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1.
Am J Chin Med ; 48(6): 1353-1368, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016104

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic endocrine disease result from absolute or relative insulin secretion deficiency, insulin resistance, or both, and has become a major and growing public healthy menace worldwide. Currently, clinical antidiabetic drugs still have some limitations in efficacy and safety such as gastrointestinal side effects, hypoglycemia, or weight gain. Rosmarinus officinalis is an aromatic evergreen shrub used as a food additive and medicine, which has been extensively used to treat hyperglycemia, atherosclerosis, hypertension, and diabetic wounds. A great deal of pharmacological research showed that rosemary extract and its phenolic constituents, especially carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid, and carnosol, could significantly improve diabetes mellitus by regulating glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, anti-inflammation, and anti-oxidation, exhibiting extremely high research value. Therefore, this review summarizes the pharmacological effects and underlying mechanisms of rosemary extract and its primary phenolic constituents on diabetes and relative complications both in vitro and in vivo studies from 2000 to 2020, to provide some scientific evidence and research ideas for its clinical application.


Assuntos
Abietanos/farmacologia , Abietanos/uso terapêutico , Cinamatos/farmacologia , Cinamatos/uso terapêutico , Depsídeos/farmacologia , Depsídeos/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Fenóis/farmacologia , Fenóis/uso terapêutico , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Rosmarinus/química , Abietanos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios , Antioxidantes , Cinamatos/isolamento & purificação , Depsídeos/isolamento & purificação , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
3.
Med Hypotheses ; 143: 110185, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017914

RESUMO

COVID-19 pandemic is spreading rapidly worldwide, and drug selection can affect the morbidity and mortality of the disease positively or negatively. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is a potent antioxidant and reduces oxidative stress and inhibits activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB). ALA reduces ADAM17 activity and ACE2 upregulation. ALA is known to have antiviral effects against some viruses. ALA may show antiviral effect by reducing NF-kB activation and alleviating redox reactions. ALA increases the intracellular glutathione strengthens the human host defense. ALA activates ATP dependent K+ channels (Na+, K+-ATPase). Increased K+ in the cell raises the intracellular pH. As the intracellular pH increases, the entry of the virus into the cell decreases. ALA can increase human host defense against SARS-CoV-2 by increasing intracellular pH. ALA treatment increases antioxidant levels and reduces oxidative stress. Thus, ALA may strengthen the human host defense against SARS-CoV-2 and can play a vital role in the treatment of patients with critically ill COVID-19. It can prevent cell damage by decreasing lactate production in patients with COVID-19. Using ALA with insulin in patients with diabetes can show a synergistic effect against SARS-CoV-2. We think ALA treatment will be beneficial against COVID-19 in patients with diabetes.


Assuntos
Proteína ADAM17/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Complicações do Diabetes/prevenção & controle , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Ácido Tióctico/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Complicações do Diabetes/virologia , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Insulina/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo , Pneumonia Viral/complicações
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(37): e22031, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a common chronic metabolic disease. COVID-19 is a large-scale infectious disease that broke out in 2019, and 212 countries have now been infected with this infectious disease. Some studies have shown that COVID-19 combined with diabetes is an independent risk factor for death or other adverse outcomes. There is currently no specific and effective drug treatment. More and more people have realized that the low-cost CQ and its derivative HCQ have antiviral and anti-inflammatory capabilities and may play a huge role in the fight against COVID-19. At the same time, HCQ can be used as an oral hypoglycemic agent and has the effect of lowering blood glucose. However, there is no evidence-based medicine to confirm the effectiveness and safety of CQ and HCQ in the treatment of COVID-19 patients with diabetes. Therefore, we will conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to synthesize the existing clinical evidences. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Chinese literature comes from CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, CBM databases. English literature mainly searches Cochrane Library, PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE. We will retrieve each database from December 2019 to August 2020. At the same time, we will look for clinical trial registration and gray literature. This study only included clinical randomized controlled trials. The reviewers independently conduct literature selection, data analysis, quality analysis, and evaluation. The primary outcomes include Sputum virus nucleic acid negative time, lung imaging improvement time, mortality rate, mechanical ventilation rate, ICU hospitalization time, hospitalization time, clinical improvement, symptoms Improvement, fasting blood glucose, 2-hour postprandial blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, fasting insulin, adverse reactions, etc. Finally, we will conducted a meta-analysis through Review Manager Software version 5.3. RESULTS: The results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at a relevant conference. CONCLUSION: This study will explore the effectiveness and safety of CQ and HCQ in the treatment of COVID-19 patients with diabetes. It will provide evidence-based medical evidence for CQ and HCQ in the treatment of diabetes with COVID-19. REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY202070109.


