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1.
Eur J Neurol ; 29(1): 199-207, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to define the prevalence of pre-eclampsia, gestational hypertension (HT), chronic HT, and gestational diabetes during pregnancy in a defined population of patients with saccular intracranial aneurysms (sIAs). METHODS: We included all patients with sIA, first admitted to the Neurosurgery Department of Kuopio University Hospital from its defined catchment population between 1990 and 2015, who had given birth for the first time in 1990 or later. The patients' medical records were reviewed, and clinical data were linked with prescription drug usage, hospital diagnoses and causes of death, obtained from nationwide registries. The prevalences of pre-eclampsia, other hypertensive disorders and gestational diabetes in patients were compared with a matched control population (n = 324). In addition, the characteristics of sIA disease in patients with pre-eclampsia were compared to those of sIA patients without pre-eclampsia. RESULTS: A total of 169 patients with sIA fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of these, 22 (13%) had pre-eclampsia and 32 (19%) had other hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. In 324 matched controls who had given birth, the prevalence of pre-eclampsia was 5% (n = 15) and other hypertensive disorders were diagnosed in 10% (n = 34). There was no significant difference in prevalence of gestational diabetes (12% vs. 11%). Patients with sIA with pre-eclampsia more frequently had irregularly shaped aneurysms (p = 0·003). CONCLUSIONS: Pre-eclampsia was significantly more frequent in patients with sIA than in their population controls. Irregularly shaped aneurysms were more frequent in sIA patients with pre-eclampsia. Further studies are required to determine whether history of pre-eclampsia may indicate an elevated risk for sIA formation or rupture.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez , Aneurisma Intracraniano , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Aneurisma Intracraniano/complicações , Aneurisma Intracraniano/epidemiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Gravidez
2.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 241, 2022 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35321691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sonography based estimate of fetal weight is a considerable issue for delivery planning. The study evaluated the influence of diabetes, obesity, excess weight gain, fetal and neonatal anthropometrics on accuracy of estimated fetal weight with respect to the extent of the percent error of estimated fetal weight to birth weight for different categories. METHODS: Multicenter retrospective analysis from 11,049 term deliveries and fetal ultrasound biometry performed within 14 days to delivery. Estimated fetal weight was calculated by Hadlock IV. Percent error from birth weight was determined for categories in 250 g increments between 2500 g and 4500 g. Estimated fetal weight accuracy was categorized as accurate ≤ 10% of birth weight, under- and overestimated by > ± 10% - ± 20% and > 20%. RESULTS: Diabetes was diagnosed in 12.5%, obesity in 12.6% and weight gain exceeding IOM recommendation in 49.1% of the women. The percentage of accurate estimated fetal weight was not significantly different in the presence of maternal diabetes (70.0% vs. 71.8%, p = 0.17), obesity (69.6% vs. 71.9%, p = 0.08) or excess weight gain (71.2% vs. 72%, p = 0.352) but of preexisting diabetes (61.1% vs. 71.7%; p = 0.007) that was associated with the highest macrosomia rate (26.9%). Mean percent error of estimated fetal weight from birth weight was 2.39% ± 9.13%. The extent of percent error varied with birth weight with the lowest numbers for 3000 g-3249 g and increasing with the extent of birth weight variation: 5% ± 11% overestimation in the lowest and 12% ± 8% underestimation in the highest ranges. CONCLUSION: Diabetes, obesity and excess weight gain are not necessarily confounders of estimated fetal weight accuracy. Percent error of estimated fetal weight is closely related to birth weight with clinically relevant over- and underestimation at both extremes. This work provides detailed data regarding the extent of percent error for different birth weight categories and may therefore improve delivery planning.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Peso Fetal , Peso ao Nascer , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267854, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35503790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several randomized controlled trials (RCT) investigated antenatal dietary supplements' effect on gestational diabetes mellitus patients' fasting plasma glucose levels, glycated hemoglobin levels, homeostasis model assessment of- insulin resistance and ß-cell function, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index for glucose, high-, low-, and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, total cholesterol levels, triglyceride levels, and triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein ratio. However, an efficacy comparison across various dietary supplements and their co-supplements are unavailable for these outcomes. Therefore, a systematic review protocol is proposed here to make a network meta-analysis (NMA)-based juxtaposition across the following dietary supplements- vitamins, Myo-inositol, choline, minerals, probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, and omega-3 fatty acids. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A database search will ensue in the PubMed, Embase, and Scopus databases for RCTs testing the above, irrespective of their geographical origin. Data on population characteristics, compared interventions, and outcomes of interest will get abstracted from the studies included in the proposed review. Each of the reviewed studies will get appraised using the revised Cochrane tool. For each outcome, the comparative efficacy across interventions will be estimated in weighted or standardized mean difference using the frequentist method NMA and presented with their 95% confidence interval using league tables. By constructing network maps and comparison-adjusted funnel plots, a visual assessment of the inter-interventional relation and publication bias in each NMA model will happen, respectively. The best-ranked intervention prediction for respective outcomes will transpire using the surface under the cumulative ranking curve values. The Stata statistical software (version 16) will be used for analysis, and statistical significance will be determined at p<0.05 and 95% confidence interval. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO registration number: CRD42020214378.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Simbióticos , Glicemia/análise , Colesterol , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Metanálise como Assunto , Metanálise em Rede , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Triglicerídeos , Vitaminas
4.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 378, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501733

