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1.
Ther Umsch ; 77(7): 297-301, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996427

RESUMO

Laboratory investigations in clinical diabetic practice Abstract. Laboratory analysis are useful to diagnose the proper form of diabetes mellitus, for follow-up of the metabolic control, and to identify secondary complications or associated diseases. The proof of auto-antibodies confirms Type 1 diabetes and a broad range of endocrine entities of the polyglandular autoimmune syndrome, and genetic testing classifies monogenetic diabetes like MODY or MIDDM. In secondary diabetes forms underlying disease can be detected by clinical and laboratory investigation, and thus, causal treatment of the diabetes may be possible.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Testes Genéticos , Humanos
2.
Diab Vasc Dis Res ; 17(5): 1479164120952321, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883101

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Estimated glucose disposal rate (eGDR) is a practical measure of Insulin Resistance (IR) which can be easily incorporated into clinical practice. We profiled eGDR in younger adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) by their demographic and clinical characteristics. METHODS: In this single centre study, medical records of TIDM were assessed and eGDR tertiles correlated with demographic and clinical variables. RESULTS: Of 175 T1DM individuals, 108 (61.7%) were males. Mean age (±SD) was 22.0 ± 1.6 years and median time from diagnosis 11.0 years (range 1-23). Individuals were predominantly Caucasian (81.7%), with 27.4% being overweight (BMI: 25-30 kg/m2) and 13.7% obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2). Mean total cholesterol (TC) levels were significantly lower in high and middle eGDR tertiles (4.4 ± 1 and 4.3 ± 0.8 mmol/l, respectively) compared with low eGDR tertile (4.8 ± 1, p < 0.05 for both). Triglyceride (TG) levels showed a similar trend at 1.1 ± 0.5 and 1.1 ± 0.5 mmol/l for high and middle eGDR tertile compared to low eGDR tertile (1.5 ± 1 mmol/l, p < 0.05 for both). Renal function was similar across eGDR tertiles and no difference in retinopathy was detected. CONCLUSION: TC and TG are altered in individuals with T1DM and low eGDR, suggesting that this subgroup requires optimal lipid management to ameliorate their vascular risk.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Fatores Etários , Biomarcadores/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto Jovem
4.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 8(10): 823-833, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes has been associated with increased COVID-19-related mortality, but the association between modifiable risk factors, including hyperglycaemia and obesity, and COVID-19-related mortality among people with diabetes is unclear. We assessed associations between risk factors and COVID-19-related mortality in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We did a population-based cohort study of people with diagnosed diabetes who were registered with a general practice in England. National population data on people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes collated by the National Diabetes Audit were linked to mortality records collated by the Office for National Statistics from Jan 2, 2017, to May 11, 2020. We identified the weekly number of deaths in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes during the first 19 weeks of 2020 and calculated the percentage change from the mean number of deaths for the corresponding weeks in 2017, 2018, and 2019. The associations between risk factors (including sex, age, ethnicity, socioeconomic deprivation, HbA1c, renal impairment [from estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)], BMI, tobacco smoking status, and cardiovascular comorbidities) and COVID-19-related mortality (defined as International Classification of Diseases, version 10, code U07.1 or U07.2 as a primary or secondary cause of death) between Feb 16 and May 11, 2020, were investigated by use of Cox proportional hazards models. FINDINGS: Weekly death registrations in the first 19 weeks of 2020 exceeded the corresponding 3-year weekly averages for 2017-19 by 672 (50·9%) in people with type 1 diabetes and 16 071 (64·3%) in people with type 2 diabetes. Between Feb 16 and May 11, 2020, among 264 390 people with type 1 diabetes and 2 874 020 people with type 2 diabetes, 1604 people with type 1 diabetes and 36 291 people with type 2 diabetes died from all causes. Of these total deaths, 464 in people with type 1 diabetes and 10 525 in people with type 2 diabetes were defined as COVID-19 related, of which 289 (62·3%) and 5833 (55·4%), respectively, occurred in people with a history of cardiovascular disease or with renal impairment (eGFR <60 mL/min per 1·73 m2). Male