statistical simulation we aim to investigate the effects of such error within a multi-level model analysis of long and short-term pollutant exposure and health. METHODS: Our study was based on a theoretical sample of 1000 geographical sites within Greater London. Simulations of "true" site-specific daily mean and 5-year mean NO2 and PM10 concentrations, incorporating both temporal variation and spatial covariance, were informed by an analysis of daily measurements over the period 2009-2013 from fixed location urban background monitors in the London area. In the context of a multi-level single-pollutant Poisson regression analysis of mortality, we investigated scenarios in which we specified: the Pearson correlation between modelled and "true" data and the ratio of their variances (model versus "true") and assumed these parameters were the same spatially and temporally. RESULTS: In general, health effect estimates associated with both long and short-term exposure were biased towards the null with the level of bias increasing to over 60% as the correlation coefficient decreased from 0.9 to 0.5 and the variance ratio increased from 0.5 to 2. However, for a combination of high correlation (0.9) and small variance ratio (0.5) non-trivial bias (> 25%) away from the null was observed. Standard errors of health effect estimates, though unaffected by changes in the correlation coefficient, appeared to be attenuated for variance ratios > 1 but inflated for variance ratios < 1. CONCLUSION: While our findings suggest that in most cases modelling errors result in attenuation of the effect estimate towards the null, in some situations a non-trivial bias away from the null may occur. The magnitude and direction of bias appears to depend on the relationship between modelled and "true" data in terms of their correlation and the ratio of their variances. These factors should be taken into account when assessing the validity of modelled air pollution predictions for use in complex epidemiological models.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Londres/epidemiologia , Mortalidade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Análise de Regressão , Projetos de Pesquisa
11.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(1): 99-108, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30596809

RESUMO

Background: Air pollution exposures are novel contributors to the growing childhood obesity epidemic. One possible mechanism linking air pollution exposures and obesity is through changes in food consumption patterns. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the longitudinal association between childhood exposure to air pollutants and changes in diet among adolescents. Design: School-age children were enrolled in the Southern California Children's Health Study during 1993-1994 (n = 3100) and were followed for 4-8 y. Community-level regional air pollutants [e.g., nitrogen dioxide (NO2), elemental carbon (EC), and fine particles with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5)] were measured at central monitoring stations. Line dispersion modeling was used to estimate concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants based on nitrogen oxides (NOx) at participants' residential addresses. In addition, self-reported diet information was collected annually using a structured youth/adolescent food-frequency questionnaire during 1997-2001. Generalized linear mixed-effects models were used in the association analyses. Results: Higher exposures to regional and traffic-related air pollutants were associated with intake of a high-trans-fat diet, after adjusting for confounders including socioeconomic status and access to fast food in the community. A 2-SD (12.2 parts per billion) increase in regional NO2 exposure was associated with a 34% increased risk of consuming a high-trans-fat diet compared with a low-trans-fat diet (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.72). In addition, higher exposures to acid vapor, EC, PM2.5, and non-freeway NOx were all associated with higher consumption of dietary trans fat (all P < 0.04). Notably, higher exposures to regional NO2, acid vapor, and EC were also associated with a higher consumption of fast food (all P < 0.05). Conclusions: Childhood exposures to regional and traffic-related air pollutants were associated with increased consumption by adolescents of trans fat and fast foods. Our results indicate that air pollution exposures may contribute to obesogenic behaviors. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03379298.


