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1.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD004730, 2020 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Cystic Fibrosis Foundation recommends both short-term and long-acting insulin therapy when cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) has been diagnosed. Diagnosis is based on: an elevated fasting blood glucose level greater than 6.94 mmol/L (125 mg/dL); or oral glucose tolerance tests greater than 11.11 mmol/L (200 mg/dL) at two hours; or symptomatic diabetes for random glucose levels greater than 11.11 mmol/L (200 mg/dL); or glycated hemoglobin levels of at least 6.5%. This is an update of a previously published review. OBJECTIVES: To establish the effectiveness of insulin and oral agents for managing diabetes in people with cystic fibrosis in relation to blood sugar levels, lung function and weight management. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. We also handsearched abstracts from pulmonary symposia and the North American Cystic Fibrosis Conferences. Date of most recent register search: 10 September 2020. We searched online trials registries; date of most recent searches: 21 March 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials comparing all methods of pharmacological diabetes therapy in people with diagnosed CFRD. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias in the included studies. Authors also used GRADE to assess the quality of the evidence. MAIN RESULTS: The searches identified 29 trials (45 references). Four included trials provide results: one short-term single-center cross-over trial (seven adults) comparing insulin with oral repaglinide and no medication in adults with CFRD and normal fasting glucose; one long-term multicenter trial (61 adults with CFRD) comparing insulin with oral repaglinide and placebo; one long-term multicenter trial (67 adults) comparing insulin with oral repaglinide; and one 12-week single-center cross-over trial (20 adults) comparing the long-acting insulin glargine to short-term neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin. Two ongoing trials of newly approved incretin mimics have been noted for possible future inclusion. Downgrading of the quality of the evidence was mainly due to risks of bias across all domains, but particularly due to concerns surrounding allocation concealment and selective reporting. There were also some concerns due to imprecision from small sample sizes and low event rates. Finally, there may be some bias due to the amounts of insulin and repaglinide given not being comparable. Data from one trial comparing insulin to placebo (39 participants) did not show any difference between groups for the primary outcomes of blood glucose levels (very low-quality evidence), lung function (low-quality evidence) or nutritional status (low-quality evidence). Similarly, no differences between groups were seen for the secondary outcomes of number of hypoglycemic episodes (low-quality evidence), secondary infection complications or quality of life (QoL). These results were mirrored in the narrative reports for the second trial in this comparison (seven participants). Data from the one-year trial comparing repaglinide to placebo (38 participants), showed no differences between groups for the primary outcomes of blood glucose levels (very low-quality evidence), lung function (low-quality evidence) and nutritional status (low-quality evidence). Also, no differences were seen between groups for the secondary outcomes of number of hypoglycemic episodes (low-quality evidence), secondary infection complications or QoL. These findings were mirrored in the narrative reports for the second trial (n = 7) in this comparison. Three trials compared insulin to repaglinide (119 participants). Data from one trial (n = 67) showed no difference in blood glucose levels at either 12 months (high-quality evidence) or 24 months; narrative reports from one trial (45 participants) reported no difference between groups, but the second trial (7 participants) reported a beneficial effect of insulin over repaglinide. Two trials (112 participants) found no difference between insulin and repaglinide in lung function or nutritional status (moderate-quality evidence). Two trials (56 participants) reported no difference in the number of hypoglycemic episodes (low-quality evidence). One trial (45 participants) reported no difference between groups in secondary infections and cystic fibrosis QoL. The single trial comparing glargine to neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin did not report directly on the review's primary outcomes, but did report no differences between groups in post-prandial glucose values and weight; neither group reported infectious complications. There was no difference in episodes of hypoglycemia (very low-quality evidence) and while there was no difference reported in QoL, all participants opted to continue treatment with glargine after the trial was completed. Mortality was not reported by any trial in any comparison, but death was not given as a reason for withdrawal in any trial. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This review has not found any conclusive evidence that any agent has a distinct advantage over another in controlling hyperglycemia or the clinical outcomes associated with CFRD. Given the treatment burden already experienced by people with cystic fibrosis, oral therapy may be a viable treatment option. While some cystic fibrosis centers use oral medications to help control diabetes, the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation (USA) clinical practice guidelines support the use of insulin therapy and this remains the most widely-used treatment method. Randomized controlled trials specifically related to controlling diabetes and its impact on the course of pulmonary disease process in cystic fibrosis continue to be a high priority. Specifically, investigators should evaluate adherence to different therapies and also whether there is benefit in using additional hypoglycemic agents as well as the newly approved incretin mimics. Agents that potentiate insulin action, especially agents with additional anti-inflammatory potential should also be further investigated as adjuvant therapy to insulin.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Viés , Glicemia/análise , Carbamatos/administração & dosagem , Fibrose Cística/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Jejum/sangue , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Insulina Glargina/administração & dosagem , Insulina Isófana/administração & dosagem , Piperidinas/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
2.
Lancet ; 396(10252): 726-734, 2020 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891214

