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1.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 21(11): 1131-1137, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753097

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish a congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD)-associated SLC26A3 c.392C>G (p.P131R) polymorphism-expressing cell model, and to investigate its biological function. METHODS: The sequence of the SLC26A3 gene in GenBank was used to design the upstream and downstream single-guide RNA (sgRNA) that could specifically recognize the 392 locus of the SLC26A3 gene, and the sgRNA was mixed with the pSpCas9-puro vector after enzyme digestion to construct an eukaryotic recombinant expression plasmid (pSpCas9-SLC26A3). Caco-2 cells were transfected with the recombinant plasmid and synthesized single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides (ssODNs), and Taqman genotyping assay and Sanger sequencing were used to identify the expression of SLC26A3 c.392C>G (p.P131R) in Caco-2 cells. Wild-type Caco-2 cells were selected as normal control group and the Caco-2 cells with successful expression of SLC26A3 c.392C>G (p.P131R) was selected as P131R group. Both groups were treated with 100 ng/mL tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and then the normal control group was named as TNF-α group, and the P131R group was named as TNF-α+P131R group. Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) assay was used to evaluate the change in the monolayer barrier function of intestinal epithelial cells in the above four groups, and Western blot was used to measure the change in the expression of SLC26A3 protein in the normal control group and the P131R group. RESULTS: The eukaryotic recombinant expression plasmid (pSpCas9-SLC26A3) was successfully constructed. Both Taqman genotyping assay and Sanger sequencing confirmed the successful establishment of the Caco-2 cell model of SLC26A3 c.392C>G (p.P131R) expression. ECIS assay showed that compared with the normal control group, the P131R group had a significant increase in the monolayer permeability of intestinal epithelial cells (P<0.05), and at the same time, the P131R group had a significantly greater increase in cell membrane permeability after the induction with 100 ng/mL TNF-α (P<0.05). Western blot showed that compared with the normal control group, the P131R group had a significant reduction in the expression of SLC26A3 protein (P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: SLC26A3 c.392C>G (p.P131R) can reduce the expression of SLC26A3 protein, increase the monolayer permeability of intestinal epithelial cells, and thus lead to diarrhea.


Assuntos
Antiportadores de Cloreto-Bicarbonato/genética , Diarreia/congênito , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo , Transportadores de Sulfato/genética , Células CACO-2 , Diarreia/genética , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Junções Íntimas , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
2.
Nat Med ; 25(11): 1728-1732, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31700189

RESUMO

Probiotics are routinely administered to hospitalized patients for many potential indications1 but have been associated with adverse effects that may outweigh their potential benefits2-7. It is particularly alarming that probiotic strains can cause bacteremia8,9, yet direct evidence for an ancestral link between blood isolates and administered probiotics is lacking. Here we report a markedly higher risk of Lactobacillus bacteremia for intensive care unit (ICU) patients treated with probiotics compared to those not treated, and provide genomics data that support the idea of direct clonal transmission of probiotics to the bloodstream. Whole-genome-based phylogeny showed that Lactobacilli isolated from treated patients' blood were phylogenetically inseparable from Lactobacilli isolated from the associated probiotic product. Indeed, the minute genetic diversity among the blood isolates mostly mirrored pre-existing genetic heterogeneity found in the probiotic product. Some blood isolates also contained de novo mutations, including a non-synonymous SNP conferring antibiotic resistance in one patient. Our findings support that probiotic strains can directly cause bacteremia and adaptively evolve within ICU patients.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Lactobacillus/patogenicidade , Probióticos/efeitos adversos , Bacteriemia/sangue , Bacteriemia/etiologia , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Diarreia/sangue , Diarreia/etiologia , Diarreia/genética , Diarreia/microbiologia , Variação Genética/genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Genômica , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Lactobacillus/genética , Mutação , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
4.
EBioMedicine ; 45: 456-463, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM), with or without diarrhoea, often have enteropathy, but there are few molecular data to guide development of new therapies. We set out to determine whether SAM enteropathy is characterised by specific transcriptional changes which might improve understanding or help identify new treatments. METHODS: We collected intestinal biopsies from children with SAM and persistent diarrhoea. mRNA was extracted from biopsies, sequenced, and subjected to a progressive set of complementary analytical approaches: NOIseq, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA), and correlation analysis of phenotypic data with gene expression. FINDINGS: Transcriptomic profiles were generated for biopsy sets from 27 children of both sexes, under 2 years of age, of whom one-third were HIV-infected. NOIseq analysis, constructed from phenotypic group extremes, revealed 66 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) out of 21,386 mapped to the reference genome. These DEGs include genes for mucins and mucus integrity, antimicrobial defence, nutrient absorption, C-X-C chemokines, proteases and anti-proteases. Phenotype - expression correlation analysis identified 1221 genes related to villus height, including increased cell cycling gene expression in more severe enteropathy. Amino acid transporters and ZIP zinc transporters were specifically increased in severe enteropathy, but transcripts for xenobiotic metabolising enzymes were reduced. INTERPRETATION: Transcriptomic analysis of this rare collection of intestinal biopsies identified multiple novel elements of pathology, including specific alterations in nutrient transporters. Changes in xenobiotic metabolism in the gut may alter drug disposition. Both NOIseq and GSEA identified gene clusters similar to those differentially expressed in pediatric Crohn's disease but to a much lesser degree than those identified in coeliac disease. FUND: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation OPP1066118. The funding agency had no role in study design, data collection, data analysis, interpretation, or writing of the report.


