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1.
Wiad Lek ; 73(8): 1690-1695, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055335

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to observe the influence of dense bean extract on the intensity of apoptotic processes in the liver cells and pancreas of rats on a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus on obesity's background. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The main method was to model type 2 diabetes mellitus on the background of obesity in organism of mature six-month-old male rats of the Wistar population (n = 21), weighing 150-170 g. The modelling was carried out by intraperitoneal low dose administration of streptozotocin (30 mg / kg, in citrate buffer pH = 4, 5) inside after three months period of keeping animals on a combined diet. Apoptosis in DNA samples of liver and pancreas cells was identified in duplicates using electrophoresis in a 1% agarose gel with using a 1kb DNA SibEnzyme apoptosis marker (from 10,000 to 250 nucleotides). RESULTS: Results: Only in two of the seven studied DNA samples of the pancreas of a group of rats, treated with a dense bean extract, were observed the traces of necrosis without detectable manifestations of the apoptotic process. It situates at the level of indicators of the animals' intact control group and indicates the distinct effect's presence which includes maintaining pancreas cells survival (in both endocrine and exocrine parts) if imbalance of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism take place in organism. CONCLUSION: Conclusion: Dense bean extract showed a more distinct effect than the comparison drug metformin in relation to the risk of premature loss of pancreatic cell function and the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. A dense bean extract is promising for further pharmacological studies, with the aim of creating phytopreparations - «Glyphasonorm¼ tablets and «Glyfasolin¼ capsules for the correction of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Animais , Apoptose , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4678, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938916

RESUMO

Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are a life-threatening disease that often result in lower limb amputations and a shortened lifespan. However, molecular mechanisms contributing to the pathogenesis of DFUs remain poorly understood. We use next-generation sequencing to generate a human dataset of pathogenic DFUs to compare to transcriptional profiles of human skin and oral acute wounds, oral as a model of "ideal" adult tissue repair due to accelerated closure without scarring. Here we identify major transcriptional networks deregulated in DFUs that result in decreased neutrophils and macrophages recruitment and overall poorly controlled inflammatory response. Transcription factors FOXM1 and STAT3, which function to activate and promote survival of immune cells, are inhibited in DFUs. Moreover, inhibition of FOXM1 in diabetic mouse models (STZ-induced and db/db) results in delayed wound healing and decreased neutrophil and macrophage recruitment in diabetic wounds in vivo. Our data underscore the role of a perturbed, ineffective inflammatory response as a major contributor to the pathogenesis of DFUs, which is facilitated by FOXM1-mediated deregulation of recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages, revealing a potential therapeutic strategy.


Assuntos
Pé Diabético/genética , Pé Diabético/imunologia , Proteína Forkhead Box M1/imunologia , Cicatrização/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/imunologia , Pé Diabético/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Proteína Forkhead Box M1/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Forkhead Box M1/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucosa Bucal/fisiologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Transcriptoma/fisiologia , Cicatrização/genética
3.
Life Sci ; 259: 118290, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822713

RESUMO

AIMS: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common arrhythmia which is associated with higher risk of stroke, heart failure and all-cause mortality. Abnormal Ca2+ handling in diabetes mellitus (DM) can cause delayed depolarization involved with increased NCX activity. Complicated mechanisms are involved in atrial remodeling, of which CaMKII may be a key node signal. Therefore, we intend to explore whether CaMKII activation induces atrial electrical remodeling by regulating NCX expression in this study. MAIN METHODS: Adult male SD rats were used to establish a diabetic rat model, divided into three groups: the control group, DM group and allopurinol group. Hemodynamic and ECG indicators were recorded, after which electrophysiological studies were conducted. The protein expression of CaMKII, p-CaMKII, XO, MnSOD and NCX was measured by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. H&E and Masson staining were applied for observing myocardial fibrosis. HL-1 cells were cultured for the measurement of ROS generation. KEY FINDINGS: The arrangement of atrial myocytes was disordered and the collagen volume fraction of the atrium tissue was elevated in the DM group compared with the control group, and improved by allopurinol. Higher incidence of inducible AF, reduced conduction velocity and higher conduction inhomogeneity were observed in diabetic rats. These electrophysiological abnormalities were accompanied by higher oxidative stress and protein expression of p-CaMKII and NCX. Allopurinol prevented the development of these abnormal changes. SIGNIFICANCE: Allopurinol can improve atrial electrical remodeling by inhibiting CaMKII activity and protein expression of NCX. These data indicate xanthine oxidase inhibition can reduce oxidative stress and ameliorate atrial electrical remodeling.


