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1.
J Diabetes Res ; 2020: 3918723, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33062712

RESUMO

People with diabetes have higher risks of various infections. Therefore, these diabetic patients might be at increased risk of COVID-19 and have a poorer prognosis. Up until now, little is known about critical role in the pathogenesis. This study aims to investigate the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients with diabetes and secondary hyperglycemia, as well as to explore the purported mechanisms. 80 confirmed COVID-19 subjects were classified into the euglycemia group, secondary hyperglycemia group, and diabetes group. Severity of COVID-19 was defined based on the diagnostic and treatment guideline for SARS-CoV-2 issued by Chinese National Health Committee. According to the severity of the disease, patients of the mild type and common type were registered as mild cases (patients with minimal symptoms and negative CT findings), while patients of the severe type and critical type were enrolled as severe cases (patients with positive CT findings and different extent of clinical manifestations). Patients in the diabetes group were older than those in the euglycemia group, and most of them were male. In the diabetes group, the proportion of severe cases was 57.14%, which was significantly higher than those in the other two groups, and 32% of the COVID-19 patients diagnosed as severe cases were with diabetes. The CD4+ cell counts in the diabetes group were lower than those in the other two groups, while the levels of LDH and hs-CRP were higher. Compared with the euglycemia group, the CD3+ cell counts and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio were decreased, whereas the levels of IL-6 were increased in the secondary hyperglycemia group and diabetes group, with the diversities in the diabetes group being especially more significant. The Spearman correlation analysis revealed that the presence of diabetes was positively correlated with age, hs-CRP, LDH, IL-6, CD8+ cells, and severity of COVID-19 and negatively correlated with CD3+ cell counts, CD4+ cell counts, and CD4+/CD8+ ratio. Compared with the other two groups, the diabetes group exhibited more diverse and multifocal features in CT imagings. Diabetes is a risk factor for influence of the progression and prognosis of COVID-19 due to ongoing inflammation and impaired immune response.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Glicemia/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/imunologia , Hiperglicemia/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/sangue , Hiperglicemia/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
3.
Acta Biomed ; 91(3): e2020010, 2020 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a scarcity of data regarding the effect of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and associated comorbidities on the clinical presentation and outcome of symptomatic patients with -COVID-19 infection in comparison with non-diabetic patients. AIM OF THE STUDY: We described and compared the clinical presentation and radiological and hematological data of a cohort of symptomatic COVID19 positive T2DM diabetic patients (n = 59) versus another cohort of non-diabetic symptomatic COVID19 positive patients (n =244) diagnosed at the same time from January 2020 to May 2020. Associated comorbidities were -assessed, and the Charlson Comorbidity Index was calculated. The outcomes including duration of hospitalization, duration of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, and duration of O2 -supplementation were assessed. RESULTS: Prevalence of T2DM in symptomatic COVID19 positive patients was 59/303 (=19.5%).  Diabetic patients had higher prevalence of hypertension, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiac dysfunction [coronary heart disease (CHD)], and congestive heart failure (CHF). Charlson Comorbidity score was significantly higher in the T2DM patients (2.4± 1.6) versus the non-diabetic -patients (0.28 ± 0.8; p: < 0.001). Clinically and radiologically, T2DM patients had significantly higher percentage of pneumonia, severe pneumonia and ARDS versus the non-diabetic patients. Hematologically, diabetic patients had significantly higher C-reactive protein (CRP), higher absolute neutrophilic count (ANC) and lower counts of lymphocytes and eosinophils compared to non-diabetic patients. They had significantly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures, longer duration of hospitalization, ICU stay, mechanical ventilation and oxygen therapy. CRP was correlated significantly with the duration of stay in the ICU and the duration for oxygen supplementation (r = 0.37 and 0.42 respectively; p: <0.01). CONCLUSIONS: T2DM patients showed higher inflammatory response to COVID 19 with higher absolute neutrophilic count (ANC) and CRP with lower lymphocytic and eosinophilic counts. Diabetic patients had more comorbidities and more aggressive course of the disease with higher rate of ICU admission and longer need for hospitalization and oxygen use.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Catar/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
4.
Ther Umsch ; 77(7): 319-327, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996424