RESUMO

Acute pancreatitis is an unpredictable and potentially lethal disease. The prognosis mainly depends on the development of organ failure and secondary infection of pancreatic or peripancreatic necrosis. In the past 10 years, treatment of acute pancreatitis has moved towards a multidisciplinary, tailored, and minimally invasive approach. Despite improvements in treatment and critical care, severe acute pancreatitis is still associated with high mortality rates. In this Seminar, we outline the latest evidence on diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for acute pancreatitis.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica , Drenagem , Hidratação , Apoio Nutricional , Pancreatite/diagnóstico , Pancreatite/terapia , Amilases/sangue , Colecistectomia , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina/etiologia , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina/terapia , Cálculos Biliares/complicações , Cálculos Biliares/cirurgia , Humanos , Lipase/sangue , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Pancreatite/sangue , Pancreatite/etiologia , Pancreatite Necrosante Aguda/diagnóstico , Pancreatite Necrosante Aguda/etiologia , Pancreatite Necrosante Aguda/terapia , Pancreatite Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Pancreatite Alcoólica/terapia , Prevenção Secundária , Stents , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Ultrassonografia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32796731

RESUMO

The object of this study was to examine the effects of domestic and work-related physical activity (DWPA) and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) on the risk of diabetes, by categorizing fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels into normal, Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG), and diabetes. The sample consisted of 4661 adults aged 30 years or above, and was chosen from the 2017 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data. Of all the subjects, 14.6% engaged in high-intensity DWPA and 6.25% in moderate-intensity DWPA; while 11.68% and 24.80% engaged in high- and moderate-intensity LTPA, respectively. The effects of both types of physical activities on the risk of diabetes were analyzed using a Bayesian ordered probit model. For those with high-intensity DWPA, the probability of the FBG level being normal was 5.10% (SE = 0.25) lower than for those with non-high-intensity DWPA, and the probabilities of IFG and diabetes were 3.30% (SE = 0.15) and 1.79% (SE = 0.09) higher, respectively. However, for those with high-intensity LTPA, the probability of the FBG level being normal was 2.54% (SE = 0.09) higher, and the probabilities of IFG and diabetes were 1.74% (SE = 0.07) and 0.80% (SE = 0.03) lower, respectively, than those with non-high-intensity LTPA. Likewise, for moderate-intensity DWPA and LTPA, the results were the same compared to low-intensity physical activities though the magnitude of the effects were smaller than for high-intensity. Thus, the activities related to work have a negative effect and those related to leisure have a positive effect. The criteria for physical activities to reduce the risk of diabetes should be set by separating these domains of physical activity, and new management strategies for diabetes are needed for people with moderate- or high-intensity DWPA.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Atividades de Lazer , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Esforço Físico , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
4.
Biodemography Soc Biol ; 65(3): 257-267, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727275

RESUMO

In the United States, obesity has increased in prevalence over time and is strongly associated with subsequent outcomes such as diabetes mellitus (DM) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It is unclear, however, as to how the magnitude of NAFLD risk from obesity and DM is increased in safety-net health system settings. Among the San Francisco Health Network (SFHN) patients (N = 47,211), we examined the association between Body Mass Index (BMI) and elevated liver enzyme levels, including interaction by DM status. Our findings revealed that 32.2 percent of SFHN patients were obese, and Pacific Islanders in the safety-net had the highest rates of obesity compared to other racial groups, even after using higher race-specific BMI cutoffs. In SFHN, obesity was associated with elevated liver enzymes, with the relationship stronger among those without DM. Our findings highlight how obesity is a stronger factor of NAFLD in the absence of DM, suggesting that practitioners consider screening for NAFLD among safety-net patients with obesity even if DM has not developed. These results highlight the importance of directing efforts to reduce obesity in safety-net health systems and encourage researchers to further examine effect modification between health outcomes in such populations.