sex, older age, renal impairment, non-white ethnicity, socioeconomic deprivation, and previous stroke and heart failure were associated with increased COVID-19-related mortality in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Compared with people with an HbA1c of 48-53 mmol/mol (6·5-7·0%), people with an HbA1c of 86 mmol/mol (10·0%) or higher had increased COVID-19-related mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 2·23 [95% CI 1·50-3·30, p<0·0001] in type 1 diabetes and 1·61 [1·47-1·77, p<0·0001] in type 2 diabetes). In addition, in people with type 2 diabetes, COVID-19-related mortality was significantly higher in those with an HbA1c of 59 mmol/mol (7·6%) or higher than in those with an HbA1c of 48-53 mmol/mol (HR 1·22 [95% CI 1·15-1·30, p<0·0001] for 59-74 mmol/mol [7·6-8·9%] and 1·36 [1·24-1·50, p<0·0001] for 75-85 mmol/mol [9·0-9·9%]). The association between BMI and COVID-19-related mortality was U-shaped: in type 1 diabetes, compared with a BMI of 25·0-29·9 kg/m2, a BMI of less than 20·0 kg/m2 had an HR of 2·45 (95% CI 1·60-3·75, p<0·0001) and a BMI of 40·0 kg/m2 or higher had an HR of 2·33 (1·53-3·56, p<0·0001); the corresponding HRs for type 2 diabetes were 2·33 (2·11-2·56, p<0·0001) and 1·60 (1·47-1·75, p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: Deaths in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes rose sharply during the initial COVID-19 pandemic in England. Increased COVID-19-related mortality was associated not only with cardiovascular and renal complications of diabetes but, independently, also with glycaemic control and BMI. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Vigilância da População , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Bases de Dados Factuais/tendências , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/tendências , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Vigilância da População/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
5.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 8(10): 813-822, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although diabetes has been associated with COVID-19-related mortality, the absolute and relative risks for type 1 and type 2 diabetes are unknown. We assessed the independent effects of diabetes status, by type, on in-hospital death in England in patients with COVID-19 during the period from March 1 to May 11, 2020. METHODS: We did a whole-population study assessing risks of in-hospital death with COVID-19 between March 1 and May 11, 2020. We included all individuals registered with a general practice in England who were alive on Feb 16, 2020. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine the effect of diabetes status, by type, on in-hospital death with COVID-19, adjusting for demographic factors and cardiovascular comorbidities. Because of the absence of data on total numbers of people infected with COVID-19 during the observation period, we calculated mortality rates for the population as a whole, rather than the population who were infected. FINDINGS: Of the 61 414 470 individuals who were alive and registered with a general practice on Feb 16, 2020, 263 830 (0·4%) had a recorded diagnosis of type 1 diabetes, 2 864 670 (4·7%) had a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, 41 750 (0·1%) had other types of diabetes, and 58 244 220 (94·8%) had no diabetes. 23 698 in-hospital COVID-19-related deaths occurred during the study period. A third occurred in people with diabetes: 7434 (31·4%) in people with type 2 diabetes, 364 (1·5%) in those with type 1 diabetes, and 69 (0·3%) in people with other types of diabetes. Unadjusted mortality rates per 100 000 people over the 72-day period were 27 (95% CI 27-28) for those without diabetes, 138 (124-153) for those with type 1 diabetes, and 260 (254-265) for those with type 2 diabetes. Adjusted for age, sex, deprivation, ethnicity, and geographical region, compared with people without diabetes, the odds ratios (ORs) for in-hospital COVID-19-related death were 3·51 (95% CI 3·16-3·90) in people with type 1 diabetes and 2·03 (1·97-2·09) in people with type 2 diabetes. These effects were attenuated to ORs of 2·86 (2·58-3·18) for type 1 diabetes and 1·80 (1·75-1·86) for type 2 diabetes when also adjusted for previous hospital admissions with coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, or heart failure. INTERPRETATION: The results of this nationwide analysis in England show that type 1 and type 2 diabetes were both independently associated with a significant increased odds of in-hospital death with COVID-19. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Vigilância da População , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Vigilância da População/métodos , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Vis Exp ; (159)2020 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538917