Assuntos
Cloroquina/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Diabetes Mellitus , Hidroxicloroquina/farmacologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Metanálise como Assunto , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21723, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) has become a worldwide epidemic, causing huge loss of life and property. Because of its unique pathological mechanism, diabetes affects the prognosis of patients with COVID-19 in many aspects. At present, there are many controversies about whether angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEI/ARB) should be used in the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus and COVID-19 comorbidities. There is an urgent need to provide evidence for the use of ACEI/ARB through high-quality systematic evaluation and meta-analysis. METHODS: We will search electronic databases including PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database, and Wanfang database using keywords related to COVID-19, diabetes mellitus, ACEI/ARB drugs, and randomized controlled trials . We will manually search gray literature, such as conference proceedings and academic degree dissertations, and trial registries. Two independent reviewers will screen studies, extract data, and evaluate risk of bias. Data analysis will be conducted using the Review Manager software version 5.3.5 and stata 14.0 software for Mac. Statistical heterogeneity will be assessed using a standard chi-square test with a significance level of P < .10. Biases associated with study will be investigated using funnel plots. RESULTS: This study will provide a high-quality synthesis of efficacy and safety of ACEI/ARB drugs in patients with COVID-19 combined with diabetes mellitus, providing evidence for clinical treatment of diabetes mellitus combined with COVID-19. And the results will be published at a peer-reviewed journal. CONCLUSION: Our study will draw conclusions on the efficacy and safety of ACEI / ARB drugs in patients with diabetes mellitus complicated with covid-19, so as to provide theoretical guidance for clinical practice of diabetes mellitus with covid-19. INPLASY REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY 202060111.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Diabetes Mellitus , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso/normas , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 67(8): 501-508, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879236

RESUMO

Objectives Medical expenses for diabetes differ between Japan's 47 prefectures. The medical care expenditure regulation plan aims to reduce regional differences in outpatient medical costs through prevention of severe diabetes, promotion of specific health checkups and specific health guidance, promotion of generic drugs, and proper use of medicines. To achieve this goal, we need to conduct an in-depth analysis of inter-prefecture differences in diabetes care expenses. This study analyzed regional differences in prescription fees for dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and the use of generic sulfonylureas (SUs), glinides, biguanides, α-glucosidase inhibitors (α-GIs), and thiazoline derivatives, using the National Database of Health Insurance Claims and Specific Health Checkups of Japan (NDB). Furthermore, we analyzed regional differences in consultancy fees for dialysis prevention.Methods We analyzed the 2nd NDB Open Data Japan website of the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare. Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) was used to evaluate the relationship between the medical costs of diabetes and each factor. The correlation coefficient was analyzed with Student's t-test, and a P-value<0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results Regarding oral hypoglycemic drugs, prefectures with a large number of DPP-4 inhibitors tended to have higher medical costs of diabetes (r=0.40, P=0.0048). Furthermore, such expenses tended to be low in prefectures where the use of generic SU drugs was high (r=-0.43, P=0.0023).Conclusions In conclusion, the results revealed regional differences in the use of DPP-4 inhibitors and generic SU drugs, which may contribute to the regional differences in medical expenses for diabetes. This study suggests that NDB open data are useful for policy making to reduce regional differences in outpatient medical costs of diabetes.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/economia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/economia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/administração & dosagem , Inibidores Enzimáticos/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/economia , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/economia , Análise de Dados , Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4 , Humanos , Japão , Honorários por Prescrição de Medicamentos , Encaminhamento e Consulta/economia
9.
Life Sci ; 258: 118202, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758625

RESUMO

Pandemic coronavirus disease-2019, commonly known as COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly contagious disease with a high mortality rate. Various comorbidities and their associated symptoms accompany SARS-CoV-2 infection. Among the various comorbidities like hypertension, cardiovascular disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes considered as one of the critical comorbidity, which could affect the survival of infected patients. The severity of COVID-19 disease intensifies in patients with elevated glucose level probably via amplified pro-inflammatory cytokine response, poor innate immunity and downregulated angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. Thus, the use of ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers could worsen the glucose level in patients suffering from novel coronavirus infection. It also observed that the direct ß-cell damage caused by virus, hypokalemia and cytokine and fetuin-A mediated increase in insulin resistance could also deteriorate the diabetic condition in COVID-19 patients. This review highlights the current scenario of coronavirus disease in pre-existing diabetic patients, epidemiology, molecular perception, investigations, treatment and management of COVID-19 disease in patients with pre-existing diabetes. Along with this, we have also discussed unexplored therapies and future perspectives for coronavirus infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Polimorfismo Genético
10.
J Diabetes Res ; 2020: 1652403, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32851093

