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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 100, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489078

RESUMO

Introduction: Hypertension, among diabetic patients, is a worldwide public-health challenge and a leading modifiable risk factor for other cardiovascular diseases. The main purpose of this study was to identify determinants of hypertension among diabetic patients. Methods: Data were collected from January to March 2018 using an interviewer-administered structured questionnaire. Data collectors and supervisors were trained before the period of data collection. The questionnaire was pretested on 5% of the sample at Suhul hospital. Bivariable logistic regression was employed to examine the crude associations between the outcome variable and determinant variables. This was followed by multivariable analysis to examine the determinants of hypertension among diabetic patients by selecting variables which had p value ≤0.2 in the bivariable analysis. Results: The age range of the respondents was 18-80 years, with the median age of 51.56±14.92 years. Not attending diabetes mellitus education sessions (AOR=2.61, 95% CI (1.12,6.1), duration since diagnosis with diabetes (AOR=8.52; 95% CI (1.97, 36.84), poor glycemic control (AOR=22.99, 95CI (5.92,89.28), overweight (AOR=4.84, 95%CI (1.42,16.51), and non-adherence to diabetes medication (AOR=4.66, 95% CI (2.22,9.79), diet (AOR=9.70,95% CI (3.34,28.22), exercise (AOR= 5.47, 95% CI (2.35,12.75), and self-monitoring blood glucose (AOR=6.62, 95% CI (3.16, 13.86) were found to be the determinants of hypertension among diabetic patients. Conclusion: This research concludes that longer duration with diabetes, nonattendance of diabetes education sessions, poor glycemic control, and not-adherence to antidiabetic medications, diet, exercise and self-monitoring blood glucose were found to be the determinants of hypertension among diabetic patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Adesão à Medicação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Glicemia/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
2.
West Afr J Med ; 36(2): 133-137, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anaemia is a common disorder occurring in about 33% of the global population. It is an important cardiovascular risk factor and a key indicator of some chronic complications of Diabetes Mellitus (DM). This study aimed to determine the burden of anaemia and its correlation with some clinical and biochemical parameters among patients with DM attending a tertiary health facility in Zaria, Northwestern Nigeria. SUBJECTS, MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a case-control study in which 168 participants were enrolled (84 DM patients, 84 controls). It was conducted in the Endocrinology and Metabolic clinics of Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria. Consenting DM patients were enrolled consecutively and subsequently, sex- and age-matched with non-diabetic controls. Data on age, gender and Haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations were collated for all study participants. Additional data on type of DM, duration of DM once diagnosis, treatment, type of treatment, history of hypertension, chronic kidney disease, peripheral neuropathy, and Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS) were collated for all cases. Data were collated and analyzed using SPSS version 21. Level of significance was set at <0.05. Ethical approval for the study was obtained from the Institutional Health Research Ethics Committee and informed consent was obtained from the all the participants. RESULTS: Females constituted 39/84(46.4%) of each arm of the study. The mean ± SD of age for both cases and controls was 53.7 ± 8.9 years. The mean ± SD duration of DM, treatment for DM and FBS were 8.4 ± 5.7 years, 5.0 ± 3.6 years and 6.1 ± 2.5mmol/L respectively. Cases had significantly lower Hb concentration compared to controls (12.1±2.2g/dl vs. 13.1 ± 1.4g/dl, t= -3.446, p = 0.001). Overall prevalence of anaemia among cases and controls was 36/84(42.9%) vs. 26/84(31.0%) Z = 1.6, p = 0.110. Among cases, haemoglobin concentration had very weak, inverse and non-statistically significant relationships with age, duration of DM diagnosis, duration of therapy and FBS levels. There was a significant relationship between anaemia on one hand and type of DM and treatment on the other. The odds of DM patients with history of CKD or uncontrolled FBS having anaemia were OR= 0.600 (95% CI 0.196, 1.836) and OR=1.755 (95% CI 0.737, 4.181) respectively. CONCLUSION: The burden of anaemia amongst patients with DM is high in Zaria, Northwestern Nigeria, and it is associated with poor glycaemic control. Hence, the need to include haematological assessment as part of routine care of patients with DM.


