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2.
Ther Umsch ; 77(7): 297-301, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996427

RESUMO

Laboratory investigations in clinical diabetic practice Abstract. Laboratory analysis are useful to diagnose the proper form of diabetes mellitus, for follow-up of the metabolic control, and to identify secondary complications or associated diseases. The proof of auto-antibodies confirms Type 1 diabetes and a broad range of endocrine entities of the polyglandular autoimmune syndrome, and genetic testing classifies monogenetic diabetes like MODY or MIDDM. In secondary diabetes forms underlying disease can be detected by clinical and laboratory investigation, and thus, causal treatment of the diabetes may be possible.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Testes Genéticos , Humanos
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238070, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853219

RESUMO

Factors regulating self-antigen directed immune-responses in autoimmunity are poorly understood. Signal regulatory protein gamma (SIRPγ) is a human T-cell specific protein with genetic variants associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D). SIRPγ's function in the immune system remains unclear. We show that T1D and relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) subjects have significantly greater frequency of rs2281808 T genetic variant, that correlates with reduced SIRPγ-expression in T-cells. Importantly, reduced SIRPγ-expression in RRMS and T1D subjects was not restricted to T variant, suggesting SIRPγ-expression is also regulated by disease specific factors in autoimmunity. Interestingly, increased frequencies of SIRPγlow T-cells in RRMS and T1D positively correlated with proinflammatory molecules from T-cells. Finally, we show that SIRPγlow T-cells have enhanced pathogenecity in vivo in a GVHD model. These findings suggest that decreased-SIRPγ expression, either determined by genetic variants or through peripherally acquired processes, may have a mechanistic link to autoimmunity through induction of hyperactive T-cells.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Diferenciação/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Esclerose Múltipla/genética , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , Receptores Imunológicos/genética , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Adulto , Alelos , Animais , Autoimunidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Recidiva , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(6): 778-783, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696859

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE This study aimed to propose a co-expression-network (CEN) based gene functional inference by extending the "Guilt by Association" (GBA) principle to predict candidate gene functions for type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). METHODS Firstly, transcriptome data of T1DM were retrieved from the genomics data repository for differentially expressed gene (DEGs) analysis, and a weighted differential CEN was generated. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) was chosen to determine the performance metric for each Gene Ontology (GO) term. Differential expression analysis identified 325 DEGs in T1DM, and co-expression analysis generated a differential CEN of edge weight > 0.8. RESULTS A total of 282 GO annotations with DEGs > 20 remained for functional inference. By calculating the multifunctionality score of genes, gene function inference was performed to identify the optimal gene functions for T1DM based on the optimal ranking gene list. Considering an AUC > 0.7, six optimal gene functions for T1DM were identified, such as regulation of immune system process and receptor activity. CONCLUSIONS CEN-based gene functional inference by extending the GBA principle predicted 6 optimal gene functions for T1DM. The results may be potential paths for therapeutic or preventive treatments of T1DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Biomarcadores , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Curva ROC , Transcriptoma
5.
Life Sci ; 256: 117985, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562692

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess the combination therapy of anti-CD20 mabs and adenovirus-mediated interleukin-10 (IL-10) gene delivery on the prevention of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in non-obese diabetes (NOD) mice. MAIN METHODS: In present study, we simultaneously blocked the B cell interactions and recovered the Th cell subset proportion by using through anti-CD20 Mab and adenovirus-mediated gene delivery of IL-10, respectively. After 9 consecutive days of combination therapy, various measurements, including hematoxylin-eosin staining (HE), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labelling assay (TUNEL), immunohistochemistry, ELISA, PCR and western blot were applied to further assess the efficacy. KEY FINDINGS: The results suggested that the combination intervention reduced the T1D-associated morbidity of NOD mice, promote insulin secretion, control blood glucose and ease pancreatitis. Moreover, the combination therapy might play a protective role in pancreatic ß cells by suppressing the expression of TNF-α and Fas, blocking the Caspase-8 and Caspase-3 apoptotic pathways and activating the Bcl-2 anti-apoptotic pathway. Finally, the combination intervention may up-regulate the gene expression of CK-19 and PDX-1 and further accelerate the differentiation and proliferation of pancreatic ß cells. SIGNIFICANCE: Therefore, the combination intervention with anti-CD20 mabs and the IL-10 gene plays a role in the prevention of T1D to some extent in NOD mice.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Antígenos CD20/administração & dosagem , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Interleucina-10/administração & dosagem , Pancreatite/tratamento farmacológico , Adenoviridae/genética , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/genética , Antígenos CD20/genética , Apoptose/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/patologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Interleucina-10/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Pancreatite/genética , Pancreatite/patologia
7.
Maturitas ; 137: 37-44, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32498935