RESUMO

Update: new forms of therapy for type-2-diabetes Abstract. In the past few years medical treatment of type-2-diabetes experienced fundamental changes. New medications were approved which have no intrinsic risk of hypoglycemia and exert weight loss. Cardiovascular outcome trials demonstrated positive effects on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality for GLP-1-receptor agonists and SGLT-2-inhibitors, the latter showing also specific nephroprotective effects. The growing bulk of data leads to modified therapy strategies: Persons with established cardiovascular disease or high cardiovascular risk should be treated primary with these medications. This review starts with an overview on newer antidiabetic substances (DPPIV-inhibitors, GLP-1-receptor agonists, SGLT-2-inhibitors). Then practical aspects of treatment regimens according to actual national and international guidelines are discussed.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico
5.
Ther Umsch ; 77(7): 297-301, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996427

RESUMO

Laboratory investigations in clinical diabetic practice Abstract. Laboratory analysis are useful to diagnose the proper form of diabetes mellitus, for follow-up of the metabolic control, and to identify secondary complications or associated diseases. The proof of auto-antibodies confirms Type 1 diabetes and a broad range of endocrine entities of the polyglandular autoimmune syndrome, and genetic testing classifies monogenetic diabetes like MODY or MIDDM. In secondary diabetes forms underlying disease can be detected by clinical and laboratory investigation, and thus, causal treatment of the diabetes may be possible.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Testes Genéticos , Humanos
6.
Scott Med J ; 65(4): 154-160, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865157

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the prognostic value of neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, lymphocyte-monocyte ratio and red cell distribution width in type 2 diabetics with COVID-19. METHODS: We collected the data of type 2 diabetics with COVID-19 treated in our hospital from January 28 to March 15, 2020 and performed a retrospective analysis. Using severity, duration of hospital stay, and the time required for nucleic acid results became negative as prognostic indicators, we explored the relationship between these inflammation-based markers and prognosis of type 2 diabetics with COVID-19. RESULTS: A total of 134 type 2 diabetics with COVID-19 were selected for this study. Correlation analysis showed that NLR, LMR and RDW were correlated with prognosis (P < 0.05). In multivariate regression analysis after controlling for the relevant confounding factors, COVID-19 diabetes patients with higher NLR had heavier severity, longer duration of hospital stay, more time required for nucleic acid results became negative, and heavier hospital expenses (P < 0.05). ROC curve result displayed that higher NLR predicted all prognostic indicators with statistical significance, and lower LMR predicted severe and extremely severe with statistical significance (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: NLR is a more powerful and practical marker for predicting the prognosis of type 2 diabetic COVID-19 patients that is simple and fast.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Contagem de Linfócitos , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos , Neutrófilos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 16: 343-352, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943869

