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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250739, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355896

RESUMO

Abstract Several reasons may underlie the dramatic increase in type2 diabetes mellitus. One of these reasons is the genetic basis and variations. Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms are associated with different diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes. The aim of this study is to investigate the possible association of two identified mutations ApaI (rs7975232) and TaqI (rs731236). Eighty-nine healthy individuals and Fifty-six Type 2 Diabetic (T2D) patients were investigated using RFLP technique for genotyping and haplotyping as well. The distribution of Apal genotypes was not statistically significant among the control (P=0.65) as well as for diabetic patients (P=0.58). For Taql allele frequencies of T allele was 0.61 where of G allele was 0.39. The frequency distribution of Taql genotypes was not statistically significant among the control (P=0.26) as well as diabetic patients (P=0.17). Relative risk of the allele T of Apa1 gene is 1.28 and the odds ratio of the same allele is 1.53, while both estimates were < 1.0 of the allele G. Similarly, with the Taq1 gene the relative risk and the odds ratio values for the allele T are 1.09 and 1.27 respectively and both estimates of the allele C were 0.86 for the relative risk and 0.79 for the odds ratio. The pairwise linkage disequilibrium between the two SNPs Taq1/apa1 was statistically significant in control group (D = 0.218, D' = 0.925 and P value < 0.001) and similar data in diabetic groups (D = 0.2, D' = 0.875 and P value < 0.001). These data suggest that the T allele of both genes Apa1 and Taq1 is associated with the increased risk of type 2 diabetes. We think that we need a larger number of volunteers to reach a more accurate conclusion.


Resumo Várias razões podem estar subjacentes ao aumento dramático da diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Um desses motivos é a base genética e variações. Os polimorfismos do receptor da vitamina D estão associados a diferentes doenças, como artrite reumatoide e diabetes. O objetivo deste estudo é investigar a possível associação de duas mutações identificadas ApaI (rs7975232) e TaqI (rs731236). Oitenta e nove indivíduos saudáveis ​​e 56 pacientes com diabetes tipo 2 (T2D) foram investigados usando a técnica RFLP para genotipagem e haplotipagem também. A distribuição dos genótipos Apal não foi estatisticamente significativa entre o controle (P = 0,65), bem como para os pacientes diabéticos (P = 0,58). Para as frequências do alelo Taql, o alelo T foi de 0,61, onde o alelo G foi de 0,39. A distribuição de frequência dos genótipos Taql não foi estatisticamente significativa entre o controle (P = 0,26), bem como os pacientes diabéticos (P = 0,17). O risco relativo do alelo T do gene Apa1 é 1,28 e a razão de chances do mesmo alelo é 1,53, enquanto ambas as estimativas foram < 1,0 do alelo G. Da mesma forma, com o gene Taq1, os valores de risco relativo e razão de chances para o alelo T são 1,09 e 1,27, respectivamente, e ambas as estimativas do alelo C foram de 0,86 para o risco relativo e 0,79 para o odds ratio. O desequilíbrio de ligação par a par entre os dois SNPs Taq1 / apa1 foi estatisticamente significativo no grupo de controle (D = 0,218, D' = 0,925 e valor P < 0,001) e dados semelhantes em grupos diabéticos (D = 0,2, D' = 0,875 e valor P < 0,001). Esses dados sugerem que o alelo T de ambos os genes Apa1 e Taq1 está associado ao aumento do risco de diabetes tipo 2. Achamos que precisamos de um número maior de voluntários para chegar a uma conclusão mais precisa.


Assuntos
Humanos , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Arábia Saudita , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242818, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285628

RESUMO

Abstract The study was aimed to assess impact of high fat diet (HFD) and synthetic human gut microbiota (GM) combined with HFD and chow diet (CD) in inducing type-2 diabetes (T2D) using mice model. To our knowledge, this is the first study using selected human GM transplantation via culture based method coupled dietary modulation in mice for in vivo establishment of inflammation leading to T2D and gut dysbiosis. Twenty bacteria (T2D1-T2D20) from stool samples of confirmed T2D subjects were found to be morphologically different and subjected to purification on different media both aerobically and anerobically, which revealed seven bacteria more common among 20 isolates on the basis of biochemical characterization. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, these seven isolates were identified as Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenes (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). The seven isolates were subsequently used as synthetic gut microbiome (GM) for their role in inducing T2D in mice. Inbred strains of albino mice were divided into four groups and were fed with CD, HFD, GM+HFD and GM+CD. Mice receiving HFD and GM+modified diet (CD/HFD) showed highly significant (P<0.05) increase in weight and blood glucose concentration as well as elevated level of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1) compared to mice receiving CD only. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 11 fecal bacteria obtained from three randomly selected animals from each group revealed gut dysbiosis in animals receiving GM. Bacterial strains including Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152631), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152632), Parabacteroides gordonii (MT152633), Prevotella copri (MT152634) and Lactobacillus gasseri (MT152635) were isolated from mice treated with GM+modified diet (HFD/CD) compared to strains Akkermansia muciniphila (MT152625), Bacteriodes sp. (MT152626), Bacteroides faecis (MT152627), Bacteroides vulgatus (MT152628), Lactobacillus plantarum (MT152629) which were isolated from mice receiving CD/HFD. In conclusion, these findings suggest that constitution of GM and diet plays significant role in inflammation leading to onset or/and possibly progression of T2D. .