RESUMO

An increasing number of new cases of autoimmune diabetes occur during adulthood. Most are cases of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA), a form of autoimmune diabetes with older mean age at onset, slower rate of beta-cell loss and longer period of insulin independence after onset when compared with type 1 diabetes. Unfortunately, patients with LADA are often misdiagnosed as having type 2 diabetes, the most frequent form of adult-onset diabetes, and show a sustained poor glycemic control over time. Recent evidence shows that this translates into a significantly increased risk of complications. Therefore, an enhanced awareness of LADA is essential. In this narrative review we aim to provide an update on knowledge about LADA pathophysiology and clinical implications by critically reporting the most recent evidence.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/imunologia , Adulto , Idade de Início , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Humanos
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2584, 2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32444635

RESUMO

Interferon-α (IFNα), a type I interferon, is expressed in the islets of type 1 diabetic individuals, and its expression and signaling are regulated by T1D genetic risk variants and viral infections associated with T1D. We presently characterize human beta cell responses to IFNα by combining ATAC-seq, RNA-seq and proteomics assays. The initial response to IFNα is characterized by chromatin remodeling, followed by changes in transcriptional and translational regulation. IFNα induces changes in alternative splicing (AS) and first exon usage, increasing the diversity of transcripts expressed by the beta cells. This, combined with changes observed on protein modification/degradation, ER stress and MHC class I, may expand antigens presented by beta cells to the immune system. Beta cells also up-regulate the checkpoint proteins PDL1 and HLA-E that may exert a protective role against the autoimmune assault. Data mining of the present multi-omics analysis identifies two compound classes that antagonize IFNα effects on human beta cells.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Células Secretoras de Insulina/fisiologia , Interferon-alfa/metabolismo , Interferon-alfa/farmacologia , Processamento Alternativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Cromatina/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatina/metabolismo , Mineração de Dados , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Células Secretoras de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Proteômica , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Sítio de Iniciação de Transcrição
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1253: 223-257, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32445098

RESUMO

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease caused by the interaction between genetic alterations and environmental factors. More than 60 susceptible genes or loci of T1D have been identified. Among them, HLA regions are reported to contribute about 50% of genetic susceptibility in Caucasians. There are many environmental factors involved in the pathogenesis of T1D. Environmental factors may change the expression of genes through epigenetic mechanisms, thus inducing individuals with susceptible genes to develop T1D; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The major epigenetic modifications include DNA methylation, histone modification, and non-coding RNA. There has been extensive research on the role of epigenetic mechanisms including aberrant DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA in the pathogenesis of T1D. DNA methylation and microRNA have been proposed as biomarkers to predict islet ß cell death, which needs further confirmation before any clinical application can be developed. Small molecule inhibitors of histone deacetylases, histone methylation, and DNA methylation are potentially important for preventing T1D or in the reprogramming of insulin-producing cells. This chapter mainly focuses on T1D-related DNA methylation, histone modification, and non-coding RNA, as well as their possible translational potential in the early diagnosis and treatment of T1D.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Epigênese Genética , Epigenômica , Metilação de DNA , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos
11.
Life Sci ; 255: 117724, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360624