Assuntos
Alopurinol/farmacologia , Remodelamento Atrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Xantina Oxidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Western Blotting , Ecocardiografia , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237660, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841254

RESUMO

This study evaluated the influence of type 2 diabetes mellitus on bone loss, bone repair and cytokine production in hyperglycemic rats, treated or not with metformin. The animals were distributed as follow: Non-Hyperglycemic (NH), Non Hyperglycemic with Ligature (NH-L), Treated Non Hyperglycemic (TNH), Treated Non Hyperglycemic with Ligature Treated (TNH-L), Hyperglycemic (H), Treated Hyperglycemic (TH), Hyperglycemic with Ligature (H-L), Treated Hyperglycemic with Ligature (TH-L). At 40th day after induction of hyperglycemia, the groups NH-L, TNH-L, H-L, TH-L received a ligature to induce periodontitis. On the 69th, the TNH, TNH-L, TH, TH-L groups received metformin until the end of the study. Bone repair was evaluated at histometric and the expression levels of Sox9, RunX2 and Osterix. Analysis of the ex-vivo expression of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-12, IL-4, TGF-ß, IL-10, IL-6 and IL-17 were also evaluated. Metformin partially reverse induced bone loss in NH and H animals. Lower OPG/RANKL, increased OCN and TRAP expression were observed in hyperglycemic animals, and treatment with metformin partially reversed hyperglycemia on the OPG/RANKL, OPN and TRAP expression in the periodontitis. The expression of SOX9 and RunX2 were also decreased by hyperglycemia and metformin treatment. Increased ex vivo levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-17 was observed. Hyperglycemia promoted increased IL-10 levels compared to non-hyperglycemic ones. Treatment of NH with metformin was able to mediate increased levels of TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-17, whereas for H an increase of TNF-α and IL-17 was detected in the 24- or 48-hour after stimulation with LPS. Ligature was able to induce increased levels of TNF-α and IL-17 in both NH and H. This study revealed the negative impact of hyperglycemia and/or treatment with metformin in the bone repair via inhibition of transcription factors associated with osteoblastic differentiation.


Assuntos
Perda do Osso Alveolar/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Metformina/administração & dosagem , Periodontite/prevenção & controle , Perda do Osso Alveolar/etiologia , Perda do Osso Alveolar/metabolismo , Processo Alveolar/citologia , Processo Alveolar/efeitos dos fármacos , Processo Alveolar/metabolismo , Processo Alveolar/patologia , Animais , Regeneração Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Regeneração Óssea/genética , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/fisiologia , Periodontite/etiologia , Periodontite/metabolismo , Ratos , Estreptozocina/toxicidade , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
5.
Life Sci ; 257: 118091, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668325

RESUMO

AIM: Inflammatory and oxidative microenvironment at diabetic' wound site hinder the therapeutic efficacy of cell-based therapies in diabetic patients. The purpose of this study is to explore the competence of curcumin preconditioned human adipose derived cells (hASCs) in combination with platelet rich plasma (PRP) for the repair of wounds in diabetic rats. MAIN METHODS: The cytoprotective effect of curcumin preconditioning for hASCs against hyperglycemic stress was evaluated through analysis of cell morphology, viability, cytotoxicity, senescence, and scratch wound healing assays. Subsequently, the healing capacity of curcumin preconditioned hASCs (Cur-hASCs) added to PRP was examined in excisional wounded diabetic rat model. Healed skin biopsies were excised to analyze gene and protein expression of wound healing markers by qPCR and western blotting. Histopathological changes were observed through hematoxylin and eosin staining. KEY FINDINGS: We found that Cur-hASCs counteract the glucose stress much better than non-preconditioned hASCs by maintaining their cellular morphology and viability as well as metabolic potential. Further in vivo results revealed that, Cur-hASCs co-injected with PRP resulted in faster wound closure, improved fibroblast proliferation, increased neovascularization, marked reduction in inflammatory cells, and compact extracellular matrix with completely covered thick epithelium. Moreover, Cur-hASCs + PRP treatment significantly improved the expression of key healing markers such as pro-angiogenic (Vegf), dermal matrix deposition (Col1α1), cell migration (bFgf) and cell proliferation (Pcna) at wound site. SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings propose a combinatorial therapy (Cur-hASCs + PRP) as a novel modality to improve the efficacy of hASCs-based therapy for diabetic wounds.