Assuntos
Anemia/epidemiologia , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(32): e16687, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393370

RESUMO

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has a high prevalence in patients with obesity. Only patients with clinical symptoms of OSA are admitted to polysomnography; however, many patients with OSA are asymptomatic. We aimed to create and validate a population-based risk score that predicts the severity of OSA in patients with obesity.We here report the cross-sectional analysis at baseline of an ongoing study investigating the long-term effect of bariatric surgery on OSA. One-hundred sixty-one patients of the Obesity Center of the Catholic University Hospital in Rome, Italy were included in the study. The patients underwent overnight cardiorespiratory monitoring, blood chemistry analyses, hepatic ultrasound, and anthropometric measurements. The patients were divided into 2 groups according OSA severity assessed by the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI): AHI < 15 = no or mild and AHI ≥ 15 moderate to severe OSA. A statistical prediction model was created and validated. C statistics was used to evaluate the discrimination performance of the model.The prevalence of OSA was 96.3% with 74.5% of the subjects having moderate/severe OSA. Sex, body mass index, diabetes, and age were included in the final prediction model that had excellent discrimination ability (C statistics equals to 83%). An OSA risk chart score for clinical use was created.Patients with severe obesity are at a very high risk for moderate or severe OSA in particular if they are men, older, more obese, and/or with type 2 diabetes. The OSA risk chart can be useful for general practitioners and patients as well as for bariatric surgeons to select patients with high risk of moderate to severe OSA for further polysomnography.


Assuntos
Obesidade Mórbida/fisiopatologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Obesidade Mórbida/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Curva ROC , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(35): e17007, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464957

RESUMO

Poor outcomes of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are well described. Transarterial therapy is the standard treatment for HCC, following which regular contrast-enhanced imaging for residual disease is recommended. CKD is considered a relative contraindication for transarterial therapy owing to renal failure.This retrospective study investigated the outcomes of transarterial therapy in HCC patients with CKD. In total, 132 HCC patients who received transarterial therapy were enrolled, of whom 36 had CKD. Most CKD patients were elderly, with mean age of diagnosis of 69.7 ±â€Š11.4 years. Hypertension (odds ratio [OR]; 5.06; 95% confidence interval [Cl]; 1.83-13.94), hepatitis C virus carrier rate (OR; 4.12, 95% CI; 1.13-14.99) and diabetes (OR; 3.62, 95% CI; 1.22-10.72) were significant predictors for CKD in HCC patients. Post therapy, the estimated glomerular filtration rate significantly decreased 13.7% from baseline in the CKD patients (P = .03). There were more post-therapy complications than in the non-CKD group, e.g. acute renal failure and sepsis (P < .01 vs P < .01). Overall survival in the CKD group was significantly poor (10.9 ±â€Š8.5 vs 23.5 ±â€Š16.3 months, P < .01).The lower survival of CKD patients was unrelated to treatment modality or less contrast-enhanced imaging follow-up. Further research on patient care and factors leading to poor outcomes for CKD is needed.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Quimioembolização Terapêutica/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Quimioembolização Terapêutica/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(35): e17008, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464958