RESUMO

AIMS: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is the most common autoimmune disease that affects a global scale. Accumulating evidence has indicated, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and some microRNAs (miRNAs) as important biomarkers participating in the development of T1D. Thus, we aimed to determine the role of NF-κB and miR-150 in the development of T1D and to unravel the molecular mechanism. MAIN METHODS: Non-obese diabetic mice were used for the T1D model establishment by injecting with streptozotocin. Besides, pancreatic islet ß cells, separated from T1D mice, were induced by interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α for 3 days to mimic T1D damage. The expression of NF-κB p65, miR-150, and p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) was evaluated by RT-qPCR, while the expression of PUMA, p65, and apoptotic proteins in pancreatic islet ß cells were determined by western blot analysis. Besides, inflammatory factors IL-17A, IL-2, IFN-γ, and IL-4 were detected by ELISA. The relationship among NF-κB, miR-150, and PUMA was analyzed by the dual-luciferase reporter gene, chromatin- and RNA-immunoprecipitation assays, respectively. KEY FINDINGS: Restoration of NF-κB reduced the incidence of T1D in mice. Over-expressed NF-κB inhibited the release of inflammatory factors and apoptosis in pancreatic islet ß cells. PUMA was confirmed to be a potential target gene of miR-150. miR-150 suppressed PUMA to inhibit the T1D-induced inflammation and ß cell apoptosis whereas NF-κB activated the miR-150 expression by binding to the miR-150 promoter, thereby preventing the T1D-induced inflammation and ß cell apoptosis. SIGNIFICANCE: NF-κB/miR-150/PUMA may serve as potential therapeutic targets for T1D.


Assuntos
Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/fisiopatologia , MicroRNAs/genética , NF-kappa B/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/patologia , Células Secretoras de Insulina/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Regulação para Cima
12.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233639, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453760

RESUMO

Diabetes is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. Our understanding of the early kidney response to chronic hyperglycemia remains incomplete. To address this, we first investigated the urinary proteomes of otherwise healthy youths with and without type 1 diabetes and subsequently examined the enriched pathways that might be dysregulated in early disease using systems biology approaches. This cross-sectional study included two separate cohorts for the discovery (N = 30) and internal validation (N = 30) of differentially excreted proteins. Discovery proteomics was performed on a Q Exactive Plus hybrid quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometer. We then searched the pathDIP, KEGG, and Reactome databases to identify enriched pathways in early diabetes; the Integrated Interactions Database to retrieve protein-protein interaction data; and the PubMed database to compare fold changes of our signature proteins with those published in similarly designed studies. Proteins were selected for internal validation based on pathway enrichment and availability of commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Of the 2451 proteins identified, 576 were quantified in all samples from the discovery cohort; 34 comprised the urinary signature for early diabetes after Benjamini-Hochberg adjustment (Q < 0.05). The top pathways associated with this signature included lysosome, glycosaminoglycan degradation, and innate immune system (Q < 0.01). Notably, all enzymes involved in keratan sulfate degradation were significantly elevated in urines from youths with diabetes (|fold change| > 1.6). Increased urinary excretion of monocyte differentiation antigen CD14, hexosaminidase A, and lumican was also observed in the validation cohort (P < 0.05). Twenty-one proteins from our signature have been reported elsewhere as potential mediators of early diabetes. In this study, we identified a urinary proteomic signature for early type 1 diabetes, of which lysosomal enzymes were major constituents. Our findings highlight novel pathways such as keratan sulfate degradation in the early kidney response to hyperglycemia.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/urina , Sulfato de Ceratano/metabolismo , Proteinúria/genética , Proteômica , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/patologia , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Sulfato de Ceratano/genética , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Lisossomos/patologia , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Proteinúria/metabolismo , Proteinúria/urina , Proteoma/genética , Proteoma/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
14.
Gene ; 753: 144785, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32445922

