Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.176
Filtrar
1.
Water Sci Technol ; 81(5): 925-935, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541111

RESUMO

In this paper, boron-doped diamond (BDD) electro-activated persulfate was studied to decompose malachite green (MG). The degradation results indicate that the decolorization performance of MG for the BDD electro-activated persulfate (BDD-EAP) system is 3.37 times that of BDD electrochemical oxidation (BDD-EO) system, and BDD-EAP system also exhibited an enhanced total organic content (TOC) removal (2.2 times) compared with BDD-EO system. Besides, the degradation parameters such as persulfate concentration, current density, and pH were studied in detail. In a wider range of pH (2-10), the MG can be efficiently removed (>95%) in 0.02 M persulfate solution with a low current density of 1.7 mA/cm2 after 30 min. The BDD-EAP technology decomposes organic compounds without the diffusion limitation and avoids pH adjustment, which makes the EO treatment of organic wastewater more efficient and more economical.


Assuntos
Diamante , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Boro , Eletrodos , Oxirredução , Corantes de Rosanilina
2.
J Environ Manage ; 268: 110710, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510444

RESUMO

The electrochemical oxidation of the antibiotic Norfloxacin (NOR) in chloride media on different anodic materials was studied at two different electrochemical reactors. The results were compared with those obtained in sulphate media. The anodes under study were a commercial boron-doped diamond (BBD) and two different ceramic electrodes based on tin oxide doped with antimony oxide in the presence (CuO) and absence (BCE) of copper oxide as sintering aid. The reactors employed were a one-compartment reactor (OCR) and a two-compartment one with a membrane separating both electrodes (EMR). The use of the membrane clearly enhanced both NOR degradation and TOC mineralization for all the anodic materials studied since some parallel reactions were avoided. Additionally, two different pathways for NOR oxidation were observed as a function of the reactor employed. The EMR also favoured the ionic by-products generation and the electrolyte dechlorination. NO3- increased with the oxidation power of the anode employed and it was also enhanced by the EMR use. Chloride media favours ceramic electrodes performance independently of the reactor employed as they did not generate an excess of oxidants as BDD did. The BCE electrode is an interesting alternative to BDD since although its oxidative power was lower, it presented similar current efficiency with lower energy consumption.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Boro , Cerâmica , Diamante , Eletrodos , Oxirredução
3.
Euro Surveill ; 25(23)2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553062

RESUMO

An outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) occurred on the Diamond Princess cruise ship making an international journey, which led to quarantine of the ship at Yokohama Port, Japan. A suspected COVID-19 case was defined as a passenger or crew member who developed a fever or respiratory symptoms, and a confirmed COVID-19 case had laboratory-confirmation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Between 3 and 9 February 2020, 490 individuals were tested for SARS-CoV-2 and 172 were positive (152 passengers (median age: 70 years; interquartile range (IQR): 64-75; males: 45%) and 20 crew (median age: 40 years; IQR: 35-48.5; males: 80%). Other than the Hong Kong-related index case, symptom onset for the earliest confirmed case was 22 January, 2 days after the cruise ship left port. Attack rates among passengers were similar across the decks, while beverage (3.3%, 2/61) and food service staff (5.7%, 14/245) were most affected. Attack rates tended to increase with age. A comprehensive outbreak response was implemented, including surveillance, provision of essential medical care, food and medicine delivery, isolation, infection prevention and control, sampling and disembarkation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavirus , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , China , Diamante , Surtos de Doenças , Hong Kong , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Navios
4.
J Adhes Dent ; 22(3): 311-320, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32435771

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of double application of resin cement primers to dentin prepared with different diamond burs on the cement-dentin bond strengths. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty flat dentin surfaces were prepared and divided into 12 groups (n = 5) according to three experimental factors: 1. resin cements: RelyX Ultimate (RU), Multilink Automix (ML), and Panavia V5 (PV); 2. resin cement primer application: single or double; 3. dentin surface preparation with regular or superfine diamond burs. Cement-dentin sticks (1 mm2) were prepared for and underwent microtensile bond strength testing (µTBS). Statistical analysis was performed using three-way ANOVA and Duncan's test (α = 0.05). Fractured surfaces and cement-dentin interfaces were observed using SEM. Additional teeth were used to observe the demineralization effect of resin cement primers with SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). RESULTS: All tested factors demonstrated significant effects on µTBS (p < 0.001). The combination of PV with superfine-grit bur and double application yielded the highest bond strengths. Surfaces prepared with superfine-grit burs demonstrated higher µTBS than did the regular-grit group, but a significant effect was not observed for all groups. The double application of primer significantly increased the bond strength for most combinations, except for PV with superfine-grit bur-prepared dentin. CONCLUSIONS: PV showed higher bond strengths than other resin cements. Double application of primer improved the bond strength of all cements to dentin. Bond strengths were higher when dentin was prepared with a superfine-grit bur.


