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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252952, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355913

RESUMO

Abstract The main purpose of this study was to find out a possible association between ABO blood groups or Rh and diabetes mellitus (DM) in the local population of eight (8) different towns of Karachi, Pakistan. For this purpose a survey was carried out in Karachi to have a practical observation of these towns during the period of 9 months from June 2019 to Feb. 2020. Out of eighteen (18) towns of Karachi, samples (N= 584) were collected from only eight (8) Towns of Karachi and gave a code-number to each town. Diabetic group sample was (n1=432) & pre-diabetes sample was (n2 =152). A standard Abbot Company Glucometer for Random Blood Sugar (RBS) and Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS) tests, standard blood anti sera were used for ABO/Rh blood type. Health assessment techniques were performed ethically by taking informed consent from all registered subjects. Finally data was analyzed by SPSS version 20.0. In our current study, the comparison of ABO blood groups frequencies between diabetic and pre-diabetic individuals were carried out. The percentage values of blood Group-B as given as: (32% in DM vs. 31% in pre-diabetics), followed by blood Group-O as: (18% in DM vs. 11% in pre-diabetics). Contrary to Group-"B" & "O", blood Group-A and Group-AB were distribution percentage higher pre-diabetic as compared to DM patients, as given as: Group-A (32% in pre-diabetics vs. 26% in DM) & Group-AB (26% in pre-diabetics vs. 24% in diabetic's patients). In addition, percentage distribution of Rh system was also calculated, in which Rh+ve Group was high and more common in DM patients as compared to pre-diabetics; numerically given as: Rh+ve Group (80% in DM vs. 72% in pre-diabetics). Different views and dimensions of the research topic were studied through literature support, some have found no any association and some established a positive association still some were not clear in making a solid conclusion. It is concluded that DM has a positive correlation with ABO blood groups, and people with Group-B have increased susceptibility to DM disease.


Resumo O objetivo principal deste estudo foi descobrir uma possível associação entre grupos sanguíneos ABO ou Rh e diabetes mellitus (DM) na população local de oito (8) diferentes cidades de Karachi, Paquistão. Para tanto, foi realizado um levantamento em Karachi para observação prática dessas cidades durante o período de 9 meses de junho de 2019 a fevereiro de 2020.De dezoito (18) cidades de Karachi, as amostras (N = 584) foram coletadas de apenas oito (8) cidades de Karachi e deram um número-código para cada cidade. A amostra do grupo de diabéticos foi (n1 = 432) e a amostra de pré-diabetes foi (n2 = 152). Um glicômetro padrão da Abbot Company para testes de açúcar no sangue aleatório (RBS) e açúcar no sangue em jejum (FBS), antissoros de sangue padrão foram usados ​​para o tipo de sangue ABO / Rh. As técnicas de avaliação de saúde foram realizadas de forma ética, tomando o consentimento informado de todos os indivíduos registrados. Finalmente, os dados foram analisados ​​pelo SPSS versão 20.0.No presente estudo, foi realizada a comparação das frequências dos grupos sanguíneos ABO entre diabéticos e pré-diabéticos. Os valores percentuais do sangue do Grupo-B são dados como: (32% em DM vs. 31% em pré-diabéticos), seguido pelo sangue do Grupo-O como: (18% em DM vs. 11% em pré-diabéticos). Ao contrário dos Grupos "B" e "O", sangue do Grupo-A e Grupo-AB tiveram distribuição percentual maior de pré-diabéticos em comparação com pacientes com DM, dado como: Grupo-A (32% em pré-diabéticos vs. 26% em DM) e Grupo AB (26% em pré-diabéticos vs. 24% em pacientes diabéticos). Além disso, também foi calculada a distribuição percentual do sistema Rh, no qual o Grupo Rh + ve foi elevado e mais comum em pacientes com DM em comparação aos pré-diabéticos; dados numericamente como: Grupo Rh + ve (80% em DM vs. 72% em pré-diabéticos). Diferentes visões e dimensões do tema de pesquisa foram estudadas com o suporte da literatura, alguns não encontraram nenhuma associação e alguns estabeleceram uma associação positiva, embora alguns não estivessem claros em fazer uma conclusão sólida. Conclui-se que o DM tem correlação positiva com os grupos sanguíneos ABO, e as pessoas com o Grupo B têm maior suscetibilidade à doença DM.