Assuntos
Obesidade/terapia , Provedores de Redes de Segurança/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , California/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Insuficiência Hepática/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Hepática/etiologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Provedores de Redes de Segurança/organização & administração , Provedores de Redes de Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32630562

RESUMO

Post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is associated with infection, cardiovascular morbidity, and mortality. A retrospective cohort study involving patients who underwent renal transplantation in a transplantation center in Taiwan from January 2000 to December 2018 was conducted to investigate the incidence and risk factors of PTDM and long-term patient and graft survival rates. High age (45-65 vs. <45 years, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.64-5.13, p < 0.001), high body mass index (>27 vs. <24 kg/m2, aOR = 5.35, 95% CI = 2.75-10.42, p < 0.001), and deceased organ donor (cadaveric vs. living, aOR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.03-3.93, p = 0.04) were the three most important risk factors for the development of PTDM. The cumulative survival rate of patients and allografts was higher in patients without PTDM than in those with PTDM (p = 0.007 and 0.041, respectively). Concurrent use of calcineurin inhibitors and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTORis) decreased the risk of PTDM (tacrolimus vs. tacrolimus with mTORi, aOR = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.14-0.55, p < 0.001). Investigating PTDM risk factors before and modifying immunosuppressant regimens after transplantation may effectively prevent PTDM development.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Transplante de Órgãos , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Feminino , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Imunossupressores , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transplante de Órgãos/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan/epidemiologia
6.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 21(15): 1883-1895, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32633582

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Acromegaly is a rare disease due to oversecretion of growth hormone (GH). Even though the disease is often portrayed by its most apparent clinical features, given the abundance of GH receptors throughout the body, it truly is a systemic disease leading to numerous complications and comorbidities. A distinct medical issue in the context of acromegaly is diabetes: It can be a complication as a consequence of GH excess and its mediators, but it can also result from treatment of acromegaly. AREAS COVERED: This review provides an overview of the effects of acromegaly pathophysiology on glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, it devotes an extensive section on the influence that acromegaly treatment has on glucose metabolism, including approved as well as currently investigated drugs. It also summarizes observations from the use of anti-diabetic medication in patients with acromegaly. EXPERT OPINION: Glucose imbalance is an important aspect of acromegaly comorbidity and deserves more attention. Even though numerous studies have investigated glucose homeostasis in acromegaly, there is still a clear need for more basic, translational, and also clinical research to advance the understanding of the underlying mechanisms and how to best address them.


Assuntos
Acromegalia/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Glucose/metabolismo , Somatostatina/uso terapêutico , Acromegalia/complicações , Acromegalia/epidemiologia , Acromegalia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/metabolismo , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Prevalência , Somatostatina/análogos & derivados
7.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 24(6): 550-559, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-245005

RESUMO

COVID 19 is much more than an infectious disease by SARS-CoV-2 followed by a disproportionate immune response. An older age, diabetes and history of cardiovascular disease, especially hypertension, but also chronic heart failure and coronary artery disease among others, are between the most important risk factors. In addition, during the hospitalization both hyperglycaemia and heart failure are frequent. Less frequent are acute coronary syndrome, arrhythmias and stroke. Accordingly, not all prolonged stays or even deaths are due directly to SARS-CoV-2. To our knowledge, this is the first review, focusing both on cardiovascular and metabolic aspects of this dreadful disease, in an integrated and personalized way, following the guidelines of the Cardiometabolic Health/Medicine. Therefore, current personalized aspects such as ACEIs and ARBs, the place of statins and the most appropriate management of heart failure in diabetics are analysed. Aging, better than old age, as a dynamic process, is also considered in this review for the first time in the literature, and not only as a risk factor attributed to cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular comorbidities. Immunosenescence is also approached to build healthier elders, so they can resist present and future infectious diseases, and not only in epidemics or pandemics. In addition, to do this we must start knowing the molecular mechanisms that underlying Aging process in general, and immunosenescence in particular. Surprisingly, the endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy are implicated in both process. Finally, with a training in all the aspects covered in this review, not only the hospital stay, complications and costs of this frightening disease in high-risk population should be reduced. Likely, this paper will open a gate to the future for open-minded physicians.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Medicina de Precisão
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(21): e20390, 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481339