Assuntos
Colagem Dentária , Cimentos de Resina , Dentina , Adesivos Dentinários , Diamante , Teste de Materiais , Propriedades de Superfície , Resistência à Tração
5.
J Environ Manage ; 269: 110783, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32430283

RESUMO

The electrochemical oxidation (EO) of butyl paraben (BP) over boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode was studied in this work. Emphasis was put on degradation performance in various actual water matrices, including secondary treated wastewater (WW), bottled water (BW), surface water (SW), ultrapure water (UW), and ultrapure water spiked with humic acid (HA). Experiments were performed utilizing 0.1 M Na2SO4 as the electrolyte. Interestingly, matrix complexity was found to favor BP degradation, i.e. in the order WW ~ BW > SW > UW, thus implying some kind of synergy between the water matrix constituents, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the anode surface. The occurrence of chloride in water matrices favors reaction presumably due to the formation of chlorine-based oxidative species, and this can partially offset the need to work at increased current densities in the case of chlorine-free electrolytes. No pH effect in the range 3-8 on degradation was recorded. EO oxidation was also compared with a sulfate radical process using carbon black as activator of sodium persulfate. The matrix effect was, in this case, detrimental (i.e. UW > BW > WW), pinpointing the different behavior of different processes in similar environments.


Assuntos
Diamante , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Boro , Eletrodos , Oxirredução , Parabenos , Sulfatos
6.
Chemosphere ; 251: 126364, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443231

RESUMO

This study is among the first to systematically study the electrochemical reduction of nitrate on boron-doped diamond (BDD) films with different surface terminations and boron-doping levels. The highest nitrate reduction efficiency was 48% and the highest selectivity in the production of nitrogen gas was 44.5%, which were achieved using a BDD electrode with a hydrogen-terminated surface and a B/C ratio of 1.0%. C-H bonds served as the anchor points for attracting NO3- anions close to the electrode surface, and thus accelerating the formation of NO3-(ads). Compared to oxygen termination, hydrogen-terminated BDD exhibited higher electrochemical reactivity for reducing nitrate, resulting from the formation of shallow acceptor states and small interfacial band bending. The hydrophobicity of the hydrogen-terminated BDD inhibited water electrolysis and the subsequent adsorption of atomic hydrogen, leading to increased selectivity in the production of nitrogen gas. A BDD electrode with a boron-doping level of 1.0% increased the density of acceptor states, thereby enhancing the conductivity and promoting the formation of C-H bonds after the cathodic reduction pretreatment leading to the direct reduction of nitrate.


Assuntos
Boro/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Diamante/química , Doping nos Esportes , Eletrodos , Eletrólise/métodos , Hidrogênio/química , Nitratos , Óxidos de Nitrogênio , Oxirredução , Oxigênio , Água
7.
J Environ Manage ; 265: 110566, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275236

RESUMO

This work focuses on disinfection of water using electrolysis with diamond coatings avoiding or minimizing the formation of hazardous chlorates and perchlorates using a special type of commercial cells designed by CONDIAS (Itzehoe, Germany) in two different sizes: the CabECO and the MIKROZON cells. In these cells, the electrolyte that separates the anode and cathode is a proton exchange membrane. This helps to minimize the production of perchlorate and this behavior is enhanced in the smallest cell for which the very low contact times between the electrodes and the water allows to avoid the production of perchlorates when operating in a single-pass mode, which becomes a really remarkable point. In this paper, we report tests in which we demonstrate this outstanding performance and we also explain the differences observed in the two cells operating with the same water.


