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1.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 5(2): 94-110, ago. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1021764

RESUMO

Introdução:Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2 é uma doença crônica, silenciosa, caracterizada por hiperglicemia causada pela produção insuficiente, ou resistência a ação da insulina. No Brasil, em 2017, diagnosticou 12,5 milhões de pessoas com diabetes mellitus, com uma prevalência de 8 a 9%, ocupando o quinto lugar no mundo. Dianteda transição nutricional, várias pesquisas tem demonstrado prevalência desta patologia em crianças, adolescentes e jovens. Objetivo:Identificar o risco de desenvolver Diabetes mellitus tipo 2 nos estudantes do curso de Biomedicina, da Faculdade Unigran Capital, Campo Grande, MS. Método:Trata-se de um Estudo Epidemiológico Descritivo Quantitativo Transversal, com uma amostra de 132 estudantes, através da aplicação de um questionário, determinação de glicemia capilar, coleta do peso, altura, cintura abdominal, e aferição da pressão arterial. Resultados:Foi identificado fatores de riscos importantes nos estudantes de biomedicina: obesidade, sedentarismo, hipertensão, consumo de dieta não saudável e a predisposição genética. Os homens apresentaram mais fatores dos que as mulheres, as faixas etárias mais jovens de 18-20 anos encontravam-se mais sedentários e mais obesos, e, as faixas etárias mais velhas apresentaram hipertensão e consumo de dieta não saudável. Conclusões:Há necessidade de promover medidas de prevenção: consumo de dieta saudável e prática de atividade física entre os estudantes, para evitar o desenvolvimento desta patologia (AU).


Introduction:Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic silent disease characterized by hyperglycemia caused by insufficient production, or resistance to the action of insulin. In Brazil, in 2017, diagnosed 12.5 million people with Diabetes Mellitus, with prevalence of 8 to9%, ranking fifth in the world. Faced with the nutritional transition, several studies have demonstrated the prevalence of this pathology in children, adolescents and young people. Objective:To identify the risk of developing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus instudents of Biomedicine, Faculty of Unigran Capital, Campo Grande, MS.Methods:This is an Epidemiological Descriptive Cross-Sectional Study, with a sample of 132 students, through the application of a questionnaire, determination of capillary glycemia, weight, height, abdominal waist, and blood pressure measurement. Results:: Important risk factors were identified in biomedicine students: obesity, sedentary lifestyle, hypertension, consumption of unhealthy diet and genetic predisposition. Males presentedmore factors than females, the younger age groups of 18-20 years were more sedentary and more obese, and the older age groups presented hypertension and unhealthy diet consumption.Conclusions:There is a need to promote prevention measures: consumption of healthy diet and practice of physical activity among students, to avoid the development of this pathology (AU).


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde , Fatores de Risco , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Sedentário , Brasil , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
3.
BMJ ; 366: l5003, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511236