Assuntos
Dieta , Exposição Ambiental , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Ácidos Graxos Trans/administração & dosagem , Emissões de Veículos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , California , Criança , Registros de Dieta , Grupos Étnicos , Seguimentos , Preferências Alimentares , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Obesidade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Environ Int ; 123: 467-475, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30622072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and devastating neurodegenerative disease, eventually leading to respiratory failure. Although the only currently available therapeutic interventions merely slow the disease progression, few studies have examined risk factors associated with ALS exacerbation and progression. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between exposure to short-term air pollution and acute exacerbation of ALS requiring emergency department (ED) visit. METHODS: We identified from the national emergency database of Korea 617 patients who visited EDs in Seoul with ALS as a primary cause during the period 2008-2014. We estimated short-term exposure to particles <2.5 µm (PM2.5), particles <10 µm (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), and carbon monoxide (CO). We conducted a conditional logistic regression with a time-stratified case-crossover design to examine the association between ED visits for ALS and short-term exposure to interquartile range (IQR) increase and upper quartile levels of air pollutants on the day of the ED visit, compared to the control days matched to day of the week, month, and year. RESULTS: The risk of ED visits for ALS was significantly associated with an IQR increase of PM2.5 [Odds ratio (OR) = 1.21; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08, 1.35], PM10 [OR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.25], SO2 [OR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.41], and CO [OR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.36]. Exposure to the highest quartiles of PM2.5 and PM10 showed higher associations with ED visits for ALS [OR = 1.40; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.85 and OR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.77]. DISCUSSION: We provide new evidence that exposure to short-term air pollution may increase the risk of acute exacerbation of ALS. Further studies are warranted to understand the underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/embriologia , Idoso , Monóxido de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Estudos Cross-Over , Bases de Dados Factuais , Progressão da Doença , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Razão de Chances , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Dióxido de Enxofre/efeitos adversos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642061

RESUMO

This investigation determined the effects of air pollution on childhood asthma hospitalization in regions with differing air pollution levels in Taiwan over a long time period. Data of childhood hospital admissions for asthma in patients aged 0⁻18 years and air quality in eight regions for the period 2001⁻2012 in Taiwan were collected. Poisson generalized linear regression analysis was employed to identify the relative risks of hospitalization due to asthma in children associated with exposure to varying levels of air pollutants with a change in the interquartile range after adjusting for temperature and relative humidity. Particulate matter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), particulate matter ≤10 µm (PM10), ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), were positively associated with childhood asthma hospitalization, while O3 was negatively associated with childhood asthma hospitalization. SO2 was identified as the most significant risk factor. The relative risks for asthma hospitalization associated with air pollutants were higher among children aged 0⁻5 years than aged 6⁻18 years and were higher among males than females. The effects of air pollution on childhood asthma were greater in the higher-level air pollution regions, while no association was observed in the lower-level air pollution regions. These findings may prove important for policymakers involved in implementing policies to reduce air pollution.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Asma/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Fatores de Risco , Dióxido de Enxofre/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Taiwan/epidemiologia
14.
Hautarzt ; 70(3): 158-162, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30627745

RESUMO

It has recently been discovered that air pollution can contribute to skin aging. This conclusion is based on both epidemiological and mechanistic evidence. Specifically, exposure to ambient relevant particulate matter and to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is associated with an increased risk to develop facial pigment spots. In addition, genetic studies indicate the involvement of gene-environment interactions because women carrying certain genetic variants of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) signaling pathway have a higher risk to develop facial pigment spots in response to exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5). Mechanistic studies prove a cause/effect relationship because topical exposure of human skin ex vivo or in vivo to non-toxic concentrations of a standardized diesel exhaust mixture increased skin pigmentation by inducing melanin de novo synthesis via an oxidative stress response. In line with this, cosmetic anti-pollution products containing anti-oxidants, but also AHR antagonists are effective in reducing or preventing this increase in skin pigmentation. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is another important environmental factor which can cause skin aging and pigment spot formation. In a real exposure situation, human skin is exposed to both environmental factors simultaneously. Corresponding epidemiological studies show that particulate matter present in the troposphere and solar UV radiation interact with each other. These results emphasize that environmentally induced skin aging results from a highly complex process.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos da radiação , Luz Solar/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Humanos , Material Particulado , Envelhecimento da Pele/fisiologia
15.
Hautarzt ; 70(3): 169-184, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30659336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among the many risk factors for the development of atopic eczema (AE), the influence of air pollution has recently been discussed more often. A systematic review about this topic however is lacking. AIMS: Which effects of outdoor air pollution (particles, nitric oxides, sulfur dioxide, ozone or general traffic exhaust emissions) on AE can be demonstrated in a systematic analysis of available environmental epidemiologic studies? METHODS: All environmental epidemiologic studies on AE and air pollution found in the literature database PubMed were identified. The most important key figures of these studies were tabulated, the quality of evidence was graded and the studies described. RESULTS: A total of 57 studies were identified. Only one of the 15 cross-sectional studies with a large-scale exposure assessment found a significant association between AE and air pollution. In contrast 23 of 30 studies with small-scale exposure assessment found a significant association between AE and traffic related emissions-especially from trucks. Of the 30 studies, 14 were cohort studies (1 adult, 13 birth cohorts). The sole adult cohort found an association with intrinsic AE. In the East Asian cohorts (all published since 2015), an association between maternal exposure to traffic-related pollution and incidence of AE in the offspring was found. This was less clear in cohorts from Europe/US or simply not investigated. In 5/5 panel studies (all from South Korea), symptom severity of AE was found to be significantly and positively related to outdoor air pollution. CONCLUSIONS: In a systematic analysis of environmental epidemiologic studies about air pollution and AE rather good evidence was found that, based on small-scale exposure measurements, especially truck traffic emissions increased AE prevalence, while large-scale exposure to larger particles (PM10) or SO2 was without effect. Considering pathophysiologic aspects traffic exhaust emissions seem to affect both skin barrier function and activation of immune responses.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Dermatite Atópica/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Veículos Automotores , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Enxofre/efeitos adversos
16.
Fertil Steril ; 111(2): 341-347, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30528056