RESUMO

BACKGROUP: Frozen-thawed embryo transfer is rising worldwide. One adverse effect of programmed frozen embryo transfer (FET) reported in some studies is an increased risk of adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes. Meanwhile, body mass index (BMI) also has adverse effect on obstetric and perinatal outcomes. In this study, we investigated that the influence of different endometrial preparation protocols on obstetric and perinatal outcomes and the role of BMI in it. METHOD: This retrospective cohort study included 2333 singleton deliveries after frozen-thaw embryo transfer at our centre between 2014 and 2021, including 550 cycles with programmed FET, 1783 cycles with true natural cycle FET (tNC-FET). In further analysis according to BMI grouped by Asian criterion, group A (18.5 kg/m2 ≤ BMI < 24.00 kg/m2) included 1257 subjects, group B (24 kg/m2 ≤ BMI < 28.00 kg/m2) included 503 subjects and group C (BMI ≥ 28 kg/m2) included 573 subjects. Baseline characteristics of the two groups were compared and analyzed. Binary logistic regression analyses were performed to explore the association between obstetric and perinatal outcomes and endometrial preparation protocols. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the placenta previa, gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM), preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), cesarean section (CS) and macrosomia between the tNC-FET and programmed FET groups (P > 0.05). The programmed FET cycles were associated to a higher risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) compared with the tNC-FET cycles (7.3% vs 4.4%, crude OR 1.71[1.16-2.54]; adjusted OR 1.845[1.03-3.30]). After dividing the patients into three groups according to the BMI, The programmed FET cycles were associated to a higher risk of PIH in group C (14.4% vs 6.2%, crude OR 2.55 [1.42-4.55]; adjusted OR 4.71 [1.77-12.55]) compared with the tNC-FET cycles. But there was no statistically significant difference in group A and group B. Programmed FET group compared with the tNC-FET group, the risk of PIH increase as the body mass index increase. CONCLUSION: This study showed a tendency toward increasing risk of PIH in programmed FET cycle compared with the tNC-FET cycle, and the risk of PIH increases as BMI increases. Increased risk of preterm birth and low birth weight is linked to increased risk of PIH.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Cesárea , China/epidemiologia , Criopreservação/métodos , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Taxa de Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 392, 2022 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35513792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Macrosomia is closely associated with poor maternal and fetal outcome. But there is short of studies on the risk of macrosomia in early pregnancy. The purpose of this study is to establish a nomogram for predicting macrosomia in the first trimester. METHODS: A case-control study involving 1549 pregnant women was performed. According to the birth weight of newborn, the subjects were divided into macrosomia group and non-macrosomia group. The risk factors for macrosomia in early pregnancy were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression. A nomogram was used to predict the risk of macrosomia. RESULTS: The prevalence of macrosomia was 6.13% (95/1549) in our hospital. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that prepregnancy overweight (OR: 2.13 95% CI: 1.18-3.83)/obesity (OR: 3.54, 95% CI: 1.56-8.04), multiparity (OR:1.88, 95% CI: 1.16-3.04), the history of macrosomia (OR: 36.97, 95% CI: 19.90-68.67), the history of GDM/DM (OR: 2.29, 95% CI: 1.31-3.98), the high levels of HbA1c (OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.00-3.10) and TC (OR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.00-1.84) in the first trimester were the risk factors of macrosomia. The area under ROC (the receiver operating characteristic) curve of the nomogram model was 0.807 (95% CI: 0.755-0.859). The sensitivity and specificity of the model were 0.716 and 0.777, respectively. CONCLUSION: The nomogram model provides an effective mothed for clinicians to predict macrosomia in the first trimester.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Doenças do Recém-Nascido , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Macrossomia Fetal/epidemiologia , Macrossomia Fetal/etiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Nomogramas , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Ganho de Peso
6.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 6(2)2022 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35603850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pediatric cancer incidence has steadily increased concurrent with rising adult obesity, but associations between maternal obesity and associated comorbidities and pediatric cancer risk remain understudied. We aimed to quantitatively characterize associations of pediatric cancer risk with maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain, and maternal diabetes. METHODS: We performed a comprehensive and systematic literature search in Ovid and EMBASE from their inception to March 15, 2021. Eligible studies reported risk estimates and sample sizes and provided sufficient description of outcome and exposure ascertainment. Random effects models were used to estimate pooled effects. RESULTS: Thirty-four studies were included in the analysis. Prepregnancy BMI was positively associated with leukemia risk in offspring (odds ratio [OR] per 5-unit BMI increase =1.07, 95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1.04 to 1.11; I2 = 0.0%). Any maternal diabetes was positively associated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia risk (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.28 to 1.67; I2 = 0.0%), even after restricting to birthweight-adjusted analyses (OR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.29 to 2.34; I2 = 0.0%), and inversely associated with risk of central nervous system tumors (OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.55 to 0.97; I2 = 0.0%). Pregestational diabetes (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.11 to 2.24; I2 = 26.8%) and gestational diabetes (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.12 to 1.75; I2 = 0.0%) were also positively associated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia risk. No statistically significant associations were observed for gestational weight gain. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal obesity and diabetes may be etiologically linked to pediatric cancer, particularly leukemia and central nervous system tumors. Our findings support weight management and glycemic control as important components of maternal and offspring health. Further validation is warranted.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Obesidade Materna , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
7.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 385, 2022 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35505301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recognizing that hyperglycemia in pregnancy can impact both individually a patient's health and collectively the healthcare system and that different levels of hyperglycemia incur different consequences, we aimed to evaluate the differences and similarities between patients who met the diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) or diabetes in pregnancy (DIP) according to the World Health Organization diagnostic criteria based on the 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). METHODS: This retrospective study included a cohort of 1064 women followed-up at the Gestational Diabetes Unit of Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo (Sao Paulo, Brazil). Patients were classified into GDM and DIP groups, according to their OGTT results. Their electronic charts were reviewed to obtain clinical and laboratory data for all participants. RESULTS: Women in the DIP group had a higher pre-pregnancy body mass index (30.5 vs 28.1 kg/m2, odds ratio [OR] 1.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.11), more frequently experienced GDM in a previous pregnancy (25% vs. 11%, OR 2.71, 95% CI 1.17-6.27), and were more likely to have chronic hypertension (43.1% vs. 23.5%, OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.47-4.11), a current twin pregnancy (10.8% vs. 2.9%, OR 4.04, 95% CI 1.70-9.61), or require insulin (46.1% vs. 14.3%, OR 5.14, 95% CI 3.06-8.65) than those in the GDM group. Patients in the DIP group also had a higher frequency of large-for-gestational-age infants (12.3% vs. 5.1%, OR 2.78, 95% CI 1.23-6.27) and abnormal postpartum OGTT (45.9% vs. 12.6%, OR 5.91, 95% CI 2.93-11.90) than those in the GDM group. Nevertheless, in more than half of the DIP patients, glucose levels returned to normal after birth. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes in pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes but does not equate to a diagnosis of diabetes post-pregnancy. It is necessary to identify and monitor these women more closely during and after pregnancy. Keeping patients with hyperglycemia in pregnancy engaged in healthcare is essential for accurate diagnosis and prevention of complications related to abnormal glucose metabolism.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Intolerância à Glucose , Hiperglicemia , Gravidez em Diabéticas , Brasil/epidemiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Gravidez em Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
8.
Pan Afr Med J ; 41: 129, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35480410