RESUMO

Islet autoantibodies (IAbs) are widely used in type 1 diabetes (T1D) diagnosis and prediction. Four major IAbs to insulin (IAA), glutamate decarboxylase-65 (GADA), insulinoma antigen-2 (IA-2A), and zinc transporter-8 (ZnT8A) are equally important in disease prediction. Presently, up to 40% of patients diagnosed with T1D go on to develop other autoimmune disorders. Unfortunately, current screening methods using a single autoantibody for measurement are laborious and inefficient for large scale screening studies. We recently developed a simple multiplexed electrochemiluminescence (ECL) assay to address these current issues. The assay combines all 7 autoantibody tests into one well. Each well includes three IAbs (IAA, GADA, and IA-2A), autoantibodies to thyroid peroxidase (TPOA) and thyroid globulin (ThGA) to detect autoimmune thyroid disease, autoantibodies to tissue transglutaminase (TGA) for celiac disease, and autoantibodies to interferon alpha (IFNαA) for autoimmune polyglandular syndrome-1 (APS-1); all of which screen for T1D and other relevant autoimmune diseases, simultaneously. The multiplex ECL assay is based on the single ECL assay platform, but instead uses the multiplex plate combining multiple autoantibody assays, up to 10, into a single well. The main difference from the single ECL assay is that each antibody-antigen complex formed in the fluid-phase is restrained onto a specific spot on each well through a linker system on the multiplex plate. The 7-Plex ECL assay, in the present study, is validated against standard radio-binding assays (RBA) and single ECL assays, using a large cohort of newly diagnosed T1D patients and age-matched healthy controls, resulting in excellent assay sensitivity and specificity.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
10.
Diab Vasc Dis Res ; 17(3): 1479164120928303, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538145

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between skin microvascular reactivity and clinical microangiopathy in patients with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: We included 61 patients with type 1 diabetes, that is, 31 patients with and 30 without clinical microangiopathy, and 31 healthy controls. A microangiopathy scoring system was introduced for comparison of data between patients with microangiopathy. Responses to iontophoresis of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside were assessed by laser Doppler imaging. RESULTS: Patients with microangiopathy had reduced acetylcholine- and sodium nitroprusside-mediated flux in forearm skin microcirculation compared to healthy controls (p = 0.03 and p < 0.001, respectively, repeated measures analysis of variance), whereas no significant differences were found between patients without microangiopathy and controls. Skin reactivity was reduced in patients with microangiopathy compared to patients without microangiopathy: 1.43 ± 0.38 versus 1.59 ± 0.39 arbitrary units for acetylcholine-mediated peak flux and 1.44 ± 0.46 versus 1.74 ± 0.34 arbitrary units for sodium nitroprusside-mediated peak flux (p < 0.05 for both). A tendency of gradual decrease in acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside responses was found in patients with increasing microangiopathy scores. CONCLUSION: We conclude that skin microvascular reactivity is associated with clinical microangiopathy in patients with type 1 diabetes. Impaired skin microvascular function in type 1 diabetes seems to be multifactorial and involves both endothelial-dependent and endothelial-independent pathways. We introduce a novel microangiopathy score that could easily be used in a clinical setting for comparison of patients with various degrees of microangiopathy.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Angiopatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Microcirculação , Pele/irrigação sanguínea , Vasodilatação , Administração Cutânea , Adulto , Idoso , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/fisiopatologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Angiopatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Antebraço , Humanos , Iontoforese , Fluxometria por Laser-Doppler , Masculino , Microcirculação/efeitos dos fármacos , Angioscopia Microscópica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatadores/administração & dosagem
12.
J Pediatr ; 223: 197-198, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437758