Assuntos
Curcumina/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/terapia , Plasma Rico em Plaquetas , Transplante de Células-Tronco/métodos , Cicatrização/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Animais , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Terapia Combinada , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Feminino , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
6.
Life Sci ; 257: 118120, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693244

RESUMO

AIMS: Catalpol (Cat) can ameliorate oxide stress and inflammation caused by diabetic nephropathy (DN), but the molecular mechanisms are unclear. This study was designed to investigate the anti-diabetic effects of Cat and its potential mechanism. MAIN METHODS: We constructed high-fat diet/streptozotocin (HFD/STZ)-induced DN mice and high glucose (HG)-induced podocyte model. The hypoglycemic effect of Cat was analyzed by general features of DN mice. Kidney function was detected via ELISA assay and Western blotting. Renal histopathology analysis was conducted via hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Masson and periodic acid-silver metheramine (PASM) staining. Cellular viability was measured by TUNEL assay. In order to further study the potential mechanisms of Cat, various proteins in AMPK/SIRT1/NF-κB pathway were detected in DN mice and podocytes with siRNA-AMPK intervention using Western blotting, respectively. KEY FINDINGS: We found hyperglycemia, renal structural and function abnormalities, and increased renal inflammation in DN mice. However, Cat effectively attenuated kidney damage caused by inflammation and increased AMPK, p-AMPK and SIRT1 levels. After AMPK-siRNA transfected into HG-induced podocyte model, AMPK, p-AMPK and SIRT1 levels were obviously decreased, while Cat reversed these chandes. The levels of p-NF-κB, ASC, Cleaved IL-1ß, NLRP3, Cleaved caspase1 and GSDMD-N significantly decreased by Cat treatment both in DN mice and podocyte model, which indicated that Cat could activate AMPK/SIRT1/NF-κB pathway. SIGNIFICANCE: Cat could effectively inhibit oxide stress and inflammation accompanied with pyroptosis and its mechanism might be related to AMPK/SIRT1/NF-κB pathway, indicating that Cat possessed potential value in the treatment of DN.


Assuntos
Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Glucosídeos Iridoides/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Animais , Western Blotting , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/patologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo
7.
Life Sci ; 257: 118118, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702445

RESUMO

AIMS: Recent findings have instituted the role of hyperglycemia-related AGE/RAGE and NF-κB in instigating reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis of hepatocyte, which leads to steatohepatitis. Naringin, a flavanone glycoside found to possess myriads of pharmacological benefits along with its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Consequently, we aimed to decipher the effect of naringin on RAGE/NF-κB mediated mitochondrial apoptosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)-induced steatohepatitis. MAIN METHODS: Hepatic HepG2 cells were cultured in palmitic acid medium with and without naringin. Lipid content was examined by Oil Red O and Nile Red staining. Cellular apoptosis was determined by Annexin V-FITC/PI staining. An experimental T2DM-induced steatohepatitis was developed in Sprague Dawley rats by high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. The naringin was administrated orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg, daily for eight weeks. Glucose and insulin tolerance test was performed. Liver sections were stained by hematoxylin-eosin and picrosirius red. The mRNA and protein expression of RAGE and NF-κB were determined by qPCR, Immunofluorescence, and Immunoblotting. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), cellular and mitochondrial ROS were measured by FACS. KEY FINDINGS: Palmitic acid encountered HepG2 cells and HFD fed rats exhibited hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, abnormal aminotransferases, steatosis, and fibrosis. Besides, the level of AGEs, RAGE, NF-κB, and oxidative stress were exacerbated. Moreover, MMP, cellular and mitochondrial ROS were altered in diabetic rats. Nevertheless, the naringin treatment ameliorated the steatohepatitis by improving the levels of aforementioned parameters. SIGNIFICANCE: Collectively, these findings suggested anti-steatohepatitis potential of naringin in diabetics.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Fígado Gorduroso/tratamento farmacológico , Flavanonas/uso terapêutico , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Fígado Gorduroso/etiologia , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Imunofluorescência , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Células Hep G2/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
8.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0228429, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722679