RESUMO

Introduction: mainly occurring in low and middle income countries, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) represents 84% of hyperglycemia during pregnancy throughout the world. Moreover, being black is a risk factor to develop the disease. Our objective was to determine the prevalence and the associated factors of GDM in Libreville (Gabon). Methods: a cross-sectional study was carried out. Known diabetic women were excluded from the study and we had submitted asymptomatic pregnant women to a 2 steps 75g oral glucose tolerance test (T0-T2H), regardless of the stage of pregnancy at the moment of recruitment. The threshold for positivity was set at blood glucose level ≥ 8.5mmol/L World Health Organization (WHO 2013 threshold) and ≥ 7.8mmol/L (WHO 1999 threshold). Data were analyzed using Statview® for descriptive statistics, for both bivariate and multivariate analysis. Results: among 245 participants, we have found a GDM prevalence of 10.2% according to WHO 1999 threshold and 4.5% according to WHO 2013 threshold. Applying the WHO 1999 threshold, the associated factors were high maternal weight (p= 0.0498), overweight at recruitment (p=0.0246), personal history of GDM (p< 0.0001), age becomes an associated factor only if it is combined with high parity (p=0.0061). ceaserian-section and macrosomia were the two outcomes of GDM. Conclusion: Libreville has a high prevalence of GDM when the WHO 1999 criteria is compared to the WHO 2013 criteria. Discordance is also found with the identified associated factors. Further studies are needed to better appreciate gestational diabetes in Gabon.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Paridade , Gravidez , Gestantes , Prevalência
9.
JAMA ; 327(14): 1356-1367, 2022 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35412565