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Fibrates are widely used to control hypertriglyceridemia and mixed dyslipidemia alone or in combination with statins. These drugs have rare, but severe and potentially vital adverse reactions of rhabdomyolysis and secondary acute renal failure (ARF). The objective of this article is to analyze this adverse effect of fibrates and ensure the safety of drug use. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a case of rhabdomyolysis and ARF due to fenofibrate monotherapy in a 68-year-old female with post-pancreatitis diabetes mellitus and review reported cases of rhabdomyolysis correlated with fibrates monotherapy. DIAGNOSIS: The patient was diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis associated with fenofibrate monotherapy as confirmed by symptoms of fatigue and muscle pain, and elevated levels of myoglobin and creatine kinase. INTERVENTIONS: Fenofibrate therapy was discontinued. Moreover, intravenous fluids, urinary alkalization, and diuretic were performed. OUTCOMES: The symptoms were completely relieved, and relevant laboratory indexes returned to normal range during follow-up. LESSONS: Physicians should be aware of the side effect of rhabdomyolysis of fibrates, and patients should also be informed about this potential side effect, especially for patients with high-risk factors. A favorable outcome can be achieved by timely diagnosis and prompt treatment.


Assuntos
Fenofibrato/efeitos adversos , Hipertrigliceridemia/tratamento farmacológico , Rabdomiólise/etiologia , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Fenofibrato/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hipertrigliceridemia/complicações , Pancreatite/complicações , Rabdomiólise/fisiopatologia
9.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(697): 1200-1205, 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520459

RESUMO

Post-transplantation diabetes (PTDM) exposes to increased morbidity (cardiovascular or infectious complications, early graft dysfunction) and to a risk of premature death. Recognition of risk factors is essential for early and individualized care. The management of a PTDM requires the use of oral antidiabetic treatments (metformin or DPP4 inhibitors) or GLP1 receptor agonists for their favorable effects on weight and kidney that seem ideal in this context. Corticosteroid-induced diabetes or the rare occurrence of diabetic ketoacidosis require insulin therapy. In the long term, the main objective remains to integrate PTDM treatment in a more comprehensive management, targeting the reduction of cardiovascular risk of vulnerable transplant patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Cetoacidose Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Cetoacidose Diabética/metabolismo , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/metabolismo , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
10.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 64(3): 223-234, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555988

RESUMO

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder caused by the absence of gene expression in the 15q11.2-q13 paternal chromosome. Patients with PWS develop hypothalamic dysfunction that can lead to various endocrine changes such as: obesity, growth hormone deficiency, hypogonadism, hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency and low bone mineral density. In addition, individuals with PWS have increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. This review summarizes and updates the current knowledge about the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of endocrine manifestations associated with Prader Willi syndrome, especially diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency, management and monitoring of adverse effects; diagnosis of central adrenal insufficiency and management in stressful situations; screening for central hypothyroidism; research and treatment of hypogonadism; prevention and treatment of disorders of glucose metabolism. Careful attention to the endocrine aspects of PWS contributes significantly to the health of these individuals. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2020;64(3):223-34.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Prader-Willi , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Humanos , Hipogonadismo/etiologia , Hipotireoidismo/etiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/complicações , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/genética
11.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 24(6): 550-559, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510105