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess what proportions of studies reported increasing, stable, or declining trends in the incidence of diagnosed diabetes. DESIGN: Systematic review of studies reporting trends of diabetes incidence in adults from 1980 to 2017 according to PRISMA guidelines. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and reference lists of relevant publications. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Studies of open population based cohorts, diabetes registries, and administrative and health insurance databases on secular trends in the incidence of total diabetes or type 2 diabetes in adults were included. Poisson regression was used to model data by age group and year. RESULTS: Among the 22 833 screened abstracts, 47 studies were included, providing data on 121 separate sex specific or ethnicity specific populations; 42 (89%) of the included studies reported on diagnosed diabetes. In 1960-89, 36% (8/22) of the populations studied had increasing trends in incidence of diabetes, 55% (12/22) had stable trends, and 9% (2/22) had decreasing trends. In 1990-2005, diabetes incidence increased in 66% (33/50) of populations, was stable in 32% (16/50), and decreased in 2% (1/50). In 2006-14, increasing trends were reported in only 33% (11/33) of populations, whereas 30% (10/33) and 36% (12/33) had stable or declining incidence, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of clinically diagnosed diabetes has continued to rise in only a minority of populations studied since 2006, with over a third of populations having a fall in incidence in this time period. Preventive strategies could have contributed to the fall in diabetes incidence in recent years. Data are limited in low and middle income countries, where trends in diabetes incidence could be different. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: Prospero CRD42018092287.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Carga Global da Doença/tendências , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Incidência
4.
Implement Sci ; 14(1): 81, 2019 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The National Diabetes Prevention Program (National DPP) is rapidly expanding in an effort to help those at high risk of type 2 diabetes prevent or delay the disease. In 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded six national organizations to scale and sustain multistate delivery of the National DPP lifestyle change intervention (LCI). This study aims to describe reach, adoption, and maintenance during the 4-year funding period and to assess associations between site-level factors and program effectiveness regarding participant attendance and participation duration. METHODS: The Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework was used to guide the evaluation from October 2012 to September 2016. Multilevel linear regressions were used to examine associations between participant-level demographics and site-level strategies and number of sessions attended, attendance in months 7-12, and duration of participation. RESULTS: The six funded national organizations increased the number of participating sites from 68 in 2012 to 164 by 2016 across 38 states and enrolled 14,876 eligible participants. By September 2016, coverage for the National DPP LCI was secured for 42 private insurers and 7 public payers. Nearly 200 employers were recruited to offer the LCI on site to their employees. Site-level strategies significantly associated with higher overall attendance, attendance in months 7-12, and longer participation duration included using self-referral or word of mouth as a recruitment strategy, providing non-monetary incentives for participation, and using cultural adaptations to address participants' needs. Sites receiving referrals from healthcare providers or health systems also had higher attendance in months 7-12 and longer participation duration. At the participant level, better outcomes were achieved among those aged 65+ (vs. 18-44 or 45-64), those who were overweight (vs. obesity), those who were non-Hispanic white (vs. non-Hispanic black or multiracial/other races), and those eligible based on a blood test or history of gestational diabetes mellitus (vs. screening positive on a risk test). CONCLUSIONS: In a time of rapid dissemination of the National DPP LCI the findings of this evaluation can be used to enhance program implementation and translate lessons learned to similar organizations and settings.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.) , Guias como Assunto , Promoção da Saúde/economia , Humanos , Ciência da Implementação , Estilo de Vida , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estados Unidos
7.
BMJ ; 366: l4697, 2019 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434641

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess effects of increasing omega-3, omega-6, and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on diabetes diagnosis and glucose metabolism. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analyses. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Clinicaltrials.gov, and trials in relevant systematic reviews. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials of at least 24 weeks' duration assessing effects of increasing α-linolenic acid, long chain omega-3, omega-6, or total PUFA, which collected data on diabetes diagnoses, fasting glucose or insulin, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), and/or homoeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). DATA SYNTHESIS: Statistical analysis included random effects meta-analyses using relative risk and mean difference, and sensitivity analyses. Funnel plots were examined and subgrouping assessed effects of intervention type, replacement, baseline risk of diabetes and use of antidiabetes drugs, trial duration, and dose. Risk of bias was assessed with the Cochrane tool and quality of evidence with GRADE. RESULTS: 83 randomised controlled trials (mainly assessing effects of supplementary long chain omega-3) were included; 10 were at low summary risk of bias. Long chain omega-3 had little or no effect on likelihood of diagnosis of diabetes (relative risk 1.00, 95% confidence interval 0.85 to 1.17; 58 643 participants, 3.7% developed diabetes) or measures of glucose metabolism (HbA1c mean difference -0.02%, 95% confidence interval -0.07% to 0.04%; plasma glucose 0.04, 0.02 to 0.07, mmol/L; fasting insulin 1.02, -4.34 to 6.37, pmol/L; HOMA-IR 0.06, -0.21 to 0.33). A suggestion of negative outcomes was observed when dose of supplemental long chain omega-3 was above 4.4 g/d. Effects of α-linolenic acid, omega-6, and total PUFA on diagnosis of diabetes were unclear (as the evidence was of very low quality), but little or no effect on measures of glucose metabolism was seen, except that increasing α-linolenic acid may increase fasting insulin (by about 7%). No evidence was found that the omega-3/omega-6 ratio is important for diabetes or glucose metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: This is the most extensive systematic review of trials to date to assess effects of polyunsaturated fats on newly diagnosed diabetes and glucose metabolism, including previously unpublished data following contact with authors. Evidence suggests that increasing omega-3, omega-6, or total PUFA has little or no effect on prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42017064110.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Jejum/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
9.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(4): 480-489, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344211