RESUMO

Importance: Gestational diabetes, which increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, has been increasing in frequency across all racial and ethnic subgroups in the US. Objective: To assess whether the frequency of adverse pregnancy outcomes among those in the US with gestational diabetes changed over time and whether the risk of these outcomes differed by maternal race and ethnicity. Design, Setting, and Participants: Exploratory serial, cross-sectional, descriptive study using US National Center for Health Statistics natality data for 1 560 822 individuals with gestational diabetes aged 15 to 44 years with singleton nonanomalous live births from 2014 to 2020 in the US. Exposures: Year of delivery and race and ethnicity, as reported on the birth certificate, stratified as non-Hispanic American Indian, non-Hispanic Asian/Pacific Islander, non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic/Latina, and non-Hispanic White (reference group). Main Outcomes and Measures: Maternal outcomes of interest included cesarean delivery, primary cesarean delivery, preeclampsia or gestational hypertension, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and transfusion; neonatal outcomes included large for gestational age (LGA), macrosomia (>4000 g at birth), small for gestational age (SGA), preterm birth, and neonatal ICU (NICU) admission, as measured by the frequency (per 1000 live births) with estimation of mean annual percentage change (APC), disparity ratios, and adjusted risk ratios. Results: Of 1 560 822 included pregnant individuals with gestational diabetes (mean [SD] age, 31 [5.5] years), 1% were American Indian, 13% were Asian/Pacific Islander, 12% were Black, 27% were Hispanic/Latina, and 48% were White. From 2014 to 2020, there was a statistically significant increase in the overall frequency (mean APC per year) of preeclampsia or gestational hypertension (4.2% [95% CI, 3.3% to 5.2%]), transfusion (8.0% [95% CI, 3.8% to 12.4%]), preterm birth at less than 37 weeks (0.9% [95% CI, 0.3% to 1.5%]), and NICU admission (1.0% [95% CI, 0.3% to 1.7%]). There was a significant decrease in cesarean delivery (-1.4% [95% CI, -1.7% to -1.1%]), primary cesarean delivery (-1.2% [95% CI, -1.5% to -0.9%]), LGA (-2.3% [95% CI, -2.8% to -1.8%]), and macrosomia (-4.7% [95% CI, -5.3% to -4.0%]). There was no significant change in maternal ICU admission and SGA. In comparison with White individuals, Black individuals were at significantly increased risk of all assessed outcomes, except LGA and macrosomia; American Indian individuals were at significantly increased risk of all assessed outcomes except cesarean delivery and SGA; and Hispanic/Latina and Asian/Pacific Islander individuals were at significantly increased risk of maternal ICU admission, preterm birth, NICU admission, and SGA. Differences in adverse outcomes by race and ethnicity persisted through these years. Conclusions and Relevance: From 2014 through 2020, the frequency of multiple adverse pregnancy outcomes in the US increased among pregnant individuals with gestational diabetes. Differences in adverse outcomes by race and ethnicity persisted.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/etnologia , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal , Macrossomia Fetal , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/etnologia , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/etnologia , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/etnologia , Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e054773, 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35443950

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The significant maternal and neonatal outcomes of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) make it a major public health concern. Mothers with GDM are at greater risk of pregnancy complications and their offspring are at higher risk of diabetes and obesity. Currently, GDM is diagnosed with glucose load methods which are time-consuming and inconvenient to administer more than once during pregnancy; for this reason, there is a recognised need for a more accurate and simpler test for GDM. Previous studies indicate that plasma-glycated CD59 (pGCD59) is a novel biomarker for GDM. We present here the protocol of a prospective cohort study designed to (1) determine the accuracy of pGCD59 as an early, first trimester predictor of GDM and gestational impaired glucose tolerance and (2) assess the associations between pGCD59 levels and adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will obtain discarded plasma samples from pregnant women at two time points: first prenatal visit (usually <14 weeks gestation) and gestational weeks 24-28. A study-specific medical record abstraction tool will be used to obtain relevant maternal and neonatal clinical data from the EPIC clinical database. The prevalence of GDM will be determined using standard of care glucose load test results. We will determine the sensitivity and specificity of pGCD59 to predict the diagnosis of GDM and gestational impaired glucose tolerance, as well as the associations between levels of pGCD59 and the prevalence of maternal and neonatal outcomes. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study has been approved by the Mass General Brigham Institutional Review Board (protocol 2011P002254). The results of this study will be presented at international meetings and disseminated in peer-reviewed journals.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Intolerância à Glucose , Biomarcadores , Glicemia , Antígenos CD59 , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Glucose , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35383101