RESUMO

Urinary kallidinogenase may assist recovery acute ischemic stroke. This study evaluated the effect of urinary kallidinogenase on National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, modified Rankin scale (mRS) score, and fasting glucose levels in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) combined with diabetes mellitus and impaired fasting glucose.Patients with AIS and abnormal glucose metabolism were enrolled in this prospective cohort study and divided into 2 groups. The human urinary kallidinogenase (HUK) group were treated with urinary kallidinogenase and standard treatment; the control group received standard treatment. NIHSS scores, mRS scores, and fasting blood glucose were evaluated and compared.A total of 113 patients were included: 58 in the HUK group and 55 in the control group. NIHSS scores decreased with treatment in both groups (time effect P < .05), but were lower in the HUK group (main effect P = .026). The mRS score decreased in both groups from 10 until 90 days after treatment (time effect P < .05); the 2 groups were similar (main effect, P = .130). Blood glucose levels decreased in both groups 10 days after treatment (time effect, P < .05), but there was no significant treatment effect (main effect, P = .635). Multivariate analysis showed blood uric acid >420 µmol/L (odds ratio [OR]: 0.053, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.008-0.350; P = .002) and application of HUK (OR: 0.217, 95% CI: 0.049-0.954; P = .043) were associated with 90% NIHSS recovery. Baseline NIHSS score was independently associated with poor curative effect.Urinary kallidinogenase with conventional therapy significantly improved NIHSS scores in patients with AIS. Urinary kallidinogenase also showed a trend toward lower fasting blood glucose levels, although the level did not reach significance.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Calicreínas Teciduais/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Intolerância à Glucose/epidemiologia , Intolerância à Glucose/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(33): e16847, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415411

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to explore the application and its effect of mobile medical treatment to chronic disease health management in physical examination population, and to provide references for comprehensive intervention and management of chronic diseases.From January to December 2016, 300 medical examiners in a general hospital health management center were randomly divided into health management group (155 cases) and control group (145 cases). The control group completed routine physical examination and health-risk assessment and provided corresponding reports, repeated annual physical examination and health-risks assessment. In addition to the routine physical examination and health-risk assessment, the health management group reminded the examiners to pay attention to their lifestyle and dietary habits by moving online and offline dynamic health interventions and provide targeted guidance for high-risk population such as diabetes, obesity, hypertension, etc. A review was made after 2 years. The clinical indexes and chronic disease behavior of patients before and after management were compared, and the effect was evaluated by statistical analysis.After management, all the clinical indexes were significantly improved, and the patients' dietary structure, bad living habits, psychologic state, and other chronic disease behaviors were obviously improved. The proportion of patients with high risk of hypertension, diabetes, and obesity in health management group was significantly lower than that before intervention and control group (P < .05).Using mobile network online, offline dynamic health intervention model can reduce the risk of common chronic diseases in health management objects, this health management model of chronic disease is worth popularizing.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença Crônica/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Dieta Saudável/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Melhoria de Qualidade , Medição de Risco/métodos , Telemedicina
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(26): e16186, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261555

RESUMO

The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Taiwan is 11.9%, and the incidence and prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is ranked first in the world. The severity of CKD progression to ESRD is dependent on glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria. However, the risk factors for ESRD also include diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, age, sex, and so on, and predicting CKD progression using few variables is insufficient. Currently, there are no models with high accuracy and high explanatory power that could predict the risk of progression to dialysis in CKD patients in Taiwan. Our aim was to establish an optimal prediction model for CKD progression in patientsThis study was a retrospective cohort study, which reviewed data from the "Public health insurance Pre-ESRD preventive program and patient health education program" that was implemented by the National Health Insurance Administration, Ministry of Health and Welfare. From 2006 to 2013, data of CKD patients from the Tri-Service General Hospital in Neihu District, Taipei City was examined. The data collected in this study included demographic variables, past medical history, and blood biochemical values. After exclusion of variables with >30% missing data, the remaining variables were interpolated using multiple imputations and inputted into the prediction model for analysis. The Cox proportion hazard model was used to investigate the influence of CKD risk factors on progression to dialysis. The strengths of various models were evaluated using likelihood ratios (LR), in order to identify a model which uses the least factors but has the strongest explanatory power.The study results included 1549 CKD patients, of whom 1017 eventually had dialysis. This study found that in the prediction model with the best explanatory power, the influencing factors and hazard ratios (HR) were: age 0.95 (0.91-0.99), creatinine 1.03 (1.02-1.05), urea nitrogen 1.18 (1.14-1.23), and comorbid systemic diabetes 1.65 (1.45-1.88).A prediction model was developed in this study, which could be used to carry out predictions based on blood biochemical values from patients, in order to accurately predict the risk of CKD progression to dialysis.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Comorbidade , Creatinina/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Transplante de Rim , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Estatísticos , Prognóstico , Diálise Renal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan
9.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 877, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study uses bibliometric analysis to describe the state of research about the association of NO2, PM2.5 and noise exposures - three traffic-related pollutants - with cardiometabolic disorders. METHODS: We retrieved references published 1994-2017 from Scopus and classified references with respect to exposure, health outcome and study design using index keywords. Temporal trend, top cited references, used index keywords and the number of hypothesis testing and non-hypothesis testing study design for each group were identified. RESULTS: Results show PM2.5 is the most frequently studied exposure (47%), followed by both NO2 and PM2.5 exposure (29%). Only 3% of references considered multiple exposures between NO2 and/or PM2.5 and noise, and these were published after 2008. While we observed a growing trend in studies with NO2 and/or PM2.5 and noise and diabetes in the last decade, there is a diminishing trend in studies with noise and diabetes. Different patterns of study designs were found through H/NH ratio, the number of references classified as having a hypothesis (H)-testing design relative to the number of references classified as having a non-hypothesis (NH)-testing design. Studies with NO2 and/or PM2.5 exposure are more likely to have a H-testing design, while those with noise exposure are more likely to have a NH-testing design, such as cross-sectional study design. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude with three themes about research trends. First, the study of simultaneous exposures to multiple pollutants is a current trend, and likely to continue. Second, the association between traffic-related pollutants and diabetes and metabolic symptoms is an area for growth in research. Third, the transition to the use of H-testing study designs to explore associations between noise and cardiometabolic outcomes may be supported by improved understanding of the mechanism of action, and/or improvements to the accuracy and precision of air pollution and noise exposure assessments for environmental health research.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade , Bibliometria , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(8): 511, 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346790