Assuntos
Humanos , Sistema do Grupo Sanguíneo Rh-Hr , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Sistema ABO de Grupos Sanguíneos , Cidades
2.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 247, 2022 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35915501

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in people with diabetes is becoming an increasing major public health concern, disproportionately burdening low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This rising burden is due to various factors, including the lack of disease awareness that results in late referral and the cost of screening and consequent treatment of the comorbid conditions, as well as other factors endemic to LMICs relating to inadequate management of risk factors. We critically assessed the extant literature, by performing searches of Medline via PubMed, EBSCOhost, Scopus, and Web of Science, for studies pertaining to screening, diagnosis, and prediction of CKD amongst adults with diabetes in LMICs, using relevant key terms. The relevant studies were summarized through key themes derived from the Wilson and Jungner criteria. We found that screening for CKD in people with diabetes is generally infrequent in LMICs. Also, LMICs are ill-equipped to appropriately manage diabetes-associated CKD, especially its late stages, in which supportive care and kidney replacement therapy (KRT) might be required. There are acceptable and relatively simple tools that can aid diabetes-associated CKD screening in these countries; however, these tools come with limitations. Thus, effective implementation of diabetes-associated CKD screening in LMICs remains a challenge, and the cost-effectiveness of such an undertaking largely remains to be explored. In conclusion, for many compelling reasons, screening for CKD in people with diabetes should be a high policy priority in LMICs, as the huge cost associated with higher mortality and morbidity in this group and the cost of KRT offers a compelling economic incentive for improving early detection of diabetes in CKD.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Adulto , Países em Desenvolvimento , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia
3.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 985, 2022 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35918710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) account for an estimated 71% of all global deaths annually and nearly 80% of these deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. This study aimed to assess the readiness of existing healthcare systems at different levels of health care in delivering NCDs management and prevention services in Kenya. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 258 facilities was conducted between June 2019 and December 2020 using multistage sampling, examining facility readiness based on the availability of indicators such as equipment, diagnostic capacity, medicines and commodities, trained staff and guidelines for NCDs management. Readiness scores were calculated as the mean availability of tracer items expressed as a percentage and a cut-off threshold of ≥ 70% was used to classify facilities as "ready" to manage NCDs. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were performed to assess the readiness of facilities by type, level, and location settings. Logistic regressions were used to identify factors associated with the readiness of facilities to provide disease-specific services. RESULTS: Of the surveyed facilities, 93.8% offered chronic respiratory disease (CRD) diagnosis and/or management services, 82.2% diabetes mellitus, 65.1% cardiovascular disease (CVD), and only 24.4% cervical cancer screening services. The mean readiness scores for diabetes mellitus (71%; 95% CI: 67-74) and CVD (69%; 95% CI: 66-72) were relatively high. Although CRD services were reportedly the most widely available, its mean readiness score was low (48%; 95% CI: 45-50). The majority of facilities offering cervical cancer services had all the necessary tracer items available to provide these services. Modeling results revealed that private facilities were more likely to be "ready" to offer NCDs services than public facilities. Similarly, hospitals were more likely "ready" to provide NCDs services than primary health facilities. These disparities in service readiness extended to the regional and urban/rural divide. CONCLUSIONS: Important gaps in the current readiness of facilities to manage NCDs in Kenya at different levels of health care were revealed, showing variations by disease and healthcare facility type. A collective approach is therefore needed to bridge the gap between resource availability and population healthcare needs.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/terapia
4.
Iran J Med Sci ; 47(4): 328-337, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35919081