RESUMO

Background: Since December 2019, novel coronavirus- (SARS-CoV-2) infected pneumonia (COVID-19) has rapidly spread throughout China. This study is aimed at describing the characteristics of COVID-19 patients in Wuhan. Methods: 199 COVID-19 patients were admitted to Wuhan Red Cross Hospital in China from January 24th to March 15th. The cases were divided into diabetic and nondiabetic groups according to the history of taking antidiabetic drugs or by plasma fasting blood glucose level at admission, and the difference between groups were compared. Results: Among 199 COVID-19 patients, 76 were diabetic and 123 were nondiabetic. Compared with nondiabetics, patients with diabetes had an older age, high levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), D-dimer, white blood cell, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and total bilirubin (TBIL), lower levels of lymphocyte, albumin and oxygen saturation (SaO2), and higher mortality (P < 0.05). The two groups showed no difference in clinical symptoms. Diabetes, higher level of D-dimer at admission, and lymphocyte count less than 0.6 × 109/L at admission were associated with increasing odds of death. Antidiabetic drugs were associated with decreasing odds of death. Treatment with low molecular weight heparin was not related to odds of death. Conclusion: The mortality rate of COVID-19 patients with diabetes was significantly higher than those without diabetes. Diabetes, higher level of D-dimer, and lymphocyte count less than 0.6 × 109/L at admission were the risk factors associated with in-hospital death.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Complicações do Diabetes/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Complicações do Diabetes/sangue , Complicações do Diabetes/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , RNA Viral/análise , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
11.
Diabetes Metab J ; 44(4): 602-613, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic that had affected more than eight million people worldwide by June 2020. Given the importance of the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) for host immunity, we retrospectively evaluated the clinical characteristics and outcomes of moderate-to-severe COVID-19 in patients with diabetes. METHODS: We conducted a multi-center observational study of 1,082 adult inpatients (aged ≥18 years) who were admitted to one of five university hospitals in Daegu because of the severity of their COVID-19-related disease. The demographic, laboratory, and radiologic findings, and the mortality, prevalence of severe disease, and duration of quarantine were compared between patients with and without DM. In addition, 1:1 propensity score (PS)-matching was conducted with the DM group. RESULTS: Compared with the non-DM group (n=847), patients with DM (n=235) were older, exhibited higher mortality, and required more intensive care. Even after PS-matching, patients with DM exhibited more severe disease, and DM remained a prognostic factor for higher mortality (hazard ratio, 2.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.38 to 4.15). Subgroup analysis revealed that the presence of DM was associated with higher mortality, especially in older people (≥70 years old). Prior use of a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor or a renin-angiotensin system inhibitor did not affect mortality or the clinical severity of the disease. CONCLUSION: DM is a significant risk factor for COVID-19 severity and mortality. Our findings imply that COVID-19 patients with DM, especially if elderly, require special attention and prompt intensive care.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Betacoronavirus , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Linfocitose , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Prognóstico , Pontuação de Propensão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Trombocitopenia
12.
Cardiovasc Ther ; 2020: 3612607, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32774458

RESUMO

Introduction: Severe hypoglycemia can be life-threatening; therefore, it is important to identify the characteristics of the hypoglycemic patients. The aim of this study is to analyze the type and characteristics of diabetic patients with hypoglycemia who visited an emergency room. Methods: We included diabetic patients with hypoglycemia who visited the emergency room of St. Mary's Hospital in Seoul from January 2009 to August 2018 in the study. Hypo_S group patients visited the emergency room once whereas Hypo_M group patients visited twice or more. We also compared the incidence of cardiovascular disease between the groups within 5 years after hypoglycemia. Results: A total of 843 patients were included in this study, with a mean age of 71 ± 14 years and average glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level of 6.7 ± 1.4%. For patients with hypoglycemia, lower body mass index, lower HbA1c, shorter diabetes duration, and lower glomerular filtration rate have a statistically significant relationship with patient characteristics in the emergency room group (all p < 0.001). Hypoglycemia symptoms were most frequently observed between 6:00 and 12:00 am (p < 0.001). Cardiovascular diseases within 5 years after discharge were more frequent in the Hypo_S group than in the Hypo_M group; however, there was no statistical significance. The frequency of aneurysms was significantly higher in patients with hypoglycemia than in other patients in the emergency room (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Relatively thin older patients with a diabetes duration shorter than 10 years and good blood sugar control showed higher frequency of visits to the emergency room due to hypoglycemia. For these patients, medical staff should always be mindful of their susceptibility to hypoglycemia when prescribing insulin or OHA and educate them on the prevention of hypoglycemia.