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Type 1 diabetes onset is preceded by a pre-inflammatory stage leading to insulitis and followed by targeted destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. Osteopontin (OPN) is a secreted phosphoprotein with cytokine properties, implicated in many physiological and pathological processes, including infection and autoimmunity. We have previously identified up-regulated osteopontin transcripts in the pancreatic lymph nodes of the NOD (Non-Obese Diabetic) mouse at the pre-diabetic stages. Investigating the underlined disease initiating mechanisms may well contribute to the development of novel preventive therapies. Our aim was to construct opn null mice in a NOD autoimmune-prone genetic background and address the pathogenic or protective role of the osteopontin molecule in the early stages of type 1 diabetes. METHODS: We generated opn null mutant mice in a NOD genetic background by serial backcrossing to the existing C57BL/6 opn knockout strain. The presence of opn wild type or null alleles in the congenic lines was evaluated by PCR amplification. We used NOD opn-null mice to assess the phenotypic evolution of type 1 diabetes. The presence of OPN in the serum was evaluated by ELISA and by immunostaining on the mouse tissues. The primary gene structure of the NOD opn encoding gene and protein sequences were compared to the known alleles of other mouse strains. Evaluation of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) variation between opn alleles of the opn gene is reported. RESULTS: In the absence of OPN, type 1 diabetes is accelerated, suggesting a protective role of this cytokine on the insulin-producing cells of the pancreatic islets. Conversely, in the presence of the opn gene, an increase of the OPN protein in the serum of young NOD mice indicates that this molecule might be involved in the immune regulatory events taking place at early stages, prior to disease onset. Our data support that OPN acts as a positive regulator of the early islet autoimmune damage, possibly by a shift of the steady-state of T1D pathogenesis. We report that the OPN protein structure of the NOD/ShiLtJ strain corresponds to the a-type allele of the osteopontin gene. Comparative analysis of the single nucleotide polymorphisms between the a-type and b-type alleles indicates that the majority of variations are within the non-coding regions of the gene. CONCLUSIONS: The construction of opn null mice in an autoimmune genetic background (NOD.B6.Cg-spp1-/-) provides important tools for the study of the implication of the OPN in type 1 diabetes, offering the possibility to address the significance of this molecule as an early marker of the disease and as a therapeutic agent in preclinical studies.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Osteopontina/genética , Alelos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Frequência do Gene/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Insulina/metabolismo , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos Knockout , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
15.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 64(2): 138-143, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236312

RESUMO

Objective Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disorder caused by a complex interaction between environmental and genetic risk factors. BTB domain and CNC homolog 2 (BACH2) gene encodes a transcription factor that acts on the differentiation and formation of B and T lymphocytes. BACH2 is also involved in the suppression of apoptosis and inflammation in pancreatic beta-cells, indicating a role for it in the development of T1DM. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association of the BACH2 rs11755527 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) with T1DM. Subjects and methods This case-control study comprised 475 patients with T1DM and 598 nondiabetic individuals. The BACH2 rs11755527 (C/G) SNP was genotyped using real-time PCR with TaqMan MGB probes. Results Genotype distributions of rs11755527 SNP were in accordance with frequencies predicted by the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in case and control groups and were similar between groups (P = 0.729). The minor allele frequency was 43.6% in cases and 42.5% in controls (P = 0.604). Moreover, the G allele frequency did not differ between groups when considering different inheritance models and adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, and HLA DR/DQ genotypes of high-risk for T1DM. Although, well-known high-risk T1DM HLA DR/DQ genotypes were associated with T1DM in our population [OR= 7.42 (95% CI 3.34 - 17.0)], this association was not influenced by the rs11755527 SNP. Conclusion The BACH2 rs11755527 SNP seems not to be associated with T1DM in a Brazilian population.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Fatores de Risco
16.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(4): e1007829, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282791

RESUMO

Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have successfully identified thousands of loci associated with human diseases. Bayesian genetic fine-mapping studies aim to identify the specific causal variants within GWAS loci responsible for each association, reporting credible sets of plausible causal variants, which are interpreted as containing the causal variant with some "coverage probability". Here, we use simulations to demonstrate that the coverage probabilities are over-conservative in most fine-mapping situations. We show that this is because fine-mapping data sets are not randomly selected from amongst all causal variants, but from amongst causal variants with larger effect sizes. We present a method to re-estimate the coverage of credible sets using rapid simulations based on the observed, or estimated, SNP correlation structure, we call this the "adjusted coverage estimate". This is extended to find "adjusted credible sets", which are the smallest set of variants such that their adjusted coverage estimate meets the target coverage. We use our method to improve the resolution of a fine-mapping study of type 1 diabetes. We found that in 27 out of 39 associated genomic regions our method could reduce the number of potentially causal variants to consider for follow-up, and found that none of the 95% or 99% credible sets required the inclusion of more variants-a pattern matched in simulations of well powered GWAS. Crucially, our method requires only GWAS summary statistics and remains accurate when SNP correlations are estimated from a large reference panel. Using our method to improve the resolution of fine-mapping studies will enable more efficient expenditure of resources in the follow-up process of annotating the variants in the credible set to determine the implicated genes and pathways in human diseases.


Assuntos
Teorema de Bayes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Biologia Computacional , Simulação por Computador , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(16): 9022-9031, 2020 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284404

RESUMO

The vast majority of type 1 diabetes (T1D) genetic association signals lie in noncoding regions of the human genome. Many have been predicted to affect the expression and secondary structure of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), but the contribution of these lncRNAs to the pathogenesis of T1D remains to be clarified. Here, we performed a complete functional characterization of a lncRNA that harbors a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associated with T1D, namely, Lnc13 Human pancreatic islets harboring the T1D-associated SNP risk genotype in Lnc13 (rs917997*CC) showed higher STAT1 expression than islets harboring the heterozygous genotype (rs917997*CT). Up-regulation of Lnc13 in pancreatic ß-cells increased activation of the proinflammatory STAT1 pathway, which correlated with increased production of chemokines in an allele-specific manner. In a mirror image, Lnc13 gene disruption in ß-cells partially counteracts polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (PIC)-induced STAT1 and proinflammatory chemokine expression. Furthermore, we observed that PIC, a viral mimetic, induces Lnc13 translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm promoting the interaction of STAT1 mRNA with (poly[rC] binding protein 2) (PCBP2). Interestingly, Lnc13-PCBP2 interaction regulates the stability of the STAT1 mRNA, sustaining inflammation in ß-cells in an allele-specific manner. Our results show that the T1D-associated Lnc13 may contribute to the pathogenesis of T1D by increasing pancreatic ß-cell inflammation. These findings provide information on the molecular mechanisms by which disease-associated SNPs in lncRNAs influence disease pathogenesis and open the door to the development of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches based on lncRNA targeting.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Células Secretoras de Insulina/imunologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/genética , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/virologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Células Secretoras de Insulina/patologia , Células Secretoras de Insulina/virologia , Células Jurkat , Poli I-C/imunologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Cultura Primária de Células , Estabilidade de RNA/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Viral/imunologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/imunologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Regulação para Cima/imunologia
18.
Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 34(1): 101412, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32265102