Assuntos
Cloratos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Diamante , Desinfecção , Eletrodos , Alemanha , Oxirredução , Percloratos
8.
Chemosphere ; 252: 126499, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224356

RESUMO

Cyanide-containing organic wastewater is discharged in large quantities by coking, electroplating and pharmaceutical industries, which seriously endangers environmental safety and human health. In this paper, Electrochemical Oxidation-Persulfate (EO-PS) Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) was firstly used to treat high concentration cyanide-containing organic wastewater obtained from a chemical enterprise. The potential application of this process in the treatment of high concentration cyanide-containing organic wastewater was explored for the first time, and the effects of current density, initial pH, temperature and initial concentration on chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC) and total cyanide (CN-) removal in wastewater were systematically investigated. The results shown that the EO-PS process had an excellent removal effect on organics and cyanide in high concentration cyanide-containing organic wastewater which contained 11,290 mg L-1 COD, 4456 mg L-1 TOC and 1280.15 mg L-1 CN-. The COD, TOC and CN- removal at optimized operating parameters for 24 h were 95.8%, 87.8% and 98.4%, respectively. The corresponding electrical energy per order was only 41.6 kWh m-3 order-1. In addition, the pollutants removal can be accelerated under conditions of high current density, acidic solution, appropriate temperature and low pollutant concentration, among which low current density, low pH, appropriate temperature and low pollutant concentration can effectively diminish energy consumption. Cyanide, COD and TOC degradation in all reaction conditions followed the pseudo-first-order kinetic model.


Assuntos
Cianetos/química , Sulfatos/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Boro , Coque , Cianetos/toxicidade , Diamante , Eletrodos , Cinética , Oxirredução , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
9.
Chemosphere ; 253: 126599, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278188

RESUMO

It has previously been established during the elimination of organic matter that the addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate in solution is an important condition in the electrochemical oxidation approach that allows to increase the production of persulfate, enhancing the efficacy of the treatment. This outcome was observed when using the anodic oxidation with boron doped diamond (BDD), the extra production of persulfate was achieved after the SDS-sulfate released in solution and it reacts with hydroxyl radicals electrogenerated at BDD surface. However, this effect was not already tested by using active anodes. For this reason, the effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) during the electrochemical treatment of caffeine was investigated by comparing non-active and active anodes performances. A significant decrease on the oxidation efficiency of caffeine was observed by using Ti/IrO2-Ta2O5 anode at high current density when SDS was added to the solution. Conversely, at BDD anode, the presence of SDS enhanced the degradation efficiency, depending on the applied current density. This behavior is mainly due to the degradation of SDS molecules, which allows to increase the amount of sulfate in solution, promoting the production of persulfate via the mechanism involving hydroxyl radicals when BDD is used. Meanwhile, no oxidation improvements were observed when Ti/IrO2-Ta2O5 anode was employed, limiting the caffeine oxidation. Results clearly showed that the surfactant concentration had little influence on the degradation efficiency, but this result is satisfactory for the BDD system, since it demonstrates that effluents with complex matrices containing surfactants could be effectively degraded using the electrooxidation technique. Degradation mechanisms were explained by electrochemical measurements (polarization curves) as well as the kinetic analysis. Costs and energy consumption were also evaluated.


Assuntos
Cafeína/química , Eletrodos , Dodecilsulfato de Sódio/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Boro/química , Diamante/química , Radical Hidroxila/química , Cinética , Oxirredução , Sulfatos/química , Titânio
10.
J Environ Manage ; 264: 110473, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250900

RESUMO

A photo-electro-Fenton (PEF) reactor employing boron-doped diamond (BDD) and soft iron anodes was studied in landfill leachate (LL) treatment. The reactor operation parameters (ROP) H2O2 concentration, current intensity and flow rate were investigated in the removal of Abs 254 nm. The PEF process with BDD anode, operating at the best operational conditions, was used as a pre-treatment and enabled biological oxidation (BO). The treatment strategy of PEF followed by BO showed to be the most efficient, reaching reductions of 77.9% chemical oxygen demand (COD), 71.5% total carbon (TC) and 76.3% radiation absorbance in 254 nm (Abs 254 nm), as well as a significant reduction in the genotoxicity (Allium cepa), observed by an increase in the mitotic index (MI) (131.5%) and decrease in the abnormalities (47.8%). The reduction of the toxic potential of LL using the integration of processes was also observed in the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) byproducts analysis, which indicated the removal of emerging contaminants, such as Bisphenol-A (BPA), N,N-Diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) and Diisooctyl phthalate (DIOP). Thus, the PEF process integrated with BO presented a considerable efficiency in the removal of contaminants present in LL, becoming an alternative for the minimization of the environmental impacts caused by the discharge of this effluent in the environment.