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus (DM) causes ototoxicity by inducing oxidative stress, microangiopathy, and apoptosis in the cochlear sensory hair cells. The natural anti-oxidant pterostilbene (PTS) (trans-3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxystylbene) has been reported to relieve oxidative stress and apoptosis in DM, but its role in diabetic-induced ototoxicity is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of dose-dependent PTS on the cochlear cells of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The study included 30 albino male Wistar rats that were randomized into five groups: non-diabetic control (Control), diabetic control (DM), and diabetic rats treated with intraperitoneal PTS at 10, 20, or 40 mg/kg/day during the four-week experimental period (DM + PTS10, DM + PTS20, and DM + PTS40). Distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) tests were performed at the beginning and end of the study. At the end of the experimental period, apoptosis in the rat cochlea was investigated using caspase-8, cytochrome-c, and terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin end labeling (TUNEL). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to assess the mRNA expression levels of the following genes: CASP-3, BCL-associated X protein (BAX), and BCL-2. Body weight, blood glucose, serum insulin, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the rat groups were evaluated. The mean DPOAE amplitude in the DM group was significantly lower than the means of the other groups (0.9-8 kHz; P < 0.001 for all). A dose-dependent increase of the mean DPOAE amplitudes was observed with PTS treatment (P < 0.05 for all). The Caspase-8 and Cytochrome-c protein expressions and the number of TUNEL-positive cells in the hair cells of the Corti organs of the DM rat group were significantly higher than those of the PTS treatment and control groups (DM > DM + PTS10 > DM + PTS20 > DM + PTS40 > Control; P < 0.05 for all). PTS treatment also reduced cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner by increasing the mRNA expression of the anti-apoptosis BCL2 gene and by decreasing the mRNA expressions of both the pro-apoptosis BAX gene and its effector CASP-3 and the ratio of BAX/BCL-2 in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05 compared to DM for all). PTS treatment significantly improved the metabolic parameters of the diabetic rats, such as body weight, blood glucose, serum insulin, and MDA levels, consistent with our other findings (P < 0.05 compared to DM for all). PTS decreased the cochlear damage caused by diabetes, as confirmed by DPOAE, biochemical, histopathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular findings. This study reports the first in vivo findings to suggest that PTS may be a protective therapeutic agent against diabetes-induced ototoxicity.


Assuntos
Cóclea/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Ototoxicidade/prevenção & controle , Estilbenos/farmacologia , Acústica , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspase 3/genética , Cóclea/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar , Estilbenos/administração & dosagem , Estreptozocina , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética
9.
Life Sci ; 258: 118146, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721462

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate protective efficacies and mechanisms of dencichine on diabetic kidney injury via in vitro and in vivo assays. METHODS: Effects of dencichine on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced oxidative damage in HK-2 renal cells were assessed by CCK-8 method. Forty streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats with kidney injury were randomly divided into negative control group, three doses of dencichine (40, 80 and 160 mg/kg) groups. Blood biochemical and kidney related indexes as well adrenal morphological changes, apoptosis and autophagy related markers of diabetic rats were measured. RESULTS: Cell viability of HK-2 cells with oxidative damage induced by H2O2 was significantly improved by dencichine with 160 µg/mL for 43.7% and 320 µg/mL for 52.9% compared with control. Moreover, the decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS), and increased intracellular antioxidant enzymes including GPX1, SOD2 and GSH were showed in dencichine groups. In addition, incubation of dencichine in HK-2 cells promoted the increase of p-AMPK, BCL2, LC3, decreased activation of p-mTOR, BAX and Caspase 3. Chronic treatment of dencichine improved the STZ-induced diabetic characteristics of model rats. Further histopathological examination of renal tissues revealed 12-week treatment of dencichine effectively improved the morphology of nephropathy in diabetic rats. Moreover, dencichine also ameliorated excessive oxidation stress, down-regulated renal cell apoptosis and fibrosis related proteins, thereby protected renal tissues in diabetic rats. CONCLUSION: Dencichine ameliorated STZ-induced kidney injury mainly through inhibiting oxidative stress, reducing renal fibrosis, increasing autophagy, and reducing the renal cell apoptosis related proteins to protect nephrocytes and decrease renal tissue damage.


Assuntos
Diamino Aminoácidos/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Nefropatias Diabéticas/patologia , Fibrose , Humanos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
10.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 36(1): 1-5, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476365

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the role of calcium sensitive receptor (CaSR) in the pathogenesis of diabetic liver injury. METHODS: Forty Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal control group (control, n=10) and diabetes group (T1D, STZ 60 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection, n=30), and the samples were collected at the 2nd, 4th and 8th week. Rats hepatic stellate cells (HSC) were randomly divided into normal control group (Control, 10% FBS-DMEM culture, n=5), high glucose group (HG, 10% FBS-DMEM+40 mmol/L glucose, treated for 48 h, n=5) and CaSR inhibitor group (HG+Calhex 231, 10% FBS-DMEM+40 mmol/L glucose+2.5 µmol/L Calhex231 for 48h, n=5). The body weight, blood glucose, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities were measured dynamically. The changes of liver morphology and ultrastructure were observed by HE staining and Masson staining by transmission electron microscopy. The changes of CaSR and liver fibrosis related indexes were detected by Western blot. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, diabetic rats lost weight, while blood glucose, AST and ALT increased significantly, and the expression of CaSR, collagen 1(CO 1), collagen 3 (CO 3), matrix metalloproteinase(MMP)-1, -2 and -9 increased significantly. The results of the cell model were basically the same as those in vivo. Compared with the control group, the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) was increased, indicating that HSC differentiated into myofibroblasts in HG group. The expression of the main components of ECM (CO 1 and CO 3), and the key enzyme of ECM degradation (MMP9) were also increased, while CaSR inhibitor, Calhex231, could reduce the above changes. CONCLUSION: The up-regulation of CaSR expression is involved in the occurrence of diabetic liver injury and fibrosis.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Receptores de Detecção de Cálcio/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Células Estreladas do Fígado , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
11.
Chem Biol Interact ; 327: 109183, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554039