Resumo O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o impacto da dieta rica em gordura (HFD) e da microbiota intestinal humana sintética (GM) combinada com HFD e dieta alimentar (CD) na indução de diabetes tipo 2 (T2D) usando modelo de camundongos. Para nosso conhecimento, este é o primeiro estudo usando transplante de GM humano selecionado através do método baseado em cultura acoplada à modulação dietética em camundongos para o estabelecimento in vivo de inflamação que leva a T2D e disbiose intestinal. Vinte bactérias (T2D1-T2D20) de amostras de fezes de indivíduos T2D confirmados verificaram ser morfologicamente diferentes e foram submetidas à purificação em meios diferentes aerobicamente e anaerobicamente, o que revelou sete bactérias mais comuns entre 20 isolados com base na caracterização bioquímica. Com base no sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA, esses sete isolados foram identificados como Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenides (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). Esses sete isolados foram, posteriormente, usados ​​como microbioma intestinal sintético (GM) por seu papel na indução de T2D em camundongos. Linhagens consanguíneas de camundongos albinos foram divididas em quatro grupos e foram alimentadas com CD, HFD, GM + HFD e GM + CD. Camundongos que receberam a dieta modificada com HFD e GM + (CD / HFD) mostraram um aumento altamente significativo (P < 0,05) no peso e na concentração de glicose no sangue, bem como um nível elevado de citocinas inflamatórias (TNF-α, IL-6 e MCP-1) em comparação com os ratos que receberam apenas CD. O sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA de 11 bactérias fecais obtidas de três animais selecionados aleatoriamente de cada grupo revelou disbiose intestinal em animais que receberam GM. Cepas bacterianas, incluindo Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152631), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152632), Parabacteroides gordonii (MT152633), Prevotella copri (MT152634) e Lactobacillus Gasseri (MT152635D), foram tratadas com dieta modificada / CD) em comparação com as linhagens Akkermansia muciniphila (MT152625), Bacteriodes sp. (MT152626), Bacteroides faecis (MT152627), Bacteroides vulgatus (MT152628), Lactobacillus plantarum (MT152629), que foram isoladas de camundongos recebendo CD / HFD. Em conclusão, esses resultados sugerem que a constituição de GM e dieta desempenham papel significativo na inflamação levando ao início ou/e possivelmente à progressão de T2D.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Coelhos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Bacteroides , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Prevotella , Bacteroidetes , Ruminococcus , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Disbiose , Inflamação , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
3.
Horm Metab Res ; 54(2): 84-93, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130569

RESUMO

Long-term glycemic fluctuation has been associated with cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the findings are inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis to summarize the association between parameters of long-term glycemic variability and risk of cardiovascular events in T2DM patients. Medline, Embase, and Web of Science databases were searched for longitudinal follow-up studies comparing the incidence of cardiovascular events in T2DM patients with higher or lower long-term glycemic variability. A random-effect model incorporating the potential heterogeneity among the included studies was used to pool the results. Twelve follow-up studies with 146 653 T2DM patients were included. The mean follow-up duration was 4.9 years. Pooled results showed that compared to those with the lowest glycemic variability, patients with the highest glycemic variability had significantly increased risk of cardiovascular events, as evidenced by the standard deviation of glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c-SD: relative risk (RR)=1.44, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23 to 1.69, p<0.001; I2=70%], HbA1c coefficient of variation (HbA1c-CV: RR=1.46, 95% CI: 1.19 to 1.79. p<0.001; I2=83%), standard deviation of fasting plasma glucose (FPG-SD: RR=1.33, 95% CI: 1.07 to 1.65, p=0.009; I2=0%), and FPG coefficient of variation (FPG-CV: RR=1.29, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.64, p=0.04; I2=47%). In conclusion, increased long-term glycemic variability may be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events in T2DM patients.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Glicemia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Jejum , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
4.
Horm Metab Res ; 54(2): 94-103, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130570