RESUMO

Physical training is recommended in several studies and guidelines for the control of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and its complications. We performed a systematic review about the effects of aerobic training (AT), resistance (RT) or the combination of both (AT/ RT), on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in patients with DM2. Therefore, we included 15 clinical trials with at least 12 weeks duration about training program or recommendations of physical exercise, that evaluated the reduction in HbA1c levels in patients with DM2. Information was obtained on training modality (AT, RT or AT / RT), training parameters, duration and weekly training frequency. The results showed increases in peak or maximal oxygen uptake, exercise tolerance time and muscle strength, depending on the type of training, and a reduction in HbA1c levels. We conclude that exercise training is associated with reductions of HbA1c in patients with DM2. Thus, it can be a complementary tool in the management of these patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 27: e3161, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Português, Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340346

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to detect the risk of development of type 2 diabetes in nurses and its relationship with metabolic alterations. METHOD: cross-sectional study, with 155 nurses. The variables investigated were: sociodemographic, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip index, lipid profile, basal glycemia and oral glucose tolerance curve. The Finnish Diabetes Risk Score was used to collect data. RESULTS: 155 nurses were included, with an average age of 44 years and 85% were overweight or obese. 52% had a family history of diabetes and 21% had occasional hyperglycemia. With respect to the risk, 59% were identified with moderate and very high risk for type 2 diabetes. Glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c and insulin resistance increased in parallel to the increased risk for type 2 diabetes, although lipids did not increase. 27% of the sample had impaired fasting glycemia. 15% had glucose intolerance and 5% had type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSION: there was a high detection rate of people at risk for type 2 diabetes (59%) and the high and very high risk score was associated with high levels of glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, glucose, insulin and insulin resistance, but not with lipids.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/complicações , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperglicemia , Resistência à Insulina , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Estado Pré-Diabético/complicações , Estado Pré-Diabético/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(33): 9121-9123, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339705

RESUMO

As part of the 256th American Chemical Society National Meeting that was held in Boston, MA, U.S.A., in August 2018, the symposium on "Health-Promoting Food Ingredients" was organized in collaboration with Dr. Agnes Rimando (rest in peace). This symposium aimed to present the latest advances related to food ingredients (e.g., pure compounds, extracts, or additives) that potentially confer health benefits and reduce the development of lifestyle-related metabolic disorders (e.g., hypertension, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes, among others). The studies presented included the evaluation of functional properties of bioactive compounds commonly found in foods, with an emphasis in (poly)phenols (anthocyanins, flavonols, and proanthocyanidins), and dietary fiber and their interaction with gut microbiota. Many studies were focused on whole extracts of foods and the bioactivity measured in vivo at the cellular level. The role of (poly)phenols in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes was highlighted.


Assuntos
Ingredientes de Alimentos/análise , Alimento Funcional/análise , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/dietoterapia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos
12.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 664, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Social Engagement Framework for Addressing the Chronic-disease-challenge (SEFAC) project intends to empower citizens at risk of or with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and/or cardiovascular disease (CVD) to self-manage their chronic conditions through the SEFAC intervention. The intervention combines the concepts of mindfulness, social engagement and information and communication technology support, in order to reduce the burden of citizens with chronic conditions and to increase the sustainability of the health system in four European countries. METHODS: A prospective cohort study with a 6-month pre-post design will be conducted in four European countries: Croatia, Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. A total of 360 community-dwelling citizens ≥50 years of age will be recruited; 200 citizens at risk of T2DM and/or CVD in the next 10 years (50 participants in each country) and 160 citizens with T2DM and/or CVD (40 participants in each country). Effects of the intervention in terms of self-management, healthy lifestyle behavior, social support, stress, depression, sleep and fatigue, adherence to medications and health-related quality of life will be assessed. In addition, a preliminary cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed from a societal and healthcare perspective. DISCUSSION: The SEFAC project will further elucidate whether the SEFAC intervention is feasible and (cost-) effective among citizens at risk of and suffering from T2DM and/or CVD in different settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN registry number is ISRCTN11248135 . Date of registration is 30/08/2018 (retrospectively registered).