RESUMO

Purpose: The impact of glycemic control on macrovascular complications and arterial stiffness in type II diabetes (T2D), as well as the extent of additive effect of hypertension, is unclear. The aims of this study were to investigate the impact of glycemic control on the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), an indicator of arterial stiffness, and to determine the relative risk of concomitant diabetes and hypertension with arterial stiffness. Methods: One hundred and nine participants were enrolled and classified as non-diabetes (n= 37) and diabetes (n=72); the diabetic group was further identified as controllable and uncontrollable T2D depending on their hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels. Univariate and multiple regression analyses were used to assess the association between CAVI and glycemic control status and hypertension. Relative risk analysis for abnormal CAVI with exposure to diabetes and hypertension was investigated. Results: In all participants, age, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, and fasting blood sugar were independent predictors of CAVI. In diabetic participants, glycemic control status or HbA1c levels did not significantly correlate with CAVI. Systolic blood pressure was an independent predictor for CAVI with ß = 0.26. In addition, the coexistence of diabetes together with hypertension was significantly associated with a 2.4-fold increase in the risk of abnormal CAVI (95% CI, 1.410-4.184; p <0.001). Conclusion: This study demonstrates that HbA1c as well as fasting blood sugar levels in diabetic participants do not correlate with arterial stiffness. Concomitant diabetes and hypertension significantly increase the risk of arterial stiffness.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Rigidez Vascular , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Índice Vascular Coração-Tornozelo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
8.
Lancet Public Health ; 5(10): e543-e550, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To date, research on the indirect impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the health of the population and the health-care system is scarce. We aimed to investigate the indirect effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on general practice health-care usage, and the subsequent diagnoses of common physical and mental health conditions in a deprived UK population. METHODS: We did a retrospective cohort study using routinely collected primary care data that was recorded in the Salford Integrated Record between Jan 1, 2010, and May 31, 2020. We extracted the weekly number of clinical codes entered into patient records overall, and for six high-level categories: symptoms and observations, diagnoses, prescriptions, operations and procedures, laboratory tests, and other diagnostic procedures. Negative binomial regression models were applied to monthly counts of first diagnoses of common conditions (common mental health problems, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and cancer), and corresponding first prescriptions of medications indicative of these conditions. We used these models to predict the expected numbers of first diagnoses and first prescriptions between March 1 and May 31, 2020, which were then compared with the observed numbers for the same time period. FINDINGS: Between March 1 and May 31, 2020, 1073 first diagnoses of common mental health problems were reported compared with 2147 expected cases (95% CI 1821 to 2489) based on preceding years, representing a 50·0% reduction (95% CI 41·1 to 56·9). Compared with expected numbers, 456 fewer diagnoses of circulatory system diseases (43·3% reduction, 95% CI 29·6 to 53·5), and 135 fewer type 2 diabetes diagnoses (49·0% reduction, 23·8 to 63·1) were observed. The number of first prescriptions of associated medications was also lower than expected for the same time period. However, the gap between observed and expected cancer diagnoses (31 fewer; 16·0% reduction, -18·1 to 36·6) during this time period was not statistically significant. INTERPRETATION: In this deprived urban population, diagnoses of common conditions decreased substantially between March and May 2020, suggesting a large number of patients have undiagnosed conditions. A rebound in future workload could be imminent as COVID-19 restrictions ease and patients with undiagnosed conditions or delayed diagnosis present to primary and secondary health-care services. Such services should prioritise the diagnosis and treatment of these patients to mitigate potential indirect harms to protect public health. FUNDING: National Institute of Health Research.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Feminino , Medicina Geral/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(30): e21091, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791683

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The incidence of type 2 diabetes has been increasing year by year in recent years. Type 2 diabetes is an important risk factor in the occurrence and development of heart failure, and it is the second potential risk factor after coronary artery disease. At present, there is no unified etiology, pathogenesis, and syndrome differentiation criteria for type 2 diabetes with chronic heart failure, and it is susceptible to subjective factors. Therefore, standardized, objective, and standardized research is needed to provide reference and guidance for clinical diagnosis and treatment. In this study, the theory of syndrome differentiation is used to initially explore the distribution of traditional Chinese medicine syndromes in patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic heart failure through case data collection, syndrome extraction, and clinical data analysis. METHODS/DESIGN: In this study, we will collect at least 500 cases of type 2 diabetes with chronic heart failure that meet the standard outpatient and hospitalization, and fill out the case information collection form. Then we will collect a number of clinical diagnosis and treatment information, and judge the syndrome based on the sum of the contribution of each syndrome to the relevant syndrome. We will use Microsoft Excel to establish a database, enter the relevant diagnosis and treatment, and syndrome information of the case information collection table, and verify and correct in time to ensure the accuracy of the data. DISCUSSION: This study will provide reference and guidance for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of type 2 diabetes with chronic heart failure. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, ChiCTR2000033010, Registered on May 18, 2020.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Doença Crônica , Estudos Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Síndrome
12.
Diab Vasc Dis Res ; 17(7): 1479164120942119, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744067

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a type of metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycaemia with multiple serious complications, such as diabetic neuropathies, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic retinopathy, and diabetic foot. Platelet-derived growth factors are growth factors that regulate cell growth and division, playing a critical role in diabetes and its harmful complications. This review focused on the cellular mechanism of platelet-derived growth factors and their receptors on diabetes development. Furthermore, we raise some proper therapeutic molecular targets for the treatment of diabetes and its complications.


Assuntos
Complicações do Diabetes/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Receptores do Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Animais , Complicações do Diabetes/diagnóstico , Complicações do Diabetes/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações do Diabetes/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Receptores do Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/antagonistas & inibidores , Transdução de Sinais
13.
Diab Vasc Dis Res ; 17(7): 1479164120945910, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of interarm blood pressure difference on the development of diabetic retinopathy, proteinuria and chronic kidney disease remains unknown. We investigated to determine the impact of interarm blood pressure difference on the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy, proteinuria and chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: The study included 563 patients with diabetes, who were evaluated with a simultaneous bilateral blood pressure measurement. The cutoff values for interarm blood pressure difference were 5, 10 and 15 mmHg. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the relation between interarm blood pressure difference and diabetic retinopathy, proteinuria and chronic kidney disease. RESULTS: Diabetic patients with systolic interarm blood pressure difference ⩾5, ⩾10 and ⩾15 mmHg showed an increased risk of diabetic retinopathy [adjusted odds ratio = 1.48 (95% confidence interval = 1.01-2.18), odds ratio = 1.80 (95% confidence interval = 0.99-3.22), odds ratio = 2.29 (95% confidence interval = 1.00-5.23)] after adjustment. There were significant associations between interarm blood pressure difference ⩾5 and ⩾10 mmHg and proteinuria [odds ratio = 1.68 (95% confidence interval = 1.15-2.44), 1.89 (95% confidence interval = 1.05-3.37)]. CONCLUSION: The association between interarm blood pressure difference and the presence of diabetic retinopathy emerged even for systolic interarm blood pressure difference ⩾5 mmHg without interaction of systolic blood pressure. Systolic interarm blood pressure difference should be considered a surrogate marker for vascular complication in patients with type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Retinopatia Diabética/fisiopatologia , Extremidade Superior/irrigação sanguínea , Idoso , Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Retinopatia Diabética/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Proteinúria/diagnóstico , Proteinúria/epidemiologia , Proteinúria/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Seul/epidemiologia
14.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(1): 372, 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: About 90% of patients who have diabetes suffer from Type 2 DM (T2DM). Many studies suggest using the significant role of lncRNAs to improve the diagnosis of T2DM. Machine learning and Data Mining techniques are tools that can improve the analysis and interpretation or extraction of knowledge from the data. These techniques may enhance the prognosis and diagnosis associated with reducing diseases such as T2DM. We applied four classification models, including K-nearest neighbor (KNN), support vector machine (SVM), logistic regression, and artificial neural networks (ANN) for diagnosing T2DM, and we compared the diagnostic power of these algorithms with each other. We performed the algorithms on six LncRNA variables (LINC00523, LINC00995, HCG27_201, TPT1-AS1, LY86-AS1, DKFZP) and demographic data. RESULTS: To select the best performance, we considered the AUC, sensitivity, specificity, plotted the ROC curve, and showed the average curve and range. The mean AUC for the KNN algorithm was 91% with 0.09 standard deviation (SD); the mean sensitivity and specificity were 96 and 85%, respectively. After applying the SVM algorithm, the mean AUC obtained 95% after stratified 10-fold cross-validation, and the SD obtained 0.05. The mean sensitivity and specificity were 95 and 86%, respectively. The mean AUC for ANN and the SD were 93% and 0.03, also the mean sensitivity and specificity were 78 and 85%. At last, for the logistic regression algorithm, our results showed 95% of mean AUC, and the SD of 0.05, the mean sensitivity and specificity were 92 and 85%, respectively. According to the ROCs, the Logistic Regression and SVM had a better area under the curve compared to the others. CONCLUSION: We aimed to find the best data mining approach for the prediction of T2DM using six lncRNA expression. According to the finding, the maximum AUC dedicated to SVM and logistic regression, among others, KNN and ANN also had the high mean AUC and small standard deviations of AUC scores among the approaches, KNN had the highest mean sensitivity and the highest specificity belonged to SVM. This study's result could improve our knowledge about the early detection and diagnosis of T2DM using the lncRNAs as biomarkers.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Área Sob a Curva , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diagnóstico Precoce , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
15.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 8(9): 793-800, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822601