RESUMO

Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) variability is emerging as an indicator of long-term glycemic control, which may play a significant role during vascular complications. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the association between the scope of HbA1c variability and vascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PubMed and Embase were searched for studies that evaluated the association of HbA1c variability with vascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes. Two reviewers independently completed data extraction. Random-effects meta-analysis was conducted with stratification according to the type of vascular complications. Nine studies were eligible for inclusion in our systematic review and meta-analysis. Six studies evaluated the impact of the standard deviation of HbA1c (HbA1c-SD) on cardiovascular events and showed an association of HbA1c-SD with cardiovascular events (HR: 1.25, 95% CI 1.18-1.32, 5 studies). Six studies evaluated renal disease associated with HbA1c-SD and showed that HbA1c-SD was correlated with an increased risk of renal disease (HR: 1.19, 95% CI 1.13-1.24). Two studies evaluated HbA1c-SD and the risk of retinopathy and showed that no significant association was found between retinopathy and HbA1c-SD (HR 1.08, 95% CI 0.92-125). For HbA1c-SD ranging from 0.6 to 0.8%, HbA1c-SD was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events (HR: 1.25, 95% CI 1.15-1.35) and renal disease (HR: 1.16, 95% CI 1.11-1.22). For individuals with index HbA1c variability greater than or equal to 0.6%, HbA1c variability was significantly associated with vascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Glicemia/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
rev.cuid. (Bucaramanga.2010) ; 13(1): 1-12, 20221213.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1369125

RESUMO

Introducción: La Diabetes Tipo 2 es considerado un problema de salud pública que afecta principalmente a las mujeres, que sumado a una mala adherencia al tratamiento terapéutico y, a una falta de calidad de sueño, aumentan la problemática de salud. Objetivo: Determinar las interrelaciones existentes entre la Calidad de Sueño, la Adherencia al Tratamiento Terapéutico y los valores de HbA1c en Mujeres con DT2, perteneciente a una comunidad de la ciudad de Puebla. Materiales y Métodos: El diseño del estudio fue de tipo descriptivo, correlacional y de corte transversal. La muestra se calculó con un nivel de significancia de .05, un coeficiente de correlación .30 y un poder estadístico del 90%, obteniendo una n=110. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron: una cédula de datos personales, el Índice de calidad de sueño de Pittsburgh (PSQI), el Cuestionario de Adherencia Terapéutica MBG (Martín-Bayarre-Grau) y el dispositivo Eclipse A1c. Resultados: Se encontró una relación negativa y significativa para la calidad de sueño con los niveles de HbA1c (rs=-.355; p=.001); no así para con la variable de adherencia al tratamiento terapéutico. Discusión: La información obtenida concuerda con otros estudios, al reafirmar de manera indirecta, las reacciones bioquimicas que ocurren durante la privación del sueño. Conclusiones: Los resultados descubiertos contribuyen al fortalecimiento científico de enfermería, orientando en la mejora de cuidados, que servirá para el diseño de intervenciones que favorezcan a la salud de las mujeres con Diabetes Tipo 2.


Introduction: Type 2 Diabetes is considered a public health problem that mainly affects women, which, added to poor adherence to therapeutic treatment and a lack of quality sleep, increase health problems. Objective: To determine the existing interrelations between Sleep Quality, Adherence to Therapeutic Treatment and HbA1c values in Women with T2D, belonging to a community in the city of Puebla. Materials and Method: the study design was descriptive, correlational and cross-sectional. The sample was calculated with a significance level of .05, a correlation coefficient of .30 and a statistical power of 90%, obtaining n = 110. The instruments used were: a personal data card, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the MBG Therapeutic Adherence Questionnaire (Martín-Bayarre-Grau) and the Eclipse A1c device. Results: a negative and significant relationship was found for sleep quality with HbA1c levels (rs = -. 355; p = .001); not so for the variable of adherence to therapeutic treatment. Discussion: The information obtained agrees with other studies, indirectly reaffirming the biochemical reactions that occur during sleep deprivation. Conclusions: the results discovered contribute to the scientific strengthening of nursing, guiding the improvement of care, which will serve to design interventions that favor the health of women with Type 2 Diabetes.


