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1.
Ann Anat ; 239: 151835, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diaphragm pacing allows certain ventilator-dependent patients to achieve weaning from mechanical ventilation. The reference method consists in implanting intrathoracic contact electrodes around the phrenic nerve during video-assisted thoracic surgery, which involves time-consuming phrenic nerve dissection with a risk of nerve damage. Identifying a phrenic segment suitable for dissection-free implantation of electrodes would constitute progress. STUDY DESIGN: This study characterizes a free terminal phrenic segment never fully described before. We conducted a cadaver study (n = 14) and a clinical observational study during thoracic procedures (n = 54). RESULTS: A free terminal phrenic segment was observed on both sides in 100% of cases, "jumping" from the pericardium to the diaphragm and measuring 60 mm [95% confidence interval; 48-63] and 72.5 mm [65-82] (right left, respectively; p = 0.0038; cadaver study). This segment rolled up on itself at end-expiration and became unravelled and elongated with diaphragm descent (clinical study). Three categories of fat pads were defined (type 1: pericardiophrenic bundle free of surrounding fat; type 2: single fatty fringe leaving the phrenic nerve visible until diaphragmatic entry; type 3: multiple fatty fringes masking the site of penetration of the phrenic nerve) that depended on body mass index (p = 0.001, clinical study). Hematoxylin-eosin and toluidine blue staining (cadaver study) showed that all of the phrenic fibers in the distal, pre-branching part of the terminal segment were contained within a single epineurium containing a variable number of fascicles (right: 1 [95%CI 0.65-4.01]; left 5 [3.37-7.63]; p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Diaphragm pacing through periphrenic electrodes positioned on the terminal phrenic segment should be tested.


Assuntos
Diafragma , Nervo Frênico , Cadáver , Eletrodos Implantados , Humanos , Pericárdio , Nervo Frênico/anatomia & histologia
3.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 101(46): 3814-3818, 2021 Dec 14.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34895423

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the role of diaphragm ultrasound in guiding the successful weaning of ventilators in patients undergoing heart valve replacement. Methods: Prospectively selected 103 patients who received heart valve replacement in the Department of Cardiac Surgery, Fuwai Hospital of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences from December 2019 to February 2021 were selected, who have received mechanical ventilation for ≥48 h and have entered the pre-weaning spontaneous breathing test. The patients were divided into a successful weaning group (n=83) and failed weaning group (n=20) according to the patient's weaning result. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the value of diaphragm thickening rate and diaphragmatic excursion to predict the result of ventilator weaning. Results: Among 83 patients in the successful weaning group, 52 were male patients and 31 were female patients, with an average age of (56.5±5.5) years; 20 patients in the failed weaning group included 12 male patients and 8 female patients, with an average The age is (57.3±6.2) years old.The left DTF, right DTF, left DE, and right DE of the patients in the successfully weaned group were (39.0±17.8)%, (57.7±1.2)%, (11.9±4.3) mm, (18.5±1.4) mm, respectively, which were higher than those in the weaning failure group (18.1±4.5)%, (19.9±2.3)%, (6.2±2.8) mm, (11.9±1.5) mm, respectively. And the differences were statistically significant (all P<0.05). ROC curve analysis showed that the best cut-off values, the sensitivity and the specificity for the thickening rate of the left diaphragms of patients with successful weaning were 61%, 90.46% and 87.83%, respectively; while the best cut-off values, the sensitivity and the specificity for the thickening rate of the right diaphragms of patients with successful weaning were 88%, 96.07% and 89.67%, respectively. The optimal cut-off values, the sensitivity and the specificity of mobility of the left right diaphragms of patients are 11.3 mm, 81.38% and 80.24%, respectively; while the optimal cut-off values, the sensitivity and the specificity of right diaphragms of patients were 12.7 mm, 87.23% and 85.56%, respectively. Conclusion: Diaphragm ultrasound can more accurately predict the outcome of ventilator weaning in patients undergoing heart valve replacement surgery, and it has good clinical application value.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Diafragma , Diafragma/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Valvas Cardíacas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Ventiladores Mecânicos
4.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34960110