RESUMO

Gestational diabetes, the most common medical disorder in pregnancy, is defined as glucose intolerance resulting in hyperglycaemia that begins or is first diagnosed in pregnancy. Gestational diabetes is associated with increased pregnancy complications and long-term metabolic risks for the woman and the offspring. However, the current diagnostic and management strategies recommended by national and international guidelines are mainly focused on short-term risks during pregnancy and delivery, except the Carpenter-Coustan criteria, which were based on the risk of future incidence of type 2 diabetes post-gestational diabetes. In this Personal View, first, we summarise the evidence for long-term risk in women with gestational diabetes and their offspring. Second, we suggest that a shift is needed in the thinking about gestational diabetes; moving from the perception of a short-term condition that confers increased risks of large babies to a potentially modifiable long-term condition that contributes to the growing burden of childhood obesity and cardiometabolic disorders in women and the future generation. Third, we propose how the current clinical practice might be improved. Finally, we outline and justify priorities for future research.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança/tendências , Diabetes Gestacional/terapia , Saúde Materna/tendências , Criança , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/diagnóstico , Hiperglicemia/epidemiologia , Hiperglicemia/terapia , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Gravidez
16.
PLoS Med ; 17(8): e1003232, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is closely related to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D). The prevention of T2D has become imperative to stem the rising rates of this disease. Weight loss is highly effective in preventing T2D; however, the at-risk pool is large, and a clinically meaningful metric for risk stratification to guide interventions remains a challenge. The objective of this study is to predict T2D risk using full-information continuous analysis of nationally sampled data from white and black American adults age ≥45 years. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A sample of 12,043 black (33%) and white individuals from a population-based cohort, REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) (enrolled 2003-2007), was observed through 2013-2016. The mean participant age was 63.12 ± 8.62 years, and 43.7% were male. Mean BMI was 28.55 ± 5.61 kg/m2. Risk factors for T2D regularly recorded in the primary care setting were used to evaluate future T2D risk using Bayesian logistic regression. External validation was performed using 9,710 participants (19% black) from Atherosclerotic Risk in Communities (ARIC) (enrolled 1987-1989), observed through 1996-1998. The mean participant age in this cohort was 53.86 ± 5.65 years, and 44.6% were male. Mean BMI was 27.15 ± 4.92 kg/m2. Predictive performance was assessed using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and area under the curve (AUC) statistics. The primary outcome was incident T2D. By 2016 in REGARDS, there were 1,602 incident cases of T2D. Risk factors used to predict T2D progression included age, sex, race, BMI, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, blood pressure, and blood glucose. The Bayesian logistic model (AUC = 0.79) outperformed the Framingham risk score (AUC = 0.76), the American Diabetes Association risk score (AUC = 0.64), and a cardiometabolic disease system (using Adult Treatment Panel III criteria) (AUC = 0.75). Validation in ARIC was robust (AUC = 0.85). Main limitations include the limited generalizability of the REGARDS sample to black and white, older Americans, and no time to diagnosis for T2D. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that a Bayesian logistic model using full-information continuous predictors has high predictive discrimination, and can be used to quantify race- and sex-specific T2D risk, providing a new, powerful predictive tool. This tool can be used for T2D prevention efforts including weight loss therapy by allowing clinicians to target high-risk individuals in a manner that could be used to optimize outcomes.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Teorema de Bayes , Glicemia/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
PLoS Med ; 17(8): e1003280, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Experimental and observational research has suggested the potential for increased type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk among populations taking statins for the primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). However, few studies have directly compared statin-associated benefits and harms or examined heterogeneity by population subgroups or assumed treatment effect. Thus, we compared ASCVD risk reduction and T2D incidence increases across 3 statin treatment guidelines or recommendations among adults without a history of ASCVD or T2D who were eligible for statin treatment initiation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Simulations were conducted using Markov models that integrated data from contemporary population-based studies of non-Hispanic African American and white adults aged 40-75 years with published meta-analyses. Statin treatment eligibility was determined by predicted 10-year ASCVD risk (5%, 7.5%, or 10%). We calculated the number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent one ASCVD event and the number needed to harm (NNH) to incur one incident case of T2D. The likelihood to be helped or harmed (LHH) was calculated as ratio of NNH to NNT. Heterogeneity in statin-associated benefit was examined by sex, age, and statin-associated T2D relative risk (RR) (range: 1.11-1.55). A total of 61,125,042 U.S. adults (58.5% female; 89.4% white; mean age = 54.7 years) composed our primary prevention population, among whom 13-28 million adults were eligible for statin initiation. Overall, the number of ASCVD events prevented was at least twice as large as the number of incident cases of T2D incurred (LHH range: 2.26-2.90). However, the number of T2D cases incurred surpassed the number of ASCVD events prevented when higher statin-associated T2D RRs were assumed (LHH range: 0.72-0.94). In addition, females (LHH range: 1.74-2.40) and adults aged 40-50 years (LHH range: 1.00-1.14) received lower absolute benefits of statin treatment compared with males (LHH range: 2.55-3.00) and adults aged 70-75 years (LHH range: 3.95-3.96). Projected differences in LHH by age and sex became more pronounced as statin-associated T2D RR increased, with a majority of scenarios projecting LHHs < 1 for females and adults aged 40-50 years. This study's primary limitation was uncertainty in estimates of statin-associated T2D risk, highlighting areas in which additional clinical and public health research is needed. CONCLUSIONS: Our projections suggest that females and younger adult populations shoulder the highest relative burden of statin-associated T2D risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Cadeias de Markov , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto/métodos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto/normas , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/normas , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev ; 27(5): 399-408, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770527

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The association of patients with heart failure (HF) and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is strong and related additionally to blood pressure (BP). AIMS: To analyze distinctive clinical profiles among patients with HFpEF both with and without T2DM. METHODS: The study was based on a Spanish National Registry (multicenter and prospective) of patients with HF (DICUMAP), that enrolled outpatients with HF who underwent an ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) and then were followed-up for 1 year. We categorized patients according to the presence/absence of T2DM then building different clusters based on K-medoids algorithm. RESULTS: 103 patients were included. T2DM was present in 44.7%. The patients with T2DM were grouped into two clusters and those without T2DM into three. All patients with T2DM had kidney disease and anemia. Among them, cluster 2 had higher systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure (PP) with a bad outcome (p = 0.03) regarding HF mortality and readmissions, influenced by eGFR (HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.97-0.87, p = 0.04), and hemoglobin (HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.71-0.63, p = 0.03). Among those without T2DM, cluster 3 had a pathological ABPM pattern with the highest PP, cluster 4 was slightly similar to cluster 2, and cluster 5 expressed a more benign pattern without differences on both, HF mortality and readmissions. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with HFpEF and T2DM expressed two different profiles depending on neurohormonal activation and arterial stiffness with prognostic implications. Patients without T2DM showed three profiles depending on ABPM pattern, kidney disease and PP without prognostic repercussion.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anemia/mortalidade , Anemia/fisiopatologia , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Análise por Conglomerados , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Nefropatias/mortalidade , Nefropatias/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Readmissão do Paciente , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Vascul Pharmacol ; 133-134: 106779, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814163

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis is a very common macrovascular complication in type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease is the primary cause of death in diabetes patients. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) are a newly identified class of drugs targeting the renal proximal tubules to increase glucose excretion. Large-scale clinical trials have confirmed the cardiovascular protective effects of SGLT inhibitors in patients with diabetes diagnosed with or at a higher risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. In addition to its direct effect on glycemic control, the function of SGLT-2i in the alleviation of volume load, renal protection, and reduction of inflammation plays an essential role in its therapeutic effect on atherosclerosis. SGLT-2i are known to decrease the levels of inflammatory factors in circulation and in arteries in situ, inhibit foam cell formation and macrophage infiltration, and sustain plaque stability, ultimately blocking the development and progression of atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Artérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/efeitos adversos , Artérias/metabolismo , Artérias/patologia , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Humanos , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Placa Aterosclerótica , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos
20.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 8(10): 823-833, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes has been associated with increased COVID-19-related mortality, but the association between modifiable risk factors, including hyperglycaemia and obesity, and COVID-19-related mortality among people with diabetes is unclear. We assessed associations between risk factors and COVID-19-related mortality in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We did a population-based cohort study of people with diagnosed diabetes who were registered with a general practice in England. National population data on people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes collated by the National Diabetes Audit were linked to mortality records collated by the Office for National Statistics from Jan 2, 2017, to May 11, 2020. We identified the weekly number of deaths in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes during the first 19 weeks of 2020 and calculated the percentage change from the mean number of deaths for the corresponding weeks in 2017, 2018, and 2019. The associations between risk factors (including sex, age, ethnicity, socioeconomic deprivation, HbA1c, renal impairment [from estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)], BMI, tobacco smoking status, and cardiovascular comorbidities) and COVID-19-related mortality (defined as International Classification of Diseases, version 10, code U07.1 or U07.2 as a primary or secondary cause of death) between Feb 16 and May 11, 2020, were investigated by use of Cox proportional hazards models. FINDINGS: Weekly death registrations in the first 19 weeks of 2020 exceeded the corresponding 3-year weekly averages for 2017-19 by 672 (50·9%) in people with type 1 diabetes and 16 071 (64·3%) in people with type 2 diabetes. Between Feb 16 and May 11, 2020, among 264 390 people with type 1 diabetes and 2 874 020 people with type 2 diabetes, 1604 people with type 1 diabetes and 36 291 people with type 2 diabetes died from all causes. Of these total deaths, 464 in people with type 1 diabetes and 10 525 in people with type 2 diabetes were defined as COVID-19 related, of which 289 (62·3%) and 5833 (55·4%), respectively, occurred in people with a history of cardiovascular disease or with renal impairment (eGFR <60 mL/min per 1·73 m2). Male sex, older age, renal impairment, non-white ethnicity, socioeconomic deprivation, and previous stroke and heart failure were associated with increased COVID-19-related mortality in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Compared with people with an HbA1c of 48-53 mmol/mol (6·5-7·0%), people with an HbA1c of 86 mmol/mol (10·0%) or higher had increased COVID-19-related mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 2·23 [95% CI 1·50-3·30, p<0·0001] in type 1 diabetes and 1·61 [1·47-1·77, p<0·0001] in type 2 diabetes). In addition, in people with type 2 diabetes, COVID-19-related mortality was significantly higher in those with an HbA1c of 59 mmol/mol (7·6%) or higher than in those with an HbA1c of 48-53 mmol/mol (HR 1·22 [95% CI 1·15-1·30, p<0·0001] for 59-74 mmol/mol [7·6-8·9%] and 1·36 [1·24-1·50, p<0·0001] for 75-85 mmol/mol [9·0-9·9%]). The association between BMI and COVID-19-related mortality was U-shaped: in type 1 diabetes, compared with a BMI of 25·0-29·9 kg/m2, a BMI of less than 20·0 kg/m2 had an HR of 2·45 (95% CI 1·60-3·75, p<0·0001) and a BMI of 40·0 kg/m2 or higher had an HR of 2·33 (1·53-3·56, p<0·0001); the corresponding HRs for type 2 diabetes were 2·33 (2·11-2·56, p<0·0001) and 1·60 (1·47-1·75, p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: Deaths in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes rose sharply during the initial COVID-19 pandemic in England. Increased COVID-19-related mortality was associated not only with cardiovascular and renal complications of diabetes but, independently, also with glycaemic control and BMI. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Vigilância da População , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Bases de Dados Factuais/tendências , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/tendências , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Vigilância da População/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
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