Introdução: A diabetes tipo 2 é considerada um problema de saúde pública que afeta principalmente as mulheres, o que somado a uma má aderência ao tratamento terapêutico e, a falta de qualidade do sono, aumenta o problema de saúde. Objetivo: Determinar as inter-relações entre a qualidade do sono, a adesão ao tratamento terapêutico e os valores de HbA1c nas mulheres com DT2, pertencentes a uma comunidade da cidade de Puebla. Materiais e Métodos: O desenho do estudo foi descritivo, correlacional e transversal. A amostra foi calculada com um nível de significância de 0,05, um coeficiente de correlação de 0,30 e um poder estatístico de 90%, obtendo-se uma n=110. Os instrumentos utilizados foram: um formulário de dados pessoais, o Índice de Qualidade de Sono de Pittsburgh (PSQI), o Questionário MBG para Avaliar Adesão Terapêutica (Martín-Bayarre-Grau) e o dispositivo Eclipse A1c. Resultados: Foi encontrada uma relação negativa e significativa da qualidade do sono com os níveis de HbA1c (rs=-.355; p=.001); este não foi o caso para a variável de aderência ao tratamento terapêutico. Discussão: As informações obtidas concordam com outros estudos, reafirmando indiretamente as reações bioquímicas que ocorrem durante a privação do sono. Conclusões: Os resultados descobertos contribuem para o fortalecimento científico da enfermagem, orientando a melhoria dos cuidados, que servirão para o desenho de intervenções que favoreçam a saúde das mulheres com diabetes tipo 2.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Sono , Mulheres , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento
6.
Eur J Histochem ; 66(1)2022 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35057584

RESUMO

G-protein-coupled receptor 41 (GPR41) and G-protein-coupled receptor 43 (GPR43) are important short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) receptors. Previous studies indicated that GPR41 and GPR43 are involved in the secretion of gastrointestinal peptides, and glucose and lipid metabolism, and are closely related to obesity and type II diabetes, and other diseases. The purpose of the study was to explore the relationship between the GPR41 and GPR43 and seasonal breeding, and provide new prospects for further exploring the nutritional needs of breeding. We identified the localization and expression levels of GPR41 and GPR43 in the colon of the wild ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus) both in the breeding season and non-breeding season. The histological results revealed that the lumen diameter of the colon had obvious seasonal changes, and the diameter of the colonic lumen in the non-breeding season was larger than that in the breeding season. Immunohistochemical staining suggested GPR41 and GPR43 have expressed in the simple layer columnar epithelium. In addition, compared with the breeding season, the mRNA and protein expression levels of GPR41 and GPR43 in the colon were higher during the non-breeding season. In general, these results indicated GPR41 and GPR43 might play a certain role in regulating seasonal breeding.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Sciuridae , Animais , Colo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Sciuridae/metabolismo , Estações do Ano
7.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 932343, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35909523

RESUMO

Bone is a highly dynamic tissue that undergoes continuous remodeling by bone resorbing osteoclasts and bone forming osteoblasts, a process regulated in large part by osteocytes. Dysregulation of these coupled catabolic and anabolic processes as in the case of menopause, type 2 diabetes mellitus, anorexia nervosa, and chronic kidney disease is known to increase fracture risk. Recent advances in the field of bone cell metabolism and bioenergetics have revealed that maintenance of the skeleton places a high energy demand on these cells involved in bone remodeling. These new insights highlight the reason that bone tissue is the beneficiary of a substantial proportion of cardiac output and post-prandial chylomicron remnants and requires a rich supply of nutrients. Studies designed for the specific purpose of investigating the impact of dietary modifications on bone homeostasis or that alter diet composition and food intake to produce the model can be found throughout the literature; however, confounding dietary factors are often overlooked in some of the preclinical models. This review will examine some of the common pre-clinical models used to study skeletal biology and its pathologies and the subsequent impact of various dietary factors on these model systems. Furthermore, the review will include how inadvertent effects of some of these dietary components can influence bone cell function and study outcomes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Remodelação Óssea/fisiologia , Osso e Ossos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Humanos , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Osteócitos/metabolismo
8.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 935776, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35909551

