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1.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378042

RESUMO

Trehalose, a nonreducing disaccharide consisting of d-glucose with α,α-1,1 linkage, was evaluated as a functional material to improve the gut environment in preweaned calves. In experiment 1, 173 calves were divided into two groups; the trehalose group was fed trehalose at 30 g/animal/d with milk replacer during the suckling period, and the control group was fed nonsupplemented milk replacer. Medication frequency was lower in the trehalose group (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, calves (n = 20) were divided into two groups (control group [n = 10] and trehalose group [n = 10]) based on their body weight and reared under the same feeding regimens as in experiment 1. Fresh feces were collected from individual animals at the beginning of the trial (average age 11 d), 3 wk after trehalose feeding (experimental day 22), and 1 d before weaning, and the fecal score was recorded daily. Fecal samples were analyzed for fermentation parameters and microbiota. The fecal score was significantly lower in the trehalose group than in the control group in the early stage (at an age of 14 to 18 d; P < 0.05) of the suckling period. Calves fed trehalose tended to have a higher proportion of fecal butyrate on day 22 than calves in the control group (P = 0.08). Population sizes of Clostridium spp. were significantly lower (P = 0.036), whereas those of Dialister spp. and Eubacterium spp. tended to be higher in the feces of calves in the trehalose group on day 22 (P = 0.060 and P = 0.083). These observations indicate that trehalose feeding modulated the gut environment and partially contributed to the reduction in medication frequency observed in experiment 1.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Leite , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Diarreia/veterinária , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fezes , Incidência , Trealose , Desmame
2.
J Gen Virol ; 102(8)2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424158

RESUMO

Bovine astrovirus (BoAstV) belongs to genus Mamastravirus (MAstV). It can be detected in the faeces of both diarrhoeal and healthy calves. However, its prevalence, genetic diversity, and association with cattle diarrhoea are poorly understood. In this study, faecal samples of 87 diarrhoeal and 77 asymptomatic calves from 20 farms in 12 provinces were collected, and BoAstV was detected with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The overall prevalence rate of this virus in diarrhoeal and asymptomatic calves was 55.17 % (95 % CI: 44.13, 65.85 %) and 36.36 % (95 % CI: 25.70, 48.12 %), respectively, indicating a correlation between BoAstV infection and calf diarrhoea (OR=2.15, P=0.024). BoAstV existed mainly in the form of co-infection (85.53 %) with one to five of nine viruses, and there was a strong positive correlation between BoAstV co-infection and calf diarrhoea (OR=2.83, P=0.004). Binary logistic regression analysis confirmed this correlation between BoAstV co-infection and calf diarrhoea (OR=2.41, P=0.038). The co-infection of BoAstV and bovine rotavirus (BRV) with or without other viruses accounted for 70.77 % of all the co-infection cases. The diarrhoea risk for the calves co-infected with BoAstV and BRV was 8.14-fold higher than that for the calves co-infected with BoAstV and other viruses (OR=8.14, P=0.001). Further, the co-infection of BoAstV/BRV/bovine kobuvirus (BKoV) might increase the risk of calf diarrhoea by 14.82-fold, compared with that of BoAstV and other viruses (OR=14.82, P <0.001). Then, nearly complete genomic sequences of nine BoAstV strains were assembled by using next-generation sequencing (NGS) method. Sequence alignment against known astrovirus (AstV) strains at the levels of both amino acids and nucleotides showed a high genetic diversity. Four genotypes were identified, including two known genotypes MAstV-28 (n=3) and MAstV-33 (n=2) and two novel genotypes designated tentatively as MAstV-34 (n=1) and MAstV-35 (n=3). In addition, seven out of nine BoAstV strains showed possible inter-genotype recombination and cross-species recombination. Therefore, our results increase the knowledge about the prevalence and the genetic evolution of BoAstV and provide evidence for the association between BoAstV infection and calf diarrhoea.


Assuntos
Infecções por Astroviridae , Doenças dos Bovinos , Coinfecção , Diarreia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/virologia , Infecções por Astroviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Astroviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Astroviridae/virologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Coinfecção/virologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Prevalência
3.
Arch Virol ; 166(10): 2847-2852, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363534

