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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 161, 2021 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420064

RESUMO

Calf diarrhea is associated with enteric infections, and also provokes the overuse of antibiotics. Therefore, proper treatment of diarrhea represents a therapeutic challenge in livestock production and public health concerns. Here, we describe the ability of a fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), to ameliorate diarrhea and restore gut microbial composition in 57 growing calves. We conduct multi-omics analysis of 450 longitudinally collected fecal samples and find that FMT-induced alterations in the gut microbiota (an increase in the family Porphyromonadaceae) and metabolomic profile (a reduction in fecal amino acid concentration) strongly correlate with the remission of diarrhea. During the continuous follow-up study over 24 months, we find that FMT improves the growth performance of the cattle. This first FMT trial in ruminants suggest that FMT is capable of ameliorating diarrhea in pre-weaning calves with alterations in their gut microbiota, and that FMT may have a potential role in the improvement of growth performance.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/terapia , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Diarreia/terapia , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal/veterinária , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Animais , Bacteroidaceae/genética , Bacteroidaceae/isolamento & purificação , Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/metabolismo , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/sangue , Diarreia/metabolismo , Diarreia/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Genômica , Masculino , Metabolômica , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 109, 2021 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diarrhoea is a common cause of mortality and morbidity in children under five years old. In Kenya, it has a 21% case fatality with Enteropathogenic E. coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp. accounting for 50-60% of the cases. Sulphonamides, tetracycline, ampicillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole are typically used in the treatment of diarrhoeal diseases but have become ineffective in the face of emerging antimicrobial resistance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Shigella species in children under five years of age presenting with diarrhoea at Kapsabet County Referral Hospital in Kenya. METHODS: Faecal samples were collected from 139 children admitted with diarrhoea. Each sample was examined macroscopically for colour, texture, and presence of extraneous material. The samples were then cultured for bacterial growth. Observed bacterial growth was isolated and identified by a series of biochemical tests. Resistance patterns were also evaluated using the Kirby - Bauer Disk diffusion method. The chi - square test and Pearson Correlation Coefficient were used to establish statistical significance. RESULTS: Approximately 33.1% of the total faecal samples tested were positive for enteric pathogens. Shigella spp. demonstrated resistance to erythromycin (91.7%), doxycyclin (83.3%), ampicillin (82.1%), cotrimoxazole (73.1%), minocycline (66.7%) and cefuroxime (54.2%). Campylobacter jejuni also exhibited resistance to erythromycin (87.5%), doxycyclin (75%), ampicillin (73.7%), cotrimoxazole (73.3%) and minocycline (68.8%). CONCLUSIONS: The resistance patterns of Shigella spp. and Campylobacter jejuni reported in this study necessitates the need for a comprehensive multiregional investigation to evaluate the geographical prevalence and antimicrobial resistance distributions of these microorganisms. These findings also support the need for the discovery and development of effective therapeutic alternatives. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Retrospectively registered. Certificate No. 00762.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Campylobacter jejuni/efeitos dos fármacos , Diarreia/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Shigella/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Campylobacter jejuni/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Disenteria Bacilar/epidemiologia , Disenteria Bacilar/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Shigella/isolamento & purificação
3.
Gene ; 773: 145415, 2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444678