RESUMO

Arsenic is one of the naturally occurring heavy metal that has been reported to cause damaging effects on different body organs. This study was aimed to determine the arsenic level in different water sources and investigate the effect of arsenic exposure on risk factors of diabetes mellitus (DM) in human participants and experimental animals. We recruited 150 participants to investigate the arsenic exposure in their urine and from drinking water. We found that males contained significantly higher (P < 0.001) concentrations of urinary arsenic as compared with that of their female counterparts. Similarly, urinary arsenic concentration was high and showed significant association in the age of ≥ 60 years (P < 0.05), illiterate (P < 0.001), smokers (P < 0.0001), and diabetic (P < 0.0001) participants. Moreover, urinary arsenic exposure was also associated with higher levels of fasting (P < 0.001) and random blood glucose (P < 0.001), HbA1c (P < 0.001), AST, ALT, MDA, IL-6, CRP, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine in arsenic-exposed diabetics as compared with that of unexposed diabetics. Further, we also exposed the white albino rats with arsenic in drinking water for 30 days and their blood glucose was measured at 15th and 30th days of treatment that was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in arsenic-exposed animals as compared with that of unexposed animals. Similarly, arsenic-exposed animals failed to tolerate exogenously administered glucose (P < 0.001) as compared with that of unexposed animals. Likewise, insulin and glutathione concentrations were also significantly decreased (P < 0.001) in arsenic-exposed animals as compared with that of unexposed animals. The alterations in normal values of glucose, insulin, and glutathione exhibited the damaging effects of arsenic exposure in experimental rats. This study showed that arsenic exposed to human beings and animals through drinking water resulted in the disruption of pancreatic ß-cell functioning that provoked the risk factor for development of DM. This study also suggested that long-term arsenic exposure induces hyperglycemia, inflammation, and oxidative stress that may lead to the onset of development of DM.