RESUMO

The present study analyzed whether melatonin could mediate the expression of VEGF, IL-6 and TNF-α, as well as the apoptotic index in rats with diabetic retinopathy. Fifty Wistar albino rats were divided into the following groups: GC: rats without induction of diabetes by streptozotocin; GD: rats induced to diabetes by streptozotocin and treated with placebo; GDM: rats induced to diabetes by streptozotocin and after confirmation treated with melatonin at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 20 days; GDMS: rats induced to diabetes by streptozotocin and treated simultaneously with melatonin at a dosage of 10 mg/kg for 20 days; GDI: rats induced to diabetes by streptozotocin and after confirmation treated with insulin for 20 days. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg), and insulin (5 U/day) was administered subcutaneously. For apoptosis TUNEL was used, while for the analysis of VEGF, IL-6 and TNF-α. The results showed that the groups that were treated with melatonin decreased the expression of cytokines and VEGF, in addition to apoptosis. Thus, it is concluded that melatonin can regulate the expression of these factors by improving the condition of the retina in diabetic retinopathy.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Retinopatia Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Melatonina/uso terapêutico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Retinopatia Diabética/etiologia , Retinopatia Diabética/patologia , Ratos Wistar , Retina/patologia
12.
Life Sci ; 253: 117727, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371063

RESUMO

AIMS: To unravel the underlying mechanism of hepatic inflammation during type 2 diabetes (T2DM), we established the diabetic rat model by feeding with high fructose diet for twenty weeks and studied the involvement of inflammasome in the liver of these rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male SD rats weighing 180-200 g were divided in four groups: 1) Control (Con group) rats were fed with corn starch diet, 2) diabetic (Dia group) rats were fed with 65% of fructose, 3) diabetic along with resveratrol (10 mg/kg/day); p.o. (Dia + Resv group) and 4) diabetic along with metformin (300 mg/kg/day); p.o. (Dia + Met group), for twenty weeks. We evaluated the establishment of T2DM in fructose fed rats and the effect of resveratrol and metformin treatment on different diabetic parameters in these rats. Further we investigated the role of NLRP3 inflammasome on T2DM induced liver inflammation and effect of resveratrol and metformin treatment on NLRP3 inflammasome driven inflammatory response. KEY FINDINGS: Rats from Dia group; manifested insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, elevated uric acid along with hypertriglyceridemia after fructose feeding for twenty weeks. Mostly, above parameters were attenuated in resveratrol and metformin treated groups. Expression of NLRP3 inflammasome components in liver were increased in Dia group rats with elevated transcript levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Histopathological examination revealed increase in glycogen content and fibrosis in Dia group rats; which was considerably reduced with resveratrol and metformin treatment. SIGNIFICANCE: Our study suggests that management of inflammation may be considered as an alternative approach to prevent liver tissue injury during chronic diabetic condition.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Metformina/farmacologia , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Frutose/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
13.
Life Sci ; 253: 117748, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387415