RESUMO

Background: The prevalence of opium addiction in Iran is high probably due to the belief that opium has preventive effects against cardiovascular diseases. In the second phase of Kerman coronary artery disease risk factors study, the prevalence, incidence rate, and the association between opium use and other coronary artery disease risk factors (CADRFs) were assessed. Methods: In a cross-sectional study (2014-2018), 9996 inhabitants of Kerman, southeastern Iran, aged 15-80 years were recruited to the study. After taking fasting blood samples, the participants were examined or interviewed for demographic data and CADRFs, including opium use. The participants were categorized into "never", "occasional", and "dependent" users. The association between opium use and CADRFs was assessed with adjusted regression analysis (Stata v.11 software). Results: The overall prevalence of opium consumption was lower than that of five years earlier (P<0.01). The prevalence was currently higher in men than women and decreased in men between the two phases (P<0.001). There was a positive correlation between opium use and depression (P<0.001), anxiety (P<0.05), and a negative association with the level of physical activity (P<0.001). The five-year incident rate of dependent and occasional opium use was 4.2 and 3.9 persons/100 person-years, respectively. The incidence of opium use was higher in diabetic, hypertensive, depressed, anxious, and obese subjects. Conclusion: The study did not demonstrate any protective effects of opium on CADRFs. Considering the higher rate of opium use in subjects with hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and psychological disorders, the health authorities should implement educational programs to warn and correct the unsafe belief.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Diabetes Mellitus , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Dependência de Ópio , Adulto , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/induzido quimicamente , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Ópio/efeitos adversos , Dependência de Ópio/complicações , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
6.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 80(6): 565-578, 2022 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35926929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding trends in cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and CV disease according to age, sex, race, and ethnicity is important for policy planning and public health interventions. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to project the number of people with CV risk factors and disease and further explore sex, race, and ethnical disparities. METHODS: The prevalence of CV risk factors (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity) and CV disease (ischemic heart disease, heart failure, myocardial infarction, and stroke) according to age, sex, race, and ethnicity was estimated by using logistic regression models based on 2013-2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data and further combining them with 2020 U.S. Census projection counts for years 2025-2060. RESULTS: By the year 2060, compared with the year 2025, the number of people with diabetes mellitus will increase by 39.3% (39.2 million [M] to 54.6M), hypertension by 27.2% (127.8M to 162.5M), dyslipidemia by 27.5% (98.6M to 125.7M), and obesity by 18.3% (106.3M to 125.7M). Concurrently, projected prevalence will similarly increase compared with 2025 for ischemic heart disease by 31.1% (21.9M to 28.7M), heart failure by 33.0% (9.7M to 12.9M), myocardial infarction by 30.1% (12.3M to 16.0M), and stroke by 34.3% (10.8M to 14.5M). Among White individuals, the prevalence of CV risk factors and disease is projected to decrease, whereas significant increases are projected in racial and ethnic minorities. CONCLUSIONS: Large future increases in CV risk factors and CV disease prevalence are projected, disproportionately affecting racial and ethnic minorities. Future health policies and public health efforts should take these results into account to provide quality, affordable, and accessible health care.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus , Dislipidemias , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Hipertensão , Infarto do Miocárdio , Isquemia Miocárdica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Censos , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 7902786, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35936377

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus is a common chronic noncommunicable disease, the main manifestation of which is the long-term high blood sugar level in patients due to metabolic disorders. However, due to excessive reliance on the clinical experience of ophthalmologists, our diagnosis takes a long time, and it is prone to missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis. In recent years, with the development of deep learning, its application in the auxiliary diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy has become possible. How to use the powerful feature extraction ability of deep learning algorithm to realize the mining of massive medical data is of great significance. Therefore, under the action of computer-aided technology, this paper processes and analyzes the retinal images of the fundus through traditional image processing and convolutional neural network-related methods, so as to achieve the role of assisting clinical treatment. Based on the admission records of diabetic patients after data analysis and feature processing, this paper uses an improved convolutional neural network algorithm to establish a model for predicting changes in diabetic conditions. The model can assist doctors to judge the patient's treatment effect by using it based on the case records of inpatient diagnosis and treatment and to predict the risk of readmission of inpatients after discharge. It also can help to judge the effectiveness of the treatment plan. The results of the study show that the model proposed in this paper has a lower probability of misjudging patients with poor recovery as good recovery, and the prediction is more accurate.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Retinopatia Diabética , Algoritmos , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico por imagem , Fundo de Olho , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Redes Neurais de Computação
8.
J Diabetes Res ; 2022: 9458646, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35936393