RESUMO

COVID 19 is much more than an infectious disease by SARS-CoV-2 followed by a disproportionate immune response. An older age, diabetes and history of cardiovascular disease, especially hypertension, but also chronic heart failure and coronary artery disease among others, are between the most important risk factors. In addition, during the hospitalization both hyperglycaemia and heart failure are frequent. Less frequent are acute coronary syndrome, arrhythmias and stroke. Accordingly, not all prolonged stays or even deaths are due directly to SARS-CoV-2. To our knowledge, this is the first review, focusing both on cardiovascular and metabolic aspects of this dreadful disease, in an integrated and personalized way, following the guidelines of the Cardiometabolic Health/Medicine. Therefore, current personalized aspects such as ACEIs and ARBs, the place of statins and the most appropriate management of heart failure in diabetics are analysed. Aging, better than old age, as a dynamic process, is also considered in this review for the first time in the literature, and not only as a risk factor attributed to cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular comorbidities. Immunosenescence is also approached to build healthier elders, so they can resist present and future infectious diseases, and not only in epidemics or pandemics. In addition, to do this we must start knowing the molecular mechanisms that underlying Aging process in general, and immunosenescence in particular. Surprisingly, the endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy are implicated in both process. Finally, with a training in all the aspects covered in this review, not only the hospital stay, complications and costs of this frightening disease in high-risk population should be reduced. Likely, this paper will open a gate to the future for open-minded physicians.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Medicina de Precisão
13.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234362, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with diabetes mellitus are at an increased risk for adverse clinical events following percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). However, the clinical impact of diabetes mellitus (DM) on second-generation drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation is not well-known. The aim of the current analysis was to examine the clinical impact of DM on clinical outcomes and the time sequence of associated risks in patients treated with second-generation DES. METHODS: Using patient-level data from two stent-specific, all-comer, prospective DES registries, we evaluated 1,913 patients who underwent PCI with second-generation DES between Feb 2009 and Dec 2013. The primary outcomes assessed were two-year major cardiac adverse events (MACE), composite endpoints of death from any cause, myocardial infarction (MI), and any repeat revascularization. We classified 0-1 year as the early period and 1-2 years as the late period. Landmark analyses were performed according to diabetes mellitus status. RESULTS: There were 1,913 patients with 2,614 lesions included in the pooled dataset. The median duration of clinical follow-up in the overall population was 2.0 years (interquartile range 1.9-2.1). Patients with DM had more cardiovascular risk factors than patients without DM. In multivariate analyses, the presence of DM and renal failure were strong predictors of MACE and target-vessel revascularization (TVR). After inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) analyses, patients with DM had significantly increased rates of 2-year MACE (HR 2.07, 95% CI; 1.50-2.86; P <0.001). In landmark analyses, patients with DM had significantly higher rates of MACE in the early period (0-1 year) (HR 3.04, 95% CI; 1.97-4.68; P < 0.001) after IPTW adjustment, but these findings or trends were not observed in the late period (1-2 year) (HR 1.24, 95% CI; 0.74-2.07; P = 0.41). CONCLUSIONS: In the second-generation DES era, the clinical impact of DM significantly increased the 2-year event rate of MACE, mainly caused by clinical events in the early period (0-1 year). Careful observation of patients with DM is advised in the early period following PCI with second-generation DES.


Assuntos
Complicações do Diabetes/metabolismo , Stents Farmacológicos/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Complicações do Diabetes/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Sistema de Registros , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Ann Endocrinol (Paris) ; 81(2-3): 68-77, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409007