RESUMO

AIMS: Hindlimb ischemia-reperfusion (IR) was previously demonstrated by our group to decrease blood sugar levels by suppressing hepatic gluconeogenesis and enhancing glucose uptake using activation of the parasympathetic nervous system. While IR attenuated hyperglycemia in diabetic mice, it was unclear whether IR regulated energy metabolism in the liver. We investigated the mechanisms by which IR regulates energy metabolism in the liver from type1 diabetic mice. MAIN METHODS: Streptozotocin-induced diabetic male C57BL/6J mice were used to determine the effect of IR on the factors involved in energy metabolism in the liver (i.e., activation levels of AMP-activated protein kinase, aconitase and pyruvate dehydrogenase; adenosine triphosphate and fumarate concentrations; sirtuin (Sirt) 1 expression). These various signaling pathways and key enzyme activities were examined using western blot analysis and a biochemical technique including a colorimetric assay. KEY FINDINGS: Under feeding conditions (free access to normal murine chow and water), blood glucose levels and serum ketone body levels were significantly suppressed by IR, whereas phospho-AMP-activated protein kinase and its activity, pyruvate dehydrogenase, aconitase activity, and Sirt 1expression were upregulated. In contrast, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1, which accelerated fatty acid use, was suppressed by IR. SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicated that in the IR-treated diabetic liver, energy production was promoted through acceleration of the tricarboxylic acid cycle linked with increased glucose preference rather than fatty acid under feeding conditions. Therefore, IR may be beneficial against diabetic hyperglycemia, but also ketoacidosis.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Cetoacidose Diabética/prevenção & controle , Precondicionamento Isquêmico , Fígado/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Glicólise/fisiologia , Corpos Cetônicos/sangue , Fígado/irrigação sanguínea , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estreptozocina
14.
Am J Pathol ; 190(5): 1080-1094, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354571

RESUMO

This study explored the anti-inflammatory effects of a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA), known as lixisenatide, on the eyes of early type 2 diabetic mice. Diabetic (db/db) mice were divided into three groups: GLP-1RA [lixisenatide (LIX)], insulin (INS) with controlled hyperglycemia based on the glucose concentration of lixisenatide, and diabetic control (D-CON). Nondiabetic control mice (db/dm) were also characterized for comparison. After 8 weeks of treatment, mRNA levels of inflammatory markers, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling, immunohistochemical staining; Western blot of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and thioredoxin-interacting protein; and retinal thickness were assessed in the central and peripheral neurosensory retina. LIX showed decreased immunohistochemical staining for both thioredoxin-interacting protein and GFAP in the central and peripheral neurosensory retina compared with D-CON and INS, and decreased expression of these proteins in the neurosensory retina and immunohistochemical staining in the optic nerve head for GFAP compared with D-CON. The inner nuclear layer in the peripheral retina in LIX was only thinner than those of D-CON and INS. In an early type 2 diabetic mouse model, lixisenatide treatment showed superior anti-inflammatory effects on the retina and optic nerve head independent of hyperglycemia. Thus, the neuroprotective effects of lixisenatide treatment in the peripheral inner nuclear layer should be evaluated in early type 2 diabetic retinopathy.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Retinopatia Diabética/metabolismo , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Retinopatia Diabética/patologia , Hipoglicemiantes , Camundongos
15.
Life Sci ; 255: 117779, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417374

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Kidney is the most common location of microangiopathy in diabetic patients, and we designed this study to investigate the effects of hirudin on renal microangiopathy in STZ-induced diabetes rats and in vitro. METHODS: We established a diabetes model by intraperitoneal injection of STZ and administered hirudin daily by subcutaneous injection. HE staining was used to assess kidney pathological changes. Western blot and immunochemistry was used to detect the protein expression. Glomerular endothelial cells (GEC) in normal rats were assessed by cell scratch test for migration ability and tubule formation experiment for angiogenesis ability. RESULTS: Compared with DN rats without any treatment, the serum creatinine, serum Cys C, 24-hour urine protein of DN rats with hirudin treatment were significantly decrease, the kidney/body weight and glomerular area of DN rats with hirudin treatment were all significantly decrease, and also significant improvement in renal pathology revealed by HE staining in DN rats after treating with hirudin. Moreover, we also found that hirudin coun not only significantly increase the prothrombin time and aivated partial thromboplastin time in DN rats, but also significantly decrease the expression of VEGF and TM-1 protein in kidney tissues of DN rats. In vitro, we found that high glucose could promote the migration and angiogensis of GEC, and significantly increased the expression of VEGF and Ang protein, but significantly decreased the expression of THBS1 and Arg1 protein. More importantly was that hirudin could inhibit the migration and angiogensis of GEC, and reversed HG-induced the expression of VEGF, Ang, THBS1 and Arg1 protein in GEC. In addition, we also found that hirudin could not only decrease HG-enhanced the activity of RhoA in GEC, but also decrease HG-enhanced the expression of p-MYPT1/MYPT1, p-p38/p38 protein in GEC. CONCLUSION: Hirudin reduces nephropathy microangiopathy in STZ-induced diabetes, and might be related to hirudin inhibiting glomerular endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis through Rho-kinase and subsequent p38MAPK/NF-kB signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Angiopatias Diabéticas/prevenção & controle , Nefropatias Diabéticas/prevenção & controle , Hirudinas/farmacologia , Neovascularização Patológica/prevenção & controle , Animais , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Glucose/metabolismo , Glomérulos Renais/metabolismo , Masculino , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Quinases Associadas a rho/metabolismo
16.
Life Sci ; 255: 117823, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32445760