RESUMO

With population aging, diabetes mellitus and cognitive function decline are common health problems among older adults worldwide. This longitudinal study is aimed at estimating the longitudinal associations of newly diagnosed prediabetes and diabetes status with cognitive function among Chinese adults aged 45 years and older and evaluating the clinical risk factors associated with cognitive function. Data were obtained from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). A total of 8716 participants meeting the inclusion criteria were enrolled between 2011 and 2012 at baseline, and 6125 participants completed the follow-up survey in 2018. Cognitive function, newly diagnosed diabetic status, depression, body mass index, and clinical and biochemical measurements were collected. At baseline, the mean age of the participants was 58.93 (SD: 9.76) years, 3987 (45.7%) were males, 1802 (20.7%) participants were newly diagnosed with prediabetes, and 935 (10.7%) were diabetes patients. After adjusting for control variables, diabetes was a significant risk factor for subsequent cognitive decline (unstandardized ßestimate = -0.50, 95%CI = -0.98 ~ -0.02). Subgroup analyses found that the association of diabetes with cognitive decline was significant in females. Stratification analyses found that among prediabetes patients, triglyceride concentrations were negatively associated with cognitive function; among diabetes patients, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein was significantly associated with cognitive decline. The newly diagnosed diabetes status at baseline was associated with subsequent cognitive decline among middle-aged and elderly Chinese, especially in females. The management of triglycerides through lifestyle modification for prediabetes and specific adjunctive anti-inflammatory therapy for diabetes might benefit cognitive performance.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Estado Pré-Diabético , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Cognição , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Pré-Diabético/diagnóstico , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Triglicerídeos
9.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 17: 1703-1713, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35936574

RESUMO

Background: Multimorbidity plays an important role in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but is also a feature of ageing. We estimated to what extent increases in the prevalence of multimorbidity over time are attributable to COPD progression compared to increasing patient age. Methods: Patients with COPD from the long-term COSYCONET (COPD and Systemic Consequences - Comorbidities Network) cohort with four follow-up visits were included in this analysis. At each visit, symptoms, exacerbation history, quality of life and lung function were assessed, along with the comorbidities heart failure (HF), coronary artery disease (CAD), peripheral arterial disease (PAD), hypertension, sleep apnea, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia and osteoporosis. Using longitudinal logistic regression analysis, we determined what proportion of the increase in the prevalence of comorbidities could be attributed to patients' age or to the progression of COPD over visits. Results: Of 2030 patients at baseline, 878 completed four follow-up visits (up to 4.5 years). CAD prevalence increased over time, with similar effects attributable to the 4.5-year follow-up, used as indicator of COPD progression, and to a 5-year increase in patients' age. The prevalence of HF, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia, osteoporosis and sleep apnea showed stronger contributions of COPD progression than of age; in contrast, age dominated for hypertension and PAD. There were different relationships to patients' characteristics including BMI and sex. The results were not critically dependent on the duration of COPD prior to enrolment, or the inclusion of patients with all four follow-up visits vs those attending only at least one of them. Conclusion: Analyzing the increasing prevalence of multimorbidity in COPD over time, we separated age-independent contributions, probably reflecting intrinsic COPD-related disease progression, from age-dependent contributions. This distinction might be useful for the individual assessment of disease progression in COPD.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Hiperlipidemias , Hipertensão , Hiperuricemia , Osteoporose , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hiperuricemia/diagnóstico , Hiperuricemia/epidemiologia , Multimorbidade , Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13445, 2022 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35927472

RESUMO

Previous evidence revealed that central obesity played a vital role in the development of diabetes mellitus (DM). However, because of imbalanced confounding variables, some studies have not wholly established the association between central obesity and diabetes. Propensity score matching (PSM) analysis can minimize the impact of potential confounding variables. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between central obesity and diabetes in the Japanese population by using PSM analysis. This retrospective cohort study included 15,453 Japanese adults who were free of diabetes at baseline between 2004 and 2015, which provided all medical records for individuals participating in the physical exam. Central obesity at baseline was an independent variable, and incident diabetes during follow-up was an outcome variable. Using a 1:1 PSM analysis, the present retrospective cohort study included 1639 adults with and without central obesity. Additionally, we employed a doubly robust estimation method to identify the association between central obesity and diabetes. Subjects with central obesity were 92% more likely to develop DM (HR = 1.65, 95%CI 1.12, 2.41). After adjusting for covariates, subjects with central obesity had a 72% increased risk of developing DM compared with subjects with non-central obesity in the PSM cohort (HR = 1.72, 95% CI 1.16, 2.56). Central obesity individuals had a 91% higher risk of DM than non-central obesity individuals, after adjustment for propensity score (HR = 1.91, 95% CI 1.29, 2.81). In sensitivity analysis, the central obesity group had a 44% (HR = 1.44, 95% CI 1.09, 1.90) and 59% (HR = 1.59, 95% CI1.35, 1.88) higher risk of DM than the non-central obesity group in the original and weighted cohorts after adjusting for confounding variables, respectively. Central obesity was independently associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes. After adjustment for confounding covariates, central obesity participants had a 72% higher risk of development of diabetes than non-central obesity individuals in the PSM cohort.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35954980