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between acute exposure to air pollutants and spontaneous pregnancy loss. DESIGN: Case-crossover study from 2007 to 2015. SETTING: An academic emergency department in the Wasatch Front area of Utah. PATIENT(S): A total of 1,398 women who experienced spontaneous pregnancy loss events. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Odds of spontaneous pregnancy loss. RESULT(S): We found that a 10-ppb increase in 7-day average levels of nitrogen dioxide was associated with a 16% increase in the odds of spontaneous pregnancy loss (odds ratio [OR] = 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.33; P=.04). A 10-µg/m3 increase in 3-day and 7-day averages of fine particulate matter were associated with increased risk of spontaneous pregnancy loss, but the associations did not reach statistical significance (OR3-day average = 1.09; 95% CI 0.99-1.20; P=.05) (OR7-day average = 1.11; 95% CI 0.99-1.24; P=.06). We found no evidence of increased risk for any other metrics of nitrogen dioxide or fine particulate matter or any metric for ozone. CONCLUSIONS: We found that short-term exposure to elevated levels of air pollutants was associated with higher risk for spontaneous pregnancy loss.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo/etiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Aborto Espontâneo/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Estudos Cross-Over , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho da Partícula , Gravidez , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Utah , Adulto Jovem
17.
Environ Pollut ; 246: 183-189, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30543944

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential associations between air pollution and dry eye disease (DED). Data of outdoor air pollutants and meteorology as well as outpatient visits for DED were collected. A time-stratified case-crossover approach was used to analyze the associations between ambient air pollutants and outpatient visits for DED. Among the 5062 DED patients studied, 65.45% were female and 34.55% were male. In the single-pollutant model, significant associations were observed between an increase of 10 µg/m3 in the concentrations of fine-particulate matter with a median aerometric diameter of less than 10 µm (PM10), fine-particulate matter with a median aerometric diameter of less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and carbon monoxide (CO) and outpatient visits for DED. These results were consistent with those of the multipollutant model. The strongest associations between air pollutants and patient visits were observed during the cold season and in patients aged 21-40. The significant association between air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, and CO) and DED outpatient visits indicates the importance of increased environmental protection.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Monóxido de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Síndromes do Olho Seco/induzido quimicamente , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Enxofre/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Estudos Cross-Over , Síndromes do Olho Seco/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Adulto Jovem
18.
Psychiatry Res ; 272: 8-17, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30576995

RESUMO

Air pollution is a worldwide environmental health issue. Increasingly, reports suggest that poor air quality may be associated with mental health problems, but these studies often use global measures and rarely focus on early development when psychopathology commonly emerges. To address this, we combined high-resolution air pollution exposure estimates and prospectively-collected phenotypic data to explore concurrent and longitudinal associations between air pollutants of major concern in urban areas and mental health problems in childhood and adolescence. Exploratory analyses were conducted on 284 London-based children from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study. Exposure to annualized PM2.5 and NO2 concentrations was estimated at address-level when children were aged 12. Symptoms of anxiety, depression, conduct disorder, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder were assessed at ages 12 and 18. Psychiatric diagnoses were ascertained from interviews with the participants at age 18. We found no associations between age-12 pollution exposure and concurrent mental health problems. However, age-12 pollution estimates were significantly associated with increased odds of major depressive disorder at age 18, even after controlling for common risk factors. This study demonstrates the potential utility of incorporating high-resolution pollution estimates into large epidemiological cohorts to robustly investigate associations between air pollution and youth mental health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Adolescente , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Londres/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/induzido quimicamente , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos
19.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 32(6): 507-512, nov.-dic. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-174282