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction is an important, yet understudied condition associated with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), with patients reporting bloating, diarrhea, and general discomfort, contributing to a reduced quality of life. In the mdx mouse, the most commonly used mouse model of DMD, studies have confirmed GI dysfunction (reported as altered contractility and GI transit through the small and large intestine), associated with increased local and systemic inflammation. Sulforaphane (SFN) is a natural isothiocyanate with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties via its activation of Nrf2 signalling that has been shown to improve aspects of the skeletal muscle pathology in dystrophic mice. Whether SFN can similarly improve GI function in muscular dystrophy was unknown. Video imaging and spatiotemporal mapping to assess gastrointestinal contractions in isolated colon preparations from mdx and C57BL/10 mice revealed that SFN reduced contraction frequency when administered ex vivo, demonstrating its therapeutic potential to improve GI function in DMD. To confirm this in vivo, four-week-old male C57BL/10 and mdx mice received vehicle (2% DMSO/corn oil) or SFN (2 mg/kg in 2% DMSO/corn oil) via daily oral gavage five days/week for 4 weeks. SFN administration reduced fibrosis in the diaphragm of mdx mice but did not affect other pathological markers. Gene and protein analysis revealed no change in Nrf2 protein expression or activation of Nrf2 signalling after SFN administration and oral SFN supplementation did not improve GI function in mdx mice. Although ex vivo studies demonstrate SFN's therapeutic potential for reducing colon contractions, in vivo studies should investigate higher doses and/or alternate routes of administration to confirm SFN's potential to improve GI function in DMD.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Isotiocianatos/farmacologia , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfóxidos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Colo/patologia , Diafragma/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibrose/metabolismo , Gastroenteropatias/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos mdx , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo
5.
Tuberk Toraks ; 69(4): 510-519, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34957745

RESUMO

Introduction: Although thorax ultrasound has been used to diagnose pneumonia in recent years, the role of ultrasonic diaphragm evaluation in the prognosis of pneumonia is unknown. This study aimed to assess the impact of diaphragmatic excursion (Dex) measured by ultrasound on the prognosis of severe pneumonia in critical care patients. Materials and Methods: We prospectively recruited patients with severe pneumonia who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) between January 2019 and July 2021. Patients' Dex values, vital signs, clinical features, laboratory parameters, APACHE-II scores on the first admission day of ICU, mortality and respiratory support status at follow-up were recorded. Result: There were 39 patients enrolled in the study. Mean Dex of the study patients was 30.66 ± 12.17 mm. Mean Dex was significantly lower in deceased patients than survivors (18.37 ± 8.12 vs 34.90 ± 10.36 p< 0.001). Dex was lower in patients who required invasive mechanical ventilation than those not (24.90 ± 10.93 vs 34.26 ± 11.70, p= 0.017). The cut-off value of Dex was found 19.0 mm for significantly predicted (p≤ 0.001) survival with the sensitivity of 96.6% and specificity of 70%. Among the study group, diaphragm excursion was negatively correlated with APACHE-II score (r= -0.688, p≤ 0.001) and respiratory rate (r= -0.531, p= 0.001). Conclusions: Dex measured on the day of ICU admission can be used to evaluate the prognosis of patients with severe pneumonia.


Assuntos
Diafragma , Pneumonia , APACHE , Diafragma/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pneumonia/diagnóstico por imagem , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ultrassonografia
6.
Rev Med Suisse ; 17(759): 1962-1966, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787969

RESUMO

Ultrasound of the diaphragm is an emerging technique that is performed at the bedside and allows assessment of diaphragm function in a variety of settings. Ultrasound is widely available, can be repeated if necessary, and is non-irradiating. First developed in intensive care, mainly for weaning from mechanical ventilation, its use is now extending to pulmonology. Different measurements are described such as diaphragmatic excursion, diaphragmatic thickness and diaphragmatic thickening fraction. The latter helps to diagnose dysfunction and is correlated with pulmonary hyperinflation. The main use in pulmonology is for the respiratory evaluation of patients with neuromuscular diseases, for the search of isolated diaphragmatic impairment and for patients with COPD. Numerous studies are in progress to better determine the role of diaphragmatic ultrasound.