Assuntos
Arsênico/urina , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Estresse Oxidativo , Paquistão , Ratos , Fatores de Risco
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(30): e16611, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348309

RESUMO

Although unilateral primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common surgically correctable cause of hypertension, the cure rate varies widely. The predicting factors related to uncured hypertension are not completely established. This study was designed to determine predicting factors associated with resolution of hypertension after adrenalectomy for PA.The records of unilateral PA patients who had undergone retroperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy were retrospectively reviewed from January 2010 to December 2017 in a single center. Patient demographics and preoperative factors were analyzed, including age, sex, smoking history, family history of hypertension, the presence of diabetes, body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, biochemical results and tumor characteristics. Univariate and multivariate Logistic regression analysis were used for statistical assessment.126 patients with unilateral PA were enrolled, and the mean age at the time of surgery was 54.2 years. Of these patients, 74 (58.7%) were women, and the mean BMI and duration of hypertension were 26 kg/m and 61 months, respectively. Hypertension was cured in 46% patients, of the patients with uncured hypertension, 91% had improved control of hypertension. In univariate analysis, age (P = .03), BMI (P = .01), duration of hypertension >5 years (P = .03), preoperative antihypertensive agents>2 (P = .02), contralateral abnormalities (P = .03) were the main factors related to uncured hypertension after adrenalectomy. In multivariate regression analysis, uncured hypertension was independently associated with obesity (25.00-29.99: odds ratio [OR], 2.97, P < .02; ≥30: OR, 6.42, P < .01), duration of hypertension >5 years (OR, 6.25, P < .01), preoperative antihypertensive agents >2 (OR, 5.30, P < .001), and contralateral adrenal abnormalities (OR, 8.38, P < .01).The hypertension cure rate of unilateral adrenalectomy in PA is not high. Obesity, duration of hypertension >5 years, preoperative antihypertensive agents >2 and contralateral adrenal abnormalities were independently associated with uncured hypertension.


Assuntos
Adrenalectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Hiperaldosteronismo/cirurgia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperaldosteronismo/complicações , Hipertensão/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
12.
Epidemiol Health ; 41: e2019029, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319658

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study analyzed Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2007 to 2017 to assess trends in the prevalence, treatment, and control of diabetes in Korean adults ≥30 years of age. METHODS: Prevalent diabetes was defined as a fasting plasma glucose level ≥126 mg/dL, self-reported use of anti-diabetic treatment (insulin or oral anti-diabetic drugs), or diabetes diagnosis by a physician. Target levels were defined as glycosylated hemoglobin <6.5% or <7.0%, blood pressure <130/80 mmHg, and total cholesterol <200 mg/dL. All survey waves were age-standardized to the 2005 Korean census population. RESULTS: Diabetes prevalence increased from 9.6% in 2007-2009 to 10.8% in 2016-2017 (p<0.001). Impaired fasting glucose prevalence significantly increased in both genders and almost every age group. Diabetes awareness and glycemic control did not show an increasing trend; however, the treatment rate and proportion of people diagnosed with diabetes achieving target blood pressure and total cholesterol levels improved from 57.2% to 63.5% (p=0.008), from 41.1% to 53.2% (p<0.001), and from 65.0% to 78.0% (p<0.001), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: From 2007 to 2017, the prevalence of diabetes increased moderately in Korea, whereas the diabetes treatment rate and the proportion of people diagnosed with diabetes achieving target blood pressure and total cholesterol levels improved. However, awareness of diabetes and glycemic control require significant improvements. A national-level action plan is required to raise awareness about diabetes and prediabetes, with the goal of improving glycemic control and minimizing the occurrence of adverse health outcomes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
13.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(9): 2414-2420, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke is a highly prevalent disease with consequent mortality and morbidity. Few community based studies have been conducted only in upper Egypt to estimate prevalence of stroke. OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to find out the prevalence of stroke in Fayoum Governorate & to study some associated risk factors. METHODS: through this community based cross-sectional study 4784 participants aged more than or equal to 18 years old were enrolled. A multi-stage random sample technique was followed to choose the study sample. A predesigned interviewer-administered structured questionnaire was used. Suspected stroke case by screening questionnaire was referred to the neurologist. RESULTS: The Crude prevalence of stroke was 16 out of 1000 with confidence interval of proportion (12.6%-19.7%). The age adjusted local (Fayoum 2017 census) prevalence rate was 7.97 out of 1000, age adjusted prevalence rate (Egypt population 2017) was 1.05 out of 1000. Age-adjusted World Health Organization standard world population prevalence rate was 1.69 out of 1000. The crude prevalence of ischemic stroke was significantly higher than hemorrhagic stroke 11.9 versus 3.9 out of 1000 population. The most prevalent risk factor was smoking among males, followed by obesity then hypertension. The prevalence of stroke was significantly higher among participants affected with hypertension, diabetes, heart diseases, obesity, and smoking. Logistic regression analysis showed that having hypertension, diabetes, heart diseases, atrial fibrillation, obesity, and smoking were reported risk factors of stroke. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of stroke in Fayoum governorate was 1.6%. Hypertension, diabetes, heart diseases, obesity, and smoking were reported risk factors of stroke.


