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1.
JAMA ; 324(14): 1464-1465, 2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048146
2.
JAMA ; 324(14): 1465, 2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048149
3.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1544-1547, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018286

RESUMO

Nowadays, cancer has become a major threat to people's lives and health. Convolutional neural network (CNN) has been used for cancer early identification, which cannot achieve the desired results in some cases, such as images with affine transformation. Due to robustness to rotation and affine transformation, capsule network can effectively solve this problem of CNN and achieve the expected performance with less training data, which are very important for medical image analysis. In this paper, an enhanced capsule network is proposed for medical image classification. For the proposed capsule network, the feature decomposition module and multi-scale feature extraction module are introduced into the basic capsule network. The feature decomposition module is presented to extract richer features, which reduces the amount of calculation and speeds up the network convergence. The multi-scale feature extraction module is used to extract important information in the low-level capsules, which guarantees the extracted features to be transmitted to the high-level capsules. The proposed capsule network was applied on PatchCamelyon (PCam) dataset. Experimental results show that it can obtain good performance for medical image classification task, which provides good inspiration for other image classification tasks.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico por Imagem , Redes Neurais de Computação
4.
Curr Rheumatol Rep ; 22(10): 75, 2020 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924089

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Provide the most recent updates on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and treatment advances in Kawasaki disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Treatment advances in complex, IVIG-refractory cases of Kawasaki disease. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome, a newly reported inflammatory condition with Kawasaki-like features and an association with the 2019 Coronavirus (COVID-19). Kawasaki disease (KD) is a rare systemic inflammatory disease that predominately affects children less than 5 years of age. Pathogenesis of KD remains unknown; the leading theory is that an unknown stimulus triggers an immune-mediated inflammatory cascade in a genetically susceptible child. Classic KD is a clinical diagnosis based on set criteria and excluding other similar clinical entities. Patients who do not fulfill complete diagnostic criteria for KD are often referred to as atypical (or incomplete) KD. The most feared complication of KD is coronary artery abnormality development, and patients with atypical KD are also at risk. Administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and aspirin has greatly reduced the incidence of coronary lesions in affected children. Several other immune-modulating therapies have recently been utilized in complex or refractory cases.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/complicações , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
5.
Acta Biomed ; 91(8-S): 51-59, 2020 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32945279

RESUMO

Novel beta-coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is the cause of Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), and on March 12th 2020, the World Health Organization defined COVID-19 as a controllable pandemic. Currently, the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) can be identified by virus isolation or viral nucleic acid detection; however, false negatives associated with the nucleic acid detection provide a clinical challenge. Imaging examination has become the indispensable means not only in the early detection and diagnosis but also in monitoring the clinical course, evaluating the disease severity, and may be presented as an important warning signal preceding the negative RT-PCR test results. Different radiological modalities can be used in different disease settings. Radiology Departments must be nimble in implementing operational changes to ensure continued radiology services and protect patients and staff health.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico por Imagem/normas , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Radiografia/normas , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
6.
Breast Cancer ; 27(6): 1045-1047, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948989

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic poses current and future challenges in the maintenance of surgical operating capacity. In the United Kingdom surgery has continued-in a reduced capacity-through the establishment of regional 'cancer hubs' using independent sector facilities to treat public healthcare patients. It is essential that these scarce operating facilities available are optimally utilized and that logistical challenges that result from remote operating away from the surgeon's primary hospital site are considered. These issues are best addressed through the application of currently available medical technology and enhanced training in advanced oncoplastic techniques, which extend the limits of breast conservation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Mamoplastia , Mastectomia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela , Betacoronavirus , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Mastectomia Segmentar , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador , Oncologia Cirúrgica/educação , Oncologia Cirúrgica/métodos
7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15364, 2020 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958781

RESUMO

Currently, we witness the severe spread of the pandemic of the new Corona virus, COVID-19, which causes dangerous symptoms to humans and animals, its complications may lead to death. Although convolutional neural networks (CNNs) is considered the current state-of-the-art image classification technique, it needs massive computational cost for deployment and training. In this paper, we propose an improved hybrid classification approach for COVID-19 images by combining the strengths of CNNs (using a powerful architecture called Inception) to extract features and a swarm-based feature selection algorithm (Marine Predators Algorithm) to select the most relevant features. A combination of fractional-order and marine predators algorithm (FO-MPA) is considered an integration among a robust tool in mathematics named fractional-order calculus (FO). The proposed approach was evaluated on two public COVID-19 X-ray datasets which achieves both high performance and reduction of computational complexity. The two datasets consist of X-ray COVID-19 images by international Cardiothoracic radiologist, researchers and others published on Kaggle. The proposed approach selected successfully 130 and 86 out of 51 K features extracted by inception from dataset 1 and dataset 2, while improving classification accuracy at the same time. The results are the best achieved on these datasets when compared to a set of recent feature selection algorithms. By achieving 98.7%, 98.2% and 99.6%, 99% of classification accuracy and F-Score for dataset 1 and dataset 2, respectively, the proposed approach outperforms several CNNs and all recent works on COVID-19 images.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Algoritmos , Betacoronavirus , Aprendizado Profundo , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Pandemias , Raios X
8.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 67(5): 903-921, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888689