RESUMO

Objective: Increasing evidence highlighted that chronic inflammation involved in the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This prospective study was aimed to assess the association between MetS and novel pro-inflammatory indicators like monocyte-to-high-density lipoprotein and monocyte-to-apolipoprotein A1 ratios (MHR and MAR) in Chinese newly diagnosed T2DM. Method: A total of 605 Chinese newly diagnosed T2DM with complete and available data were enrolled in this study. Demographic and anthropometric information were collected. Laboratory assessments were determined by standard methods. MetS was based on the Chinese Diabetes Society definition. Multiple binomial logistic regression model was used to estimate the independent variables of MHR and MAR for MetS. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was conducted to assess the optimal cutoff value of MHR and MAR in identifying MetS. Results: Overall, the prevalence of MetS was 60.2%. The correlation analysis showed that MHR and MAR were closely correlated with metabolic risk factors like body mass index, waist circumference, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, uric acid, and insulin resistance. MHR and MAR were also significantly associated with higher odds of MetS after adjustment for other confounders, the odds ratios (ORs) (95%CI) were 1.50 (1.14-1.97) and 2.26(1.79-2.87) respectively. Furthermore, MHR and MAR were also seemed to have higher area under the curve (AUC) for MetS than ApoA1 and monocyte alone from the ROC curve analysis (P < 0.05). The AUCs of MHR and MAR identifying MetS were 0.804 (95% CI: 0.768-0.839) and 0.840 (95% CI: 0.806-0.873) respectively (P < 0.001). The optimal cutoff values of MHR and MAR were 3.57 × 108/mmol (sensitivity: 76.1%, specificity: 73.4%) and 3.95 × 108/g (sensitivity: 79.7%, specificity: 84.6%), respectively. Conclusions: MHR and MAR were significantly associated with MetS. These two novel pro-inflammatory indicators may be useful markers for MetS in Chinese newly diagnosed T2DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Síndrome Metabólica , Apolipoproteína A-I , China/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lipoproteínas HDL , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Monócitos , Estudos Prospectivos
9.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 937394, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35909546

RESUMO

The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is highly effective in the remission of obesity and associated diabetes. The mechanisms underlying obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus remission after RYGB remain unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the changes in continuous dynamic FDG uptake patterns after RYGB and examine the correlation between glucose metabolism and its transporters in variable endocrine organs using 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography images. Increased glucose metabolism in specific organs, such as the small intestine and various fat tissues, is closely associated with improved glycemic control after RYGB. In Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats fed with high-fat diets, RYGB operation increases intestine glucose transporter expression and various fat tissues' glucose transporters, which are not affected by insulin. The fasting glucose decrement was significantly associated with RYGB, sustained weight loss, post-RYGB oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) area under the curve (AUC), glucose transporter, or glycolytic enzymes in the small bowel and various fat tissues. High intestinal glucose metabolism and white adipose tissue-dependent glucose metabolism correlated with metabolic benefit after RYGB. These findings suggest that the newly developed glucose biodistribution accompanied by increased glucose transporters is a mechanism associated with the systemic effect of RYGB.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Derivação Gástrica , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/cirurgia , Derivação Gástrica/métodos , Glucose/metabolismo , Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/cirurgia , Ratos , Distribuição Tecidual
10.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 939251, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35909567

RESUMO

Background: Previous studies have suggested a close link between sleep disturbances and diabetic retinopathy (DR). However, to date, no confirmatory findings have been reported. We aimed to explore the risk of insomnia in DR by considering demographic factors and diabetes mellitus (DM)-related variables. Methods: A nationwide population-based cohort of 2,206,619 patients with type 2 diabetes from the Korean National Insurance Service Database was followed up for insomnia incidence. DR, non-proliferative DR (NPDR), and proliferative DR (PDR) were defined according to ICD-10 codes. The interactive effects of sex, age, and DM-related variables were analyzed to evaluate their impact on insomnia risk in DR. Results: Compared with the non-DR group, insomnia risk was increased in the DR [(adjusted hazard ratio (aHR): 1.125, 95% confidence interval (CI):1.108-1.142), NPDR (aHR:1.117, 95% CI:1.099-1.134), and PDR (aHR:1.205, 95% CI: 1.156-1.256), even after controlling for comorbidities, lifestyle factors, and DM-related variables. The men and youngest age groups (<40 years) were most vulnerable to insomnia risk. Sex, age, DM duration, and chronic kidney disease (CKD) status exerted interactive effects with DR status in increasing the insomnia risk. In the PDR group, sex, age, DM duration, insulin therapy status, and CKD status exerted interactive effects that increased the risk of insomnia. Conclusion: Insomnia risk is significantly higher in patients with DR, and clinical attention is warranted.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Retinopatia Diabética , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Retinopatia Diabética/epidemiologia , Retinopatia Diabética/etiologia , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/complicações , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia
11.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 938094, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35909533

RESUMO

Environmental contaminants in ambient air pollution pose a serious risk to long-term metabolic health. Strong evidence shows that prenatal exposure to pollutants can significantly increase the risk of Type II Diabetes (T2DM) in children and all ethnicities, even without the prevalence of obesity. The central nervous system (CNS) is critical in regulating whole-body metabolism. Within the CNS, the hypothalamus lies at the intersection of the neuroendocrine and autonomic systems and is primarily responsible for the regulation of energy homeostasis and satiety signals. The hypothalamus is particularly sensitive to insults during early neurodevelopmental periods and may be susceptible to alterations in the formation of neural metabolic circuitry. Although the precise molecular mechanism is not yet defined, alterations in hypothalamic developmental circuits may represent a leading cause of impaired metabolic programming. In this review, we present the current knowledge on the links between prenatal pollutant exposure and the hypothalamic programming of metabolism.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Poluentes Ambientais , Criança , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotálamo/fisiologia , Sistemas Neurossecretores/fisiologia , Gravidez
12.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(8): 3021-3025, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35918965

RESUMO

Purpose: To determine the associations of predominant peripheral lesions (PPLs) with systemic comorbidities in individuals with diabetic retinopathy. Methods: This is a multicenter cross-sectional observational study conducted across three tertiary eye care centers in south India between January 2019 and July 2021. Ultra-widefield fundus images of consecutive patients with varying severity of diabetic retinopathy with data on systemic comorbidities were classified based on the presence or absence of PPL. Systemic comorbidities (hypertension, diabetic kidney disease, coronary artery disease, dyslipidemia, and anemia) were compared between the two groups. Results: A total of 879 participants (70.1% males) were included in the study, of which 443 (50.4%) patients had PPL. The mean age of the study participants was 56 ± 10 years, mean age of onset of diabetes was 41.24 ± 11.6 years, and mean duration of diabetes was 15.39 ± 7.6 years. The number of PPL increased with increasing severity of DR. Of all the systemic comorbidities analyzed, we found that coronary artery disease (CAD) had a significant association with PPL (Odds ratio [OR]-1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-2.55; P = 0.013) after adjusting for diabetic retinopathy severity, duration of diabetes, and age of onset of diabetes. Conclusion: The presence of PPL is a marker for coronary artery disease and early referral to cardiology is warranted.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Retinopatia Diabética , Adulto , Idoso , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Retinopatia Diabética/complicações , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Retinopatia Diabética/epidemiologia , Feminino , Fundo de Olho , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
J Trop Pediatr ; 68(4)2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35920158

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The studies evaluating cases with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the adult population reported hyperreactive platelets and increased activation of prothrombotic factors, resulting in an increased risk of thrombosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of poor glycemic control and the duration of diabetes on platelet parameters in pediatric population. METHODS: The study included 366 children, out of which 144 (39.3%) were included in the T1DM group and 222 (60.6%) in the healthy control group. The platelet count, mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width and plateletcrit values were recorded. The children with T1DM were divided into three groups as per their glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, good (<7.5%), moderate (7.5-9%) and poor metabolic control (>9%). RESULTS: No significant difference in the MPV level between the T1DM (7.41 ± 1.49 fl) and control (7.15 ± 1.23 fl) groups was observed. However, the MPV levels were significantly higher in the poor glycemic control group than in the healthy control group (p = 0.026). Furthermore, as the duration of diabetes and HbA1c levels increased, the MPV levels also increased (p < 0.001, p = 0.441). CONCLUSION: This study suggested as the duration of diabetes and HbA1c levels increased, the MPV levels also increases. Evaluation of hematological parameters can be a cheap and useful method in the evaluation of diabetes regulation in patients with diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adulto , Glicemia , Plaquetas/química , Criança , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Controle Glicêmico , Humanos , Volume Plaquetário Médio , Ativação Plaquetária
14.
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care ; 25(5): 329-333, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35920204