RESUMO

Heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) plays an important role in protecting cells from various stress factors. This study aimed to investigate the function of HSP27 gene and its regulatory mechanism as infected by Escherichia coli (E. coli) at the tissue and cellular levels. Real-time PCR was used to detect the differential expression of HSP27 gene in F18 resistant and sensitive Sutai pigs and the differential expression upon E. coli F18ab, F18ac, K88ac bacterial supernatant, thallus infection and LPS induction in IPEC-J2. In addition, the HSP27 gene overexpression vector was constructed to detect the effect of the HSP27 gene overexpression on the adhesion of E. coli F18 to IPEC-J2, secretion of pro-inflammatory factors, and the expression of the upstream key genes in Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK2) is an important protein in the MAPK pathway. Therefore, the RSK2 gene overexpression vector was constructed and the number of colonies was counted after co-transfection of HSP27 and RSK2 gene. Results revealed that the expression level of HSP27 gene in resistant individuals in 11 tissues was higher than sensitive type. At the cellular level, the relative expression levels of HSP27 gene were increased after F18ab, F18ac bacterial supernatant, F18ab thallus infection, and LPS induction for 4 h (P < 0.01). The adhesion ability of E. coli F18ab to IPEC-J2 was significantly reduced after HSP27 gene overexpression (P < 0.01), and the concentration of pro-inflammatory factors in the HSP27 gene overexpression group was significantly reduced compared with the control group after F18ab infection (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the expression of RSK2 was significantly increased in HSP27 overexpression group upon F18ab infection (P < 0.01). The colonies quantitative results also showed that the number of colonies was significantly reduced after co-transfection of HSP27 and RSK2 gene. We indicated that the high expression of HSP27 gene may resist the inflammatory response caused by exogenous stress and enhance the ability of IPEC-J2 to resist E. coli F18 infection. RSK2 gene in the MAPK pathway may cooperate with HSP27 gene to participate in the immune response of the organism, which provides a theoretical basis for the study of the mechanism of anti-E. coli infection in piglets.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP27/genética , Animais , Aderência Bacteriana/genética , Diarreia/genética , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/patologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Suínos/genética , Suínos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/genética , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia
5.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243479, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enteric pathogens like Salmonella and Shigella species as well as intestinal parasites (IPs) are among the main causative agents of diarrhea in people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), particularly in low income countries like Ethiopia. Antimicrobial resistance against commonly prescribed drugs has become a major global threat. This study, therefore, aimed at determining the magnitude of Salmonella, Shigella and IPs infections, their predicting factors, and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern among HIV infected and non-infected diarrheic patients in Dessie town, Northeast Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted at three health facilities in Northeast Ethiopia between January 2018 and March 2018. Data on socio-demographic and associated risk factors were collected using structured questionnaire from 354 HIV infected and non-infected diarrheic outpatients. Fresh stool specimen was processed according to standard operating procedures. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 22. Descriptive statistics was used to determine frequency, Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predicting factors associated with the outcome variable. P-value <0.05 were used to declare statistical significance. RESULTS: Among 354 diarrheic patients, 112 were HIV infected and 242 were HIV non-infected. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasite and bacterial infection among HIV infected versus non-infected, respectively, was 26 (23.2%) and 8 (7.1%) versus 50 (20.7) and 16 (6.6%). Salmonella was the highest in both groups, 6 (5.4%) vs 11 (4.5%). Most prevalent parasite was C. parvum, 9 (8%) among HIV+ while E. histolytica/dispar 39 (16.1%) among HIV-. Having bloody plus mucoid diarrhea, not utilizing latrine and drinking river or spring water were factors significantly associated with bacterial infection. Whereas, being illiterate or having primary level education, diarrhea lasting for 6-10 days, CD4 level between 200-500 cells/µl, not washing hand with soap showed significant association with IPs. The bacterial isolates were 100% susceptible to Ceftriaxone and 95.4% to Ciprofloxacin, while 100% resistant to Ampicillin and Amoxicillin. MDR was observed among 19 (79.2%) isolates. CONCLUSION: Preventing and controlling infection by enteric pathogens as well as IPs require strengthening intervention measures. The 100% resistance of isolates to commonly prescribed antibiotics calls for expanding antimicrobial susceptibility testing so as to select appropriate antimicrobial agent and prevent emergence of drug resistant bacteria.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/patologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/complicações , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos Transversais , Cryptosporidium parvum/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/complicações , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/parasitologia , Água Potável/microbiologia , Água Potável/parasitologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/complicações , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
6.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 50, 2020 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369699