Assuntos
Diamante , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Boro , Eletrodos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Oxirredução
11.
Chemosphere ; 253: 126701, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302902

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated the impact of a TiO2 nanotube (NT) interlayer on the electrochemical performance and service life of Sb and Bi-doped SnO2-coatings synthesized on a titanium mesh. Ti/SnO2-SbBi electrode was synthetized by a thermal decomposition method using ionic liquid as a precursor solvent. Ti/TiO2-NT/SnO2-SbBi electrode was obtained by a two-step electrochemical anodization, followed by the same process of thermal decomposition. The synthesized electrodes were electrochemically characterized and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Terephthalic acid (TA) experiments showed that Ti/SnO2-SbBi and Ti/TiO2-NT/SnO2-SbBi electrodes formed somewhat higher amounts of hydroxyl radicals (HO) compared with the mesh boron doped diamond (BDD) anode. Electrochemical oxidation experiments were performed using iodinated contrast media (ICM) as model organic contaminants persistent to oxidation. At current density of 50 A m-2, BDD clearly outperformed the synthesized mixed metal oxide (MMO) electrodes, with 2 to 3-fold higher oxidation rates observed for ICM. However, at 100 and 150 A m-2, Ti/SnO2-SbBi had similar performance to BDD, whereas Ti/TiO2-NT/SnO2-SbBi yielded even higher oxidation rates. Disappearance of the target ICM was followed by up to 80% removal of adsorbable organic iodide (AOI) for all three materials, further demonstrating iodine cleavage and thus oxidative degradation of ICM mediated by HO. The presence of a TiO2 NT interlayer yielded nearly 4-fold increase in anode stability and dislocated the oxygen evolution reaction by +0.2 V. Thus, TiO2 NT interlayer enhanced electrode stability and service life, and the electrocatalytic activity for the degradation of persistent organic contaminants.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Boro/química , Diamante/química , Eletrodos , Nanotubos/química , Oxirredução , Óxidos/química , Titânio/química
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 711: 134539, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000307

RESUMO

In the present study, the UVC-assisted electrochemical degradation ofthree novel bisphenol analogues (BPs; including bisphenol F, S, and B, i.e., BPF, BPS and BPB, respectively), along with bisphenol A (BPA), was investigated using boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode. At first, this study demonstrated a significant influence ofcurrent density on the degradation rates of BPF by the BDD anode. The pseudo-first order rate constants for BPF were calculated as 0.012, 0.028 and 0.029 min-1 at the applied current densities of 10, 20 and 30 mA/cm2, respectively. UVC irradiation significantly enhanced the electrochemical degradation of BPF in the concentration range from 5 to 30 mg/L, with synergistic effects in the range of 32.0%-40.9%. The UVC-BDD electrolysisshowed comparable or even lower electric energy per order (EEO) than single BDD electrolysis. The UVC-assisted degradation of the investigated BPs showed decreased pseudo-first order rate constants in the following order: BPF > BPA > BPB > BPS. Based on the identifiedtransformation products, UVC-assisted electrochemical degradation pathways of the novel BPs were proposed to be mainly hydroxylation and bond-cleavage. UVC irradiation has been proved to promote the formation of hydroxyl radicals by BDD electrode to facilitate the degradation process. For these BPs, nearly 100% mineralization can be achieved by a modified strategy using a short-time UVC-assisted BDD electrolysis (120 min) that is followed by UVC photolysis (360 min). Finally, the eco-toxicity of the BPs solutions towardsVibrio Fischeri was significantly removed after 120 min of the electrochemical degradation period. Based on these results, the UVC-assisted electrochemical treatment using a BDD electrode can be considered a promising technology for the removal of novel BPs and the reduction of their hazardous effects to aqueous environments.


Assuntos
Diamante , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Boro , Eletrodos , Cinética , Oxirredução , Fenóis , Poluentes Químicos da Água
14.
Chemosphere ; 249: 126176, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087453