RESUMO

Objetivo: Analizar la relación entre la exposición a dióxido de nitrógeno (NO2) en las etapas prenatal y posnatal y la incidencia de problemas respiratorios en niños/as hasta los 2 años de edad. Método: La población consistió en 624 niños/as de la cohorte INMA-Valencia. Se estimó la exposición individual al NO2 en el exterior de la vivienda durante el periodo prenatal y hasta los 2 años de edad, a partir de la combinación de datos empíricos y el desarrollo de métodos geoestadísticos. Se aplicó un cuestionario para obtener la información sobre los síntomas respiratorios a los 2 años. La asociación entre la exposición al NO2 y los eventos respiratorios se realizó mediante regresión logística multivariante. Resultados: La incidencia acumulada fue del 16,3% para tos persistente, del 34,9% para episodios de sibilancias y del 27,6% para las infecciones respiratorias de vías bajas. No se encontró asociación entre los síntomas respiratorios y la exposición al NO2 en el conjunto de los/las niños/as. Sin embargo, sí se encontró una asociación entre la exposición al NO2 y la tos persistente en el segundo año de vida en los/las niños/as con antecedentes familiares de alergias. Conclusión: La exposición al NO2 ambiental contribuiría a la presencia de tos persistente en los/las niños/as con antecedentes familiares de alergias


Objective: To analyze the association between exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) during pregnancy and the postnatal period up to the age of 2 years old and the incidence of respiratory problems in children from the INMA-Valencia cohort. Methods: The study population included 624 children from the INMA-Valencia cohort. Individual exposure to NO2 was estimated in different environments outside the home during pregnancy and up to the age of 2 using empirical measurement and data from geo-statistical methods. Respiratory symptoms were obtained from a questionnaire applied at the age of two. The association between NO2 exposure and respiratory symptoms was performed using multivariate logistic regression. Results: The cumulative incidence was 16.3% for persistent cough, 34.9% for wheezing and 27.6% for lower respiratory tract infections. No association was found between respiratory symptoms and exposure to NO2 in any of the children. However an association between NO2 exposure and persistent cough was found at two years of life in the children with a parental history of allergy. Conclusion: NO2 exposure would lead to persistent cough in children with a parental history of allergies


Assuntos
Humanos , Lactente , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Respiratórios/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/isolamento & purificação , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição a Produtos Químicos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos
20.
Chemosphere ; 212: 863-871, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30193235

RESUMO

Prenatal exposure to air pollutants is believed to be associated with adverse birth outcomes. However, the potential mechanisms, especially the epigenetic modified effects, still remain unclear. This study was designed to explore the association of air pollution, H19/DMR methylation levels, and birth weight and length. A total of 527 mother-infant pairs were recruited from Houzhai Center Hospital, Zhengzhou. Air pollution data during the study period was collected. The methylation at H19 promoter region and H19 DMR in maternal and cord bloods were determined using real-time PCR analysis. Ridge regression was used to analyze the association of air pollutants exposure during gestation with H19/DMR methylation and birth weight and length respectively. Results showed that prenatal exposure to NO2 was associated with higher H19 methylation in cord blood. Whereas SO2 and PM10 exposure were associated with lower H19 and H19 DMR methylation respectively. After stratification by pregnancy trimesters, the association of H19 methylation in cord blood with PM10 exposure also was found. Furthermore, prenatal exposures to air pollutants also were associated with birth weight and length. Specifically, with the increase of maternal SO2 exposure during the entire pregnancy, birth weight and length significantly decreased. While birth weight and birth length were significantly increased with NO2 exposure. The stratified analysis also found the associations between PM10 exposure and birth sizes in different trimesters. In conclusion, the gene methylation level in cord blood might be associated with prenatal environmental exposures. Birth weight and length were associated with both prenatal environmental exposures and genetic factors.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Sangue Fetal/química , Recém-Nascido , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/farmacologia , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Metilação , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Projetos Piloto
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