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide and is strongly associated with metabolic disorders, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome, to the extent that a new definition of metabolic associated fatty liver disease has been proposed. RECENT FINDINGS: Insulin resistance, worsened by a high-fat and high-carbohydrate diet, is the key to the physiopathology of hepatic steatosis. This is driven by several mechanisms that are mostly activated at a genetic level, such as de-novo lipogenesis and triglyceride synthesis. Therefore, many diet regimens have been studied, although significant controversies remain regarding their metabolic effects and long-term sustainability. SUMMARY: In this review, we summarized the role and effects of the main macronutrients on the development of NAFLD and discussed the molecular mechanisms involved. We also discussed the importance of genetic polymorphisms, epigenetic alterations, and dysbiosis to determine if lifestyle modification and a specific dietary regimen could be an essential part of NAFLD treatment.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Resistência à Insulina , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Dieta , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Humanos , Lipogênese , Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Nutrigenômica
15.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0265107, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35930540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity and overweight are known public health problems that affect populations across the world. These conditions have been associated with a wide range of chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and cancers. In Ethiopia, the literature regarding the burden of central (abdominal) obesity is scarce. This study aimed to fill this gap by assessing the prevalence and risk factors associated with central obesity among adults in Ethiopia. METHODS: From May to July 2021, a community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted on a sample of 694 adults aged ≥18 years in administrative towns of Bale zone, Southeast Ethiopia. Multi-stage sampling followed by systematic random sampling was employed to identify study participants. Waist and hip circumferences were measured using standard protocols. The World Health Organization STEPS wise tool was used to assess risk factors associated with central obesity. Bi-variable and multi-variable binary logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with central obesity. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) have been reported to estimate the strength of associations. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of central obesity using waist circumference was 39.01% [(95% CI: 35.36-42.76; 15.44% for men and 53.12% for women)]. Multi-variable binary logistic regression analysis revealed that female sex (AOR = 12.93, 95% CI: 6.74-24.79), Age groups: 30-39 years old (AOR = 2.8, 95% CI: 1.59-4.94), 40-49 years (AOR = 7.66, 95% CI: 3.87-15.15), 50-59 years (AOR = 4.65, 95% CI: 2.19-9.89), ≥60 years (AOR = 12.67, 95% CI: 5.46-29.39), occupational status like: housewives (AOR = 5.21, 95% CI: 1.85-14.62), self-employed workers (AOR = 4.63, 95% CI: 1.62-13.24), government/private/non-government employees (AOR = 4.68, 95% CI: 1.47-14.88), and skipping breakfast (AOR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.23-0.9) were significantly associated with central obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Abdominal obesity has become an epidemic in Bale Zone's towns in Southeastern Ethiopia. Female sex, age, being employed were positively associated with central obesity, while skipping breakfast was a protective factor.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Obesidade Abdominal , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
16.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272297, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35930583

RESUMO

The diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) in humans is associated with high altitude, few sunshine hours, cold climate, and winter. The goals of this study were to investigate seasonal and geographic patterns of DM diagnosis in United States of America (USA) dogs with juvenile and mature onset DM. Data were collected by means of an online survey widely distributed in the USA through breed clubs, academic veterinary institutions, private veterinary referral practices, social media outlets, and the American Kennel Club. Juvenile DM (JDM) and mature onset DM were defined as DM with an age of onset <365 days and DM with an age of onset ≥365 days, respectively. Meteorological seasons were defined as: winter from December through February, spring from March through May, summer from June through August, and fall from September through November. Four geographic regions were also defined as the West, North, South, and Central regions of the USA. Nonoverlapping 95% confidence intervals (CI) for season, geographic region, and breed specific proportions of dogs with JDM were considered statistically significantly different. The study included 933 dogs with mature onset DM and 27 dogs with JDM. Dogs were diagnosed with DM significantly more in the winter and northern USA compared to all other seasons and all other geographic regions, respectively. The prevalence of JDM among dogs with DM was 2.8%. The proportion of dogs with JDM among pure breeds was not significantly different than the proportion of JDM in mixed breed dogs. It is concluded that winter and cold climate could be shared environmental factors influencing DM expression in dogs and humans. Additionally, pure breed dogs do not appear to be at increased risk for JDM compared to mixed breed dogs, indicating that factors other than genetics could influence spontaneous JDM development in dogs.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Animais , Cruzamento , Cães , Geografia , Humanos , Estações do Ano , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Nutr Diabetes ; 12(1): 36, 2022 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931671