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to characterize the colostrum and fecal microbiota in calves and to investigate whether fecal microbiota composition was related to colostrum microbiota or factors associated with calf health. Colostrum samples were collected in buckets after hand milking of 76 calving cows from 38 smallholder dairy farms. Fecal samples were taken directly from the rectum of 76 calves at birth and at 14 days age. The bacterial community structure in colostrum and feces was analyzed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism for all samples, and the microbial composition was determined by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing for a subset of the samples (8 colostrum, 40 fecal samples). There was a significant difference in fecal microbiota composition between day 0 and day 14 samples, but no associations between the microbiota and average daily gain, birth weight, or transfer of passive immunity. At 14 days of age, Faecalibacterium and Butyricicoccus were prevalent in higher relative abundances in the gut of healthy calves compared to calves with diarrhea that had been treated with antimicrobials. Colostrum showed great variation in composition of microbiota but no association to fecal microbiota. This study provides the first insights into the composition of colostrum and fecal microbiota of young dairy calves in southern Vietnam and can form the basis for future more detailed studies.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bovinos/microbiologia , Colostro/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Microbiota , Leite , Gravidez , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Vietnã
7.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0240773, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378402

RESUMO

Infectious diseases are a threat to elderly individuals, whose immune systems weaken with age. Among the various infectious diseases, Clostridium difficile infection is associated with a high rate of mortality in elderly individuals and is a serious health problem worldwide, owing to the increasing infection rates. Probiotic use has been proposed as an effective countermeasure for C. difficile infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of heat-killed Enterococcus faecalis T-110 on intestinal immunity, intestinal flora, and intestinal infections, especially C. difficile infections, in naturally ageing animals, for extrapolating the results to elderly human subjects. Twenty female hamsters were randomly distributed into two groups. Group 1 was fed a basal diet and group 2 was fed a basal diet supplemented with heat-killed E. faecalis for 7 days. Heat-killed E. faecalis T-110 improved the gut immunity and microflora, especially Clostridium perfringens and C. difficile, in naturally aged hamsters. Therefore, heat-killed E. faecalis T-110 use may be a countermeasure against age-related immune dysfunction and intestinal infections, especially C. difficile infection, in elderly humans. However, further investigation in this regard is needed in humans.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/imunologia , Infecções por Clostridium/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Enterococcus faecalis/imunologia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Animais , /isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Clostridium/imunologia , Infecções por Clostridium/microbiologia , Clostridium perfringens/imunologia , Clostridium perfringens/isolamento & purificação , Cricetinae , Diarreia/imunologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica/fisiologia , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 741, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cholera remains a major global health challenge. Uvira, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), has had endemic cholera since the 1970's and has been implicated as a possible point of origin for national outbreaks. A previous study among this population, reported a case confirmation rate of 40% by rapid diagnostic test (RDT) among patients at the Uvira Cholera Treatment Centre (CTC). This study considers the prevalence and diversity of 15 enteric pathogens in suspected cholera cases seeking treatment at the Uvira CTC. METHODS: We used the Luminex xTAG® multiplex PCR to test for 15 enteric pathogens, including toxigenic strains of V. cholerae in rectal swabs preserved on Whatman FTA Elute cards. Results were interpreted on MAGPIX® and analyzed on the xTAG® Data Analysis Software. Prevalence of enteric pathogens were calculated and pathogen diversity was modelled with a Poisson regression. RESULTS: Among 269 enrolled CTC patients, PCR detected the presence of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae in 38% (103/269) of the patients, which were considered to be cholera cases. These strains were detected as the sole pathogen in 36% (37/103) of these cases. Almost half (45%) of all study participants carried multiple enteric pathogens (two or more). Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (36%) and Cryptosporidium (28%) were the other most common pathogens identified amongst all participants. No pathogen was detected in 16.4% of study participants. Mean number of pathogens was highest amongst boys and girls aged 1-15 years and lowest in women aged 16-81 years. Ninety-three percent of toxigenic V. cholerae strains detected by PCR were found in patients having tested positive for V. cholerae O1 by RDT. CONCLUSIONS: Our study supports previous results from DRC and other cholera endemic areas in sub-Sahara Africa with less than half of CTC admissions positive for cholera by PCR. More research is required to determine the causes of severe acute diarrhea in these low-resource, endemic areas to optimize treatment measures. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study is part of the impact evaluation study entitled: "Impact Evaluation of Urban Water Supply Improvements on Cholera and Other Diarrheal Diseases in Uvira, Democratic Republic of Congo" registered on 10 October 2016 at clinicaltrials.gov Identification number: NCT02928341 .