Assuntos
Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Egito/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
14.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(6): 654-659, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238614

RESUMO

Objective: To study the prevalence and correlates of diabetes among HIV/AIDS who were on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Dehong Dai and Jingpo autonomous prefectures (Dehong), Yunnan province. Methods: The database of HIV/AIDS receiving ART in Dehong was downloaded by using the basic information system of AIDS prevention and control in China. In this cross-sectional study, HIV/AIDS patients who were currently on ART and aged 18 years or above, were consecutively recruited, between July 2017 and June 2018, in Dehong. All the subjects underwent hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) testing. Patient with diabetes was defined as meeting any of these indicators (HbA1c ≥6.5%, baseline FPG ≥7.0 mmol/L, FPG ≥7.0 mmol/L in the most recent visit). Both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were carried on to evaluate the correlates of diabetes among the HIV/AIDS patients. Results: In total of 4 376 HIV/AIDS patients were included for analysis, with the average age as (43.7±10.1) years, proportion of males as 53.8% (2 356/4 376) and the HCV positive rate as 24.1% (1 055/4 376). The mean years was (8.9±3.8) years after the HIV diagnosis was made, and the mean duration on treatment was (6.8±2.9) years. The prevalence of diabetes was 11.4% (500/4 376). Through multivariate logistic regression analysis, data showed that the risk factors of diabetes of HIV/AIDS on ART were: aged 40 years or above, being male, HCV positive, baseline body mass index ≥24.0 kg/m(2), elevated TG ≥1.70 mmol/L in the most recent visit and baseline antiretroviral regimens under Efavirenz (EFV). Conclusions: Prevalence rate of diabetes appeared higher in HIV/AIDS patients who were on ART in Dehong. Prevention and control measures should be targeted on HIV/AIDS patients who were with risk factors of diabetes as being elderly, male, HCV positive, overweight and higher TG. Further esearch is needed to evaluate the association between the use of EFV and diabetes.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , HIV , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência
15.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(6): 666-669, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238616

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the prevalence and risk factors of hypertension combined with diabetes in the middle to elder population in the Nan'an district of Chongqing, and to provide evidence for formulating relevant prevention and control strategies. Methods: Middle or elder adults were enrolled by a Stratified multistage cluster sampling method. Questionnaire survey and the related measurements were conducted. The epidemiology of hypertension combined with diabetes was analyzed descriptively, and the risk or protective factors were analyzed by logistic regression method. Results: A total of 24 792 people were surveyed, with 1 547 patients identified as having hypertension combined with diabetes. The overall prevalence rate appeared as 6.2%, of which 6.0% in males and 6.4% in females, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension combined with diabetes in the general population was increasing with age (χ(2)=343.766, P<0.001). Factors as age, education, smoking, marital status, exercise, BMI, triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol were related to the prevalence of hypertension and diabetes. High density lipoprotein cholesterol appeared as a protective factor for hypertension combined with diabetes (OR=0.817, 95%CI: 0.715-0.934). Age, education, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and lack of exercise all appeared as risk factors for hypertension combined with diabetes (P<0.05), respectively. Conclusions: The prevalence rate of hypertension combined with diabetes in the middle or elder adults in Nan'an of Chongqing seemed high. Attention should be paid to the health status of people being elderly, overweight or obese, low cultural level, smoking, triglyceride abnormality, total cholesterol abnormality and high low density lipoprotein cholesterol, so as to reduce the risk on hypertension combined with diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
16.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(6): 692-696, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238621