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To date, the effects of resistance exercise on diabetes-related parameters (blood glucose level and insulin use) and pregnancy outcome in participants with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have not been compared with those of aerobic exercise. To investigate the effect of resistance exercise versus aerobic exercise on blood glucose level, insulin utilization rate, and pregnancy outcome in patients with GDM. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: From December 2019 to December 2020, 100 pregnant women with GDM were selected and divided into a resistance exercise group (49 patients) and an aerobic exercise group (51 patients) randomly. The aerobic exercise group received an aerobic exercise intervention, while the resistance exercise group received a resistance exercise intervention. Both groups received exercise intervention for 50-60 min, 3 times per week, lasting for 6 weeks. In addition, patients in both groups received the same routine care, including personalized dietary intervention, online education, and school courses for pregnant women. RESULTS: The blood glucose level in the resistance exercise group and the aerobic exercise group was lower after the intervention than before the intervention (p<0.05). After the intervention, no significant differences were observed in the fasting blood glucose level, insulin utilization rate, and incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes between the two groups (p>0.05); however, significant differences were noted in 2-hour postprandial blood glucose level and exercise compliance between the two groups (p<0.05), with the resistance exercise group showing better outcomes than the aerobic exercise group. CONCLUSIONS: Resistance exercise is more compliant for pregnant women with GDM than aerobic exercise; hence, it is necessary to popularize resistance exercise in this specific population group. Long-term effects of resistance exercise should be evaluated in future studies. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ChiCTR 1900027929.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Treinamento de Força , Glicemia , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(4): e226407, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35389498

RESUMO

Importance: Evidence on the timing of fetal growth alterations associated with gestational diabetes or on the association of the maternal glycemic trajectory with fetal growth during pregnancy remains lacking. Objective: To examine the associations between maternal glucose levels and offspring intrauterine growth. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used data from 4574 eligible pregnant women and their offspring in the Shanghai Maternal-Child Pairs Cohort collected from April 10, 2016, to April 30, 2018. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to classify fasting plasma glucose levels during pregnancy into 3 glycemic trajectories (trajectory 1, consistently normal glucose levels in all 3 trimesters; trajectory 2, hyperglycemia only in late pregnancy; and trajectory 3, hyperglycemia in all 3 trimesters [ie, consistently high glucose levels]). Statistical analysis was performed from April 25, 2020, to October 1, 2021. Exposures: Gestational diabetes, which was defined using the results of an oral glucose tolerance test. Main Outcomes and Measures: Longitudinal fetal biometrics during gestational weeks 11 to 40 and birth outcomes were obtained from medical records. Pregnancy was partitioned into 3 periods (<24, 24-34, and >34 weeks' gestational age). The differences in offspring growth (log-transformed) and maternal glucose levels were compared using generalized linear mixed models. Results: A total of 4121 pregnant women had oral glucose tolerance test results (mean [SD] age, 28.8 [4.1] years), 3746 of whom had glycemic trajectory data (mean [SD] age, 28.6 [4.1] years); 983 women (23.8%) had gestational diabetes. Throughout the pregnancy period and compared with the women without gestational diabetes or with women in the trajectory 1 group, the fetal biometrics for the women with gestational diabetes or for those in the trajectory 3 group were significantly higher (except for biparietal diameter), with an estimated increase in fetal weight in the group with gestational diabetes (ß = 1.82; 95% CI, 1.03-2.61) and in the trajectory 3 group (ß = 1.50; 95% CI, 0.54-2.47; P = .002). Fetal biometric alterations among women with gestational diabetes appeared before 24 weeks' gestational age, with neonatal birth weight significantly higher than in the group without gestational diabetes at 40.4 g (95% CI, 9.8-71.1 g) along with an increased risk of large size for gestational age (odds ratio, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.05-1.75) and macrosomia (odds ratio, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.12-1.94). However, pregnant women in the trajectory 2 group manifested significantly reduced fetal biometrics, and abdominal circumference was significantly augmented after 34 weeks' gestational age (increase, ß = 1.92; 95% CI, 0.87-2.99). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, pregnant women who received a diagnosis of gestational diabetes in midpregnancy or had hyperglycemia during all 3 trimesters showed an association with altered fetal growth patterns, including increased estimated fetal weight that appeared before 24 weeks' gestational age, increased birth weight, and the risk for large size for gestational age and macrosomia.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Hiperglicemia , Adulto , Biometria , Peso ao Nascer , Glicemia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Macrossomia Fetal/epidemiologia , Macrossomia Fetal/etiologia , Peso Fetal , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Ganho de Peso
13.
Nutrients ; 14(8)2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35458185