RESUMO

Sequential soil washing and electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs) were applied for the remediation of synthetic soil contaminated with diesel. The surfactant Tween 80 was used to enhance the extraction of diesel from synthetic soil, and diesel extraction efficiency was improved with the increase of Tween 80 concentration. Under conditions of 180 min washing time, 10 g synthetic soil with 100 mL surfactant solution and two times of soil washing, about 75.2%, 80.0% and 87.9% of diesel was extracted from synthetic soil with 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 g L-1 Tween 80. The degradation of diesel in soil washing effluent was carried out by two EAOPs, electro-oxidation (EO) and electro-Fenton (EF) using boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and carbon felt cathode cell. After 360 min EO treatment, 72.7-83.0% of diesel was removed from the effluent after soil washing with 5.0-10.0 g L-1 Tween 80 while higher removal efficiencies (77.7-87.2%) were attained with EF process. Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) of excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy was conducted to analysis the transformation of fluorescent components in diesel during the treatment by two EAOPs.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Gasolina/análise , Poluentes do Solo/química , Solo/química , Boro/química , Diamante/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Eletrodos , Oxirredução , Polissorbatos/química , Tensoativos/química
15.
Chemosphere ; 249: 126178, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087454

RESUMO

Norfloxacin is employed as in veterinary and human medicine against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Due to the ineffective treatment at the wastewater treatment plants it becomes an emergent pollutant. Electro-oxidation appears as an alternative to its effective mineralization. This work compares Norfloxacin electro-oxidation on different anodic materials: two ceramic electrodes (both based on SnO2 + Sb2O3 with and without CuO, named as CuO and BCE, respectively) and a boron doped diamond (BDD). First, the anodes were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, revealing that NOR direct oxidation occurred at 1.30 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The higher the scan rate the higher both the current density and the anodic potential of the peak. This behavior was analyzed using the Randles-Sevcik equation to calculate the Norfloxacin diffusion coefficient in aqueous media, giving a value of D = 7.80 × 10-6 cm2 s-1 at 25 °C), which is close to the predicted value obtained using the Wilke-Chang correlation. The electrolysis experiments showed that both NOR and TOC decay increased with the applied current density, presenting a pseudo-first order kinetic. All the anodes tested achieved more than 90% NOR degradation at each current density. The CuO is not a good alternative to BCE because although it acts as a catalyst during the first use, it is lost from the anode surface in the subsequent uses. According to their oxidizing power, the anodes employed are ordered as follows: BDD > BCE > CuO.


Assuntos
Cobre/química , Norfloxacino/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Antibacterianos , Antimônio/química , Boro , Cerâmica , Cloretos , Cloro , Diamante , Eletrodos , Eletrólise , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Bactérias Gram-Positivas , Norfloxacino/análise , Oxirredução , Compostos de Estanho/química , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
16.
Chemosphere ; 248: 126033, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004882

RESUMO

Degradation of phenols with different substituent groups (including -OCH3, -CHO, -NHCOCH3, -NO2, and -Cl) at boron-doped diamond (BDD) anodes has been studied previously based on the removal efficiency and •OH detection. Innovatively, formations of CO2 gas and various inorganic ions were examined to probe the mineralization process combined with quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis. As results, all phenols were efficiently degraded within 8 h with high COD removal efficiency. Three primary intermediates (hydroquinone, 1,4-benzoquinone and catechol) were identified during electrochemical oxidation and degradation pathway was proposed. More importantly, CO2 transformation efficiency ranked as: no N or Cl contained phenols (p-CHO, p-OCH3 and Ph) > N-contained phenols (p-NHCOCH3 and p-NO2) > Cl-contained phenols (p-Cl and o,p-Cl). Carbon mass balance study suggested formation of inorganic carbon (H2CO3, CO32- and HCO3-) and CO2 after organic carbon elimination. Inorganic nitrogen species (NH4+, NO3- and NO2-) and chlorine species (Cl-, ClO3- and ClO4-) were also formed after N- and Cl-contained phenols mineralization, while no volatile nitrogen species were detected. The phenols with electron-withdrawing substituents were easier to be oxidized than those with electron-donating substituents. QSAR analysis indicated that the reaction rate constant (k1) for phenols degradation was highly related to Hammett constant (∑σo,m,p) and energy gap (ELUMO - EHOMO) of the compound (R2 = 0.908), which were key parameters on evaluating the effect of structural moieties on electronic character and the chemical stability upon radical attack for a specific compound. This study presents clear evidence on mineralization mechanisms of phenols degradation at BDD anodes.