Assuntos
Cólera/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Vibrio cholerae/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cólera/microbiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Diarreia/microbiologia , Doenças Endêmicas , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Prevalência , Microbiologia da Água , Adulto Jovem
9.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(710): 1916-1919, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058577

RESUMO

Probiotics are a big food and pharmaceutical industry today. The most widely used probiotics are Lactobacillus spp, Bifidobacterium spp, strains of Enterococcus spp, Streptococcus spp and yeasts such as Saccharomyces pp. Among the best-known indications are Clostridioides difficile colitis and diarrhea due to antibiotics, but probiotics are also proposed as adjuvants for atopic syndromes, autoimmune diseases, prevention and treatment of obesity, diabetes and cystic fibrosis, where dysbiosis play an important role. However, their use remains debated due to a lack of powerful data proving their effectiveness and their often-overlooked side effects.


Assuntos
Probióticos/efeitos adversos , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/terapia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Disbiose/terapia , Humanos
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008613, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898134

RESUMO

Although enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) has been implicated as a common cause of diarrhea in multiple settings, neither its essential genomic nature nor its role as an enteric pathogen are fully understood. The current definition of this pathotype requires demonstration of cellular adherence; a working molecular definition encompasses E. coli which do not harbor the heat-stable or heat-labile toxins of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and harbor the genes aaiC, aggR, and/or aatA. In an effort to improve the definition of this pathotype, we report the most definitive characterization of the pan-genome of EAEC to date, applying comparative genomics and functional characterization on a collection of 97 EAEC strains isolated in the course of a multicenter case-control diarrhea study (Global Enteric Multi-Center Study, GEMS). Genomic analysis revealed that the EAEC strains mapped to all phylogenomic groups of E. coli. Circa 70% of strains harbored one of the five described AAF variants; there were no additional AAF variants identified, and strains that lacked an identifiable AAF generally did not have an otherwise complete AggR regulon. An exception was strains that harbored an ETEC colonization factor (CF) CS22, like AAF a member of the chaperone-usher family of adhesins, but not phylogenetically related to the AAF family. Of all genes scored, sepA yielded the strongest association with diarrhea (P = 0.002) followed by the increased serum survival gene, iss (p = 0.026), and the outer membrane protease gene ompT (p = 0.046). Notably, the EAEC genomes harbored several genes characteristically associated with other E. coli pathotypes. Our data suggest that a molecular definition of EAEC could comprise E. coli strains harboring AggR and a complete AAF(I-V) or CS22 gene cluster. Further, it is possible that strains meeting this definition could be both enteric bacteria and urinary/systemic pathogens.


Assuntos
Aderência Bacteriana/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Proteínas de Fímbrias/genética , Fímbrias Bacterianas/genética , Adesinas Bacterianas/genética , Aderência Bacteriana/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/classificação , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Genômica , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Transativadores/genética , Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
11.
J Anim Sci ; 98(9)2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877510

RESUMO

The study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of a probiotic Bacillus subtilis strain on growth performance, diarrhea, systemic immunity, and intestinal health of weaned pigs experimentally infected with an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and to compare the efficacy of B. subtilis with that of carbadox. Weaned pigs (n = 48, 6.17 ± 0.36 kg body weight [BW]) were individually housed in disease containment rooms and randomly allotted to one of four dietary treatments: negative control (NC, control diet without E. coli challenge), positive control (PC, control diet with E. coli challenge), and supplementation of 50 mg/kg of carbadox (antibiotic growth promotor [AGP]) or 2.56 × 109 CFU/kg of B. subtilis probiotics (PRO). The experiment lasted for 28 d with 7 d before and 21 d after the first E. coli inoculation. Fecal and blood samples were collected on days 0, 3, 7, 14, and 21 post inoculation (PI) to analyze ß-hemolytic coliforms and complete blood cell count, respectively. Diarrhea score was recorded daily for each pig to calculate the frequency of diarrhea. All pigs were euthanized at day 21 PI to collect jejunal and ileal mucosa for gene expression analysis. Pigs in AGP had greater (P < 0.05) BW on days 7, 14, and 21 PI than pigs in PC and PRO groups. Supplementation of PRO enhanced pigs' BW on day 21 PI compared with the PC. Escherichia coli F18 challenge reduced (P < 0.05) average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency from day 0 to 21 PI, while supplementation of carbadox or PRO enhanced ADG and feed efficiency in E. coli F18-challenged pigs from day 0 to 21 PI. Pigs in AGP and PRO groups had reduced (P < 0.05) frequency of diarrhea throughout the experiment and fecal ß-hemolytic coliforms on day 7 PI than pigs in the PC. Pigs in PRO had greater (P < 0.05) gene expression of CLDN1 in jejunal mucosa than pigs in the PC. Supplementation of carbadox or PRO reduced (P < 0.05) the gene expression of IL6 and PTGS2 in ileal mucosa of E. coli-infected pigs compared with pigs in the PC. Pigs in the PRO group had lower (P < 0.05) white blood cell number and neutrophil count, and serum haptoglobin concentration on day 7 PI, and less (P < 0.05) monocyte count on day 14 PI, compared with PC. In conclusion, supplementation of probiotic B. subtilis could enhance disease resistance and promote the growth performance of weaned pigs under disease challenge conditions. The potential mechanisms include but not limited to enhanced gut barrier integrity and local and systemic immune responses of weaned pigs.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacillus subtilis/fisiologia , Carbadox/farmacologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Probióticos/farmacologia , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Animais , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/microbiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/fisiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Íleo/efeitos dos fármacos , Íleo/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/tratamento farmacológico , Desmame
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 659, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) are among the leading pathogens associated with endemic diarrhea in low income countries. Yet, few epidemiological studies have focused the contribution of enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and diffusely adherent E. coli (DAEC). METHODS: We assessed the contribution of EHEC, EIEC and DAEC isolated from stool samples from a case-control study conducted in children aged < 5 years in Southern Mozambique between December 2007 and November 2012. The isolates were screened by conventional PCR targeting stx1 and stx2 (EHEC), ial and ipaH (EIEC), and daaE (DAEC) genes. RESULTS: We analyzed 297 samples from cases with less-severe diarrhea (LSD) matched to 297 controls, and 89 samples from cases with moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) matched to 222 controls, collected between November 3, 2011 and November 2, 2012. DEC were more common among LSD cases (2.7%, [8/297] of cases vs. 1.3% [4/297] of controls; p = 0.243]) than in MSD cases (0%, [0/89] of cases vs. 0.4%, [1/222] of controls; p = 1.000). Detailed analysis revealed low frequency of EHEC, DAEC or EIEC and no association with diarrhea in all age strata. Although the low frequency, EIEC was predominant in LSD cases aged 24-59 months (4.1% for cases vs. 0% for controls), followed by DAEC in similar frequency for cases and controls in infants (1.9%) and lastly EHEC from one control. Analysis of a subset of samples from previous period (December 10, 2007 and October 31, 2011) showed high frequency of DEC in controls compared to MSD cases (16.2%, [25/154] vs. 11.9%, [14/118], p = 0.383, respectively). Among these, DAEC predominated, being detected in 7.7% of cases vs. 17.6% of controls aged 24-59 months, followed by EIEC in 7.7% of cases vs. 5.9% of controls for the same age category, although no association was observed. EHEC was detected in one sample from cases and two from controls. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggests that although EHEC, DAEC and EIEC are less frequent in endemic diarrhea in rural Mozambique, attention should be given to their transmission dynamics (e.g. the role on sporadic or epidemic diarrhea) considering that the role of asymptomatic individuals as source of dissemination remains unknown.


Assuntos
Diarreia/epidemiologia , Escherichia coli Êntero-Hemorrágica/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Saúde da População Rural , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/microbiologia , Doenças Endêmicas , Escherichia coli Êntero-Hemorrágica/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , População Rural
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963886

RESUMO

Diarrhoeal diseases are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the Western Pacific Region. However, data on the major causes of infectious diarrhoea are limited in many countries within the Region, including Papua New Guinea. In 2013-2014, we conducted surveillance for acute diarrhoeal illness in four provinces in Papua New Guinea. One rural health clinic from each province participated in the surveillance activity. Samples were sent to central laboratories and batch analysed for bacterial and viral gastrointestinal pathogens that are commonly associated with diarrhoea. Across the four sites, the most commonly detected pathogens were Shigella spp., Campylobacter spp. and rotavirus. In this paper, we report the results of the surveillance activity and the challenges that we faced. The lessons learnt may be applicable to other parts of the Region with a similar socioeconomic status.


Assuntos
Diarreia/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papua Nova Guiné/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e21617, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of probiotic therapy for coronavirus disease 2019 with diarrhea. METHODS: The following electronic bibliographic databases will be searched to identify relevant studies from December 2019 to December 2020: MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Technical Periodicals, Wan-fang data, Chinese Biological Medicine Database, and other databases. The search results will not be restricted by language, all included articles were randomized controlled trial. Two independent researchers will conduct article retrieval, de-duplication, filtering, quality assessment, and data analysis through the Review Manager (V.5.3). Meta-analysis, subgroup analysis and/or descriptive analysis were performed on the included data. RESULTS: High-quality synthesis and/or descriptive analysis of current evidence will be provided from outcomes. CONCLUSION: This study will provide the evidence of whether probiotics is an effective and safe intervention for coronavirus disease 2019 with diarrhea.PROSPERO registration number: CRD42020192657.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/microbiologia , Diarreia/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/microbiologia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Diarreia/microbiologia , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Projetos de Pesquisa , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(23)2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948526

RESUMO

This study aimed to characterize in silico enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4- and F18-positive isolates (n = 90) causing swine postweaning diarrhea, including pathogenic potential, phylogenetic relationship, antimicrobial and biocide resistance, prophage content, and metal tolerance rates. F4 strains belonged mostly to the O149 and O6 serogroups and ST100 and ST48 sequence types (STs). F18 strains were mainly assigned to the O8 and O147 serogroups and ST10, ST23, and ST42. The highest rates of antimicrobial resistance were found against streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, trimethoprim, and ampicillin. No resistance was found toward ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime, ceftiofur, and colistin. Genes conferring tolerance to copper (showing the highest diversity), cadmium, silver, and zinc were predicted in all genomes. Enterotoxin genes (ltcA, 100% F4, 62% F18; astA, 100% F4, 38.1% F18; sta, 18.8% F4, 38.1% F18; stb, 100% F4, 76.2% F18) and fimbria-encoding genes typed as F4ac and F18ac were detected in all strains, in addition to up to 16 other virulence genes in individual strains. Phage analysis predicted between 7 and 20 different prophage regions in each strain. A highly diverse variety of plasmids was found; IncFII, IncFIB, and IncFIC were prevalent among F4 isolates, while IncI1 and IncX1 were dominant among F18 strains. Interestingly, F4 isolates from the early 1990s belonged to the same clonal group detected for most of the F4 strains from 2018 to 2019 (ONT:H10-A-ST100-CH27-0). The small number of single-nucleotide polymorphism differences between the oldest and recent F4 ST100 isolates suggests a relatively stable genome. Overall, the isolates analyzed in this study showed remarkably different genetic traits depending on the fimbria type.IMPORTANCE Diarrhea in the postweaning period due to enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) is an economically relevant disease in pig production worldwide. In Denmark, prevention is mainly achieved by zinc oxide administration (to be discontinued by 2022). In addition, a breeding program has been implemented that aims to reduce the prevalence of this illness. Treatment with antimicrobials contributes to the problem of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) development. As a novelty, this study aims to deeply understand the genetic population structure and variation among diarrhea-associated isolates by whole-genome sequencing characterization. ST100-F4ac is the dominant clonal group circulating in Danish herds and showed high similarity to ETEC ST100 isolates from China, the United States, and Spain. High rates of AMR and high diversity of virulence genes were detected. The characterization of diarrhea-related ETEC is important for understanding the disease epidemiology and pathogenesis and for implementation of new strategies aiming to reduce the impact of the disease in pig production.