RESUMO

Pulmonary hypertension (PH), the syndrome of increased pressure in the pulmonary arteries, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality for affected children and is associated with a variety of potential underlying causes. Several pulmonary arterial hypertension-targeted therapies have become available to reduce pulmonary artery pressure and improve outcome, but there is still no cure for most patients. This review provides a description of select causes of PH encountered in pediatrics and an update on the most recent data pertaining to evaluation and management of children with PH. Available evidence for specific classes of PH-targeted therapies in pediatrics is discussed.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico por Imagem , Cardiopatias Congênitas/complicações , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar , Artéria Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Pressão Propulsora Pulmonar/fisiologia , Criança , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Prognóstico , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/etiologia , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/fisiopatologia
9.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 67(5): 973-993, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888693

RESUMO

This article aims to summarize some of the key advances in congenital interventional cardiology over the past few years, from novel imaging technologies, such as virtual reality, fusion imaging, and 3-dimensional printed models, to newly available devices and techniques to facilitate complex procedures including percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement and hybrid procedures. It is an exciting time for the field, with rapid development of techniques, devices, and imaging tools that allow a minimally invasive approach for many congenital cardiac defects with progressively less radiation and contrast doses.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Cardiologia/tendências , Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador/tendências , Humanos
10.
Life Sci ; 258: 118206, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758623

RESUMO

Scientists are looking for new therapies to cope with the rise in cancer worldwide. Since cancer cells overexpress peptide receptors and owing to small size, easy uptake by tumor cells, easy preparation, and with no toxicity, the use of radiolabeled peptides with high specificity and affinity for accurate imaging and therapy has attracted much attention. To develop an ideal imaging or treatment radiolabeled peptide, there are some aspects in the components of radiolabeled peptide including radionuclide, peptide, chelator, and spacer that should be considered. Some peptides, including somatostatin, RGD, neurotensin, bombesin, exendin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, and gastrin are currently under (pre)clinical investigations. Today, nanoparticles are suitable tools for targeting peptide for molecular imaging and therapy of tumors with low toxicity. This paper presents some essential aspects in developing a valuable radiolabeled peptide and some radiolabeled peptides with regard to their applications in tumor imaging and therapy in pre-clinical and clinical phases.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/metabolismo , Animais , Diagnóstico por Imagem/tendências , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo
11.
Lab Chip ; 20(18): 3302-3309, 2020 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32743622

RESUMO

To detect the presence of antibodies in blood against SARS-CoV-2 in a highly sensitive and specific manner, here we describe a robust, inexpensive ($200), 3D-printable portable imaging platform (TinyArray imager) that can be deployed immediately in areas with minimal infrastructure to read coronavirus antigen microarrays (CoVAMs) that contain a panel of antigens from SARS-CoV-2, SARS-1, MERS, and other respiratory viruses. Application includes basic laboratories and makeshift field clinics where a few drops of blood from a finger prick could be rapidly tested in parallel for the presence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 with a test turnaround time of only 2-4 h. To evaluate our imaging device, we probed and imaged coronavirus microarrays with COVID-19-positive and negative sera and achieved a performance on par with a commercial microarray reader 100× more expensive than our imaging device. This work will enable large scale serosurveillance, which can play an important role in the months and years to come to implement efficient containment and mitigation measures, as well as help develop therapeutics and vaccines to treat and prevent the spread of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico por Imagem/instrumentação , Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Análise em Microsséries/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Humanos , Microscopia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Impressão Tridimensional , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Pontos Quânticos
12.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 44(5): 714-729, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842057

RESUMO

Imaging plays a crucial role in the diagnosis, staging, and follow-up of endometrial cancer. Endometrial cancer is staged surgically using the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging system. Preoperative imaging can complement surgical staging but is not yet considered a required component in the current FIGO staging system. Preoperative imaging can help identify some tumor characteristics and tumor spread, both locally and distally. More accurate assessment of endometrial cancers optimizes management and treatment plan, including degree of surgical intervention. In this article, we review the epidemiology, FIGO staging system, and the importance of imaging in the staging of endometrial cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Neoplasias do Endométrio/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias do Endométrio/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Genitália Feminina/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Pelve/diagnóstico por imagem , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios
14.
Radiol Clin North Am ; 58(5): 897-907, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792122

RESUMO

Most renal masses are benign cysts; a subset are malignant. Most renal masses are incidental findings. Evaluation of renal cysts has evolved with updates to the Bosniak classification system and other guidelines. The Bosniak classification provides detailed definitions and extends the system from computed tomography to MR imaging. This article provides a simple approach to the evaluation of cystic or potentially cystic renal masses. The radiologist is central to this process. Key elements include confirming that a renal lesion is cystic and not solid, determining the need for further characterization by imaging, and judicious application of the Bosniak classification system.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Doenças Renais Císticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Ultrassonografia/métodos
15.
Radiol Clin North Am ; 58(5): 909-923, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792123