RESUMO

Background: This study aimed to assess the impacts of achieving a 10% alcohol reduction target and different alcohol policy interventions on NCD premature deaths during 2010-2025 in Thailand. Methods: The researchers estimated the impacts on three main NCDs: cancers, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. These represent two ideal scenarios, which are the target reduction and five intervention scenarios. These intervention scenarios comprise taxation with 50% price increases, a total ban on advertisements, availability restriction by shortening sales times, early psychological intervention, and combined interventions. Consumption data and mortality trends were obtained from available national data. Relative risks and intervention effects were derived from the literature. Results: Achieving a 10% reduction target would lead to 3903-7997 avoidable NCD deaths. Taxation was the most effective intervention, with the highest number of avoidable NCD deaths, followed by early psychological intervention, availability restriction, and an advertisement ban. A combination of these four interventions would reduce 13,286 NCD deaths among men and 4994 NCD deaths among women, accounting for 46.8% of the NCD mortality target. Conclusion: This study suggests using Thailand as an example for low- and middle-income countries to enhance implementation and enforcement of the recommended effective alcohol policies for achieving the global targets.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade Prematura , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Política Pública , Tailândia/epidemiologia
12.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272745, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35947580

RESUMO

This study evaluated the knowledge of diabetes mellitus and predictors of the level of diabetes knowledge among the general public of Singapore. Confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory factor analysis were used to evaluate the fit of different factor models for the diabetes knowledge questionnaire. Multiple linear regressions were performed to determine the sociodemographic characteristics associated with diabetes knowledge. The final factor model identified three domains for diabetes knowledge: general knowledge, diabetes specific knowledge and causes of diabetes, and complications of untreated diabetes. Overall knowledge scores were 23.8 ± 2.4 for general diabetes knowledge, 2.3 ± 0.8 for diabetes specific knowledge, 2.3 ± 1.2 for causes, and 5.2 ± 1.2 for complications of untreated diabetes. Patients with diabetes were more knowledgeable than adults without diabetes in the population. While the general public in Singapore has adequate knowledge of diabetes, misconceptions were identified in both groups which underscores the need to tailor specific educational initiatives to reduce these diabetes knowledge gaps.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Singapura/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Pan Afr Med J ; 42: 49, 2022.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35949462

RESUMO

Pulmonary tuberculosis is frequently associated with diabetes mellitus and, sometimes, it may present with atypical signs. The purpose of this study is to identify the epidemiological, clinical, biological and radiological features of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with diabetes versus patients without diabetes in order to improve treatment. We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study in the Department of Endocrinology and Pneumology at the Joseph Raseta Befelatanana University Hospital Center and in the Department of Respiratory Diseases at the Soavinandriana Hospital Center in Antananarivo, Madagascar. It involved patients diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis who presented a positive bacilloscopy exam from January 2018 to January 2020 (25 months). In our study, the overall prevalence of diabetes among TB patients was 20.31 %. Older age, insidious clinical course, severe biologic inflammatory syndrome, fewer caves but more systematized opacities and diffuse radiological lesions in the basal zone (more commonly unilateral right lesions) were mainly detected in patients with diabetes compared to patients without diabetes. Knowledge of signs of pulmonary TB in patients with diabetes can help health care workers to make a diagnosis, even in patients with atypical signs. Moreover, as the majority of pulmonary tuberculosis occur in patients with unstable diabetes, a good glycemic balance can certainly reduce its incidence.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Madagáscar/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia
14.
Ethiop J Health Sci ; 32(4): 755-764, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35950057

RESUMO

Background: Non-adherence to prescribed medications is possibly the most common reason for poor treatment outcomes among people with diabetes although its rate is highly variable. Data on the magnitude of medication non-adherence and associated factors are scarce in the study area. This study aimed to assess the rate of non-adherence and associated factors among diabetic patients at Debre Markos Comprehensive Specialized Hospital. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from June 17 to July 17, 2021. Study participants were selected using a simple random sampling technique. Data were collected with a pre-tested structured questionnaire and entered into SPSS version 25. Logistic regression was utilized to determine predictors of medication non-adherence at a significance level of ≤ 0.05. Results: A total of 176 study participants were enrolled in the study. About 59% of the study participants had type-2 diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of non-adherence to anti-diabetic medications was found to be 41.5%. Male sex, rural residence, being divorced, being merchant, self- or family-borne medical cost, and presence of comorbidities were significantly associated with increased rate of non-adherence to anti-diabetic medications. Conclusion: The prevalence of non-adherence to medications among diabetic patients is significantly high in the study area. Public health measures should be strengthened to decrease nonadherence among diabetic patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Adesão à Medicação , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Centros de Atenção Terciária
15.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272042, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35939442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, an increased incidence of ROCM was noted in India among those infected with COVID. We determined risk factors for rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) post Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among those never and ever hospitalized for COVID-19 separately through a multicentric, hospital-based, unmatched case-control study across India. METHODS: We defined cases and controls as those with and without post-COVID ROCM, respectively. We compared their socio-demographics, co-morbidities, steroid use, glycaemic status, and practices. We calculated crude and adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) through logistic regression. The covariates with a p-value for crude OR of less than 0·20 were considered for the regression model. RESULTS: Among hospitalised, we recruited 267 cases and 256 controls and 116 cases and 231 controls among never hospitalised. Risk factors (AOR; 95% CI) for post-COVID ROCM among the hospitalised were age 45-59 years (2·1; 1·4 to 3·1), having diabetes mellitus (4·9; 3·4 to 7·1), elevated plasma glucose (6·4; 2·4 to 17·2), steroid use (3·2; 2 to 5·2) and frequent nasal washing (4·8; 1·4 to 17). Among those never hospitalised, age ≥ 60 years (6·6; 3·3 to 13·3), having diabetes mellitus (6·7; 3·8 to 11·6), elevated plasma glucose (13·7; 2·2 to 84), steroid use (9·8; 5·8 to 16·6), and cloth facemask use (2·6; 1·5 to 4·5) were associated with increased risk of post-COVID ROCM. CONCLUSIONS: Hyperglycemia, irrespective of having diabetes mellitus and steroid use, was associated with an increased risk of ROCM independent of COVID-19 hospitalisation. Rational steroid usage and glucose monitoring may reduce the risk of post-COVID.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Hiperglicemia , Mucormicose , Doenças Orbitárias , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Glicemia , Automonitorização da Glicemia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperglicemia/epidemiologia , Índia/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucormicose/tratamento farmacológico , Mucormicose/epidemiologia , Doenças Orbitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Pandemias
16.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272041, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35939485

RESUMO

Diabetes Mellitus, affecting nearly half a billion people worldwide, is a substantial global public health issue. Although diabetes predominantly affects men, women with diabetes have specific risks and self-management characteristics. Women have a higher risk of either presenting with or developing depression or anxiety, as well as being high users of complementary medicine which can create clinical governance issues. In spite of these known gender differences, limited research has explored gender-specific diabetes care, especially health service use patterns. As increasing attention has turned to supporting people with diabetes to successfully self-manage their diabetes, it is important that we understand how women with diabetes are using health services, and if their specific risk profile is influencing their health care choices. Our study sought to examine the relationship between mental health status and the patterns of conventional and complementary medicine health service use by women diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. Our results showed that women with diabetes and any mental health co-morbidity were more likely to visit their general practitioner more frequently or use herbal medicine than those without a mental health co-morbidity. Women with depression and anxiety were also less likely to consult a physiotherapist and those with anxiety less likely to consult a podiatrist over time when compared to the other mental health groups.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Saúde Mental , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Feminino , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Morbidade
17.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 35(7): 613-621, 2022 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35945176