Assuntos
Diarreia/veterinária , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Genoma Bacteriano , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Filogenia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008536, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804926

RESUMO

Culture-independent diagnostics have revealed a larger burden of Shigella among children in low-resource settings than previously recognized. We further characterized the epidemiology of Shigella in the first two years of life in a multisite birth cohort. We tested 41,405 diarrheal and monthly non-diarrheal stools from 1,715 children for Shigella by quantitative PCR. To assess risk factors, clinical factors related to age and culture positivity, and associations with inflammatory biomarkers, we used log-binomial regression with generalized estimating equations. The prevalence of Shigella varied from 4.9%-17.8% in non-diarrheal stools across sites, and the incidence of Shigella-attributable diarrhea was 31.8 cases (95% CI: 29.6, 34.2) per 100 child-years. The sensitivity of culture compared to qPCR was 6.6% and increased to 27.8% in Shigella-attributable dysentery. Shigella diarrhea episodes were more likely to be severe and less likely to be culture positive in younger children. Older age (RR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.70, 1.81 per 6-month increase in age), unimproved sanitation (RR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.29), low maternal education (<10 years, RR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.26), initiating complementary foods before 3 months (RR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.20), and malnutrition (RR: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.88, 0.95 per unit increase in weight-for-age z-score) were risk factors for Shigella. There was a linear dose-response between Shigella quantity and myeloperoxidase concentrations. The burden of Shigella varied widely across sites, but uniformly increased through the second year of life and was associated with intestinal inflammation. Culture missed most clinically relevant cases of severe diarrhea and dysentery.


Assuntos
Diarreia/diagnóstico , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Disenteria Bacilar/diagnóstico , Disenteria Bacilar/epidemiologia , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Disenteria , Disenteria Bacilar/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Intestinos , Masculino , Nepal/epidemiologia , Paquistão , Peru/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Shigella/genética , Shigella/isolamento & purificação , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236703, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785284

RESUMO

Travelers' diarrhea (TD) is the most prevalent illness encountered by deployed military personnel and has a major impact on military operations, from reduced job performance to lost duty days. Frequently, the etiology of TD is unknown and, with underreporting of cases, it is difficult to accurately assess its impact. An increasing number of ailments include an altered or aberrant gut microbiome. To better understand the relationships between long-term deployments and TD, we studied military personnel during two nine-month deployment cycles in 2015-2016 to Honduras. To collect data on the prevalence of diarrhea and impact on duty, a total of 1173 personnel completed questionnaires at the end of their deployment. 56.7% reported reduced performance and 21.1% reported lost duty days. We conducted a passive surveillance study of all cases of diarrhea reporting to the medical unit with 152 total cases and a similar pattern of etiology. Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC, 52/152), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC, 50/152), and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC, 35/152) were the most prevalent pathogens detected. An active longitudinal surveillance of 67 subjects also identified diarrheagenic E. coli as the primary etiology (7/16 EPEC, 7/16 EAEC, and 6/16 ETEC). Eleven subjects were recruited into a nested longitudinal substudy to examine gut microbiome changes associated with deployment. A 16S rRNA amplicon survey of fecal samples showed differentially abundant baseline taxa for subjects who contracted TD versus those who did not, as well as detection of taxa positively associated with self-reported gastrointestinal distress. Disrupted microbiota was also qualitatively observable for weeks preceding and following the incidents of TD. These findings illustrate the complex etiology of diarrhea amongst military personnel in deployed settings and its impacts on job performance. Potential factors of resistance or susceptibility can provide a foundation for future clinical trials to evaluate prevention and treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Diarreia/epidemiologia , Disenteria/epidemiologia , Escherichia coli Enteropatogênica/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Adulto , Diarreia/genética , Diarreia/microbiologia , Disenteria/genética , Disenteria/microbiologia , Disenteria/patologia , Escherichia coli Enteropatogênica/genética , Escherichia coli Enteropatogênica/patogenicidade , Infecções por Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/patologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Honduras/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Militares , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Fatores de Risco , Viagem , Doença Relacionada a Viagens
19.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 45, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli is an important cause of diarrhea in calves and its diarrheagenic properties are related to presence of certain virulence genes. In this study, the prevalence of virulence genes F5, F17, F41, sta, stx1, stx2, eae, and saa in E. coli isolated from pre-weaned calves presenting with (n= 329) or without diarrhea (n= 360) was explored using multiplex polymerase chain reaction. We also evaluated the association between detection of E. coli and the presence of diarrhea. RESULTS: Escherichia coli was detected in 56.3% (388/689) of the fecal samples and showed the highest prevalence (66.5%) in 21-40-day-old calves and the lowest (46.3%) among those that were 1-20 days old. The prevalence of the enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) pathotypes was detected in 73.9% and 15.9%, respectively. The results showed no association between diarrhea and the presence of E. coli in general, ETEC or STEC. The F17 gene was the most frequently detected virulence factor in E. coli of calves of all ages regardless of diarrhea. Interestingly, the results show that the calves aged 41-60 days with F17-positive E. coli are at a higher risk for production of Shiga toxin (Stx1; 95% confidence intervals: 1.86-31.95; P = 0.005) compared to calves aged 1-20 days; no association between this finding and diarrhea was observed among the calves of this age group. Moreover, the virulence genes associated with the ETEC and STEC strains were not significantly associated with pathogenicity in this study cohort. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that while the incidence of E. coli is age-related, there was no relationship linking E. coli virulence genes to calf age and diarrhea. Furthermore, the present study demonstrated that detection of E. coli strains either with or without virulence factors was not associated with diarrhea in pre-weaned calves.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo
20.
J Anim Sci ; 98(9)2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780110