RESUMO

Acute pyelonephritis is a bacterial infection of the renal parenchyma and collecting system. Diagnosis is based on clinical findings of fever, flank pain, and urinary tract infection. Computed tomography findings include renal enlargement with wedge-shaped heterogeneous areas of decreased enhancement, known as a "striated nephrogram." Imaging is primarily used to diagnose complications such as emphysematous pyelonephritis, renal abscess, and pyonephrosis. Chronic pyelonephritis can have varying appearances on imaging ranging from xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis or, in extreme cases, renal replacement lipomatosis.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Nefropatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Pielonefrite/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções Urinárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Infecções/diagnóstico por imagem , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Radiografia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Ultrassonografia , Sistema Urinário/diagnóstico por imagem
16.
Radiol Clin North Am ; 58(5): 951-963, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792126

RESUMO

Up to 8% of renal cancers are thought to have a hereditary component. Several hereditary renal cancer syndromes have been identified over the last few decades. It is important for the radiologist to be aware of findings associated with hereditary renal cancer syndromes to detect tumors early, enroll patients in appropriate surveillance programs, and improve outcomes for the patient and affected family members. This review discusses from a radiologist's perspective well-known hereditary renal cancer syndromes and emerging genetic mutations associated with renal cancer that are less well characterized, focusing on imaging features and known associations.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Esclerose Tuberosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de von Hippel-Lindau/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
17.
Radiol Clin North Am ; 58(5): 981-993, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792128

RESUMO

Based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results studies, most renal cancers are low grade and slow growing. Long-term, single-center studies show excellent outcomes for T1a renal cell carcinoma (RCC), comparable to partial nephrectomy without affecting renal function and with much lower rates of complications. However, there are no multicenter randomized controlled trials of multiple ablative modalities or comparison with partial nephrectomy, and most studies are single-arm observational studies with short-term and intermediate follow-up. For treatment of stage T1a RCC, percutaneous TA is an effective alternative to surgery with preservation of renal function, low risk, and comparable overall and disease-specific survival.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/cirurgia , Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Neoplasias Renais/cirurgia , Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Humanos , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Rim/cirurgia , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Lancet ; 396(10249): 499-512, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798493

RESUMO

Chronic pancreatitis is a multifactorial, fibroinflammatory syndrome in which repetitive episodes of pancreatic inflammation lead to extensive fibrotic tissue replacement, resulting in chronic pain, exocrine and endocrine pancreatic insufficiency, reduced quality of life, and a shorter life expectancy. The incidence and prevalence of chronic pancreatitis is rising and no curative treatment is available. Using novel diagnostic algorithms, definitive chronic pancreatitis can be diagnosed by imaging criteria alone, whereas probable chronic pancreatitis requires clinical features and imaging criteria. Criteria for the diagnosis of early chronic pancreatitis are still under discussion and need prospective validation in clinical trials. Cross-sectional imaging should be used first; endoscopic ultrasound is needed only when CT or MRI are inconclusive or to plan therapeutic interventions. Management of chronic pancreatitis requires an interdisciplinary approach including primary care practitioners, gastroenterologists, surgeons, radiologists, pain specialists, and nutritional therapists. Patients with chronic pancreatitis should be seen at least once a year and re-evaluated for causal risk factors, symptom control, and complications such as malnutrition, pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, and diabetes; refer to a specialised centre if symptoms are poorly controlled or there is risk of deterioration. Scoring systems to monitor disease progression have been developed and validated internationally. Interventional treatments for pain or cholestasis should be done by specialists only, and early discussion of treatment approaches should include all medical disciplines involved in care. Throughout this Seminar, we address research needs such as staging of pancreatitis, aspects of malnutrition and pain, and cancer surveillance, to help improve the care of patients.


Assuntos
Pancreatite Crônica , Biomarcadores/análise , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Manejo da Dor , Pancreatite Crônica/complicações , Pancreatite Crônica/diagnóstico , Pancreatite Crônica/etiologia , Pancreatite Crônica/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
19.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol ; 31(5): 303-311, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740061

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As artificial intelligence continues to develop new applications in ophthalmic image recognition, we provide here an introduction for ophthalmologists and a primer on the mechanisms of deep learning systems. RECENT FINDINGS: Deep learning has lent itself to the automated interpretation of various retinal imaging modalities, including fundus photography and optical coherence tomography. Convolutional neural networks (CNN) represent the primary class of deep neural networks applied to these image analyses. These have been configured to aid in the detection of diabetes retinopathy, AMD, retinal detachment, glaucoma, and ROP, among other ocular disorders. Predictive models for retinal disease prognosis and treatment are also being validated. SUMMARY: Deep learning systems have begun to demonstrate a reliable level of diagnostic accuracy equal or better to human graders for narrow image recognition tasks. However, challenges regarding the use of deep learning systems in ophthalmology remain. These include trust of unsupervised learning systems and the limited ability to recognize broad ranges of disorders.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Oftalmopatias/diagnóstico , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Oftalmologistas , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação
20.
Singapore Med J ; 61(6): 340, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32754769
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