Assuntos
Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Eletrodos , Fenóis/química , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Boro/química , Carbono/química , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Cloro/química , Diamante/química , Nitrogênio/química , Oxirredução
17.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(4): 472-474, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105623
18.
Chemosphere ; 248: 126062, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032880

RESUMO

Glucocorticoids are widely used to treat a variety of diseases. Consequently, these compounds have been found in water and wastewater matrix. Despite studies have proven its toxicity, just a few works investigate techniques to degrade and mineralize them. To solve this issue, this work presents the degradation and mineralization of prednisone (PRED) by electrochemical advanced oxidation (EAO) using a boron-doped diamond supported on niobium (Nb/BDD) anode in synthetic and real wastewater. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) was performed to investigate the PRED oxidation mechanisms. CV suggest that PRED will be oxidized via HO• and other oxidants generated from the ions present in the liquid matrix (S2O82-, SO4•-, HClO, ClO- etc.). Different EAO conditions as initial pH (3, 7 and 11) and applied current densities (5, 10 and 20 mA cm-2) were evaluated. The best result was obtained at alkaline pH (11) and a current density of 20 mA cm-2, achieving 78% of degradation and 42% of mineralization. Using the best conditions, the EAO was applied as a polishing treatment stage to remove PRED from a biological pre-treated municipal wastewater spiked with PRED. The results indicate that EAO applied in the real matrix provides better results than the synthetic solution, probably associated with the presence of ions that can be electrochemically converted into oxidant species, resulting in higher kinetic constant, mineralization current efficiency and lower energetic consumption. Therefore, the EAO process without the addition of chemicals has proven to be an effective alternative as a tertiary treatment of municipal wastewater contaminated with PRED.


Assuntos
Nióbio/química , Prednisona/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Boro/química , Diamante/química , Dioxóis , Eletrodos , Cinética , Modelos Químicos , Oxidantes , Oxirredução , Águas Residuárias/química , Água/química
19.
Chemosphere ; 248: 125995, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035381

RESUMO

In this study, the performance of three commercial available monolithic carbonaceous aerogels (NQ30A, NQ60A and NQ80A) for the removal of different emerging pollutants, detected in water sources, was evaluated. More specifically, the removal of two pharmaceuticals (antipyrine and sulfamethoxazole) and an anti-fungal agent (methyl paraben), widely used in cosmetics, was studied. The NQ60A demonstrated the best adsorption characteristics and effectively adsorbed over 50 mg/g of the antipyrine and around 30 mg/g sulfamethoxazole and methyl paraben. The kinetic study of the adsorption process revealed that pseudo-first order kinetic model described very well the kinetic behaviour of the selected pollutants onto the NQ60A aerogel. After that, the regeneration of the loaded aerogel, with antipyrine alone and in presence of the other two contaminants, was evaluated. The regeneration was accomplished in two ways: (1) by using directly the loaded aerogels as cathode during the electro-Fenton treatment and (2) by its regeneration immersed in the bulk volume of electro-Fenton cell (boron doped diamond as anode and carbon felt as cathode). Both approaches can provide an effective removal of the pollutants inside the aerogel. In addition, the regenerated aerogel proved to maintain its adsorptive properties and can be successfully reused in successive cycles of adsorption-regeneration. On the basis of these promising results, it can be concluded that the proposed strategy based on aerogels adsorption and electro-Fenton regeneration is a suitable alternative for emerging pollutants removal from water streams.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adsorção , Boro , Carbono , Diamante , Eletrodos , Poluentes Ambientais , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Oxirredução
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 713: 136647, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955107

RESUMO

In this work, nine types of combination advanced oxidation processes/zero-valent iron (AOP-ZVI) were tested, in order to determine if any of these combinations demonstrate good chances as pretreatment for the biological degradation processes of organochlorinated pollutants. To do this, the changes undergone in the respirometric behavior, toxicity and short-term biodegradability were compared. The three AOPs studied were anodic oxidation with mixed metal oxides anodes (AO-MMO), with boron doped diamond anodes (AO-BDD) and photolysis and they were evaluated in three different modes: without any addition of ZVI, with ZVI-dehalogenation as pre-treatment and with ZVI-dehalogenation simultaneous to the AOP treatment. Clopyralid has been used as a model of chlorinated hydrocarbon pollutant. Results show that technologies proposed can successfully treat wastes polluted with clopyralid and the biological characteristics of the waste are significantly modified by dehalogenating the waste with ZVI, either previously to the treatment or simultaneously to the treatment, being the information provided by the three techniques very important in order to evaluate later combinations of the advanced oxidation technologies with biological treatments.


Assuntos
Eletrólise , Boro , Diamante , Eletrodos , Oxirredução , Fotólise
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA