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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22564, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: At present, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has become a major public health issue throughout the world, especially in developing countries. Notably, traditional Chinese patent medicines (TCPMs) are of great significance in the treatment of T2DM combined with conventional Western medicine therapy. However, there is a lack of comparison among all the current common TCPMs for treating T2DM. Therefore, this study intends to explore the efficacy and safety of different TCPMs against T2DM through the Bayesian network meta-analysis (NMA). METHODS: We will conduct a comprehensive and systematic search for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of TCPM for the treatment of T2DM in both Chinese and English databases published till August 2020. Two researchers will be responsible for screening eligible literature, extracting data, and assessing the risk of bias of included studies independently. Then, pairwise meta-analyses and Bayesian network meta-analyses will be conducted to assess all available evidence. In the end, data will be analyzed using STATA15.0 and WinBUGS1.4.3 software. CONCLUSION: This study will compare the efficacy and safety of different TCPMs against T2DM in detail. Our findings will provide a reliable evidence for selecting clinical treatment program and guideline development of T2DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/efeitos adversos , Teorema de Bayes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metanálise em Rede , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Prevalência , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Segurança , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Saudi Med J ; 41(10): 1090-1097, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026050

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the risk factors for hospital admission among COVID-19 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted at the Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between May 2020 and July 2020. Out of 7,260 COVID-19 patients, 920 were identified as T2DM. After the exclusion process, 806 patients with T2DM were included in this analysis. Patients' data were extracted from electronic medical records. A logistic regression model was performed to estimate the risk factors of hospital admission. Results: Of the total of 806 COVID-19 patients with T2DM, 48% were admitted in the hospital, 52% were placed under home isolation. Older age between 70-79 years (OR [odd ratio] 2.56; p=0.017), ≥80 years (OR 6.48; p=0.001) were significantly more likely to be hospitalized compared to less than 40 years. Similarly, patients with higher HbA1c level of ≥9% compared to less than 7%; (OR 1.58; p=0.047); patients with comorbidities such as, hypertension (OR 1.43; p=0.048), cardiovascular disease (OR 1.56; p=0.033), cerebrovascular disease (OR 2.38; p=0.016), chronic pulmonary disease (OR 1.51; p=0.018), malignancy (OR 2.45; p=0.025), chronic kidney disease (CKD) IIIa, IIIb, IV (OR 2.37; p=0.008), CKD V (OR 5.07; p=0.007) were significantly more likely to be hospitalized. Likewise, insulin-treated (OR 1.46; p=0.03) were more likely to require hospital admission compared to non-insulin treated patients. CONCLUSION: Among COVID-19 patients with diabetes, higher age, high HbA1c level, and presence of other comorbidities were found to be significant risk factors for the hospital admission.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
3.
Saudi Med J ; 41(10): 1090-1097, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-835134

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the risk factors for hospital admission among COVID-19 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted at the Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between May 2020 and July 2020. Out of 7,260 COVID-19 patients, 920 were identified as T2DM. After the exclusion process, 806 patients with T2DM were included in this analysis. Patients' data were extracted from electronic medical records. A logistic regression model was performed to estimate the risk factors of hospital admission. Results: Of the total of 806 COVID-19 patients with T2DM, 48% were admitted in the hospital, 52% were placed under home isolation. Older age between 70-79 years (OR [odd ratio] 2.56; p=0.017), ≥80 years (OR 6.48; p=0.001) were significantly more likely to be hospitalized compared to less than 40 years. Similarly, patients with higher HbA1c level of ≥9% compared to less than 7%; (OR 1.58; p=0.047); patients with comorbidities such as, hypertension (OR 1.43; p=0.048), cardiovascular disease (OR 1.56; p=0.033), cerebrovascular disease (OR 2.38; p=0.016), chronic pulmonary disease (OR 1.51; p=0.018), malignancy (OR 2.45; p=0.025), chronic kidney disease (CKD) IIIa, IIIb, IV (OR 2.37; p=0.008), CKD V (OR 5.07; p=0.007) were significantly more likely to be hospitalized. Likewise, insulin-treated (OR 1.46; p=0.03) were more likely to require hospital admission compared to non-insulin treated patients. CONCLUSION: Among COVID-19 patients with diabetes, higher age, high HbA1c level, and presence of other comorbidities were found to be significant risk factors for the hospital admission.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
4.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2020: 6914878, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33061829

RESUMO

Background: COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has threatened every civilian as a global pandemic. The immune system poses the critical interactive chain between the human body and the virus. Here, we make efforts to examine whether comorbidity with type 2 diabetes (T2D) affects the immunological response in COVID-19 patients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective pilot study investigating immunological characteristics of confirmed cases of COVID-19 with or without comorbid T2D. Two subcohorts of sex- and age-matched participants were eligible for data analysis, of which 33 participants were with T2D and the remaining 37 were nondiabetic (NDM). Cellular immunity was assessed by flow cytometric determination of surface markers including CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD16, and CD56 in peripheral blood. Levels of C reactive protein, immunoglobulin (IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE), and complements (C3, C4) were detected by rate nephelometry immunoassay. And Th1/Th2 cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, and IFN-γ) were detected by Cytometric Bead Array. Results: Neutrophil counts were found to be significantly higher in the T2D group than in the NDM group and had a significant relevance with clinical severity. Lymphocyte frequencies showed no significant differences in the two groups. However, the proportions and absolute counts of T, Tc, Th, and NK cells decreased in both groups to different degrees. An abnormal increase in neutrophil count and a decrease in lymphocyte subpopulations may represent risk factors of COVID-19 severity. The level of IgG, IgM, IgA, C3, and C4 showed no significant difference between the two groups, while the IgE levels were higher in the T2D group than in the NDM group (p < 0.05). Th1 cytokines including IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-6, as well as CRP, appeared significantly higher in the T2D group. Conclusions: The COVID-19 patients comorbid with T2D demonstrated distinguishable immunological parameters, which represented clinical relevancies with the predisposed disease severity in T2D.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Citocinas/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Projetos Piloto , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia
5.
Acta Biomed ; 91(3): e2020010, 2020 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a scarcity of data regarding the effect of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and associated comorbidities on the clinical presentation and outcome of symptomatic patients with -COVID-19 infection in comparison with non-diabetic patients. AIM OF THE STUDY: We described and compared the clinical presentation and radiological and hematological data of a cohort of symptomatic COVID19 positive T2DM diabetic patients (n = 59) versus another cohort of non-diabetic symptomatic COVID19 positive patients (n =244) diagnosed at the same time from January 2020 to May 2020. Associated comorbidities were -assessed, and the Charlson Comorbidity Index was calculated. The outcomes including duration of hospitalization, duration of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, and duration of O2 -supplementation were assessed. RESULTS: Prevalence of T2DM in symptomatic COVID19 positive patients was 59/303 (=19.5%).  Diabetic patients had higher prevalence of hypertension, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiac dysfunction [coronary heart disease (CHD)], and congestive heart failure (CHF). Charlson Comorbidity score was significantly higher in the T2DM patients (2.4± 1.6) versus the non-diabetic -patients (0.28 ± 0.8; p: < 0.001). Clinically and radiologically, T2DM patients had significantly higher percentage of pneumonia, severe pneumonia and ARDS versus the non-diabetic patients. Hematologically, diabetic patients had significantly higher C-reactive protein (CRP), higher absolute neutrophilic count (ANC) and lower counts of lymphocytes and eosinophils compared to non-diabetic patients. They had significantly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures, longer duration of hospitalization, ICU stay, mechanical ventilation and oxygen therapy. CRP was correlated significantly with the duration of stay in the ICU and the duration for oxygen supplementation (r = 0.37 and 0.42 respectively; p: <0.01). CONCLUSIONS: T2DM patients showed higher inflammatory response to COVID 19 with higher absolute neutrophilic count (ANC) and CRP with lower lymphocytic and eosinophilic counts. Diabetic patients had more comorbidities and more aggressive course of the disease with higher rate of ICU admission and longer need for hospitalization and oxygen use.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Catar/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21327, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871862

RESUMO

The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has increased recently in Qatar. Body mass index (BMI) is a predictor of T2D in many populations. However, BMI is based on height and weight measurements and not on body adiposity. Therefore, the utility of BMI for predicting the risk of T2D has been questioned. Visceral adiposity appears to be a better predictor of T2D.This study aimed to assess the relative effectiveness of visceral adiposity index (VAI) and body adiposity index (BAI), in comparison with BMI, for T2D among Qatari adults.A random sample of 1103 adult Qatari nationals and long term residents over 20 years old were included in this study. This data were obtained from the Qatar Biobank (QBB). We performed a multivariate logistic regression to examine the association between VAI, BAI, BMI, and T2D, and computed z-scores for VAI, BAI and BMI.VAI z-scores showed the strongest association with the risk of T2D (OR, 1.44; 95% CI: 1.24-1.68) compared with the z-scores for BAI (OR, 1.15; 95% CI: 0.93-1.43) and BMI (OR, 1.33; 95% CI: 1.11-1.59). ROC curve analysis showed that VAI was a stronger predictor than BAI and BMI (P < .0001). Subgroup analysis indicated that the association was stronger between VAI and T2D in Qatari women than in men.VAI was a stronger and an independent predictor of T2D compared to BAI and BMI among the Qatari adult population. Therefore, VAI could be a useful tool for predicting the risk of T2D among Qatari adults.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/patologia , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Adiposidade , Adulto , Algoritmos , Antropometria/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Catar/epidemiologia
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(33): e21038, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871978

RESUMO

The association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and diabetic kidney disease assessed using either albuminuria or proteinuria remains controversial. This study aimed to investigate the association between hepatic steatosis or fibrosis and albuminuria or proteinuria in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D).We enrolled 1108 patients with T2D and categorized as 3 groups; non-proteinuria (NP), isolated non-albumin proteinuria (iNAP), and albuminuria. Urinary albumin and protein levels were assessed as urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (uACR) and urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio (uPCR), respectively. Hepatic steatosis and fibrotic burden were assessed using the NAFLD liver fat score, Fibrosis-4 calculator (FIB-4) index, and NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS).The prevalence of significant steatosis was similar among groups (NP: 74.6% vs iNAP: 70.3% vs albuminuria: 79.9%, P = .085). The prevalence of significant fibrosis was significantly higher in the iNAP (18.7%) and albuminuria (16.5%) groups than in the NP group (9.5%, P = .001). Both uPCR and uACR showed a correlation with NFS (uPCR: r = 0.123, P < .001; uACR: r = 0.064, P = .033). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, uPCR ≥150 mg/g was found to have a stronger association with hepatic fibrosis than uACR ≥30 mg/g (adjusted odds ratio 1.55 [95% CI 1.03-2.33] vs adjusted odds ratio 1.16 [95% CI, 0.72-1.87]).In conclusion, patients with iNAP and albuminuria had a higher prevalence of hepatic fibrosis than those without proteinuria. Total proteinuria was associated with advanced liver fibrosis, whereas albuminuria was related to hepatic steatosis.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Proteinúria/epidemiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Prevalência , República da Coreia , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21675, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871882

RESUMO

To assess the impact of allopurinol on diabetes in a retrospective cohort of Veterans' Affairs patients with gout.The New York Harbor VA computerized patient record system was searched to identify patients with an ICD-9 code for gout meeting at least 4 modified 1977 American Rheumatology Association gout diagnostic criteria. Patients were divided into subgroups based on >30 continuous days of allopurinol, versus no allopurinol. New diagnoses of diabetes, defined according to American Diabetes Association diagnostic criteria or clinical documentation explicitly stating a new diagnosis of diabetes, were identified during an observation period from January 1, 2000 through December 31, 2015.Six hundred six gout patients used allopurinol >30 continuous days, and 478 patients never used allopurinol. Over an average 7.9 ±â€Š4.8 years of follow-up, there was no significant difference in diabetes incidence between the allopurinol and non-allopurinol groups (11.7/1000 person-years vs 10.0/1000 person-years, P = .27). A lower diabetes incidence in the longest versus shortest quartiles of allopurinol use (6.3 per 1000 person-years vs 19.4 per 1000 person-years, P<.0001) was attributable to longer duration of medical follow-up.In this study, allopurinol use was not associated with decreased diabetes incidence. Prospective studies may further elucidate the relationship between hyperuricemia, gout, xanthine oxidase activity, and diabetes, and the potential impact of gout treatments on diabetes incidence.


Assuntos
Alopurinol/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Supressores da Gota/uso terapêutico , Gota/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alopurinol/administração & dosagem , Colchicina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Supressores da Gota/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New York/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Department of Veterans Affairs , Ácido Úrico/sangue
10.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237542, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given that most evidence-based recommendations for managing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are generated in high-income settings, significant challenges for their implementation exist in Latin America and the Caribbean region (LAC), where the rates of T2DM and related mortality are increasing. The aim of this study is to identify the facilitators and barriers to successful management of T2DM in LAC, from the perspectives of patients, their families or caregivers, healthcare professionals, and/or other stakeholders. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review in MEDLINE, Web of Science, SciELO, and LILACS. We included studies of disease management, prevention of complications and risk factor management. We qualitatively synthesized the verbatim text referring to barriers and/or facilitators of diabetes management according to the Theoretical Domain Framework and described their relative frequencies. FINDINGS: We included 60 studies from 1,595 records identified. 54 studies (90%) identified factors related to the environmental context and resources, highlighting the importance of questions related to health care access or lack of resources in the health system, and the environmental context and living conditions of the patients. Issues related to "social influences" (40 studies) and "social/professional role and identity" (37 studies) were also frequently addressed, indicating the negative impact of lack of support from family and friends and clinicians' paternalistic attitude. 25 studies identified patients beliefs as important barriers, identifying issues such as a lack of patients' trust in the effectiveness of the medication and/or the doctor's advice, or preferences for alternative therapies. CONCLUSIONS: Successful diabetes management in LAC is highly dependent on factors that are beyond the control of the individual patients. Successful disease control will require emphasis on public policies to reinforce health care access and resources, the promotion of a patient-centred care approach, and health promoting infrastructures at environmental level.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Gerenciamento Clínico , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Fatores de Risco
11.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003316, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lifetime glycemic exposure and its relationship with age at diagnosis in type 2 diabetes (T2D) are unknown. Pharmacologic glycemic management strategies for young-onset T2D (age at diagnosis <40 years) are poorly defined. We studied how age at diagnosis affects glycemic exposure, glycemic deterioration, and responses to oral glucose-lowering drugs (OGLDs). METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a population-based cohort (n = 328,199; 47.2% women; mean age 34.6 and 59.3 years, respectively, for young-onset and usual-onset [age at diagnosis ≥40 years] T2D; 2002-2016), we used linear mixed-effects models to estimate the association between age at diagnosis and A1C slope (glycemic deterioration) and tested for an interaction between age at diagnosis and responses to various combinations of OGLDs during the first decade after diagnosis. In a register-based cohort (n = 21,016; 47.1% women; mean age 43.8 and 58.9 years, respectively, for young- and usual-onset T2D; 2000-2015), we estimated the glycemic exposure from diagnosis until age 75 years. People with young-onset T2D had a higher mean A1C (8.0% [standard deviation 0.15%]) versus usual-onset T2D (7.6% [0.03%]) throughout the life span (p < 0.001). The cumulative glycemic exposure was >3 times higher for young-onset versus usual-onset T2D (41.0 [95% confidence interval 39.1-42.8] versus 12.1 [11.8-12.3] A1C-years [1 A1C-year = 1 year with 8% average A1C]). Younger age at diagnosis was associated with faster glycemic deterioration (A1C slope over time +0.08% [0.078-0.084%] per year for age at diagnosis 20 years versus +0.02% [0.016-0.018%] per year for age at diagnosis 50 years; p-value for interaction <0.001). Age at diagnosis ≥60 years was associated with glycemic improvement (-0.004% [-0.005 to -0.004%] and -0.02% [-0.027 to -0.0244%] per year for ages 60 and 70 years at diagnosis, respectively; p-value for interaction <0.001). Responses to OGLDs differed by age at diagnosis (p-value for interaction <0.001). Those with young-onset T2D had smaller A1C decrements for metformin-based combinations versus usual-onset T2D (metformin alone: young-onset -0.15% [-0.105 to -0.080%], usual-onset -0.17% [-0.179 to -0.169%]; metformin, sulfonylurea, and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor: young-onset -0.44% [-0.476 to -0.405%], usual-onset -0.48% [-0.498 to -0.459%]; metformin and α-glucosidase inhibitor: young-onset -0.40% [-0.660 to -0.144%], usual-onset -0.25% [-0.420 to -0.077%]) but greater responses to other combinations containing sulfonylureas (sulfonylurea alone: young-onset -0.08% [-0.099 to -0.065%], usual-onset +0.06% [+0.059 to +0.072%]; sulfonylurea and α-glucosidase inhibitor: young-onset -0.10% [-0.266 to 0.064%], usual-onset: 0.25% [+0.196% to +0.312%]). Limitations include possible residual confounding and unknown generalizability outside Hong Kong. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed excess glycemic exposure and rapid glycemic deterioration in young-onset T2D, indicating that improved treatment strategies are needed in this setting. The differential responses to OGLDs between young- and usual-onset T2D suggest that better disease classification could guide personalized therapy.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Glicemia , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Glucose/uso terapêutico , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes , Masculino , Metformina/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 664, 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are two major public health problems associated with increasing complications and mortality rates worldwide. The objective of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in diabetic patients and to investigate the influence of several epidemiological and clinical factors on HCV infection. METHOD: A total number of one hundred and eighty diabetic patients were recruited for this study. Consented subjects made up of 71(39.4%) males and 109(60.56%) females were recruited for the study. While one-Hundred (100) Non-Diabetics (Controls) were also recruited for the study. Structured questionnaires were administered to the consented participants to obtain relevant data. Sera samples were assayed for antibodies to HCV using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay [Inteco Diagnostic Limited]. ELISA technique. RESULT: Overall prevalence of HCV infection among diabetes patients assayed was 13.3% out of which 8(11.3%) was obtained from the male subjects compared to 16 (14.7%) seropositivity recorded among the females (P = 0.511; P > 0.05). Considering age distribution, Subjects aged 41-50 years recorded, 9 (22.5%) positivity (P = 0.238; P > 0.05).Considering educational status of subjects screened, 22 (14.9%) positivity was rescored among subjects who have attained tertiary status of education.(P = 0.574;P > 0.05).Risk factors considered showed that, 7 (18.9%) seropositive subject were alcoholic consumers(P value = 0.2621;P > 0.05) while 5 (8.9%) recorded history of sharing sharp objects P = 0.2427;P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our study shows a slightly higher prevalence of hepatitis C infection in type 2 diabetics. This call for urgent routine screening exercise among diabetic patients for HCV infection. This study also emphasizes the need for public enlightenment on the association between HCV infection and T2DM, to avert possible complications among diabetic patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Hepacivirus/imunologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Hepatite C/virologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
13.
Value Health ; 23(9): 1210-1217, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940239

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Significant literature exists on the effects of medication adherence on reducing healthcare costs, but less is known about the effect of medication adherence among Medicare low-income subsidy (LIS) recipients. This study examined the effects of medication adherence on healthcare costs among LIS recipients with diabetes, hypertension, and/or heart failure. METHODS: This retrospective study analyzed Medicare claims data (2012-2013) linked to the Area Health Resources Files. Using measures developed by the Pharmacy Quality Alliance, adherence to 11 medication classes was studied among patients with 7 possible combinations of the diseases mentioned. Adherence was measured in 8 categories of proportion of days covered (PDC): ≥95%, 90% to <95%, 85% to <90%, 80% to <85%, 75% to <80%, 50% to <75%, 25% to <50%, and <25%. Annual Medicare costs were compared across adherence categories. A generalized linear model was used to control for patient/community characteristics. RESULTS: Among patients with only one disease, such as diabetes, patients with the lowest adherence (PDC < 25%) had $3152/year higher Medicare costs than patients with the highest adherence (PDC ≥ 95%; $11 101 vs $7949; P < .05). The adjusted costs among patients with PDC < 25% was $1893 higher than patients with PDC ≥ 95% ($9919 vs $8026; P < .05). Among patients with multiple chronic conditions, patients' adherence to medications for fewer diseases had higher costs. CONCLUSIONS: Greater medication adherence is associated with lower Medicare costs in the Medicare LIS population. Future policy affecting the LIS program should encourage better medication adherence among patients with chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Medicare/economia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
14.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(8): 1261-1265, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867433

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the relationship between both quality and duration of sleep and type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and elderly people in Shanghai. Method: Baseline data was from the '2017 epidemiological survey in Shanghai community residents aged 35 and above on type 2 diabetes'. Restricted cubic splines were used to draw dose-response curves to show the relationship between PSQI score, sleep duration and type 2 diabetes. Logistic regression model was used to analyze the effects of quality and duration of sleep as well as the interaction, on type 2 diabetes. Results: Results showed that the average PSQI score was (4.09±0.10) points, the proportion of poor sleep quality was 12.55% (95%CI: 10.77-14.58) and the average sleep duration was (7.19±0.03) hours. The relationship between PSQI score and diabetes appeared linear, with the relationship between sleep duration and diabetes as U-shaped. After adjusting for confounders, both poor sleep quality (>7 for PSQI score) and short sleep duration (sleep duration <6 hours) significantly increased the risk of type 2 diabetes, with OR=1.17 (95%CI: 1.06-1.30) and 1.20 (95%CI: 1.01-1.41), respectively. From the interaction analysis, data showed that after adjusting for confounders, both sleep duration <6 hours (OR=1.30, 95%CI: 1.12-1.52) and ≥8 hours (OR=1.79, 95%CI: 1.04-3.07) with poor sleep quality would increase the risks on diabetes. Conclusion: Both poor sleep quality and short sleep duration were associated with the risk of diabetes, while long sleep duration was only associated with the risk of diabetes when accompanied by poor quality of sleep.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Sono , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Ann Ist Super Sanita ; 56(3): 373-377, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-789698

RESUMO

We aimed to compare COVID-19-specific and all-cause mortality rates among natives and migrants in Italy and to investigate the clinical characteristics of individuals dying with COVID-19 by native/migrant status. The mortality rates and detailed clinical characteristics of natives and migrants dying with COVID-19 were explored by considering the medical charts of a representative sample of patients deceased in Italian hospitals (n = 2,687) between February 21st and April 29th, 2020. The migrant or native status was assigned based on the individual's country of birth. The expected all-cause mortality among natives and migrants living in Italy was derived by the last available (2018) dataset provided by the Italian National Institute of Statistics. Overall, 68 individuals with a migration background were identified. The proportions of natives and migrants among the COVID-19-related deaths (97.5% and 2.5%, respectively) were similar to the relative all-cause mortality rates estimated in Italy in 2018 (97.4% and 2.6%, respectively). The clinical phenotype of migrants dying with COVID-19 was similar to that of natives except for the younger age at death. International migrants living in Italy do not have a mortality advantage for COVID-19 and are exposed to the risk of poor outcomes as their native counterparts.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Albânia/etnologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , França/etnologia , Efeito do Trabalhador Sadio , Registros Hospitalares , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/etnologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia
17.
Acta Biomed ; 91(3): e2020010, 2020 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-761250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a scarcity of data regarding the effect of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and associated comorbidities on the clinical presentation and outcome of symptomatic patients with -COVID-19 infection in comparison with non-diabetic patients. AIM OF THE STUDY: We described and compared the clinical presentation and radiological and hematological data of a cohort of symptomatic COVID19 positive T2DM diabetic patients (n = 59) versus another cohort of non-diabetic symptomatic COVID19 positive patients (n =244) diagnosed at the same time from January 2020 to May 2020. Associated comorbidities were -assessed, and the Charlson Comorbidity Index was calculated. The outcomes including duration of hospitalization, duration of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, and duration of O2 -supplementation were assessed. RESULTS: Prevalence of T2DM in symptomatic COVID19 positive patients was 59/303 (=19.5%).  Diabetic patients had higher prevalence of hypertension, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiac dysfunction [coronary heart disease (CHD)], and congestive heart failure (CHF). Charlson Comorbidity score was significantly higher in the T2DM patients (2.4± 1.6) versus the non-diabetic -patients (0.28 ± 0.8; p: < 0.001). Clinically and radiologically, T2DM patients had significantly higher percentage of pneumonia, severe pneumonia and ARDS versus the non-diabetic patients. Hematologically, diabetic patients had significantly higher C-reactive protein (CRP), higher absolute neutrophilic count (ANC) and lower counts of lymphocytes and eosinophils compared to non-diabetic patients. They had significantly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures, longer duration of hospitalization, ICU stay, mechanical ventilation and oxygen therapy. CRP was correlated significantly with the duration of stay in the ICU and the duration for oxygen supplementation (r = 0.37 and 0.42 respectively; p: <0.01). CONCLUSIONS: T2DM patients showed higher inflammatory response to COVID 19 with higher absolute neutrophilic count (ANC) and CRP with lower lymphocytic and eosinophilic counts. Diabetic patients had more comorbidities and more aggressive course of the disease with higher rate of ICU admission and longer need for hospitalization and oxygen use.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Catar/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
18.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1268: 115-122, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918215

RESUMO

Increasing sun exposure is related to lower prevalence of death in cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes, and other noncancer non-CVD. In this chapter we aim to make a short update on the knowledge regarding sun exposure and all-cause mortality. Data support the hypothesis that low sun exposure habits are a major risk factor for all-cause mortality. Low sun exposure is related to an increased risk of death due to CVD and noncancer/non-CVD, and a minor reduction in risk of cancer. Active sun exposure habits have a dual effect; it increases the incidence of skin cancer, but also improves the prognosis in terms of all-cause mortality. In a low solar intensity region, we should carefully assess both risk and benefits of sun exposure in order to obtain balanced recommendations.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Luz Solar , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia
19.
Ann Ist Super Sanita ; 56(3): 373-377, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959804

RESUMO

We aimed to compare COVID-19-specific and all-cause mortality rates among natives and migrants in Italy and to investigate the clinical characteristics of individuals dying with COVID-19 by native/migrant status. The mortality rates and detailed clinical characteristics of natives and migrants dying with COVID-19 were explored by considering the medical charts of a representative sample of patients deceased in Italian hospitals (n = 2,687) between February 21st and April 29th, 2020. The migrant or native status was assigned based on the individual's country of birth. The expected all-cause mortality among natives and migrants living in Italy was derived by the last available (2018) dataset provided by the Italian National Institute of Statistics. Overall, 68 individuals with a migration background were identified. The proportions of natives and migrants among the COVID-19-related deaths (97.5% and 2.5%, respectively) were similar to the relative all-cause mortality rates estimated in Italy in 2018 (97.4% and 2.6%, respectively). The clinical phenotype of migrants dying with COVID-19 was similar to that of natives except for the younger age at death. International migrants living in Italy do not have a mortality advantage for COVID-19 and are exposed to the risk of poor outcomes as their native counterparts.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Albânia/etnologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , França/etnologia , Efeito do Trabalhador Sadio , Registros Hospitalares , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/etnologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(37): e22160, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925778

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the main acute complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the main cause of hospitalization for infectious diseases. Unfortunately, in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with community-acquired pneumonia (T2DM-CAP), modern medicine is still faced with enormous challenges because of insulin resistance and drug-resistant bacteria. In recent decades, clinical and experimental evidence shows that Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has a certain beneficial effect on diabetes and pneumonia. Therefore, this trial aims to assess the efficacy and safety of CHM plus western medicines for the treatment of T2DM-CAP. METHODS: We propose a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized superiority trial.A total of 92 participants with T2DM-CAP will be randomly allocated at a 1:1 ratio to either the experimental group, which will receive modified Ban-Xia-Xie-Xin-Decotion and basic treatment, or the control group, which will receive basic treatment only. The study duration will be 14 days. The primary outcome will be the total clinical effective rate. The secondary outcomes are traditional Chinese medicine symptom score scale, pneumonia severity index, usage time of antibiotic, time required for blood sugar to reach the required level, frequency of hypoglycemia, and chest CT. Liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry method will be used to explore the blood metabolism profiles of the subjects, to explore the pathogenesis of T2DM-CAP and the mechanism of CHM on T2DM-CAP. Adverse events will also be evaluated. DISCUSSION: This trial will provide evidence of the effectiveness and safety of traditional CHM in treating patients with T2DM-CAP. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ChiCTR2000035204.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia/sangue , Radiografia Torácica , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
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