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics of diabetic patients combined with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and to compare the prognosis between diabetic and non- diabetic patients in 4-5 years after the onset of AMI. Methods: Followed the certain inclusive and exclusive criteria, a total of 420 patients with acute myocardial infarction were included and divided into diabetes group (group D) and non-diabetes group (group N) with numbers as 161 people and 259 respectively. Baseline data, clinical information, short-term outcome and long-term prognosis of the two groups were compared and analyzed. Results: Among the patients with diabetes, the average age was older (65.65±11.33 vs. 63.30±15.34), with fewer males (64.59% vs. 79.92%); and more likely to have other complications as hypertension (64.60% vs. 53.28%) or hyperlipidemia (42.24% vs. 26.25%). 59.29% of the patients in group D showed pathological changes in 3 major coronary arteries, which were significantly more than its counterpart (40.83%). The proportion of patients that had undergone the coronary artery bypass, grafting (11.11% vs. 5.31%) appeared also higher. There was no significant difference seen in the short-term outcomes between the two groups, but results from the long-term follow-up program showed that both the incidence of Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events (MACE) (50.67% vs. 27.72%) and the all-cause mortality (20.00% vs. 9.90%) in group D were higher than those appeared in group N (27.72%). Conclusions: Patients suffered from the combination of both diabetes and acute myocardial infarction appeared older in age, more in females, with more complications and the coronary artery lesions were more severe and wider. During hospitalization, no significant difference was seen regarding the short-term outcomes between the two groups but the results from long-term follow-up process showing that the risk of MACE events was significantly higher in patients with type2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Prognóstico
17.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 27(2): 160-164, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241293

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Diabetic retinopathy is one of the leading causes of blindness. We estimated the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among a diabetic population in the Dubrovnik-Neretva County in the Republic of Croatia and searched for potential risk factors. METHODS: A prospective study was performed with 600 diabetic patients from different parts of the Dubrovnik-Neretva County who attended regular medical and ophthalmological check-ups at the General Hospital Dubrovnik from September 2014 to September 2015. Patients underwent a complete medical assessment by two ophthalmologists. Retinal examination included evaluation of the presence of diabetic retinopathy. Any retinopathy present was graded as mild non-proliferative retinopathy, moderate-severe non proliferative retinopathy or proliferative retinopathy. RESULTS: Retinopathy was present in 44.5% of the study sample. 20.7% had the mild form of diabetic retinopathy, 18.8% had the moderate-severe form, and 5.0% had proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The mean duration of diabetes was 12.94 years ± 6.85; 12.89 years ± 9.18 in men, 12.94 ± 6.54 in women. The mean BMI was 27.14 ± 2.98; for diabetics without diabetic retinopathy 26.19 ± 2.75; for those with the mild form 28.06 ± 3.01; for those with the moderate-severe form 28.49 ± 2.54; for those with proliferative diabetic retinopathy 28.79 ± 3.16. 168 (28%) patients were treated by laser and 22 (3.7%) by vitrectomy. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in the Dubrovnik-Neretva County is 44.5%. Regular screening to detect diabetic retinopathy is highly recommended as timely intervention can prevent most diabetic causes of blindness.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Retinopatia Diabética/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Croácia/epidemiologia , Complicações do Diabetes , Retinopatia Diabética/sangue , Retinopatia Diabética/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
18.
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev ; 26(3): 227-237, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228169