RESUMO

An adjuvant is an immunological or pharmacological substance or group of substances that can be added to a given agent to enhance its effect in terms of efficacy, effectiveness and potency. Different mechanisms have been hypothesized underlying the action of the adjuvant, including boosting immune (innate and adaptive) response: this generally results in sparing the necessary amount of the agent and can potentially reduce the frequency of the needed number of therapeutic interventions. Adjuvants can be commonly found in vaccines, immunization products, mineral oils, cosmetics, silicone breast implants and other therapeutic/medical devices, being usually safe and effective. However, in a fraction of genetically susceptible and predisposed subjects, the administration of adjuvants may lead to the insurgence of serious side-effects, called "autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome by adjuvants" (ASIA) or Shoenfeld's syndrome. The present review is aimed at focusing on the "endocrine pebbles" of the mosaic of autoimmunity and of the ASIA syndrome, collecting together 54 cases of sub-acute thyroiditis, 2 cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 11 cases of primary ovarian failure/primary ovarian insufficiency, 13 cases of autoimmune diabetes type 1, and 1 case of autoimmune adrenal gland insufficiency occurred after exposure to adjuvants.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Autoimunes/induzido quimicamente , Autoimunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Autoimunidade/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/imunologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/genética , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/imunologia , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/genética , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/imunologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Síndrome
19.
BMC Med Genet ; 21(1): 61, 2020 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32216767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wolcott-Rallison Syndrome (WRS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease that is the most common cause of neonatal diabetes in consanguineous families. WRS is caused by various genetic alterations of the Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 2-Alpha Kinase 3 (EIF2AK3) gene. METHODS: Genetic analysis of a consanguineous family where two children were diagnosed with WRS was performed by Sanger sequencing. The altered protein was investigated by in vitro cloning, expression and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: The first cases in Hungary, - two patients in one family, where the parents were fourth-degree cousins - showed the typical clinical features of WRS: early onset diabetes mellitus with hyperglycemia, growth retardation, infection-induced multiple organ failure. The genetic background of the disease was a novel alteration in the EIF2AK3 gene involving the splice site of exon 11- intron 11-12 boundary: g.53051_53062delinsTG. According to cDNA sequencing this created a new splice site and resulted in a frameshift and the development of an early termination codon at amino acid position 633 (p.Pro627AspfsTer7). Based on in vitro cloning and expression studies, the truncated protein was functionally inactive. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the intact protein was absent in the islets of pancreas, furthermore insulin expressing cells were also dramatically diminished. Elevated GRP78 and reduced CHOP protein expression were observed in the liver. CONCLUSIONS: The novel genetic alteration causing the absence of the EIF2AK3 protein resulted in insufficient handling of severe endoplasmic reticulum stress, leading to liver failure and demise of the patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Epífises/anormalidades , Mutação INDEL , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Sítios de Splice de RNA/genética , eIF-2 Quinase/genética , Pré-Escolar , Consanguinidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/patologia , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Epífises/patologia , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Humanos , Hungria , Lactente , Falência Hepática/complicações , Falência Hepática/genética , Falência Hepática/patologia , Osteocondrodisplasias/diagnóstico , Osteocondrodisplasias/patologia , Linhagem , Irmãos , Viroses/complicações , Viroses/patologia
20.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 318(5): F1067-F1073, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200667

RESUMO

Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are coagulation protease targets, and they increase expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in various diseases. Of all PARs, previous reports have shown that PAR1 or PAR2 inhibition is protective against diabetic glomerular injury. However, how PAR1 and PAR2 cooperatively contribute to diabetic kidney disease (DKD) pathogenesis and whether dual blockade of PARs is more effective in DKD remain elusive. To address this issue, male type I diabetic Akita mice heterozygous for endothelial nitric oxide synthase were used as a model of DKD. Mice (4 mo old) were divided into four treatment groups and administered vehicle, PAR1 antagonist (E5555, 60 mg·kg-1·day-1), PAR2 antagonist (FSLLRY, 3 mg·kg-1·day-1), or E5555 + FSLLRY for 4 wk. The results showed that the urinary albumin creatinine ratio was significantly reduced when both PAR1 and PAR2 were blocked with E5555 + FSLLRY compared with the vehicle-treated group. Dual blockade of PAR1 and PAR2 by E5555 + FSLLRY additively ameliorated histological injury, including mesangial expansion, glomerular macrophage infiltration, and collagen type IV deposition. Marked reduction of inflammation- and fibrosis-related gene expression in the kidney was also observed. In vitro, PAR1 and PAR2 agonists additively increased mRNA expression of macrophage chemoattractant protein 1 or plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in human endothelial cells. Changes induced by the PAR1 agonist were blocked by a NF-κB inhibitor, whereas those of the PAR2 agonist were blocked by MAPK and/or NF-κB inhibitors. These findings suggest that PAR1 and PAR2 additively contribute to DKD pathogenesis and that dual blockade of both could be a novel therapeutic option for treatment of patients with DKD.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/prevenção & controle , Iminas/farmacologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Receptor PAR-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor PAR-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Albuminúria/genética , Albuminúria/metabolismo , Albuminúria/prevenção & controle , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Colágeno Tipo IV/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Nefropatias Diabéticas/genética , Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Nefropatias Diabéticas/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Quimioterapia Combinada , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Fibrose , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Camundongos da Linhagem 129 , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/deficiência , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/genética , Receptor PAR-1/metabolismo , Receptor PAR-2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
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