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: While the most frequent mutation responsible for mitochondrial diabetes is the point mutation m.3243 A>G of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), few data are available about the role of rare mtDNA mutations in the pathophysiology of diabetes. The main objective of our study was to describe the phenotypic characteristics of patients suffering from diabetes linked to rare mtDNA mutations. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed a post-hoc analysis of a prospective multicenter cohort of 743 patients with mitochondrial disorder (previously published by the French Network of Mitochondrial Diseases), associated to a literature review of the PubMed database from 1992 to May 2016. We extracted all reported patients with diabetes and identified rare mtDNA mutations and described their clinical and metabolic phenotypes. RESULTS: The 50 identified patients (10 from the princeps study; 40 from the review of the literature) showed a heterogeneous metabolic phenotype in terms of age, symptoms prior to diagnosis, treatments, and associated clinical and biological signs. However, neurological symptoms were more frequent in case of rare mtDNA mutations compared to the classical m.3243 A>G mutation (P=0.024). In contrast, deafness (65% vs. 95%, P=3.7E-5), macular pattern dystrophy (20% vs. 86%, P=1.6E-10) and nephropathy (8% vs. 28%, P=0.018) were significantly less frequent than in case of the classical m.3243 A>G mutation. CONCLUSION: Although no specific metabolic phenotype could be identified suggesting or eliminating implication of rare mtDNA mutations in diabetes, clinical phenotypes featured more frequent neurological signs.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Doenças Mitocondriais/genética , Mutação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Mutacional de DNA , DNA Mitocondrial/análise , Surdez/epidemiologia , Surdez/genética , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Síndrome MERRF/epidemiologia , Síndrome MERRF/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Mitocondriais/complicações , Doenças Mitocondriais/epidemiologia , Fenótipo , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
s.l; IETSI; 20 mayo 2020.
Não convencional em Espanhol | LILACS, BRISA/RedTESA | ID: biblio-1096660

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: Aproximadamente cuatro meses han transcurrido desde que se reportaron los primeros casos de enfermedad por Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-2019) y al día de hoy (22 de abril) la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) reporta 2 471 136 casos confirmados y 169 006 muertes a nivel global. En el Perú, la sala situacional del Ministerio de Salud (22 de abril) reporta 19 250 casos confirmados, 62.3% de los cuales son del sexo masculino y un total de 530 fallecidos. Lamentablemente, se espera que estas cifras sigan creciendo en todo el mundo. La información publicada hasta el momento, en su mayoría proveniente de China, revela que los casos más severos y con mayor tasa de letalidad se reportan en personas del sexo masculino, adultos mayores y personas con presencia de comorbilidades. Esta situación es similar a lo reportado en otras infecciones virales respiratorias como la causada por el virus H1N1, en la que las personas con obesidad y con enfermedades crónicas pre-existentes mostraron mayor probabilidad de desarrollar síndrome de distrés respiratorio agudo que conllevaba a falla orgánica múltiple y muerte. La evidencia de que el sexo masculino y la presencia de comorbilidades son factores de riesgo para mortalidad por COVID-19 está aún aumento. Los reportes de COVID-19 se actualizan constantemente y la información revelada sirve para entender mejor el comportamiento de la enfermedad y en base a ello plantear estrategias de prevención y contención. Por ello, el objetivo de esta revisión rápida es evaluar y presentar la evidencia disponible sobre el sexo y la presencia de comorbilidades en los casos fatales por COVID-19. MÉTODOS: Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática de estudios publicados hasta el 02 de abril y disponibles en PubMed y MedRxiv. Se incluyó artículos que reportaban información clínica y la prevalencia de enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles en casos letales por COVID-19. Se incluyó reportes de casos, estudios de caso-control, cohortes y revisiones sistemáticas, se limitó la búsqueda solo a publicaciones en inglés. Se excluyó noticias, editoriales, cartas al editor, comentarios, modelamientos matemáticos y casos que reportaban letalidad en menores de 18 años. RESULTADOS: Luego de verificar los criterios de elegibilidad, se incluyeron 17 artículos de los cuales 13 se consideraron para meta-análisis. El total de participantes incluidos en los estudios suman 27 264, los casos letales suman en total 1037 que representa una prevalencia agrupada [Pr(a)] = 12 % (95% IC: 8% - 16%), la edad promedio de los casos fatales es de 69.2 años. La mayoría de los estudios corresponden a reporte de China, 2 provienen de Corea y 1 de ellos de Italia. Los estudios reportan tener diseños principalmente de reportes de casos retrospectivos y cohortes retrospectivas, se identificó, además un estudio transversal y dos revisiones sistemáticas en la base de datos MedRxiv. Para la evaluación de la calidad, los reportes de casos y cohortes retrospectivas se trataron como "Estudios de Serie de Casos", en ninguno de los estudios se puede determinar si el tiempo de seguimiento fue el adecuado y los estudios reportados en Corea e Italia no cumplen con al menos un criterio de evaluación La calidad del estudio transversal y las revisiones sistemáticas es pobre. CONCLUSIÓN: La caracterización de los casos letales por COVID-19 es importante porque puede permitir mejorar las intervenciones y resultados en los pacientes infectados, sobretodo, en los que en mayor riesgo se encuentran como la población del sexo masculino y aquellos con hipertensión, enfermedades cardiovasculares y diabetes.