RESUMO

Coronavirus diease-2019 has disrupted pediatric healthcare. Observation of public health principles are vital. However, coronavirus diease-2019 has had unintended consequences on standard pediatric care. We describe cases of delayed diagnosis of diabetes leading to severe diabetic ketoacidosis; our aim is to highlight the need to apply basic pediatric principles for optimal care.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Diagnóstico Tardio , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Cetoacidose Diabética/etiologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Criança , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Cetoacidose Diabética/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pediatria , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estados Unidos
14.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 36(7): 1237-1247, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32232625

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of pregestational diabetes mellitus (DM) on fetal cardiac function two-dimensional parameters using spectral and tissue Doppler. Pregnant women between 20 and 36 + 6 weeks gestation were divided into three groups: controls, type I DM, and type II DM. The right ventricle (RV) and left ventricle (LV) annular velocity peaks were measured using spectral (E, A) and tissue (E', A', S') Doppler. The myocardial performance index was calculated as (isovolumetric contraction time [ICT] + isovolumetric relaxation time [IRT])/ejection time using tissue (MPI') and the spectral Doppler (MPI). A general linear model, with fetal heart rate as a covariant, was used to evaluate the effect of DM on the fetal heart function assessment parameters. To assess the association of type I and II DM with adverse perinatal outcomes, Fisher's exact test was used. A receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine the best cutoff for fetal cardiac function assessment parameters to identify the neonatal composite outcomes. The sample comprised 179 pregnant women. DM had significant effect on RV and LV A peak velocities (p = 0.026 and p = 0.011, respectively). LV ICT (p < 0.001) and LV MPI (p < 0.001) were significantly affected by maternal DM. Fetuses from pregnant women with type II DM showed significantly higher LV MPI (0.492 vs. 0.459, p = 0.006) and RV S' (7.2 vs. 6.44 cm/s, p = 0.024) than controls. Fetuses from type I DM pregnant women showed increase in cardiac parameters that evaluated the LV and RV diastolic function (LV IRT' p < 0.001 and RV MPI' p = 0.044). Type I and II DM were associated with adverse perinatal outcomes: neonatal intensive care unit stay (p < 0.0001), macrosomia (p < 0.0001), hyperbilirubinemia (p < 0.0001), and hypoglycemia (p < 0.0001). The LV MPI' showed significant but moderate sensitivity in identifying the composite neonatal outcomes (AUC: 0.709, 95% CI 0.629-0.780, p < 0.001). Tissue Doppler and MPI parameters can be useful to detect subclinical cardiac dysfunction in the fetal heart of pregestational DM pregnant women.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Coração Fetal/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Gravidez em Diabéticas , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Função Ventricular Direita , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Feminino , Coração Fetal/fisiopatologia , Idade Gestacional , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Cardiopatias/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Breath Res ; 14(3): 036008, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340013