RESUMO

Controversies around the association between dietary protein intake and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) persist. To the best of our knowledge, this association has not previously been reported from the perspective of dietary protein patterns. We aimed to investigate the relationship between dietary protein patterns and GDM risk in pregnant women, and 1014 pregnant women (20-28 weeks of gestation) were recruited in Guangzhou, China, during 2017-2018. Maternal dietary information was collected by a validated food frequency questionnaire, which covered the most common foods consumed in Guangzhou, China. GDM was identified by a 75g oral glucose tolerance test. A K-means cluster analysis was conducted to aggregate individuals into three groups, which were determined by the major sources of protein. Logistic regression was employed to explore the relationship between dietary protein patterns and the risk of GDM. Among the 1014 participants, 191 (18.84%) were diagnosed with GDM. In the total population, when comparing the highest quartile with the lowest, we found that total protein and animal protein intake increased the risk of GDM with the adjusted odds ratios (95%CI) being 6.27, 5.43 (1.71-23.03, 1.71-17.22), respectively. Pregnant women were further divided into three dietary protein patterns, namely, white meat, plant-dairy-eggs, and red meat protein patterns. Compared to women with the plant-dairy-eggs protein pattern, those with the red meat protein pattern (OR: 1.80; 95%CI: 1.06-3.07) or white meat protein pattern (OR: 1.83; 95%CI: 1.04-3.24) had an increased risk of GDM. Higher dietary intakes of total or animal protein during mid-pregnancy were related to an increased risk of GDM. Furthermore, we first found that, compared to women with the plant-dairy-eggs protein pattern, women with the red meat or white meat protein patterns had a higher risk of GDM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , China/epidemiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/etiologia , Proteínas na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Proteínas de Carne , Gravidez , Gestantes , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
14.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 815390, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35399932

RESUMO

Introduction: Weight change during the interpregnancy is related to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the subsequent pregnancy. In interpregnancy care/counseling, the timeframe for goal setting is important, while the timing of the next conception is unpredictable and preventing age-related body weight gain is difficult. This study aimed to investigate the association between annual weight gain during the interpregnancy, which provide clearer timeframe, and GDM in subsequent pregnancies. Methods: This multicenter retrospective study was conducted by collecting data on two pregnancies of the same women in 2009-2019. The association between annual BMI gain and GDM during the subsequent pregnancy was examined. Results: This study included 1,640 pregnant women. A history of GDM [adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 26.22; 95% confidence interval (CI), 14.93-46.07] and annual BMI gain (aOR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.22-1.81) were related to GDM during the subsequent pregnancy. In the women with a pre-pregnant BMI of <25.0 kg/m2 and without GDM during the index pregnancy, an annual BMI gain of ≥0.6 kg/m2/year during the interpregnancy were associated with GDM in subsequent pregnancies; however, in the other subgroups, it was not associated with GDM in subsequent pregnancies. Conclusions: For women with a pre-pregnant BMI of <25.0 kg/m2 and without GDM during the index pregnancy, maintaining an annual BMI gain of <0.6 kg/m2/year may prevent GDM during the subsequent pregnancy.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ganho de Peso
15.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 832678, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35399939

RESUMO

Introduction: Obesity in pregnancy is a known risk factor for adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Few studies have compared adverse pregnancy-related outcomes according to obesity severity. Hence, we aimed to examine the impact of obesity class on maternal and perinatal outcomes. Methods: We retrospectively analysed data from all singleton births from mothers with obesity from 2013-2017 in Northern Sydney Local Health District in Sydney, Australia. Women were categorised into obesity class I (BMI 30-34.9kg/m2), class II (BMI 35-39.9 kg/m2) or class III (BMI 40+ kg/m2). Across BMI classes, we compared maternal outcomes including mode of delivery, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and preeclampsia, and neonatal outcomes including large- and small-for-gestational age (SGA, LGA), neonatal hypoglycaemia, birth defects and timing of birth. Logistic analyses were performed to explore the impact of maternal obesity class on these outcomes, adjusting for maternal age, country of birth, parity, diabetes (both pre-existing and gestational) and hypertension. Results: There were 2466 births to women with obesity, class (69.1%), class II (21.8%), and class III (9.2%). 42.5% delivered by Caesarean section, 22.3% developed GDM and 11.2% had a hypertensive disorder in pregnancy, and Caesarean section and GDM were more common in women with higher class obesity. LGA occurred in 27.3% and SGA occurred in 4.0% of women across all classes of obesity. LGA rates were 49% more likely in women with class III compared to women with class I obesity (OR=1.49, CI 1.06-2.09, p=0.02). The presence of diabetes in the index pregnancy did not significantly impact risk of neonatal LGA between maternal obesity classes. Other neonatal adverse outcomes such as stillbirth and birth defects were more common in women with higher class obesity. SGA, neonatal hypoglycaemia, gestational age at delivery, APGAR 5-minute score and NICU admissions were similar across obesity classes, after adjustment for covariates. Conclusions: Obesity class increases the risk of many adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Obesity class is independently associated with LGA incidence in the neonate, independent of maternal factors including GDM. Ongoing efforts must be made to reduce obesity incidence in women of reproductive age to circumvent the adverse perinatal outcomes associated with obesity.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Hipoglicemia , Obesidade Materna , Índice de Massa Corporal , Cesárea , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/complicações , Recém-Nascido , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
J Diabetes Complications ; 36(5): 108186, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35379538

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of a structured moderate-intensity resistance exercise program on blood glucose levels and other health-related indicators in patients with GDM. METHODS: A total of 99 patients with GDM in a tertiary class A general hospital were randomly divided into an experimental group and a control group. GDM patients in the control group received routine prenatal care, online education, and a personalized diabetes diet intervention. The experimental group was treated in the same way as the control group with the addition of a moderate intensity resistance exercise program. RESULTS: The blood glucose levels in both groups were lower after the intervention compared with before intervention (P < 0.05). After intervention, the average fasting blood glucose, the 2 h postprandial blood glucose, the utilization rate of insulin, the amount of insulin, gestational weight gain and blood pressure (P < 0.05) in the experimental group were lower than the control group. In addition, there was no statistical significance in the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes between the two groups after intervention (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Moderate intensity resistance exercise was helpful for improvement of blood glucose control and insulin use, gestational weight gain and blood pressure in patients with GDM. In the future, long-term follow-up of both maternal and newborn infants should be performed to assess the long-term effects of exercise intervention on maternal and child health. The impact on the risk of obesity and diabetes may need to be further clarified. The trial was approved by the registration of the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, and registration number: ChiCTR1900027929.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Treinamento de Força , Glicemia , Criança , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Insulina , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia
17.
J Diabetes Complications ; 36(5): 108187, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35382965

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study is to determine the association of elevated HbA1c in the first trimester (HbA1c-FT) with adverse events among pregnant Asian Indian women without gestational diabetes (GDM). METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 1618 pregnant women who delivered at a single urban tertiary care center and had HbA1c-FT estimation between January 2011 and September 2017. Those with GDM according to a 75-g OGTT after 24 gestational weeks were excluded. Multivariable logistic regression models assessed the association between elevated HbA1c-FT and adverse events. RESULTS: At a cutoff of ≥37 mmol/mol (5.5%), HbA1c-FT was associated with preterm birth at <37 gestational weeks (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.10, 95% CI 1.11-3.98). There was a continuum of risk for primary caesarean delivery with higher HbA1c-FT levels (adjusted OR per 5-mmol/mol (0.5%) increase in HbA1c-FT for primary caesarean delivery: 1.27, 95% CI 1.06-1.52). In the crude analysis, gestational hypertension was associated with HbA1c-FT, but not after adjustment for confounding factors. HbA1c-FT was not associated with other adverse events (macrosomia, large for gestational age babies, or other neonatal complications). CONCLUSIONS: Even without GDM, the results suggest an association of HbA1c-FT with preterm birth and primary caesarian delivery among Asian Indian women.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Nascimento Prematuro , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Gestantes , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 306, 2022 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35399065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the association between homocysteine-related dietary patterns and gestational diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A total of 488 pregnant women at 24-28 weeks of gestation between January 2019 and December 2020 were included. Demographic characteristics, dietary intake, and multivitamin supplement intake information were collected using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ); fasting venous blood samples were collected for serum index detection. Serum homocysteine (Hcy), folic acid, and B12 were selected as response variables, and hyperhomocysteinemia (hHcy)-related dietary patterns were extracted using the reduced rank regression.. The relationship between the score of hHcy-related dietary patterns and GDM was analyzed using a multivariate logistic regression model. RESULTS: Three hHcy-related dietary patterns were extracted. Only mode 2 had a positive and significant relationship with the risk of developing GDM. After adjusting for confounding factors, the risk of GDM was significantly increased in the highest quartile array compared with the lowest quartile of the pattern (OR = 2.96, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.939-9.356, P = 0.004). There was no significant correlation between dietary pattern 1 and GDM risk (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Homocysteine-related dietary patterns were positively associated with gestational diabetes mellitus. Adjusting dietary patterns may contribute to the intervention and prevention of GDM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Jejum , Feminino , Homocisteína , Humanos , Gravidez , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco
19.
J Obstet Gynaecol ; 42(4): 630-635, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35469531