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the prevalence of dry and wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in patients with diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia, and to analyze the risk factors for AMD. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional epidemiologic study was conducted involving 14,440 individuals. We assessed the prevalence of dry and wet AMD in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects and analyzed the risk factors for AMD. Results: The prevalence of wet AMD in diabetic and non-diabetic patients was 0.3% and 0.5%, respectively, and the prevalence of dry AMD was 17% and 16.4%, respectively. The prevalence of wet AMD in healthy, hypertensive, hyperlipidemic, and hypertensive/hyperlipidemic populations was 0.5%, 0.3%, 0.2%, and 0.7%, respectively. The prevalence of dry AMD in healthy, hypertensive, hyperlipidemic, and hypertensive/hyperlipidemic populations was 16.6%, 16.2%, 15.2%, and 17.2%, respectively. Age, sex, body mass index, and use of hypoglycemic drugs or lowering blood pressure drugs were corrected in the risk factor analysis of AMD. Diabetes, diabetes/hypertension, diabetes/hyperlipidemia, and diabetes/hypertension/hyperlipidemia were analyzed. None of the factors analyzed in the current study increased the risk for the onset of AMD. Conclusion: There was no significant difference in the prevalence of wet and dry AMD among diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. Similarly, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of wet and dry AMD among subjects with hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Diabetes co-existing with hypertension and hyperlipidemia were not shown to be risk factors for the onset of dry AMD.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Hiperlipidemias , Hipertensão , Degeneração Macular , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/complicações , Hiperlipidemias/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Degeneração Macular/epidemiologia , Degeneração Macular/etiologia , Fatores de Risco
19.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 31(spe1): e2021382, 2022.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35946671

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare health care indicators for adults with medical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Brazil, in 2013 and 2019, and analyze the indicators for 2019 according to sociodemographic characteristics. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using data from the 2013 and 2019 National Health Survey. Care indicators were evaluated in people with medical diagnosis of DM. RESULTS: DM prevalence increased from 6.2% (2013) to 7.7% (2019). Between 2013 and 2019, there was an increase in the use of medications (from 80.2% to 88.8%) and of medical care (from 73.2% to 79.1%), a reduction in the use of Popular Pharmacy Program medications (from 57.4% to 51.5%) and in follow-up with the same physician (from 65.2% to 59.4%). In 2019, poorer indicators were observed for individuals who were male, younger, Black and Brown, and with lower education and income. CONCLUSION: Most indicators remained similar in the last five years, with differences according to sociodemographic characteristics in 2019.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Laeknabladid ; 108(7-08): 330-337, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Islandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35943048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of diabetes is growing, and diabetics have increased risk of atherosclerosis and diffuse coronary artery disease (CAD). Our aim was to assess the revascularization treatment of diabetics with CAD in Iceland from 2010-2020, changes in management and long-term survival of patients. METHODS: All patients in Iceland with diabetes and CAD on cardiac catheterization 2010-2020 were included in this retrospective, population-based study. We analyzed data from the SCAAR/SWEDEHEART database: patients' background information, findings of cardiac catheterization, planned treatment and results. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate long-term survival and Cox-regression-analysis to adjust for predictor variables. RESULTS: Of 1905 cases (1485 patients), 1230 (65%) underwent PCI, 274 (14%) CABG and 401 (21%) had medical therapy only. The age distribution differed: The PCI group had the widest age bracket, the CABG group the narrowest, and the medical therapy group had the highest mean age. Most patients with STEMI or cardiogenic shock underwent PCI, while most patients with concomitant heart-valve disease underwent CABG. The proportion of patients undergoing CABG increased with more diffuse CAD. 41% of patients with left main- and three-vessel disease underwent CABG while only 2% of those with single-vessel disease. From 2010-2020 the proportion of patients that underwent PCI increased from 49% to 72%. There was no difference in survival between the PCI and CABG groups (p=1.00). CONCLUSION: Three quarters of patients with diabetes and obstructive CAD are now treated with PCI. The PCI and CABG groups had overall equal survival but the groups had different characteristics.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Diabetes Mellitus , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Humanos , Islândia/epidemiologia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
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