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Early identification of diabetic retinopathy (DR) is key to prioritizing therapy and preventing permanent blindness. This study aims to propose a machine learning model for DR early diagnosis using metabolomics and clinical indicators. METHODS: From 2017 to 2018, 950 participants were enrolled from two affiliated hospitals of Wenzhou Medical University and Anhui Medical University. A total of 69 matched blocks including healthy volunteers, type 2 diabetes, and DR patients were obtained from a propensity score matching-based metabolomics study. UPLC-ESI-MS/MS system was utilized for serum metabolic fingerprint data. CART decision trees (DT) were used to identify the potential biomarkers. Finally, the nomogram model was developed using the multivariable conditional logistic regression models. The calibration curve, Hosmer-Lemeshow test, receiver operating characteristic curve, and decision curve analysis were applied to evaluate the performance of this predictive model. RESULTS: The mean age of enrolled subjects was 56.7 years with a standard deviation of 9.2, and 61.4% were males. Based on the DT model, 2-pyrrolidone completely separated healthy controls from diabetic patients, and thiamine triphosphate (ThTP) might be a principal metabolite for DR detection. The developed nomogram model (including diabetes duration, systolic blood pressure and ThTP) shows an excellent quality of classification, with AUCs (95% CI) of 0.99 (0.97-1.00) and 0.99 (0.95-1.00) in training and testing sets, respectively. Furthermore, the predictive model also has a reasonable degree of calibration. CONCLUSIONS: The nomogram presents an accurate and favorable prediction for DR detection. Further research with larger study populations is needed to confirm our findings.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Retinopatia Diabética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nomogramas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
18.
Nutr Diabetes ; 12(1): 35, 2022 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931683

RESUMO

Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolism has been considered to have an emerging role in the pathogenesis of metabolic disturbances in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Several studies showed elevated plasma BCAA levels in humans with insulin resistance and patients with T2D, although the underlying reason is unknown. Dysfunctional BCAA catabolism could theoretically be an underlying factor. In vitro and animal work collectively show that modulation of the BCAA catabolic pathway alters key metabolic processes affecting glucose homeostasis, although an integrated understanding of tissue-specific BCAA catabolism remains largely unknown, especially in humans. Proof-of-concept studies in rodents -and to a lesser extent in humans - strongly suggest that enhancing BCAA catabolism improves glucose homeostasis in metabolic disorders, such as obesity and T2D. In this review, we discuss several hypothesized mechanistic links between BCAA catabolism and insulin resistance and overview current available tools to modulate BCAA catabolism in vivo. Furthermore, this review considers whether enhancing BCAA catabolism forms a potential future treatment strategy to promote metabolic health in insulin resistance and T2D.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Resistência à Insulina , Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Obesidade/metabolismo
19.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 996, 2022 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is a significant public health problem globally and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Diabetes self-management education and support (DSMES) programmes are associated with improved psychological and clinical outcomes. There are currently no structured DSMES available in Ghana. We sought to adapt an evidence-based DSMES intervention for the Ghanaian population in collaboration with the local Ghanaian people. METHODS: We used virtual engagements with UK-based DSMES trainers, produced locally culturally and linguistically appropriate content and modified the logistics needed for the delivery of the self-management programme to suit people with low literacy and low health literacy levels. CONCLUSIONS: A respectful understanding of the socio-cultural belief systems in Ghana as well as the peculiar challenges of low resources settings and low health literacy is necessary for adaptation of any DSMES programme for Ghana. We identified key cultural, linguistic, and logistic considerations to incorporate into a DSMES programme for Ghanaians, guided by the Ecological Validity Model. These insights can be used further to scale up availability of structured DSMES in Ghana and other low- middle- income countries.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Autogestão , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Gana/epidemiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Autogestão/educação
20.
Perm J ; 26(2): 1-10, 2022 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35933662

RESUMO

Introduction The objective of this study was to identify and operationalize measures of potential housing insecurity within existing electronic health record data and to quantify the association between address changes and diabetes management goals among patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study to measure potential housing insecurity in electronic health record data by quantifying the number of address changes in 2018. We considered at least one address change as a potential marker for housing insecurity. We used multivariable modified Poisson regressions to analyze the association between address change and clinical, utilization and preventive care outcomes while adjusting for patient and health system factors. Results We identified 274,123 adults with type 2 diabetes who were members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California in 2018 and 6% (N = 17,317) had at least one address change during 2018. In multivariate analyses, we found that one or more address changes was associated with greater chance of hemoglobin A1C < 9 (ARR: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.15), lower chance of hemoglobin A1C < 8 (ARR: 0.95, 95% CI; 0.94, 0.96), lower chance of controlled blood pressure (ARR: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.98-0.99), greater chance of emergency department visits (ARR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.23, 1.27), and lower chance of having a flu shot (ARR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.93, 0.95) when compared to no address change. Discussion Changes in address are associated with worse diabetes management outcomes. Conclusion Identifying patients with potential housing insecurity and providing resources aimed at continuity of care and stable health care access could improve diabetes management for vulnerable populations.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adulto , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
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