RESUMO

To investigate the effects of pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain on adverse pregnancy outcomes and complications of gestational diabetes mellitus. 3966 pregnant women were enrolled in this study. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to estimate the relative risk between pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, and adverse pregnancy outcome. Pre-pregnancy BMI was found to be a risk factor for preeclampsia (OR = 1.159), gestational diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.191), gestational hypertension (OR = 1.221), and macrosomia (OR = 1.165). Gestational weight gain was a risk factor for preeclampsia (OR = 1.783), placental abruption (OR = 2.209), and macrosomia (OR = 1.506). Total weight gain during pregnancy cannot be used as a predictor of GDM. Pre-pregnancy BMI is a risk factor for gestational diabetes mellitus complicated with preeclampsia, preterm delivery, gestational hypertension, and macrosomia. Impact statementWhat is already known on this subject? Obesity during pregnancy includes pre-pregnancy obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy. Obese pregnant women have a higher risk of pregnancy complications.What do the results of this study add? We focus on the effects of pre-pregnancy BMI on pregnancy outcomes, classified by Asian criteria. Our findings suggest for the first time that excessive weight gain during pregnancy is a risk factor for placental abruption and we specifically point out that total weight gain during pregnancy cannot be used as a predictor of GDM.What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? This study is helpful to monitor the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in the Asian population and suggest the risk of pregnancy complications, such as gestational diabetes mellitus and placental abruption.


Assuntos
Descolamento Prematuro da Placenta , Diabetes Gestacional , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Complicações na Gravidez , Descolamento Prematuro da Placenta/epidemiologia , Descolamento Prematuro da Placenta/etiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Macrossomia Fetal/epidemiologia , Macrossomia Fetal/etiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido , Obesidade/complicações , Placenta , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/etiologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Ganho de Peso
20.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 336, 2022 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35440068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with adverse health consequences for women and their offspring. It is associated with maternal body mass index (BMI) and may be associated with gestational weight gain (GWG). But due to the heterogeneity of diagnosis and treatment and the potential effect of GDM treatment on GWG, the association between the two has not been thoroughly clarified. Compared to body weight, BMI has the advantage that it considers height during the whole course of pregnancy. Understanding BMI changes during pregnancy may provide new evidence for the prevention of GDM. METHODS: This study investigated the BMI change of pregnant women based on a retrospective study covering all communities in Tianjin, China. According to the results of GDM screening at 24-28 weeks of gestation, pregnancies were divided into the GDM group and the non-GDM group. We compared gestational BMI change and GWG in the two groups from early pregnancy to GDM screening. GWG was evaluated according to the IOM guidelines. Logistic regression was applied to determine the significance of variables with GDM. RESULTS: A total of 41,845 pregnant women were included in the final analysis (GDM group, n = 4257 vs. non-GDM group, n = 37,588). BMI gain has no significant differences between the GDM and non-GDM groups at any early pregnancy BMI categories (each of 2 kg/m2), as well as weight gain (P > 0.05). Early pregnancy BMI was a risk factor for GDM (OR 1.131, 95% CI 1.122-1.139). And BMI gain was associated with a decreased risk of GDM in unadjusted univariate analysis (OR 0.895, 95% CI 0.869-0.922). After adjusting on early pregnancy BMI and other confounding factors, the effect of BMI gain was no longer significant (AOR 1.029, 95% CI 0.999-1.061), as well as weight gain (AOR 1.006, 95% CI 0.995-1.018) and GWG categories (insufficient: AOR 1.016, 95% CI 0.911-1.133; excessive: AOR 1.044, 95% CI 0.957-1.138). CONCLUSIONS: BMI in early pregnancy was a risk factor for GDM, while BMI gain before GDM screening was not associated with the risk of GDM. Therefore, the optimal BMI in early pregnancy is the key to preventing GDM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Gestantes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ganho de Peso
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