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the oral health status, oral health related habits and halitosis of children with and without type 1 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study the oral health status of children with and without type 1 diabetes were evaluated by using different indices (dmft/DMFT, International Caries Detection and Assessment System(ICDAS) II, pufa, gingival and periodontal indices). Halitosis was determined by organoleptic assessment and sulfur monitoring. RESULTS: One hundred children with the age range between 6-13 years, 50 type 1 diabetics (24 boys,26 girls) with mean age (±sd) of 10.3 ± 2.1 years and 50 healthy (30 boys, 20 girls) with mean age (±sd) of 9.9 ± 1.5 years, participated in the study. The median values of dmft and dmfs was lower in children with type 1 diabetes, while for DMFT and DMFS indices were similar with the healthy group. Cavitated caries lesions were observed in 60.0% of children with diabetes and in 58.0% of healthy children. According to the ICDAS II index, 42.0% of children with diabetes and 56.0% of healthy children had severe decay. The mean plaque index was statistically significantly less in diabetic children (p = 0.04). In 12.0% of children with type 1 diabetes and in 18.0% of healthy children, volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) were determined to be ≥150 ppb and the most diagnosed score was 1 in both groups. In diabetic children with the cut off value of 7.5% HbA1c, there was no statistically significant difference in oral health indices results and VSC scores. CONCLUSION: Findings of the present study are insufficient to support a significant effect of diabetes on increasing the risk of oral and periodontal diseases. Nonetheless, it is important to emphasize the importance of oral and dental health, regular oral care and dental visits both to the patients with type 1 diabetes and their parents.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Halitose/complicações , Halitose/diagnóstico , Saúde Bucal , Adolescente , Testes Respiratórios , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Índice de Placa Dentária , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Índice Periodontal , Sensação , Compostos de Enxofre/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
16.
BMC Med Genet ; 21(1): 61, 2020 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32216767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wolcott-Rallison Syndrome (WRS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease that is the most common cause of neonatal diabetes in consanguineous families. WRS is caused by various genetic alterations of the Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 2-Alpha Kinase 3 (EIF2AK3) gene. METHODS: Genetic analysis of a consanguineous family where two children were diagnosed with WRS was performed by Sanger sequencing. The altered protein was investigated by in vitro cloning, expression and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: The first cases in Hungary, - two patients in one family, where the parents were fourth-degree cousins - showed the typical clinical features of WRS: early onset diabetes mellitus with hyperglycemia, growth retardation, infection-induced multiple organ failure. The genetic background of the disease was a novel alteration in the EIF2AK3 gene involving the splice site of exon 11- intron 11-12 boundary: g.53051_53062delinsTG. According to cDNA sequencing this created a new splice site and resulted in a frameshift and the development of an early termination codon at amino acid position 633 (p.Pro627AspfsTer7). Based on in vitro cloning and expression studies, the truncated protein was functionally inactive. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the intact protein was absent in the islets of pancreas, furthermore insulin expressing cells were also dramatically diminished. Elevated GRP78 and reduced CHOP protein expression were observed in the liver. CONCLUSIONS: The novel genetic alteration causing the absence of the EIF2AK3 protein resulted in insufficient handling of severe endoplasmic reticulum stress, leading to liver failure and demise of the patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Epífises/anormalidades , Mutação INDEL , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Sítios de Splice de RNA/genética , eIF-2 Quinase/genética , Pré-Escolar , Consanguinidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/patologia , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Epífises/patologia , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Humanos , Hungria , Lactente , Falência Hepática/complicações , Falência Hepática/genética , Falência Hepática/patologia , Osteocondrodisplasias/diagnóstico , Osteocondrodisplasias/patologia , Linhagem , Irmãos , Viroses/complicações , Viroses/patologia
17.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 67(3): 186-193, mar. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-188147

RESUMO

Introducción: Evaluar la seguridad y eficacia de un extracto de aceite de rosa mosqueta en la prevención y tratamiento de las lesiones cutáneas en las manos de los pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 1 (DMT1) secundarias a las punciones digitales para el control glucémico. Pacientes y métodos: Estudio prospectivo, aleatorizado, controlado, abierto, con evaluadores ciegos e intervencionista en pacientes de edades entre 6 y 17 años con DMT1 y control intensivo de la glucemia con ≥ 7 punciones capilares diarias durante 12 días. Se evaluaron 3 variables principales (eritema, engrosamiento cutáneo, pérdida de la integridad cutánea) de la siguiente forma: 0: ausente, 1: leve, 2: moderado, 3: intenso. El estudio fue aprobado por el Comité Ético del hospital. Resultados: Se incluyó a 68 niños, por tanto, 136 manos: 80 recibieron aceite de rosa mosqueta y 56 fueron controles. Las características basales de los 2 grupos fueron similares. El 76,3% y el 78,6% presentaban alguna lesión dermatológica inicial, respectivamente. La mediana de valoración global final fue de 0,10 (0,03; 0,30) y de 0,06 (0,00; 0,23), en el grupo de aceite de rosa mosqueta y grupo control, respectivamente. Se encontró una mejoría estadísticamente significativa de la valoración global solo en el grupo control (p = 0,049). No se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas para la comparación de medianas del resto de las variables principales. No se registraron efectos adversos. Conclusión: Se encontró una alta frecuencia de lesiones dermatológicas secundarias a punciones capilares digitales, la mayoría de las cuales fueron lesiones leves. La aplicación de aceite de rosa mosqueta fue segura y no supuso una mejoría en las lesiones dermatológicas