Assuntos
Humanos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Avaliação de Eficácia-Efetividade de Intervenções , Hipertensão/etiologia , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica
16.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 25(1): 13, 2020 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384869

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: After the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster in 2011, residents of Kawauchi village who experienced evacuation had a high risk of suffering from diabetes and metabolic syndrome compared with non-evacuees. In addition to evacuation, lifestyle characteristics can be important factors influencing the development and prognosis of diabetes or glucose tolerance. The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of evacuation (i.e., lifestyle changes) on the incidence of diabetes among the non-diabetic residents of Kawauchi village. METHODS: Design is retrospective cohort study. Annual health examination data of residents of Kawauchi village and control area (Ono town) in Fukushima prefecture from 2008 to 2017, as available from the Japanese National Health Insurance system. Participants were classified into three groups: "Diabetes (DM)" (FBG ≥ 126 mg/dL or HbA1c ≥ 6.5% or hospital visit for DM or usage of diabetic medication), "Borderline DM" (126 mg/dL > FBG ≥ 110 mg/dL or 6.5% > HbA1c ≥ 6.0%, and without hospital visit, and without diabetic medication), and "Normoglycemic" (FBG < 110 mg/dL and HbA1c < 6.0%, and without hospital visit, and without diabetic medication). New onset of diabetes was evaluated and the events or missing data were occurred at health checkup. For this survival analysis, 339 residents in Kawauchi and 598 residents in Ono were included. Average follow-up periods after 2010 were 3.9 years in Kawauchi village and 3.6 years in Ono town. RESULTS: Compared with the normoglycemic group, incidence of DM was much greater in the borderline DM group, where DM occurred among 38.2% of the group in 2012 and increased to over 60% cumulatively through 2017 in Kawauchi village. DM had a prevalence of 16.3% in 2012, and below 30% in 2017 in borderline DM group of Ono town. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was applied to non-DM groups at both study sites separately to evaluate the effects of lifestyle changes at each site. While BMI, BMI change, and the lack of regular exercise (HR = 1.29, 1.72, and 5.04, respectively) showed significant associations with the onset of diabetes in Ono town, only BMI and late-night dinner (HR = 1.21 and 4.86, respectively) showed significant associations with diabetes onset in Kawauchi village. CONCLUSIONS: The current results confirmed that diabetes incidence was increased 6 years after the Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster in Kawauchi. We also found changes in lifestyle habits, suggesting that diabetes prevention with promotion of healthy lifestyle behaviors is an urgent priority.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Feminino , Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 726, 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A growing body of studies that investigated the longitudinal association between physical activity (PA) and the outcome of incident obesity, coronary heart disease (CHD), diabetes and hypertension has become available in recent years. Thus, the purpose of this systematic review was to provide an update on the association between PA and onset of obesity, CHD, diabetes and hypertension in individuals aged ≥18 years who were free of the respective conditions at baseline. METHODS: We systematically searched OVID, Pubmed, and Web of Science databases for pertinent literature published between January of 2012 and February of 2019. To ensure that conclusions are based on high quality evidence, we only included longitudinal studies conducted in samples of ≥500 participants and with ≥5 years of follow-up. RESULT: The search yielded 8929 records of which 26 were included in this review. Three studies were conducted on the outcome of incident obesity, eight on incident CHD, nine on incident diabetes, four on incident hypertension, one on the outcome of both diabetes and hypertension, and one on the outcome of CHD, diabetes and hypertension. Overall, there was an association between PA and lower risk of incident obesity, CHD and diabetes, but not hypertension. Higher levels or amount of PA were associated with a reduced risk of new onset of the respective diseases in 20 studies (77%). Whereas four studies reported an elevated risk of incidence of diseases with lower PA levels (15%). PA was not associated with incidence of diseases in two studies (8%). CONCLUSION: Higher levels of PA are likely associated with a lower risk of becoming obese, develop CHD or diabetes. These findings replicate and strengthen conclusions from earlier reviews underlining the importance of promoting PA in adults. The associations between PA and incident hypertension were less consistent. More research, particularly using prospective cohort designs in large population-based samples, is needed to further untangle the association between PA and incident hypertension. TRAIL REGISTRATION: CRD42019124474 (PROSPERO Protocol registration). Date of registration in PROSPERO 27 February 2019.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adulto , Doença das Coronárias/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/etiologia , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
18.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(7): 699-707, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32440788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Live donor nephrectomy is a safe procedure. However, long-term donor prognosis is debated, necessitating high-quality studies. METHODS: A follow-up study of 761 living kidney donors was conducted, who visited the outpatient clinic and were propensity score matched and compared to 1522 non-donors from population-based cohort studies. Primary outcome was kidney function. Secondary outcomes were BMI (kg/m2), incidences of hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular events, cardiovascular and overall mortality, and quality of life. RESULTS: Median follow-up after donation was 8.0 years. Donors had an increase in serum creatinine of 26 µmol/l (95% CI 24-28), a decrease in eGFR of 27 ml/min/1.73 m2 (95% CI - 29 to - 26), and an eGFR decline of 32% (95% CI 30-33) as compared to non-donors. There was no difference in outcomes between the groups for ESRD, microalbuminuria, BMI, incidence of diabetes or cardiovascular events, and mortality. A lower risk of new-onset hypertension (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.33-0.62) was found among donors. The EQ-5D health-related scores were higher among donors, whereas the SF-12 physical and mental component scores were lower. CONCLUSION: Loss of kidney mass after live donation does not translate into negative long-term outcomes in terms of morbidity and mortality compared to non-donors. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Dutch Trial Register NTR3795.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Rim/fisiologia , Doadores Vivos/psicologia , Nefrectomia/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Creatinina/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Incidência , Testes de Função Renal , Doadores Vivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Nefrectomia/psicologia , Vigilância da População , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Pontuação de Propensão , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1238: 107-141, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323183