Assuntos
Diarreia/genética , Enteropatias/genética , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Biópsia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/patologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Lactente , Enteropatias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias/patologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/patologia , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
5.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 132(13): 1524-1532, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31205078

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a functional gastrointestinal disorder, is characterized by cytokine imbalance. Previously, decreased plasma interleukin 10 (IL-10) level was reported in patients with IBS, which may be due to genetic polymorphisms. However, there are no reports correlating the IL-10 polymorphisms with IL-10 production in patients with IBS. This study aimed to analyze the effect of IL-10 polymorphisms on IL-10 production and its correlation with the clinical symptoms in Chinese patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D). METHODS: Two IL-10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs1800871 and rs1800896) were detected in 120 patients with IBS-D and 144 healthy controls (HC) using SNaPshot. IBS symptom severity score, Bristol scale, hospital anxiety, and depressive scale (HADS) were used to evaluate the clinical symptoms, as well as the psychological status and visceral sensitivity of the subjects. IL-10 levels in the plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) culture supernatant were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, while those in ileal and colonic mucosal biopsies were measured using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: The frequency of rs1800896 C allele was significantly lower in the patients with IBS-D than that in the HC (odds ratio: 0.49, 95% confidence interval: 0.27-0.92, P = 0.0240). The IL-10 levels in the plasma (P = 0.0030) and PBMC culture supernatant (P = 0.0500) of the CT genotype subjects were significantly higher than those in the TT genotype subjects. The CT genotype subjects exhibited a higher pain threshold in the rectal distention test than the TT genotype subjects. Moreover, IL-10 rs1800871 GG genotype subjects showed an increase in the HADS score compared to other genotype subjects. CONCLUSIONS: IL-10 rs1800896 C allele is correlated with higher IL-10 levels in the plasma and the PBMC culture supernatant, which is associated with a higher pain threshold in the Chinese patients with IBS-D. This study provides an explicit relationship of IL-10 polymorphisms with IL-10 production, which might help in understanding the pathogenesis of IBS-D.


Assuntos
Diarreia/sangue , Diarreia/genética , Interleucina-10/sangue , Interleucina-10/genética , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/sangue , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Diarreia/patologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células-Tronco de Sangue Periférico/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adulto Jovem
6.
Nature ; 571(7763): 107-111, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217582

RESUMO

Large-scale genome sequencing is poised to provide a substantial increase in the rate of discovery of disease-associated mutations, but the functional interpretation of such mutations remains challenging. Here we show that deletions of a sequence on human chromosome 16 that we term the intestine-critical region (ICR) cause intractable congenital diarrhoea in infants1,2. Reporter assays in transgenic mice show that the ICR contains a regulatory sequence that activates transcription during the development of the gastrointestinal system. Targeted deletion of the ICR in mice caused symptoms that recapitulated the human condition. Transcriptome analysis revealed that an unannotated open reading frame (Percc1) flanks the regulatory sequence, and the expression of this gene was lost in the developing gut of mice that lacked the ICR. Percc1-knockout mice displayed phenotypes similar to those observed upon ICR deletion in mice and patients, whereas an ICR-driven Percc1 transgene was sufficient to rescue the phenotypes found in mice that lacked the ICR. Together, our results identify a gene that is critical for intestinal function and underscore the need for targeted in vivo studies to interpret the growing number of clinical genetic findings that do not affect known protein-coding genes.


Assuntos
Diarreia/congênito , Diarreia/genética , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Genes , Intestinos/fisiologia , Deleção de Sequência/genética , Animais , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Genes Reporter , Loci Gênicos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Ativação Transcricional , Transcriptoma/genética , Transgenes/genética
7.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 51(6): 1307-1320, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127494

RESUMO

Diarrhoea, a significant problem in pig rearing industry affecting pre- and post-weaning piglets is caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). The ETEC are classified as per the fimbriae types which are responsible for bacterial attachment with enterocytes and release of toxins causing diarrhoea. However, genetic difference exists for susceptibility to ETEC infection in piglets. The different phenotypes found in pigs determine their (pigs') susceptibility or resistance towards fimbrial subtypes/variants (F4ab, F4ac, F4ad and F18). Specific receptors are present on intestinal epithelium for attachment of these fimbriae, which do not express to same level in all animals. This differential expression is genetically determined and thus their genetic causes (may be putative candidate gene or mutations) render some animals resistant or susceptible to one or more fimbrial subtypes. Genetic linkage studies have revealed the mapping location of the receptor loci for the two most frequent variants F4ab and F4ac to SSC13q41 (i.e. q arm of 13th chromosome of Sus scrofa). Some SNPs have been identified in mucin gene family, transferring receptor gene, fucosyltransferase 1 gene and swine leucocyte antigen locus that are proposed to be linked mutations for resistance/susceptibility towards ETEC diarrhoea. However, owing to the variety of fimbrial types and subtypes, it would be difficult to identify a single causative mutation and the candidate loci may involve more number of genes/regions. In this review, we focus on the genetic mutations in genes involved in imparting resistance/susceptibility to F4 or F18 ETEC diarrhoea and possibilities to use them as marker for selection against susceptible animals.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Animais , Diarreia/genética , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Infecções por Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Ligação Genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/genética
8.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216272, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048928

RESUMO

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) constitutes a major cause of diarrhea in young children and animals, particularly in poor regions of the world, as well the traveler's diarrhea in adult individuals. Type II heat-labile enterotoxin (LT-II) from ETEC can cause profuse watery diarrhea, posing a potential threat to public health and animal husbandry. In the present study, isothermal multiple-self-matching-initiated amplification (IMSA) was established to rapidly detect LT-II producing ETEC. The specificity and sensitivity were assessed, and clinical samples were tested. The established IMSA method had good specificity for the detection of LT-II gene with a limit of detection of 25 CFU/mL, i.e. 2 times higher than that of real-time PCR and other two isothermal amplifications (loop-mediated isothermal amplification, LAMP and cross-primer isothermal amplification, CPA). Meanwhile, in 103 clinical Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrhea samples, 9 strains with LT-II+ gene were detected (8.73%), corroborating real-time PCR, LAMP and CPA data. Therefore, the IMSA technology applied for the detection of LT-II producing ETEC has a good application prospect for screening clinical samples in primary medical units or common laboratories.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/genética , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Diarreia/genética , Diarreia/microbiologia , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/patogenicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
9.
Microbiome ; 7(1): 41, 2019 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic chronic diarrhea (ICD) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality among juvenile rhesus macaques. Characterized by chronic inflammation of the colon and repeated bouts of diarrhea, ICD is largely unresponsive to medical interventions, including corticosteroid, antiparasitic, and antibiotic treatments. Although ICD is accompanied by large disruptions in the composition of the commensal gut microbiome, no single pathogen has been concretely identified as responsible for the onset and continuation of the disease. RESULTS: Fecal samples were collected from 12 ICD-diagnosed macaques and 12 age- and sex-matched controls. RNA was extracted for metatranscriptomic analysis of organisms and functional annotations associated with the gut microbiome. Bacterial, fungal, archaeal, protozoan, and macaque (host) transcripts were simultaneously assessed. ICD-afflicted animals were characterized by increased expression of host-derived genes involved in inflammation and increased transcripts from bacterial pathogens such as Campylobacter and Helicobacter and the protozoan Trichomonas. Transcripts associated with known mucin-degrading organisms and mucin-degrading enzymes were elevated in the fecal microbiomes of ICD-afflicted animals. Assessment of colon sections using immunohistochemistry and of the host transcriptome suggests differential fucosylation of mucins between control and ICD-afflicted animals. Interrogation of the metatranscriptome for fucose utilization genes reveals possible mechanisms by which opportunists persist in ICD. Bacteroides sp. potentially cross-fed fucose to Haemophilus whereas Campylobacter expressed a mucosa-associated transcriptome with increased expression of adherence genes. CONCLUSIONS: The simultaneous profiling of bacterial, fungal, archaeal, protozoan, and macaque transcripts from stool samples reveals that ICD of rhesus macaques is associated with increased gene expression by pathogens, increased mucin degradation, and altered fucose utilization. The data suggest that the ICD-afflicted host produces fucosylated mucins that are leveraged by potentially pathogenic microbes as a carbon source or as adhesion sites.


Assuntos
Diarreia/genética , Fucose/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Metagenômica/métodos , Mucinas/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Diarreia/metabolismo , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/parasitologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Macaca mulatta , Proteólise , Análise de Sequência de RNA/veterinária , Trichomonas/classificação , Trichomonas/genética
10.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 237: 182-191, 2019 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30902748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to investigate the antidiarrheal effect of Berberis heteropoda Schrenk roots (BHS), which are used by Chinese minorities to treat diarrhea, through regulation of intestinal flora and related signaling pathways. METHODS: Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: Control group (Con), Model group (Mod), three BHS groups (BHS-L (0.65 g/kg), BHS-M (1.955 g/kg), BHS-H (5.86 g/kg) and Bifidobacterium group (Bif). The model of diarrhea-based irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS) was induced by intragastric administration combined with restraint stress. The CRD method was used to determine the AWR score and the Bristol fecal score. Quantification of the intestinal bacteria groups in feces was performed using colony counting on plates. The mRNA expression levels of Gpr41, Gpr43, TLR2, TLR4, and nuclear protein κB were determined by qRT-PCR, and the relative abundances of intestinal flora in the intestinal contents were determined by high-throughput gene sequencing ratios. RESULTS: Oral administration of BHS (L, M and H) significantly reduced the AWR score and the Bristol fecal score, significantly relieved diarrhea in D-IBS rats, reduced the number of Enterococci and Enterobacteria in feces, increased the number of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli, and upregulated the expression of SCFA in plasma. qRT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of TLR2, TLR4, Gpr41, Gpr43 and NF-κB in the BHS groups was downregulated. D-IBS rats reduced the abundance and diversity of intestinal flora and BHS (L, M and H) regulated the abundance and diversity of their intestinal flora. CONCLUSION: The above data suggest that BHS potentially alleviates diarrhea, intestinal flora disorder and intestinal inflammation in D-IBS rats by regulating the immunological pathways. BHS is a promising agent in the treatment of D-IBS.


Assuntos
Antidiarreicos/uso terapêutico , Berberis , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antidiarreicos/farmacologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/metabolismo , Diarreia/genética , Diarreia/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/genética , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/microbiologia , Masculino , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas , Ratos Wistar
11.
Gene ; 699: 110-114, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30844479

RESUMO

Tricho-hepatic-enteric syndrome (THES) is a genetically heterogeneous rare syndrome (OMIM: 222470 (THES1) and 614602 (THES2)) that typically presents in the neonatal period with intractable diarrhoea, intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR), facial dysmorphism, and hair and skin changes. THES is associated with pathogenic variants in either TTC37 or SKIV2L; both are components of the human SKI complex, an RNA exosome cofactor. We report an 8 year old girl who was diagnosed with THES by the Undiagnosed Disease Program-WA with compound heterozygous pathogenic variants in SKIV2L. While THES was considered in the differential diagnosis, the absence of protracted diarrhoea delayed definitive diagnosis. We therefore suggest that SKIV2L testing should be considered in cases otherwise suggestive of THES, but without the characteristic diarrhoea. We expand the phenotypic spectrum while reviewing the current knowledge on SKIV2L.


Assuntos
Diarreia Infantil/diagnóstico , Diarreia Infantil/genética , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Diarreia/genética , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/diagnóstico , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/genética , Doenças do Cabelo/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cabelo/genética , DNA Helicases/genética , Facies , Heterozigoto , Humanos
12.
Virus Genes ; 55(2): 198-208, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30712153

RESUMO

The Porcine Sapelovirus (PSV) is an enteric virus of pigs that can cause various disorders. However, there are few reports that describe the molecular characteristics of the PSV genome. In this study, almost the entire genomes of 23 PSVs detected in Japanese pigs were analyzed using bioinformatics. Analysis of the cis-active RNA elements showed that the predicted secondary structures of the internal ribosome entry site in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) and a cis-replication element in the 2C coding region were conserved among PSVs. In contrast, those at the 3' UTR were different for different PSVs; however, tertiary structures between domains were conserved across all PSVs. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences of the complete VP1 region showed that PSVs exhibited sequence diversity; however, they could not be grouped into genotypes due to the low bootstrap support of clusters. The insertion and/or deletion patterns in the C-terminal VP1 region were not related to the topology of the VP1 tree. The 3CD phylogenetic tree was topologically different from the VP1 tree, and PSVs from the same country were clustered independently. Recombination analysis revealed that recombination events were found upstream of the P2 region and some recombination breakpoints involved insertions and/or deletions in the C-terminal VP1 region. These findings demonstrate that PSVs show genetic diversity and frequent recombination events, particularly in the region upstream of the P2 region; however, PSVs could currently not be classified into genotypes and conserved genetic structural features of the cis-active RNA elements are observed across all PSVs.


Assuntos
Diarreia/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia , Picornaviridae/genética , Animais , Diarreia/veterinária , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Variação Genética , Filogenia , Picornaviridae/patogenicidade , Infecções por Picornaviridae/genética , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Suínos/genética , Suínos/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/genética , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
13.
Anim Genet ; 50(2): 136-142, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30724375

RESUMO

The F4ac receptor locus (F4acR), which encodes susceptibility or resistance to Escherichia coli diarrhoea, is inherited as an autosomal recessive monogenetic trait. F4acR is localized on pig chromosome 13 (SSC13q41-q44) near the MUC13 gene. Two flanking markers (CHCF1 and ALGA0106330) with a high linkage disequilibrium (LD) with F4acR were found to be effective for the genetic identification of F4ac-resistant pigs in the Swiss Large White breed (one recombinant out of 2034 genotyped pigs). Three recombinant boars, one each from the Duroc, Swiss Landrace and Piétrain breeds, were genotyped with seven different markers and phenotyped by means of a microscopic adhesion test. Only ALGA0072075, CHCF1 and CHCF3 indicated the correct phenotype. To test the effect of the resistance allele on production traits, 530 Large White pigs from the national test station were investigated. A significant difference existed among the F4acR locus genotypes in the intramuscular fat content of the longissimus dorsi muscle, whereas no other production traits were influenced by the resistance allele. The frequency of the CHCF1-C and ALGA0106330-A alleles associated with resistance in the Swiss Large White population was 60%, which is advantageous for implementing this trait in a breeding programme to select for E. coli F4ac-resistant animals. The selection of resistant pigs should start on the male side due to the inability of resistant sows to produce sufficient amounts of protecting antibodies in the colostrum. Selection of genetically F4ac-resistant pigs is a sustainable and suitable alternative to decreasing animal loss and antibiotic use due to diarrhoea.


Assuntos
Aderência Bacteriana , Diarreia/veterinária , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Marcadores Genéticos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Doenças dos Suínos/genética , Animais , Diarreia/genética , Diarreia/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Masculino , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia
14.
Mol Biol Rep ; 46(1): 813-822, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30515696

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4) gene and piglet diarrhea. In this study, the mRNA expression of the CTLA4 gene increased significantly in IPEC-J2 cells after Escherichia coli K88 infection. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the 5' flanking region (SNPs g.107281989C>T) and 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR; SNPs g.107288753C>A) were identified, and they were in linkage disequilibrium in both Min pigs and the Landrace population. Association analysis showed that Landrace piglets with a TT or AA genotype had a lower diarrhea index, and AA animals had higher average daily gain when compared to CC pigs, respectively (p < 0.05). However, the relationship between SNPs and diarrhea and performance traits in the Min population was not significant. Haplotype analysis indicated that the TC haplotype had the lowest diarrhea index. The 5' flanking deletion assay suggested that SNP g.107281989C>T was a molecular marker instead of the functional marker. This research demonstrated that genetic variances in the CTLA4 gene had significant effects on Landrace piglet diarrhea resistance.


Assuntos
Antígeno CTLA-4/genética , Diarreia/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Suínos/genética , Região 5'-Flanqueadora/genética , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Cruzamento , Antígeno CTLA-4/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Genética Populacional , Haplótipos/genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Deleção de Sequência/genética
15.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1435(1): 110-138, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30238983

RESUMO

Clostridium difficile is the leading infectious cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and colitis. C. difficile infection (CDI) places a heavy burden on the healthcare system, with nearly half a million infections yearly and an approximate 20% recurrence risk after successful initial therapy. The high incidence has driven new research on improved prevention such as the emerging use of probiotics, intestinal microbiome manipulation during antibiotic therapies, vaccinations, and newer antibiotics that reduce the disruption of the intestinal microbiome. While the treatment of acute C. difficile is effective in most patients, it can be further optimized by adjuvant therapies that improve the initial treatment success and decrease the risk of subsequent recurrence. Finally, the high risk of recurrence has led to multiple emerging therapies that target toxin activity, recovery of the intestinal microbial community, and elimination of latent C. difficile in the intestine. In summary, CDIs illustrate the complex interaction among host physiology, microbial community, and pathogen that requires specific therapies to address each of the factors leading to primary infection and recurrence.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Clostridium , Clostridium difficile , Colite , Diarreia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Microbiota/genética , Infecções por Clostridium/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Clostridium/genética , Infecções por Clostridium/patologia , Clostridium difficile/genética , Clostridium difficile/patogenicidade , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Colite/genética , Colite/microbiologia , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/genética , Diarreia/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Humanos
16.
J Vet Sci ; 20(1): 43-50, 2019 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30481984

RESUMO

To diagnose colibacillosis, detection of O-serogroups and virulence genes has been recommended worldwide. The prevalence of virulence factors can fluctuate over time. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of O-serogroups, virulence genes, and F18 subtypes among pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from weaned piglets with diarrhea in Korea. Between 2008 and 2016, 362 E. coli were isolated from weaned piglets with diarrhea. Hemolysis was determined in blood agar, and O-serogroups were identified using the slide agglutination technique. The genes for the toxins and fimbriae were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Real-time PCR was conducted to discriminate between F18 subtypes. Although the most prevalent serogroup was O149 (11.3%) in the last 9 years, O139 (19.1%) became the most prevalent in recent years (2015-2016). The most predominant pathotype was enterotoxigenic E. coli (61.3%). The frequencies of Shiga-like toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) (23.4%), O139 (19.1%), Stx2e (35.1%), and F18ab (48.7%) increased over the most recent years. Although enterotoxigenic E. coli was the most predominant pathotype, the frequencies of O139, Stx2e, STEC, and F18ab have increased in recent years. These results demonstrate that there have been temporal changes in the predominant O-serogroups and virulence genes over the last decade in Korea. These findings can be practicable for use in epidemiology and control measures for enteric colibacillosis in Korean piggeries.


Assuntos
Diarreia/veterinária , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/genética , Diarreia/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Feminino , Fímbrias Bacterianas/genética , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Sorogrupo , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/genética , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Virulência/genética
17.
J Infect Dis ; 219(5): 836-843, 2019 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30376117

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2) controls the production of digestive and respiratory epithelia of histo-blood group antigens involved in the attachment of pathogens. The aim of our study was to relate FUT2 variants to reported gastrointestinal and respiratory illnesses in infancy. METHODS: In the Southampton Women's Survey, FUT2 genetic variants (single-nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs] rs601338 and rs602662) were genotyped in 1831 infants and related to infant illnesses, after adjustment for sex, breastfeeding duration, and potential confounders. RESULTS: For FUT2 SNP rs601338, the risk ratios for ≥1 bout of diarrhea during ages 6-12 months and ages 12-24 months per additional risk (G) allele were 1.23 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.4; P = .002) and 1.41 (95% CI, 1.24-1.61; P = 1.7 × 10-7), respectively; the risk ratio for ≥1 diagnosis of a lower respiratory illness (ie, pneumonia or bronchiolitis) during ages 12-24 months per additional G allele was 2.66 (95% CI, 1.64-4.3; P = .00007). Similar associations were found between rs602662 and gastrointestinal and respiratory illnesses, owing to the high linkage disequilibrium with rs601338 (R2 = 0.92). Longer breastfeeding duration predicted a lower risk of diarrhea, independent of infant FUT2 genotype. CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed that FUT2 G alleles are associated with a higher risk of infant gastrointestinal illnesses and identified novel associations with respiratory illnesses. FUT2 locus variants need consideration in future studies of gastrointestinal and respiratory illnesses among infants.


Assuntos
Diarreia/genética , Fucosiltransferases/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Infecções Respiratórias/genética , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia
18.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 18(2): 257-266, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30401694

RESUMO

Recently three different cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) dual inhibitors were approved for the treatment of breast cancer (palbociclib, ribociclib, and abemaciclib), all of which offer comparable therapeutic benefits. Their safety profiles, however, are different. For example, neutropenia is observed at varying incidences in patients treated with these drugs; however, it is the most common adverse event for palbociclib and ribociclib, whereas diarrhea is the most common adverse event observed in patients treated with abemaciclib. To understand the mechanism of diarrhea observed with these drugs and in an effort to guide the development of safer drugs, we compared the effects of oral administration of palbociclib, ribociclib, and abemaciclib on the gastrointestinal tract of rats using doses intended to produce comparable CDK4/6 inhibition. Rats administered abemaciclib, but not palbociclib or ribociclib, had fecal alterations, unique histopathologic findings, and distinctive changes in intestinal gene expression. Morphologic changes in the intestine were characterized by proliferation of crypt cells, loss of goblet cells, poorly differentiated and degenerating enterocytes with loss of microvilli, and mucosal inflammation. In the jejunum of abemaciclib-treated rats, downregulation of enterocyte membrane transporters and upregulation of genes associated with cell proliferation were observed, consistent with activation of the Wnt pathway and downstream transcriptional regulation. Among these CDK4/6 inhibitors, intestinal toxicity was unique to rats treated with abemaciclib, suggesting a mechanism of toxicity not due to primary pharmacology (CDK4/6 inhibition), but to activity at secondary pharmacologic targets.


Assuntos
Aminopiridinas/administração & dosagem , Benzimidazóis/administração & dosagem , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Piperazinas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Purinas/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Aminopiridinas/efeitos adversos , Animais , Benzimidazóis/efeitos adversos , Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinase 6 Dependente de Ciclina/antagonistas & inibidores , Diarreia/genética , Diarreia/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Piperazinas/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Purinas/efeitos adversos , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
19.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 9(10): 201, 2018 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30385752

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX) syndrome is an autoimmune disease caused by mutations in the forkhead box protein 3 gene (FOXP3), which encodes a key regulator of immune tolerance. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical heterogeneity of the disease in a national French cohort. METHODS: Multicenter retrospective study of patients diagnosed with IPEX syndrome caused by mutations in FOXP3. RESULTS: Thirty children from 26 families were included. Age at disease onset (median [first to third quartile]) was 1.5 mo [0-84] and at death 3.5 years [0-10.5] (n = 15) indicating a high heterogeneity. Initial presentation was diarrhoea (68%), type 1 diabetes (T1D; 25%), skin lesions (7%) and nephropathy (3%). During the course of the disease the following main symptoms were observed: diarrhoea (100%), skin lesions (85%), T1DM (50%), severe food allergies (39%), haematological disorders (28%), nephropathies (25%), hepatitis (14%) as well as the presence of a variety of autoantibodies. Immunosuppressive mono- or combination therapy led to improvement in eight children. Three boys displayed a stable disease course without any immunosuppressive medication. Overall 10-year survival rate was 43% (42% in transplanted patients and 52% in patients on immunosuppressive therapy). Five out of 22 identified FOXP3 mutations have not been described yet: c.-23 + 1G > A, c.-23 + 5G > A, c.264delC, c.1015C > T and c.1091A > G. The first two produced atypical, attenuated phenotypes. Missense and frameshift mutations affecting the forkhead domain were associated with poor survival (Gehan-Wilcoxon p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: The broad phenotypic heterogeneity of IPEX raises questions about modifying factors and justifies early FOXP3 sequencing in suspected cases.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/genética , Enteropatias/genética , Poliendocrinopatias Autoimunes/genética , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Variação Biológica da População , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Diarreia/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/imunologia , França , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/imunologia , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/terapia , Humanos , Imunossupressão , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Enteropatias/imunologia , Enteropatias/terapia , Nefropatias/genética , Masculino , Mutação , Poliendocrinopatias Autoimunes/imunologia , Poliendocrinopatias Autoimunes/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Dermatopatias Genéticas/genética , Taxa de Sobrevida , Síndrome
20.
Clin Immunol ; 197: 219-223, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30368009

RESUMO

Early onset multisystem autoimmunity is commonly the defining feature of IPEX. Recurrent sinopulmonary infections and CVID-like phenotype were not previously recognized as a presentation in IPEX. Herein, we describe three extended family members with IPEX. In addition to autoimmunity, all three had a CVID-like presentation consisting of recurrent sinopulmonary infections, hypogammaglobulinemia and B-cell class switching defect. In vitro studies have shown that the B cell class switching defect is not B cell intrinsic. Additionally, a marked increase in circulating T follicular helper (cTFH) cells with high IFN-γ and IL-17 secretion on stimulation was noted in our patients. The dysregulated cTFH cells could contribute to a decreased B cell class switching. However, the exact mechanism of how expanded and dysregulated cTFH lead to B cell class switching defect and hypogammaglobulinemia in our patients is not clear. Our study could extend the clinical spectrum of IPEX to include a CVID-like presentation.


Assuntos
Agamaglobulinemia/imunologia , Autoimunidade/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/congênito , Diarreia/imunologia , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/imunologia , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/congênito , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Adulto , Agamaglobulinemia/terapia , Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Diarreia/genética , Diarreia/terapia , Eczema/imunologia , Família , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/genética , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/terapia , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/genética , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/terapia , Switching de Imunoglobulina/imunologia , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Enteropatias/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Pneumonia/imunologia , Recidiva , Sinusite/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
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