Assuntos
Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/sangue , Hipoglicemia/diagnóstico , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Seul/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Lima; Instituto Nacional de Salud; jul. 2020.
Não convencional em Espanhol | BRISA/RedTESA | ID: biblio-1122682

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: Este documento técnico se realiza a solicitud de la Dirección General de Intervenciones Estratégicas en Salud Pública - MINSA. A. Cuadro clínico: La tuberculosis (TB) es infección causada por la bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Cada año, 10 millones de personas tienen un nuevo diagnóstico de TB. A pesar de ser una enfermedad prevenible y curable, 1.5 millones de personas mueren de TB cada año, lo que la convierte en la principal causa de muerte infecciosa del mundo. La diabetes (DM) no sólo aumenta el riesgo de TB, sino que aumenta la probabilidad de fracaso al tratamiento de TB, con un aumento significativamente en la mortalidad y en el riesgo a desarrollar tuberculosis recurrente. Del mismo modo, la tuberculosis puede complicar el manejo de la diabetes y empeorar el control glucémico. Ambas condiciones tienen un impacto económico y de salud sustancial tanto en las personas como en sus familias. B. Tecnología sanitária: Las insulinas basales se dividen en insulinas humanas e insulina análogas humana La insulina NPH (protamina neutra de Hagedorn), también conocida como insulina isofana o insulina humana, es una molécula insoluble de acción intermedia. Es la insulina basal más usada, ayuda a incrementar la recaptación de glucosa en el hígado, tejido adiposo y músculos, también promoviendo la síntesis de glucógeno hepático y el metabolismo de ácidos grasos para la síntesis de lipoproteínas. Las insulinas análogas se diseñaron para tratar de imitar fisiológicamente la secreción oscilatoria de insulina de las células beta del páncreas. El mecanismo de acción es el mismo que el de la insulina humana, inhibir la producción hepática de glucosa, estimula la captación de glucosa en tejidos periféricos y adicionalmente inhibe la lipólisis y proteólisis. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la evidencia disponible acerca del uso de insulina basal humana versus insulina basal análoga para el manejo de diabetes en pacientes con tuberculosis. Además, compilaremos la evidencia y experiencia de su uso, así como otros documentos de políticas de cobertura. METODOLOGÍA: Se realizó una búsqueda en las principales bases de datos bibliográficas: MEDLINE, LILACS, COCHRANE y EMBASE, así como en buscadores genéricos de Internet incluyendo Google Scholar y TRIPDATABASE. Adicionalmente, se hizo una búsqueda dentro de la información generada por las principales instituciones internacionales de infectología y endocrinología, así como agencias de tecnologías sanitarias que realizan revisiones sistemáticas (RS), evaluación de tecnologías sanitarias (ETS), guías de práctica clínica (GPC) y evaluaciones económicas de la región. RESULTADOS: No se encontraron estudios que evaluaran comparativamente tratamientos basados en insulina. Adicionalmente se incluyeron dos GPC. Ante la escasez de información acerca de nuestra pregunta de interés incluimos cuatro revisiones narrativas. No se encontraron ETS o evaluaciones económicas de la región. En el año 2018 The Union (International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease) y la GPC para prevención, tratamiento y diagnóstico de tuberculosis publicada por el Ministerio de Salud Pública de Ecuador en 2018 coinciden en recomendar terapias basadas en insulina para el control de la DM al diagnóstico, sin embargo, no mencionan alguna preferencia basada en el tipo de insulina. Se identificaron cuatro revisiones narrativas que tienen como objetivo guiar a la práctica clínica. Estos documentos (R. van Crevel 2018, Rusalmi 2010, Riza et al. 2014 y Niazi et al 2012) contemplan a la insulina como una opción de tratamiento sin realizar una clara comparación entre los diferentes tipos de insulinas. CONCLUSIONES: La evidencia con respecto al uso de tratamientos basados en insulina, específicamente comparando insulina basal versus análoga, es escasa. Se seleccionaron dos GPC que, si bien recomendaban el uso de esquemas basados en insulina, no hacían una diferenciación de una tecnología por sobre la otra. No se identificaron evaluaciones de tecnología sanitaria ni evaluaciones económicas de la región.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Tuberculose/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Insulina Regular Humana/administração & dosagem , Peru , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Análise Custo-Benefício
15.
Rev Endocr Metab Disord ; 21(4): 495-507, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643004

RESUMO

COVID-19 infection has tremendously impacted our daily clinical practice as well as our social living organization. Virtually all organs and biological systems suffer from this new coronavirus infection, either because the virus targets directly specific tissues or because of indirect effects. Endocrine diseases are not an exception and some of endocrine organs are at risk of direct or indirect lesion by COVID-19. Although there is still no evidence of higher predisposition to contract the infection in patients with diabetes and/or obesity, the coexistence of these conditions contributes to a worse prognosis because both conditions confer an impaired immunologic system. Cytokines storm can be amplified by these two latter conditions thereby leading to multisystemic failure and death. Glycaemic control has been demonstrated to be crucial to avoiding long hospital stays, ICU requirement and also prevention of excessive mortality. Endocrine treatment modifications as a consequence of COVID-19 infection are required in a proactive manner, in order to avoid decompensation and eventual hospital admission. This is the case of diabetes and adrenal insufficiency in which prompt increase of insulin dosage and substitutive adrenal steroids through adoption of the sick day's rules should be warranted, as well as easy contact with the health care provider through telematic different modalities. New possible endocrinological targets of COVID-19 have been recently described and warrant a full study in the next future.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Adrenal , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus , Diabetes Mellitus , Obesidade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Insuficiência Adrenal/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Adrenal/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Adrenal/imunologia , Insuficiência Adrenal/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Humanos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/imunologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo
16.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(5): 1109-1120, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The global pandemic of coronavirus (COVID-19) affects almost all countries in the world, which potentially alter diabetes management. Many diabetes patients are experiencing barrier of care due to the policy related to COVID-19. This article aims to review the current evidence on diabetes management and specific considerations during the COVID-19 pandemic for people living with diabetes. METHODS: We conducted a scoping review in PubMed, Science Direct, DOAJ and Microsoft Academics databases from January 1 to April 17, 2020. Searching terms included "COVID-19", "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2", and "Diabetes Mellitus" were used. Only scientific articles discussing diabetes management and specific considerations were selected and extracted. RESULTS: A total of 7 articles was selected in the analysis. Most were published in diabetes journals (85.71%). All articles (100%) discussed diabetes management and 71.43% of them provided diabetes care in specific considerations. We discussed issue of diabetes management in glycemic control and monitoring, dietary intake, physical activity, medication, education and prevention of COVID-19 infection that applicable for diabetes patients. In addition, specific considerations explored caring for diabetes in children and adolescents, pregnancy, elderly, emergency or critical care, to offer certain concern for raising the awareness. CONCLUSIONS: This review specifies a summary of diabetes management as well as the particular considerations to care people living with diabetes during COVID-19 pandemic. Patients, health care providers, and policy makers could take advantage of the review to assist diabetic people passing through COVID-19 pandemic session with optimum glycemic outcome.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Telemedicina , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Diabetes Mellitus/virologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prognóstico
17.
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 58(9): 475-481, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729826

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine the development in the number of patients receiving cardiovascular or antidiabetic medications from pharmacies in the first quarter of 2020. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was based on the data from more than 10 million patients in the IMS longitudinal prescription (LRx) database. The outcome of this study was the development in the number of patients receiving cardiovascular or diabetic medications from pharmacies in January, February, and March 2020, compared to January, February, and March 2019. RESULTS: From March 2019 to March 2020, there was a 39% increase in angiotensin II antagonist prescriptions, a 33% increase in lipid-lowering drug prescriptions, a 32% increase in calcium channel blocker (CCB) prescriptions, a 30% increase in beta blocker prescriptions, a 27% increase in angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, vitamin k antagonist (VKA), and oral antidiabetic prescriptions, a 24% increase in diuretic prescriptions, and an 18% increase in insulin prescriptions. The largest increase was found in the age group of 18 - 40 years (e.g., 57% for VKA, 52% for CCB and angiotensin II antagonists), and the smallest increase occurred in the age group over 80 years (for example, 10% for VKA, 9% for oral antidiabetics, and 3% for insulins). CONCLUSION: The number of patients receiving their drugs from pharmacies was significantly higher in March 2020 than in March 2019, which is an indication of good therapy adherence. Additional studies are needed to examine adherence during the COVID-19 pandemic and possible age differences in adherence.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(27): e20736, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, absolute or relative deficiency of insulin secretion, and chronic inflammation. Shenqi compound (SC) is a traditional Chinese medicine formula widely used in the treatment of diabetes and diabetic complications. Although many randomized clinical trials have proved that SC can benefit a lot from diabetes and its complications, the systematic evaluation of the effect of SC on diabetic blood glucose control and inflammatory markers has not yet appeared. The purpose of this study is to provide evidence that the therapeutic effect of SC on diabetes and its multiple system complications is related to its control of blood glucose and inflammatory mediators. METHODS: Three English database and 4 Chinese medical databases will be searched from its inception to May 2020. Then 2 methodological trained researchers will screen the qualified articles by reading the title, abstract, and full texts according to an established inclusion and exclusion criteria. The assessment of risk of bias will be conducted by using the Cochrane collaboration's tool. We will conduct meta-analyses for fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, tumor necrosis factor, C-reactive protein or high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and other outcomes. The heterogeneity of data will be evaluated by Cochrane X and I tests. Subgroup analysis will also be carried out. We will conduct sensitivity analysis to evaluate the stability of the results, funnel plot analysis, and Egger test to evaluate the publication bias, and assessment for the quality of evidence by the grading of recommendations assessment, development, and evaluate system. RESULTS: The results of our research will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. CONCLUSION: In this study, we will systematically evaluate the influences of SC on glycemic measures and inflammatory markers of diabetes mellitus. Our research is supposed to provide evidence-based support for clinical practice. REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY202040179.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos
19.
J Drug Target ; 28(7-8): 683-699, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700580

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is caused by the severe acute-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-2 that uses ACE2 as its receptor. Drugs that raise serum/tissue ACE2 levels include ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin-II receptor blockers (ARBs) that are commonly used in patients with hypertension, cardiovascular disease and/or diabetes. These comorbidities have adverse outcomes in COVID-19 patients that might result from pharmacotherapy. Increasing ACE2 could potentially increase the risk of infection, severity or mortality in COVID-19 or it might be protective as it forms angiotensin-(1-7) which exhibits anti-inflammatory/anti-oxidative effects and prevents diabetes- and/or hypertension-induced end-organ damage. Thus, there existed clinical uncertainty. Here, we review studies implicating 15 classes of drugs in increasing ACE2 levels in vivo and the available literature on the clinical safety of these drugs in COVID-19 patients. Further, in a re-analysis of clinical data from a meta-analysis of 9 studies, we show that ACEIs/ARBs usage was not associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality. Literature suggests that ACEIs/ARBs usage generally appears to be clinically safe though their use in severe COVID-19 patients might increase the risk of acute renal injury. For definitive clarity, further clinical and mechanistic studies are needed in assessing the safety of all classes of ACE2 raising medications.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/efeitos dos fármacos , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco
20.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200075, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: From 2006 to 2017, the Brazilian federal government provided free of charge traditional insulins for diabetes treatment. This involved public tendering by the Department of Health Logistics of the Ministry of Health (DLOG-MOH) and the reimbursement after direct contracting for supply with commercial private retailers (Brazilian Popular Pharmacy Program - PFPB). OBJECTIVE: We aim to describe the budget of the Brazilian federal government committed to for the acquisition of insulin, as well as corresponding prices and treatment availability from 2009 to 2017. METHODS: Insulin volume and expenditure data were obtained in official administrative databases and in the Electronic System of the Information Service to Citizens. Data were analyzed according to the total provision by the federal government, DLOG-MOH and PFPB. Moreover, data were presented according to insulin type. Volumes were calculated in number of defined daily doses (DDD)/1,000 inhabitants/day. RESULTS: Budgetary commitments due to insulin over nine years amounted to U$1,027 billion in 2017, with an approximate average of U$114.1 million per year. DLOG-MOH was the main insulin provider, despite the increase in PFPB provision along period. DLOG-MOH and PFBP together provided an average of 6.08 DDD/1000 inhabitants/day for nine years. Average prices in PFPB were higher than those in the DLOG series, with a downward trend over the years, narrowing to 2.7 times in 2017, when compared to 2009. CONCLUSIONS: Brazil evidenced a moderately sustainable and effective, albeit imperfect, policy for public provision of traditional insulins in the period preceding mandatory free supply of insulin analogues. Future studies must address treatment availability and financial sustainability in the new scenario.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Financiamento Governamental/estatística & dados numéricos , Insulina/economia , Brasil , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Insulina/uso terapêutico
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