RESUMO

The gut microbiota plays an important role in maintaining human health. Accumulating evidence has indicated an intimate relationship between gut microbiota and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) which has become the leading cause of death worldwide. The alteration of gut microbial composition (gut dysbiosis) has been proven to contribute to atherosclerosis, the basic pathological process of CVD. In addition, the metabolites of gut microbiota have been found to be closely related to the development of CVD. For example, short-chain fatty acids are widely acclaimed beneficial effect against CVD, whereas trimethylamine-N-oxide is considered as a contributing factor in the development of CVD. In this chapter, we mainly discuss the gut microbial metabolite-involved mechanisms of CVD focusing on atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and heart failure. Targeting gut microbiota and related metabolites are novel and promising strategies for the treatment of CVD.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Disbiose , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/etiologia , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/etiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/terapia
20.
Curr Diab Rep ; 20(6): 19, 2020 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277298

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes (FCPD) is an uncommon form of diabetes occurring in underprivileged developing countries of the world. We attempt to review the latest evidence on epidemiology, secular trends, etiopathogenic mechanisms, and treatment modalities of FCPD with particular reference to studies from the past decade. RECENT FINDINGS: There has been little new data on FCPD over the past decade even from countries where it was considered to be prevalent. There appears to be a decline in prevalence of the condition of late. There is also some evidence to show that the condition develops due to as yet unknown environmental influences acting on a background of genetic susceptibility. FCPD is a severe form of diabetes and may be a premalignant condition. FCPD deserves more attention than it currently receives, because of its unique clinical features and management strategies, and its propensity to develop pancreatic adenocarcinoma.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/etiologia , Pancreatite Crônica/diagnóstico , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/etiologia , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Calcinose/etiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Fibrose/etiologia , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Pancreatite Crônica/epidemiologia , Pancreatite Crônica/etiologia , Pancreatite Crônica/terapia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Clima Tropical
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