RESUMO

The objective was to study the effects of microencapsulated organic acids (OA) and essential oils (EO) on growth performance, immune system, gut barrier function, nutrient digestion and absorption, and abundance of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4 (ETEC F4) in the weaned piglets challenged with ETEC F4. Twenty-four ETEC F4 susceptible weaned piglets were randomly distributed to 4 treatments including (1) sham-challenged control (SSC; piglets fed a control diet and challenged with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)); (2) challenged control (CC; piglets fed a control diet and challenged with ETEC F4); (3) antibiotic growth promoters (AGP; CC + 55 mg·kg-1 of Aureomycin); and (4) microencapsulated OA and EO [P(OA+EO); (CC + 2 g·kg-1 of microencapsulated OA and EO]. The ETEC F4 infection significantly induced diarrhea at 8, 28, 34, and 40 hr postinoculation (hpi) (P < 0.05) in the CC piglets. At 28 d postinoculation (dpi), piglets fed P(OA+EO) had a lower (P < 0.05) diarrhea score compared with those fed CC, but the P(OA+EO) piglets had a lower (P < 0.05) diarrhea score compared with those fed the AGP diets at 40 dpi. The ETEC F4 infection tended to increase in vivo gut permeability measured by the oral gavaging fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran 70 kDa (FITC-D70) assay in the CC piglets compared with the SCC piglets (P = 0.09). The AGP piglets had higher FITC-D70 flux than P(OA+EO) piglets (P < 0.05). The ETEC F4 infection decreased mid-jejunal VH in the CC piglets compared with the SCC piglets (P < 0.05). The P(OA+EO) piglets had higher (P < 0.05) VH in the mid-jejunum than the CC piglets. The relative mRNA abundance of Na+-glucose cotransporter and B0AT1 was reduced (P < 0.05) by ETEC F4 inoculation when compared with the SCC piglets. The AGP piglets had a greater relative mRNA abundance of B0AT1 than the CC piglets (P < 0.05). The ETEC F4 inoculation increased the protein abundance of OCLN (P < 0.05), and the AGP piglets had the lowest relative protein abundance of OCLN among the challenged groups (P < 0.05). The supplementation of microencapsulated OA and EO enhanced intestinal morphology and showed anti-diarrhea effects in weaned piglets challenged with ETEC F4. Even if more future studies can be required for further validation, this study brings evidence that microencapsulated OA and EO combination can be useful within the tools to be implemented in strategies for alternatives to antibiotics in swine production.


Assuntos
Diarreia/veterinária , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Ácidos Carboxílicos/farmacologia , Clortetraciclina/farmacologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Composição de Medicamentos/veterinária , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Feminino , Imunidade , Jejuno/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Suínos , Desmame
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