Assuntos
Diafragma , Respiração Artificial , Cuidados Críticos , Diafragma/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Ultrassonografia
7.
Cir Cir ; 89(S1): 82-86, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34762638

RESUMO

The traumatic diaphragmatic hernia is considered a rare clinic condition and represents a diagnostic challenge. Its presentation is mainly a surgical emergency, leading to scarce time for complementary image studies. We present a case of a 21-year-old male who suffered a penetrating wound in the left hemitorax from whom is suspected to have a traumatic visceral herniation into the thoracic cavity by chest X-ray, confirming a splenic herniation with intrathoracic hemorrhage, as well as the proposal of a management algorithm for this defiant cases.


Assuntos
Hérnia Diafragmática Traumática , Ferimentos Penetrantes , Adulto , Diafragma/diagnóstico por imagem , Diafragma/lesões , Hemotórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemotórax/etiologia , Hérnia Diafragmática Traumática/complicações , Hérnia Diafragmática Traumática/diagnóstico por imagem , Hérnia Diafragmática Traumática/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Ruptura , Adulto Jovem
8.
Arthroscopy ; 37(11): 3238-3240, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740403

RESUMO

Rotator cuff repair may result in significant postoperative pain. Although opioids were once the gold standard, addiction and other side effects are of significant concern. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs reduce pain, sleep disturbance, and need for opioids, but they may impair soft tissue healing. The use of gabapentinoids is equivocal. Intralesional analgesia carries a risk of glenohumeral chondrolysis. Cryotherapy is beneficial, but it is often not covered by insurance companies. Suprascapular nerve block addresses innervation of only 70% versus interscalene block, but the latter has a higher incidence of unintended, temporary motor and sensory deficits of the upper extremity and hemidiaphragmatic paresis, despite similar pain scores. Although neurodeficits and diaphragmatic hemiparesis resolve by 3 weeks, temporary complications affect length of hospital stay, initiation of physical therapy, and patient satisfaction. These variables contribute to the challenge of postoperative pain control amid a growing wave of modalities aimed at improving the extent and duration of patient-focused analgesia, especially the application of continuous block infusions.


Assuntos
Bloqueio do Plexo Braquial , Lesões do Manguito Rotador , Anestésicos Locais , Artroscopia , Diafragma , Humanos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Manguito Rotador/cirurgia , Lesões do Manguito Rotador/cirurgia , Ombro/cirurgia
9.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(11)2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34815229

RESUMO

We describe a 56-year-old female patient hospitalised with COVID-19 in April 2020 who had persistent respiratory symptoms after radiographic and microbiologic recovery. X-ray of the chest demonstrated an elevated right hemidiaphragm while fluoroscopy confirmed unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis. Symptoms resolved gradually, concurrent with restoration of right hemidiaphragm function. Thus, we describe a rare cause of postacute sequelae of COVID-19 dyspnoea.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Paralisia Respiratória , Diafragma/diagnóstico por imagem , Dispneia/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paralisia Respiratória/diagnóstico por imagem , Paralisia Respiratória/etiologia , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(6): 975-980, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34841764

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the role of cisatracurium in diaphragm atrophy in mechanically ventilated (MV) rats and its possible mechanism. Methods: 30 adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned to 5 groups: Rats in the control (CON) group ( n=6) were fasted for 30 h without any other intervention; rats in the MV group ( n=6) were fasted for 6 h, and then mechanically ventilated for 24 h while receiving continuous infusion of sodium pentobarbital and 0.9% NaCl; rats in the MV+cisatracurium (MVC) group ( n=6) were fasted for 6 h, and then mechanically ventilated for 24 h while receiving continuous infusion of sodium pentobarbital and cisatracurium; rats in the MV+chloroquine (QMV) group ( n=6) and rats in the MV+cisatracurium+chloroquine (QMVC) group ( n=6) received intraperitoneal injection of chloroquine (30 mg/kg), an autophagy inhibitor, at 24 h and 30 min prior to MV in addition to the treatments given to the MV group and the MVC group, respectively. The rats in each group were sacrificed 30 hours later, and costal diaphragm muscle specimens were collected. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of the diaphragm fibers was observed through HE staining, and the colocalizations of TOM20 and LC3 were assessed by immunofluorescence staining. The expression levels of PINK1, Parkin, P62 and LC3, the mitophagy-related proteins, and the expression levels of MAFbx and MURF-1, muscular-atrophy-related proteins, were evaluated by Western blot. Results: Respective comparisons of the MV group with the CON group and the MVC group with the MV group showed that the CSA decreased ( P<0.05), the expression of MURF-1, MAFbx, PINK1, Parkin and LC3Ⅱ/Ⅰproteins increased ( P<0.05), the number of co-expressed mitochondria of TOM20 and LC3 and the expression of LC3 increased and the expression of P62 protein decreased ( P<0.05) in the MV and MVC groups. Respective comparisons of the QMV group with the MV group and the QMVC group with the MVC group showed that the CSA increased ( P<0.05), the expression of MURF-1, MAFbx, PINK1, Parkin and LC3Ⅱ/Ⅰ proteins increased ( P<0.05), the number of co-expressed mitochondria of TOM20 and LC3 and the expression of LC3 decreased and the expression of P62 protein decreased ( P<0.05) in the QMV and QMVC group. Conclusion: Mechanical ventilation for 24 h caused diaphragm atrophy in SD rats. Cisatracurium may aggravate diaphragm atrophy in mechanically ventilated rats through the autophagy-lysosome (AL) pathway, a process that may be related to the PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy, and chloroquine may reduce diaphragmatic atrophy induced by cisatracurium by blocking the AL pathway.


Assuntos
Diafragma , Respiração Artificial , Animais , Atracúrio/análogos & derivados , Diafragma/patologia , Masculino , Atrofia Muscular/etiologia , Atrofia Muscular/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos
11.
Clin Chest Med ; 42(4): 567-576, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774165

RESUMO

The unique anatomy and physiology of the pleural space provides tight regulation of liquid within the space under normal physiologic conditions. When this balance is disrupted and pleural effusions develop, there can be significant impacts on the respiratory system. Drainage of effusions can lead to meaningful improvement in symptoms, primarily owing to improvement in the length-tension relationship of the respiratory muscles. Ultrasound examination to evaluate the movement and function of the diaphragm, as well as pleural manometry, have provided a greater understanding of the impact of pleural effusion and thoracentesis.


Assuntos
Derrame Pleural , Toracentese , Diafragma/diagnóstico por imagem , Drenagem , Humanos , Derrame Pleural/terapia , Ultrassonografia
12.
Clin Perinatol ; 48(4): 783-811, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774209

RESUMO

Patient-ventilator asynchrony is very common in newborns. Achieving synchrony is quite challenging because of small tidal volumes, high respiratory rates, and the presence of leaks. Leaks also cause unreliable monitoring of respiratory metrics. In addition, ventilator adjustment must take into account that infants have strong vagal reflexes and demonstrate central apnea and periodic breathing, with a high variability in breathing pattern. Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) is a mode of ventilation whereby the timing and amount of ventilatory assist is controlled by the patient's own neural respiratory drive. As NAVA uses the diaphragm electrical activity (Edi) as the controller signal, it is possible to deliver synchronized assist, both invasively and noninvasively (NIV-NAVA), to follow the variability in breathing pattern, and to monitor patient respiratory drive, independent of leaks. This article provides an updated review of the physiology and the scientific literature pertaining to the use of NAVA in children (neonatal and pediatric age groups). Both the invasive NAVA and NIV-NAVA publications since 2016 are summarized, as well as the use of Edi monitoring. Overall, the use of NAVA and Edi monitoring is feasible and safe. Compared with conventional ventilation, NAVA improves patient-ventilator interaction, provides lower peak inspiratory pressure, and lowers oxygen requirements. Evidence from several studies suggests improved comfort, less sedation requirements, less apnea, and some trends toward reduced length of stay and more successful extubation.


Assuntos
Suporte Ventilatório Interativo , Criança , Diafragma , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Monitorização Fisiológica , Oxigênio , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar
13.
Anticancer Res ; 41(10): 5025-5031, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: This study investigated the cardiophrenic lymph node (CPLN) status before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT), as its presence seems to have a rather prognostic significance in patients with advanced ovarian cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The baseline computed tomography scans of 66 patients with advanced ovarian cancer primary treated with NACT between March 2015 and June 2020 were reviewed. A CPLN enlargement was defined as ≥5 mm. RESULTS: 44% (n=29) of the patients had enlarged CPLNs; 10.7% (n=3) showed a complete response, 71.4% (n=20) a partial response, and 17.9% (n=5) a stable disease after NACT. There was no significant difference between the response to NACT measured according to the status of CPLN compared to other biomarkers in the CPLN group. CONCLUSION: Patients with CPLN enlargement have a tendency to an impaired prognosis. The response of CPLN to NACT was comparable to the response of established biomarkers, adding a monitoring function to the CPLN.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/mortalidade , Linfonodos/patologia , Terapia Neoadjuvante/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Idoso , Diafragma , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Linfonodos/efeitos dos fármacos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
14.
Kyobu Geka ; 74(11): 930-933, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601476

RESUMO

Thoracoscopic plication for congenital diaphragmatic eventration in an adult. Diaphragmatic eventration is known to be abnormal elevation of diaphragm and congenital causes are due to abnormal diaphragm muscle development. Here we report surgical treatment of congenital diaphragmatic eventration. A 45-year-old woman who complained of cough was admitted to our hospital. She had history of cough and was diagnosed as diaphragmatic eventration in childhood. Chest X-ray showed elevated left hemidiaphragm with a bowel gas underneath. Under the diagnosis of congenital eventration of left hemidiaphragm, plication of the left diaphragm by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) was performed. One month after surgery, severe cough disappeared completely.


Assuntos
Eventração Diafragmática , Adulto , Diafragma/diagnóstico por imagem , Diafragma/cirurgia , Eventração Diafragmática/diagnóstico por imagem , Eventração Diafragmática/cirurgia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cirurgia Torácica Vídeoassistida
18.
J Bras Pneumol ; 47(5): e20210166, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586303

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the diaphragm kinetics, respiratory function, and serum dosage of leptin and inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) in three clinical groups: obese, asthmatic, and healthy. METHODS: This is a clinical exploratory study performed on 73 youths (12-24 years of age, 42.5% male) allocated into three groups: obesity (OG, n=33), body mass index (BMIz-score) ≥ +2, asthmatic (AG, n=26) controlled mild asthmatics, classified by GINA, and Healthy Control Group (CG, n=14). The participants were subjected to diaphragmatic ultrasound, spirometry, maximal respiratory pressure, serum leptin levels, and IL-6 and TNF-α whole blood cell culture levels. RESULTS: Diaphragm thickness was higher in OG in comparison to AG and CG (2.0±0.4 vs 1.7±0.5 and 1.6±0.2, both with p<0.05). Maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) was significantly lower in OG and AG in relation to the CG (82.8±21.4 and 72.5±21.2 vs 102.8±27.3, both with p<0.05). OG has the highest leptin rate among the groups (with the other two groups had p<0.05). All groups had similar TNF-α and IL-6 levels. CONCLUSION: The muscular hypertrophy found in the diaphragm of the obese individuals can be justified by the increase in respiratory work imposed by the chronic condition of the disease. Such increase in thickness did not occur in controlled mild asthmatics. The IL-6 and TNF-α markers detected no evidence of muscle inflammation, even though leptin was expected to be altered in obese individuals. Both obese and asthmatic patients had lower pulmonary resistance than the healthy ones.


Assuntos
Asma , Diafragma , Adolescente , Diafragma/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Cinética , Leptina , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Adulto Jovem
19.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 101(36): 2893-2899, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587730

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effect of high-fat diet (HFD) on respiratory function and its mitochondrial mechanism in mice. Methods: Twenty 4-week-old healthy male C57BL/6 mice were divided by simple random grouping into two groups, 10 mice for each group. Mice were raised with normal diet (NFD) and HFD for 16 weeks, respectively, and weighed once every two weeks. At the end of the intervention, respiratory parameters were measured by whole-body plethysomography, serum and diaphragm tissue lipid species were measured, diaphragm tissue was stained to observe diaphragmmatic morphology, muscle fiber phenotype and mitochondrial ultrastructure. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and immunoblotting were used to detect myosin heavy chain(MHC) and mitochondrial dynamics-related genes and protein expression. Results: The baseline body weights of NFD and HFD mice were (19.17±0.59) and (19.12±0.64) g, respectively, with no statistically significant differences (P=0.857). After 16 weeks of feeding, the body weight of mice in the HFD group was (41.28±2.21) g, which was higher than NFD group [(27.14±0.53) g, P<0.001]. The peak inspiratory flow rate, tidal volume and minute ventilation of mice in the HFD group were (5.72±0.64) ml/s, (0.23±0.04) ml and (97.49±21.68) ml, respectively, which were lower than NFD group [(7.70±1.52) ml/s, (0.31±0.07) ml and (129.99±28.87) ml, respectively, all P values<0.05]. Penh value was 1.16±0.07, which was higher than NFD group (0.98±0.09, P<0.001). The diaphragmatic triglyceride content of mice in the HFD group was (20.43±6.36) mmol/mg, which was higher than NFD group [(11.62±1.78) mmol/mg] (P=0.003), and lipid droplets were deposited in the diaphragm fibers. The percentage of MHC-Ⅰ muscle fibers in the diaphragm of mice in the HFD group was 13.33%±2.95%, which was lower than NFD group (19.20%±1.23%, P=0.034). The mitochondria of the diaphragm in the NFD group were arranged in rows with clear structures, while in the HFD group showed swelling, cristae breakage and vacuoles. The relative expression level of mitochondrial fusion protein 2 in the diaphragm of the HFD group was 0.61±0.16, which was lower than NFD group (1.28±0.03, P<0.001); the relative expression of mitochondrial dynamin-related protein 1 were 1.18±0.06 and 0.91±0.11, respectively, both higher than NFD group (0.61±0.07 and 0.60±0.04, respectively, P<0.001). Conclusion: HFD impairs respiratory function in mice by the mechanism associated with the MHC-Ⅰ muscle fibers decrease and the mitochondrial dynamics imbalance of diaphragm.


Assuntos
Diafragma , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Animais , Peso Corporal , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mitocôndrias
20.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556491

RESUMO

Transdiaphragmatic (Pdi) and oesophageal pressures (Pes) are useful in understanding the pathophysiology of the respiratory system. They provide insight into respiratory drive, intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure, diaphragmatic fatigue and weaning failure. BACKGROUND: The use of Pdi and Pes in clinical practice is restricted due to the invasiveness of the technique and the cumbersome equipment needed. On the other hand, diaphragmatic displacement is non-invasively and easily assessed with M-mode ultrasound. PURPOSE: We observed striking similarities in shape and magnitude between M-mode diaphragmatic displacement, Pes and Pdi pressures. The study aimed to evaluate if the information provided by these two pressures could be obtained non-invasively from the diaphragmatic displacement curve. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 14 consecutive intubated patients undergoing a weaning trial, simultaneous recordings of Pes and Pdi pressures and the diaphragmatic displacement were assessed while breathing spontaneously and during a sniff-like manoeuvre. Moreover, the slope of the diaphragmatic displacement curve during relaxation was compared with the maximal relaxation rate (MRR) obtained from the Pdi curve. RESULTS: More than 200 breaths were analysed in pairs. Diaphragmatic displacement significantly correlated with Pdi (R2=0.33, p<0.001) and Pes (R2=0.44, p<0.001), and this correlation further improved during sniff (R2=0.47, p<0.001) and (R2=0.64, p<0.001), respectively. Additionally, a significant correlation was found between the relaxation slope derived from the diaphragmatic displacement curve and the MRR derived from the Pdi curve, both in normal breathing (R2=0.379, p<0.001) and during the sniff manoeuvre (R2=0.71, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: M-mode diaphragmatic displacement parameters correlate well with the ones obtained from oesophageal pressure and Pdi, particularly during sniffing. Diaphragmatic displacement assessment possibly offers an alternative non-invasive solution for understanding and clinically monitoring the diaphragmatic contractile properties and weaning failure due to diaphragmatic fatigue.


Assuntos
Diafragma , Esôfago , Diafragma/diagnóstico por imagem , Esôfago/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Respiração
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