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Contribution of risk factors for cardiovascular-related deaths in the Eastern Mediterranean Region Organization (EMRO) is not estimated quantitatively. AIM: To determine the avoidable burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) due to hypertension, diabetes, smoking, overweight, and obesity in countries of EMRO of the WHO. METHODS: The comparative risk assessment methodology was used to calculate the potential impact fraction (PIF) and percentage of the avoidable burden of CVD-related death due to associated risk factors. Population exposure levels for CVDs and corresponding measures of association were extracted from published studies. The attributable burden was calculated by multiplying the Disability-Adjusted Life-Years (DALYs) for CVDs by the estimated impact fraction of risk factors. DALYs of the CVDs in all countries of the EMRO were extracted from the GBD official website in 2016. RESULTS: Following reduction of the current prevalence of smoking, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and overweight to a feasible minimum risk exposure level in Lebanon, about 12.4%, 4.2%, 10.2%, 3.8%, and 5.7% of the burden of CVD-related mortality could be avoidable, respectively. The corresponding values of avoidable burden in selected EMRO countries were 5.1%, 3.5%, 9.4%, 5.9% and 5.3% in Iran and 9.5%, 4.1%, 11%, 8.2% and 5.4% in Egypt. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that health policy makers of all EMRO countries should take into account the attributable burden of CVD-related mortality due to associated risk factors to effectively develop preventive interventions.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , África do Norte/epidemiologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/mortalidade , Hipertensão/terapia , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/mortalidade , Obesidade/terapia , Prevalência , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Prognóstico , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/mortalidade , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(23): e15878, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169693

RESUMO

Obesity is a significant public health concern that predisposes individuals to a high risk of premature mortality. Previous studies also reported that low serum concentrations of AMY1 have been associated with obesity. The aimed of the study to assess the relationship between salivary amylase (AMY1) activity and body mass index (BMI) in Saudi male and female adults in Riyadh. This study included a total of 200 (100 individuals who were overweight and obese and 100 who had normal body weight [control individuals]) Saudi participants aged 20 to 50 years old. They were recruited from physical fitness clubs and were school employees in Riyadh City. The dietary food intake was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall. The activity of the AMY1 was measured using a microplate fluorescence reader. A significant (P ≤ .05) increase was observed in the incidence of hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus (DM), and family history of overweight and obesity in overweight and obese individuals than in the control individuals, and these were in parallel to the significant increase in weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and BMI. A significant (P ≤ .05) increase was also observed in the carbohydrate and total fat dietary intake of overweight and obese individuals in relation to the respective dietary reference intake (DRI) values. AMY1 activity was significantly lower than the reference values in the overweight and obese group. Furthermore, AMY1 activity was significantly (P ≤ .05) reverse with weight, WC, HC, and BMI in both males and females in the overweight and obese group. In conclusion, the Saudi overweight and obese population seems to be at risk of low AMY1, which correlates with their obesity.


Assuntos
Amilases/análise , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Saliva/química , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Dieta , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Transplant Proc ; 51(5): 1563-1567, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is little information about living donor long-term follow-up among Brazilian living donors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the main outcomes among living donors and to measure their adherence to regular medical appointments. METHODS: This is a Brazilian single-center cohort study that included 397 living donors with 87.1 months of follow-up and measured adherence to clinical appointments. Before 2010, the appointments were scheduled only spontaneously; after that an approach was structured to check the returns of donors, who were monitored actively. We also evaluated long-term outcomes such as survival and chronic kidney disease development and, secondarily, the incidences of hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), and dyslipidemia after donation. RESULTS: The donors' adherence to annual clinical appointments was 75.8% (54.7% of them presenting annual regularity). Before 2010 the adherence was lower than 40%; 10-year cumulative incidences of hypertension, DM, and dyslipidemia were 20.4%, 5.7%, and 23.5%, respectively. The crude mortality was 1% and 10-year donor survival was 98.5%. The incidence of chronic kidney disease 5 years after donation was 19%, with 16.4% of patients staged in 3a and 2.6% in 3b. CONCLUSION: A structured approach to check donor returns to long-term clinical appointments has doubled the adherence to visits returns (compared to historical data). We identified lower incidence of arterial hypertension and DM among donors as compared with the incidence of arterial hypertension and DM in the Brazilian general population, but the 5-year chronic kidney disease incidence was considered high, taking into consideration data that have been published in the last years.


Assuntos
Assistência ao Convalescente , Transplante de Rim , Doadores Vivos , Nefrectomia/efeitos adversos , Cooperação do Paciente , Adulto , Agendamento de Consultas , Brasil , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Incidência , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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