Introduction: This study was intended to assess the efficacy and safety of a rosehip seed oil (RHO) extract in the prevention and treatment of skin lesions in the hands of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) caused by finger prick blood glucose monitoring. Patients and method: A prospective, randomized, controlled, open-label, rater-blinded trial in patients aged 6-17 years with T1DM and intensive blood glucose control (≥ 7 finger pricks daily) for 12 days. Three main variables (erythema, skin thickening, and loss of skin integrity) were assessed using a scale ranging from 0 (absent) to 3 (severe involvement). The study was approved by the ethics committee of the hospital. Results: Sixty-eight children, and thus 136 hands, were included; 80 hands received rosehip seed oil and 56 hands acted as controls. Baseline characteristics of both groups were similar, with 76.3% and 78.6% of the hands respectively showing skin lesions at study start. Median final global assessment was 0.10 (0.03; 0.30) in the group that received rosehip seed oil and 0.06 (0.00; 0.23) in the control group. A statistically significant improvement in global assessment was found in the control group (P=0.049). No significant differences were found when the medians of the other main variables were compared. No adverse effects were recorded. Conclusion: A high prevalence of skin lesions secondary to finger prick glucose monitoring, most of them mild lesions, was found at study start. Treatment with rosehip seed oil was safe and was not effective for improving skin lesions