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Atenção Plena , Autogestão/psicologia , Participação Social/psicologia , Doença Crônica , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco
13.
N Engl J Med ; 381(6): 520-530, 2019 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational studies support an association between a low blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and the risk of type 2 diabetes. However, whether vitamin D supplementation lowers the risk of diabetes is unknown. METHODS: We randomly assigned adults who met at least two of three glycemic criteria for prediabetes (fasting plasma glucose level, 100 to 125 mg per deciliter; plasma glucose level 2 hours after a 75-g oral glucose load, 140 to 199 mg per deciliter; and glycated hemoglobin level, 5.7 to 6.4%) and no diagnostic criteria for diabetes to receive 4000 IU per day of vitamin D3 or placebo, regardless of the baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level. The primary outcome in this time-to-event analysis was new-onset diabetes, and the trial design was event-driven, with a target number of diabetes events of 508. RESULTS: A total of 2423 participants underwent randomization (1211 to the vitamin D group and 1212 to the placebo group). By month 24, the mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level in the vitamin D group was 54.3 ng per milliliter (from 27.7 ng per milliliter at baseline), as compared with 28.8 ng per milliliter in the placebo group (from 28.2 ng per milliliter at baseline). After a median follow-up of 2.5 years, the primary outcome of diabetes occurred in 293 participants in the vitamin D group and 323 in the placebo group (9.39 and 10.66 events per 100 person-years, respectively). The hazard ratio for vitamin D as compared with placebo was 0.88 (95% confidence interval, 0.75 to 1.04; P = 0.12). The incidence of adverse events did not differ significantly between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among persons at high risk for type 2 diabetes not selected for vitamin D insufficiency, vitamin D3 supplementation at a dose of 4000 IU per day did not result in a significantly lower risk of diabetes than placebo. (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and others; D2d ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01942694.).


Assuntos
Colecalciferol/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Estado Pré-Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Idoso , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Fatores de Risco , Falha de Tratamento , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
14.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 682, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is increasing globally, with the highest burden in low- to middle-income countries (LMICs) such as the Philippines. Developing effective interventions could improve detection, prevention, and treatment of diabetes. The Cardiovascular Health Awareness Program (CHAP), an evidence-based Canadian intervention, may be an appropriate model for LMICs due to its low cost, ease of implementation, and focus on health promotion and disease prevention. The primary aim of this study is to adapt the CHAP model to a Philippine context as the Community Health Assessment Program in the Philippines (CHAP-P) and evaluate the effect of CHAP-P on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) compared to a random sample of community residents in control communities. METHODS: Six-month, 26-community (13 intervention, 13 control) parallel cluster randomized controlled trial in Zamboanga Peninsula, an Administrative Region in the southern Philippines. Criteria for community selection include: adequate political stability, connection with local champions, travel feasibility, and refrigerated space for materials. The community-based intervention, CHAP-P sessions, are volunteer-led group sessions with chronic condition assessment, blood pressure monitoring, and health education. Three participant groups will be involved: 1) Random sample of community participants aged 40 or older, 100 per community (1300 control, 1300 intervention participants total); 2) Community members aged 40 years or older who attended at least one CHAP-P session; 3) Community health workers and staff facilitating sessions. PRIMARY OUTCOME: mean difference in HbA1c at 6 months in intervention group individuals compared to control. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: modifiable risk factors, health utilization and access (individual); diabetes detection and management (cluster). Evaluation also includes community process evaluation and cost-effectiveness analysis. DISCUSSION: CHAP has been shown to be effective in a Canadian setting. Individual components of CHAP-P have been piloted locally and shown to be acceptable and feasible. This study will improve understanding of how best to adapt this model to an LMIC setting, in order to maximize prevention, detection, and management of diabetes. Results may inform policy and practice in the Philippines and have the potential to be applied to other LMICs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT03481335 ), registered March 29, 2018.


Assuntos
Conscientização , Países em Desenvolvimento , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Saúde Pública , Adulto , Idoso , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Canadá , Sistema Cardiovascular , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Análise Custo-Benefício , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Filipinas , Pobreza , Projetos de Pesquisa
15.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 357, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lifestyle interventions regularly rely on study staff to implement the intervention and collect outcomes data directly from study participants. This study describes the experiences of project staff in two randomized controlled trials of a postpartum lifestyle intervention to reduce risk factors for type 2 diabetes in Latinas. Latinas are the fastest growing minority group in the U.S. and have the highest rates of type 2 diabetes after a diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus. The challenges of implementing lifestyle interventions for postpartum women have been poorly documented. METHODS: A qualitative focus group was conducted with eight staff members (five health educators and three health interviewers) involved in Proyecto Mamá and Estudio Parto. The discussion was audio recorded, transcribed, and coded in NVivo. Focus group topics included: 1) participant recruitment, 2) participant retention, 3) implementation of the lifestyle intervention, 4) assessment of behavior change, 5) overall challenges and rewarding aspects of the trial, and 6) recommended changes for future trials. RESULTS: Key themes emerged regarding enabling factors and barriers to implementing a lifestyle intervention in postpartum Latinas. Enabling factors included: a) the staff's belief in the importance of the intervention, b) opportunities associated with the longitudinal nature of the trial, c) belief that the staff could empower participants to make behavior change, d) benefits of flexible intervention sessions, and e) connection with participants due to shared cultural backgrounds. Barriers included: a) participant stressors: home, food, and financial insecurity, b) low health literacy, c) issues related to recent immigration to the continental U.S., d) handling participant resistance to behavior change, e) involvement of family members in assessment visits, f) limitations of the assessment tools, and g) time limitations. CONCLUSIONS: Findings highlight the challenging contexts that many study participants face, and shed light on the potentially influential role of health educators and interviewers in intervention implementation and data collection. Specific recommendations are made for strategies to improve adherence to diabetes prevention programs in postpartum underserved and minority populations in this challenging, transitional period of life. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01679210 . Registered 5 September 2012; NCT01868230 . Registered 4 June 2013.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Hispano-Americanos , Cuidado Pós-Natal , Adulto , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Educadores em Saúde , Humanos , Cuidado Pós-Natal/métodos , Gravidez , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adulto Jovem
16.
Glob Health Action ; 12(1): 1609313, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116096