RESUMO

AIMS: Skeletal muscle diseases have become to be the most common complication in patients with type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM). However, the effective therapies against skeletal muscle diseases are not yet available. Sulforaphane (SFN) is an organic isothiocyanate found in cruciferous plants. Our aim was to explore whether SFN could attenuate the skeletal muscle diseases in spontaneous type 2 diabetic db/db mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The db/m and littermate db/db mice were treated with SFN or dimethyl sulfoxide. The grip strength of mice was measured by a grasping forcing machine. The electron transmission microscopy was used to perform the skeletal muscle. The western blot was used to detect the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2/heme oxygenase 1 (Nrf2/HO-1) signal pathway related proteins, and inflammatory and apoptotic associated proteins. The mRNA levels of anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative relative genes were detected by RT-QPCR. KEY FINDINGS: We found that SFN could significantly increase the grip strength of the db/db mice. The lean mass and gastrocnemius mass were increased in the db/db mice after administration with SFN. Additionally, the db/db mice restored the skeletal muscle fiber organization after SFN treatment. Mechanistically, SFN could activate the Nrf2/HO-1 signal pathway, and downregulate the expression of inflammatory and apoptotic associated proteins. Furthermore, SFN could also regulate the mRNA levels of anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative related genes. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrated that SFN can protect against skeletal muscle diseases in db/db type 2 diabetic mice and provide a potential drug to prevent skeletal muscle dysfunction in T2DM patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Isotiocianatos/farmacologia , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Musculares/prevenção & controle , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Doenças Musculares/etiologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
17.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(8): 1838-1853, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460581

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Vascular calcification is a cardiovascular risk factor and accelerated in diabetes mellitus. Previous work has established a role for calcification-prone extracellular vesicles in promoting vascular calcification. However, the mechanisms by which diabetes mellitus provokes cardiovascular events remain incompletely understood. Our goal was to identify that increased S100A9 promotes the release of calcification-prone extracellular vesicles from human macrophages in diabetes mellitus. Approach and Results: Human primary macrophages exposed to high glucose (25 mmol/L) increased S100A9 secretion and the expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) protein. Recombinant S100A9 induced the expression of proinflammatory and osteogenic factors, as well as the number of extracellular vesicles with high calcific potential (alkaline phosphatase activity, P<0.001) in macrophages. Treatment with a RAGE antagonist or silencing with S100A9 siRNA in macrophages abolished these responses, suggesting that stimulation of the S100A9-RAGE axis by hyperglycemia favors a procalcific environment. We further showed that an imbalance between Nrf-2 (nuclear factor 2 erythroid related factor 2) and NF-κB (nuclear factor-κB) pathways contributes to macrophage activation and promotes a procalcific environment. In addition, streptozotocin-induced diabetic Apoe-/-S100a9-/- mice and mice treated with S100a9 siRNA encapsulated in macrophage-targeted lipid nanoparticles showed decreased inflammation and microcalcification in atherosclerotic plaques, as gauged by molecular imaging and comprehensive histological analysis. In human carotid plaques, comparative proteomics in patients with diabetes mellitus and histological analysis showed that the S100A9-RAGE axis associates with osteogenic activity and the formation of microcalcification. CONCLUSIONS: Under hyperglycemic conditions, macrophages release calcific extracellular vesicles through mechanisms involving the S100A9-RAGE axis, thus contributing to the formation of microcalcification within atherosclerotic plaques.


Assuntos
Calgranulina B/fisiologia , Complicações do Diabetes/etiologia , Vesículas Extracelulares/fisiologia , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/fisiologia , Calcificação Vascular/etiologia , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Humanos , Ativação de Macrófagos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Placa Aterosclerótica/etiologia
18.
Life Sci ; 251: 117587, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224027