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Masculino , Feminino , Resultado do Tratamento , Rosa , Capilares/lesões , Traumatismos dos Dedos/terapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Técnica Clamp de Glucose/métodos , Índice Glicêmico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Eritema/terapia , Segurança do Paciente
18.
PLoS Med ; 17(3): e1003032, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between maternal gluten intake in pregnancy, offspring intake in childhood, and offspring risk of type 1 diabetes has not been examined jointly in any studies. Our aim was to study the relationship between maternal and child intake of gluten and risk of type 1 diabetes in children. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We included 86,306 children in an observational nationwide cohort study, the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), with recruitment from 1999 to 2008 and with follow-up time to April 15, 2018. We used registration of type 1 diabetes in the Norwegian childhood diabetes registry as the outcome. We used Cox proportional hazard regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for the mother's intake of gluten up to week 22 of pregnancy and offspring gluten intake when the child was 18 months old. The average time followed was 12.3 years (0.70-16.0). A total of 346 children (0.4%) children were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, resulting in an incidence rate of 32.6/100,000 person-years. Mean gluten intake per day was 13.6 g for mothers and 8.8 g for children. There was no association between the mother's intake of gluten in pregnancy and offspring type 1 diabetes, with an adjusted HR (aHR) of 1.02 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.73-1.43, p = 0.91) for each 10-g-per-day increment. There was an association between offspring intake of gluten and a higher risk of type 1 diabetes, with an aHR of 1.46 (95% CI 1.06-2.01, p = 0.02) for each 10-g-per-day increment. Among the limitations are the likely imprecision in estimation of gluten intake and that we only had information regarding gluten intake at 2 time points in early life. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that, while the mother's intake of gluten in pregnancy was not associated with type 1 diabetes, a higher intake of gluten by the child at an early age may give a higher risk of type 1 diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Glutens/efeitos adversos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Fatores Etários , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Feminino , Glutens/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
19.
PLoS Med ; 17(3): e1003053, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fibre is promoted as part of a healthy dietary pattern and in diabetes management. We have considered the role of high-fibre diets on mortality and increasing fibre intake on glycaemic control and other cardiometabolic risk factors of adults with prediabetes or diabetes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic review of published literature to identify prospective studies or controlled trials that have examined the effects of a higher fibre intake without additional dietary or other lifestyle modification in adults with prediabetes, gestational diabetes, type 1 diabetes, and type 2 diabetes. Meta-analyses were undertaken to determine the effects of higher fibre intake on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and increasing fibre intake on glycaemic control and a range of cardiometabolic risk factors. For trials, meta regression analyses identified further variables that influenced the pooled findings. Dose response testing was undertaken; Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) protocols were followed to assess the quality of evidence. Two multicountry cohorts of 8,300 adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes followed on average for 8.8 years and 42 trials including 1,789 adults with prediabetes, type 1, or type 2 diabetes were identified. Prospective cohort data indicate an absolute reduction of 14 fewer deaths (95% confidence interval (CI) 4-19) per 1,000 participants over the study duration, when comparing a daily dietary fibre intake of 35 g with the average intake of 19 g, with a clear dose response relationship apparent. Increased fibre intakes reduced glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c; mean difference [MD] -2.00 mmol/mol, 95% CI -3.30 to -0.71 from 33 trials), fasting plasma glucose (MD -0.56 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.73 to -0.38 from 34 trials), insulin (standardised mean difference [SMD] -2.03, 95% CI -2.92 to -1.13 from 19 trials), homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA IR; MD -1.24 mg/dL, 95% CI -1.72 to -0.76 from 9 trials), total cholesterol (MD -0.34 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.46 to -0.22 from 27 trials), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (MD -0.17 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.27 to -0.08 from 21 trials), triglycerides (MD -0.16 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.23 to -0.09 from 28 trials), body weight (MD -0.56 kg, 95% CI -0.98 to -0.13 from 18 trials), Body Mass Index (BMI; MD -0.36, 95% CI -0·55 to -0·16 from 14 trials), and C-reactive protein (SMD -2.80, 95% CI -4.52 to -1.09 from 7 trials) when compared with lower fibre diets. All trial analyses were subject to high heterogeneity. Key variables beyond increasing fibre intake were the fibre intake at baseline, the global region where the trials were conducted, and participant inclusion criteria other than diabetes type. Potential limitations were the lack of prospective cohort data in non-European countries and the lack of long-term (12 months or greater) controlled trials of increasing fibre intakes in adults with diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Higher-fibre diets are an important component of diabetes management, resulting in improvements in measures of glycaemic control, blood lipids, body weight, and inflammation, as well as a reduction in premature mortality. These benefits were not confined to any fibre type or to any type of diabetes and were apparent across the range of intakes, although greater improvements in glycaemic control were observed for those moving from low to moderate or high intakes. Based on these findings, increasing daily fibre intake by 15 g or to 35 g might be a reasonable target that would be expected to reduce risk of premature mortality in adults with diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/dietoterapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Dieta para Diabéticos , Dieta Saudável , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Valor Nutritivo , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Grãos Integrais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Dieta para Diabéticos/efeitos adversos , Dieta para Diabéticos/mortalidade , Dieta Saudável/efeitos adversos , Dieta Saudável/mortalidade , Fibras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Fatores de Proteção , Recomendações Nutricionais , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Grãos Integrais/efeitos adversos
20.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1463(1): 5-8, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037600

RESUMO

McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) is caused by postzygotic somatic activating mutations of GNAS and is classically characterized by the clinical triad of peripheral precocious puberty, café-au-lait pigmentation, and polyostotic fibrous dysplasia. It can also present with other hyperfunctioning endocrinopathies, including growth hormone excess, hyperprolactinemia, hypercortisolemia, hyperthyroidism, and renal phosphate wasting due to excess fibroblast growth factor 23. We review the clinical, biochemical, radiological, and genetic findings in a 7-year-old girl diagnosed with MAS at age 4 and then with autoimmune type 1 diabetes mellitus at age 7. While MAS is associated with hyperglycemia secondary to growth hormone excess and hypercortisolemia, an association with diabetes mellitus has not been demonstrated. We review the unique presentation of a patient with these two rare conditions.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Displasia Fibrosa Poliostótica/sangue , Displasia Fibrosa Poliostótica/diagnóstico , Pré-Escolar , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Feminino , Displasia Fibrosa Poliostótica/complicações , Humanos
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