RESUMO

Background: Community-based approaches have been identified as an effective strategy to address the growing burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) worldwide. However, little is known about community as a concept among people living in socioeconomically disadvantaged settings and stakeholders' interactions and engagement in NCDs prevention and management. Objective: The aim of this study was to understand; (1) the meaning of community among people living in socioeconomically disadvantaged suburbs in Region Stockholm and (2) how communities interact and engage with stakeholders at local and regional levels for the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods: This qualitative study was conducted in three municipalities in Region Stockholm with a high proportion of migrants. Multiple data collection methods were used, including observations of community activities; interviews with community members, representatives of public authorities and NGOs; and group interviews with healthcare providers. Data were analyzed using content analysis. Results: Community was perceived as living in close proximity with shared beliefs, values and resources. Although they recognized its social and cultural diversity, community members focused more on the commonalities of living in their neighborhood and less on their differences in country of birth and languages spoken. Several mismatches between awareness of community needs and the available skills and resources among stakeholders for T2D prevention were identified. Stakeholders expressed awareness of T2D risk and interest in addressing it in a culturally appropriate manner. Conclusion: Interaction between the communities and stakeholders was limited, as was engagement in T2D prevention and management. This highlights barriers in the collaboration between community, healthcare institutions and other stakeholders which consequently affect the implementation of preventive interventions. Innovative ways to link the community to the healthcare sector and other local government institutions are needed to build the capacity of health systems for T2D prevention in socioeconomically disadvantaged communities.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Colaboração Intersetorial , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Suécia
17.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 7564207, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049137

RESUMO

Recently, it has been found that the level of urinary D-ribose in type 2 diabetes is notably higher than that in age-matched normal control, and D-ribose is more reactive in the glycation than D-glucose and induces oxidative stress. Kaempferol is one of the main bioactive components in Astragalus membranaceus, with numerous physiological actives, such as antioxidant. The present study investigated the protective effects of kaempferol on D-ribose-treated mesangial cells. CCK-8 and LDH assay were used to test cell viability and cell toxicity. Immunofluorescence and flow cytometry were used to detect the AGE formation and ROS accumulation. GSH level was measured to reflect oxidation resistance. Cell apoptosis was evaluated by Hoechst 33258 staining, AO/EB staining, and western blot. Mitochondrial membrane integrity was detected by JC-1 staining, western blot, and RT-PCR. The change of autophagy level was tested by western blot. The results indicated that D-ribose induced not only cell damage and increased AGE formation and ROS accumulation but also GSH depletion. Further studies demonstrated that D-ribose induced mitochondrial depolarization and the activation of caspase-9/3. But kaempferol could partly block these damages. Subsequently, it was confirmed that kaempferol repaired the autophagy disturbance induced by D-ribose, and 3-MA could reverse the protective effect of kaempferol under D-ribose condition. Our study demonstrated that D-ribose induced AGE accumulation and ROS production in mesangial cell and caused mitochondrial apoptosis, but kaempferol could attenuate these changes and its protective effect might be related to the repair of autophagy.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Quempferóis/farmacologia , Células Mesangiais/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ribose/toxicidade , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/urina , Células Mesangiais/patologia , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/patologia
18.
Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J ; 15(1): 55-61, 2019 Jan-Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049150