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a serious public health problem and can cause long-term damage to the brain, resulting in cognitive impairment in these patients. Insulin therapy for type 1 DM (DM1) can achieve overall blood glucose control, but glycemic variations can occur during injection intervals, which may contribute to some complications. Among the additional therapies available for DM1 treatment is the implantation of insulin-producing cells (IPCs) to attenuate hyperglycemia and even reverse diabetes. Here, we studied the strategy of implanting IPCs obtained from mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from adipose tissue, comparing two different IPC implant sites, subcapsular renal (SR) and subcutaneous (SC), to investigate their putative protection against hippocampal damage, induced by STZ, in a rat DM1 model. Both implants improved hyperglycemia and reduced the serum content of advanced-glycated end products in diabetic rats, but serum insulin was not observed in the SC group. The SC-implanted group demonstrated ameliorated cognitive impairment (evaluated by novel object recognition) and modulation of hippocampal astroglial reactivity (evaluated by S100B and GFAP). Using GFP+ cell implants, the survival of cells at the implant sites was confirmed, as well as their migration to the pancreas and hippocampus. The presence of undifferentiated MSCs in our IPC preparation may explain the peripheral reduction in AGEs and subsequent cognitive impairment recovery, mediated by autophagic depuration and immunomodulation at the hippocampus, respectively. Together, these data reinforce the importance of MSCs for use in neuroprotective strategies, and highlight the logistic importance of the subcutaneous route for their administration.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Insulina/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/sangue , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/terapia , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY
19.
Life Sci ; 251: 117640, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32259603

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the effects of P2X7 receptor blockade on renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in rats with diabetic nephropathy (DN). MAIN METHODS: Wistar rats were unilaterally nephrectomized and received streptozotocin for diabetes mellitus (DM) induction; control animals (CTL) received the drug vehicle. The animals were submitted to P2X7 receptor silencing, forming the group (DM + siRNA). The animals were placed in metabolic cages for data collection and evaluation of renal function; at the end of the protocol, the kidney was removed for analysis of P2X7, renin, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), ACE2, angiotensin, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels (TBARS), nitric oxide (NO) and qualitative histological. KEY FINDINGS: The metabolic profile was attenuated in DM + siRNA vs. DM and there was a significant improvement in creatinine, urea and proteinuria levels in the same group. Renin expression was significantly decreased in DM + siRNA vs. DM. ACE and ACE2 were significantly reduced in DM + siRNA vs. DM. TBARS levels were decreased and NO showed an increase in DM + siRNA vs. DM, both significant. All histological alterations were improved in DM + siRNA vs. DM. SIGNIFICANCE: Data have shown that although silencing of the P2X7 receptor did not decrease fasting glucose, it promoted an improvement in the metabolic profile and a significant recovery of renal function, revealing a protective action by the inhibition of this receptor. This effect must have occurred due to the inhibition of RAS and the increase of NO, suggesting that the use of P2X7 receptors inhibitors could be used as adjuvant therapy against DN progression.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/terapia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/terapia , Inativação Gênica , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X7/genética , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/genética , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/genética , Nefropatias Diabéticas/genética , Nefropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Estreptozocina
20.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(5): 942e-950e, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation associated with delayed diabetic wound healing is induced by disturbed polarization of macrophages derived mainly from predisposed progenitor cells in bone marrow. Docosahexaenoic acid plays a critical role in regulating the function of macrophage progenitor cells. The authors evaluated whether docosahexaenoic acid accelerates diabetic wound healing in rats. METHODS: Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats divided into control and docosahexaenoic acid-treated groups (n = 10) were subjected to paired dorsal skin wounds. Docosahexaenoic acid (100 mg/kg per day) was orally supplemented 2 weeks before wounding until termination. The wound healing process was recorded 0, 7, and 14 days after wounding. At day 7, blood perfusion was measured by laser Doppler perfusion imaging; angiogenesis was compared using immunofluorescent CD31 and α-smooth muscle actin staining; macrophage polarization was detected using immunofluorescence for CD68, CD206, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to examine wound healing at day 14. Activation status of macrophages derived from bone marrow cells in normal, diabetic, and docosahexaenoic acid-treated diabetic rats was determined in vitro using Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Docosahexaenoic acid significantly accelerated wound healing 7 and 14 days (p < 0.01) after wounding. Increased vessel densities (1.96-fold; p < 0.001) and blood perfusion (2.56-fold; p < 0.001) were observed in docosahexaenoic acid-treated wounds. Immunofluorescence revealed more CD206 and fewer inducible nitric oxide synthase-positive macrophages (p < 0.001) in treated wounds. Furthermore, macrophages derived from diabetic rats expressed higher levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase and tumor necrosis factor-α and lower arginase-1 and interleukin-10 (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Docosahexaenoic acid accelerates diabetic wound healing at least in part by restoring impaired plasticity of macrophage progenitor cells.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/administração & dosagem , Macrófagos/imunologia , Células-Tronco/efeitos dos fármacos , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Oral , Animais , Plasticidade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Ratos , Pele/lesões , Células-Tronco/fisiologia , Estreptozocina/toxicidade , Fatores de Tempo , Cicatrização/imunologia
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