RESUMO

Plasma cholesterol levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) have been associated with cardioprotection for decades. However, there is an evolving appreciation that this lipoprotein class is highly heterogeneous with regard to composition and functionality. With the advent of advanced lipid-testing techniques and methods that allow both the quantitation and recovery of individual particle populations, we are beginning to connect the functionality of HDL subspecies with chronic metabolic diseases. In this review, we examine type 2 diabetes (T2D) and explore our current understanding of how obesity, insulin resistance, and hyperglycemia affect, and may be affected by, HDL subspeciation. We discuss mechanistic aspects of how insulin resistance may alter lipoprotein profiles and how this may impact the ability of HDL to mitigate both atherosclerotic disease and diabetes itself. Finally, we call for more detailed studies examining the impact of T2D on specific HDL subspecies and their functions. If these particles can be isolated and their compositions and functions fully elucidated, it may become possible to manipulate the levels of these specific particles or target the protective functions to reduce the incidence of coronary heart disease.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Dislipidemias/sangue , Lipoproteínas HDL/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/epidemiologia
19.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 58(5): 372-376, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060146

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the influence of lifestyle intervention on long-term diabetes in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) returned to normal glucose tolerance (NGT) within 6 years. Methods: A total of 577 subjects (aged 25-74 years old) with IGT in Daqing were enrolled and randomly assigned to control, and diet, exercise and diet plus exercise groups in a six-year intervention trial in 1986. Subjects who were non-diabetic at the end of the intervention were followed up for additional 14 years. Results: Among all the subjects, 41.38% of them who had returned to NGT from IGT within 6 years maintained NGT status after 20 years, and had a lower incidence of diabetes than subjects maintained IGT status (46.55% vs. 75.25%). Of note, in the intervention group, the percentage of participants developed diabetes in the NGT subjects was significantly lower than that in the IGT group (43.71% vs. 76.25%) after 20 years. There was high long-term risk for diabetes in the IGT subjects after the adjustment of age, sex and baseline glucose (HR=1.81, 95%CI 1.27-2.58, P=0.001), whereas in the non-intervention group, no significant difference could be viewed in long-term diabetic risk between subjects maintained IGT status and those returned to NGT (71.43% vs. 65.22%) after adjusting of the same confounders (HR=1.03, 95%CI 0.45-2.35, P=0.94). Conclusions: IGT subjects who had returned to NGT in early years had lower risk for future diabetes than those who remained IGT. However, this beneficial effect could only be viewed in the intervention group, but not in the non-intervention group.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Intolerância à Glucose/prevenção & controle , Insulina/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Exercício , Seguimentos , Intolerância à Glucose/complicações , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Hiperglicemia/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
20.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 321, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Each year around 5-10% of people with non-diabetic hyperglycaemia will develop type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes prevention is a national and global public health concern. Diabetes Prevention Programmes, which seek to identify at-risk individuals and support entry to health improvement initiatives, recognise that enhanced identification and referral of at-risk individuals is required within primary care and beyond, through community-focused prevention approaches. We report an evaluation of a demonstrator site for the NHS Diabetes Prevention Programme in the UK, which piloted an enhanced Primary Care referral programme (sampling from patients identified as at-risk from general practice databases) and a Community identification programme (sampling from the general population through opportunistic identification in community locations) in an effort to maximise participation in prevention services. METHODS: We used mixed-methods evaluation to assess the impact of the two referral routes on participation in the Diabetes Prevention Programmes in line with the RE-AIM Framework (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance). Individual level patient data was descriptively analysed to assess identifications and eligible referrals made in each route. Semi-structured interviews conducted with referral staff and key stakeholders were analysed using thematic analysis and informed by Normalisation Process Theory. RESULTS: The nurse facilitated primary care referral route provided 88% of all referrals to the telephone DPP, compared to the community referral route which provided 5%, and the proportion joining the programme was higher among primary care referrals (45%) than community referrals (22%), and retention rates were higher (73% compared to 50%). The nurse-facilitated route integrated more easily into existing clinical processes. The community programme was impeded by a lack of collaborative inter-agency working which obscured the intended focus on high-risk populations despite conversion rates (numbers identified at risk who entered prevention programmes) being highest in areas of high deprivation. CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrates the interaction of components, with effective Adoption and Implementation necessary to support Reach. The NPT analysis demonstrated the importance of consensus around not only the need for such programmes but agreement on how they can be delivered. Future programmes should support inter-agency communication and collaboration, and focus identification efforts on areas of high-risk.


Assuntos
Redes Comunitárias , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Medicina Geral , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Idoso , Consenso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Saúde Pública
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