RESUMO

Porcine astrovirus (PAstV) is distributed worldwide and has been reported to cause diarrhea in pigs. PAstV belongs to the family Astroviridae and genus Mamastrovirus. PAstVs are divided into five diverse genotypes (PAstV1-PAstV5) on the basis of phylogenetic analysis of a part of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene and the capsid gene. However, knowledge regarding the clinical significance and molecular characteristics of PAstV in Haryana, India, is limited. In this study, we investigated the presence of PAstV by RT-PCR of the partial RdRp gene in 110 rectal swabs collected from diarrheic pigs in different parts of Haryana, India. Of these, 35 samples (31.8%) tested positive for PAstV, with the highest positivity observed among weaning piglets 3 to 9 weeks of age (47.7%, 21/44), followed by fattening pigs 9 to 24 weeks of age (28.5%, 8/28). Phylogenetic analysis of the partial RdRp gene revealed circulation of four different genotypes (PAstV1, PAstV2, PAstV4, and PAstV5) in Haryana, with PAstV1 being the predominant genotype. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of PAstV1 and PAstV5 in the pig population of India. The PAstV sequences revealed high genetic variability and genetic heterogeneity in a relatively confined area.


Assuntos
Infecções por Astroviridae/veterinária , Mamastrovirus/genética , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Infecções por Astroviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Astroviridae/virologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Diarreia/virologia , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Índia/epidemiologia , Mamastrovirus/classificação , Mamastrovirus/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/genética , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia
4.
J Theor Biol ; 527: 110820, 2021 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216591

RESUMO

Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) is a cattle disease that causes substantial financial losses, in particular to the dairy industry. Hence, several countries including Germany introduced compulsory disease control programs. For the case of Germany in particular, all animals had to be tested and persistently infected animals (PI animals) were removed from the population. The program was successful in reducing the number of PI animals, but was overtly expensive. Alternative approaches were therefore discussed to eliminate the remaining PI animals and alter the testing system in order to reduce costs. Contributing to these efforts, we developed an agent-based model that aimed to cover all relevant aspects of the disease biology and would allow to evaluate different control strategies. For the biological part of the infection spread, the model includes horizontal and vertical transmission, transient and persistent infections. Moreover, several control strategies including import of animals, trade restrictions, vaccination, as well as various testing schemes were included. The model was furthermore defined to be stochastic, event-driven and hierarchical, with cattle movements as the main route of spreading between farms. For the spread within farms, we included susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) dynamics with an additional permanently infectious class. The interaction between the farms was described by a supply and demand farm manager mechanism governing the network structure and dynamics. Additionally, we carried out a sensitivity analysis of the input parameters to study the impact of extreme values on the model. Since the population size in the model is limited, we tested the influence of the initial population size on the model results. Our results showed that the model could accurately describe the dynamics of the disease in the presence and absence of disease control. Although we developed the model for the spread of BVD, it may be adapted to similar diseases of cattle and swine.


Assuntos
Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina , Animais , Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/epidemiologia , Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/prevenção & controle , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/veterinária , Gado , Suínos
5.
Gene ; 800: 145837, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274469

RESUMO

Diarrhoea is a widespread disease in captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and a small proportion of individuals may experience persistent diarrhoea. Persistent diarrhoea can lead to a compromised immune system, intestinal inflammation and malnutrition. We analyzed the blood transcriptomes of 10 persistent diarrhoeal and 12 healthy rhesus macaques to investigate the gene expression differences between the two groups. We identified 330 DEGs between persistent diarrhoeal and healthy rhesus macaques. The 211 up-regulated DEGs in the diarrhoeal group were mainly enriched in immune-related and interleukin-related categories. Among them, three interleukin (IL) 18 related DEGs (IL18, IL18R1, and IL18BP) played important roles in actively regulating pro-inflammatory responses. Interestingly, the up- and down-regulated DEGs were both enriched in the same immune-related categories. Thus, we applied a new method to examine the distribution of DEGs in all child categories. We found that interleukin and T cell related categories were mainly occupied by up-regulated DEGs, while immunoglobulin production and B cell related categories were enriched by down-regulated DEGs. We also compared rhesus macaque DEGs with the DEGs of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) humans and IBD mouse models and found that 30-40% of macaque DEGs were shared with IBD humans and mouse models. In conclusion, our results showed that there were significant immune differences between persistent diarrhoeal rhesus macaques and healthy macaques, which was similar to the expression differences in IBD patients and mouse models.


Assuntos
Diarreia/veterinária , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Doenças dos Macacos/genética , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diarreia/genética , Diarreia/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/etiologia , Interleucinas/genética , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Camundongos , Doenças dos Macacos/imunologia
6.
Arch Virol ; 166(9): 2461-2468, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212242

RESUMO

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) can be spread by animal activity. Although cattle farming is widespread in Turkey, there are few studies of BCoV. The aim of this study was to evaluate the current situation regarding BCoV in Turkey. This is the first study reporting the full-length nucleotide sequences of BCoV spike (S) genes in Turkey. Samples were collected from 119 cattle with clinical signs of respiratory (n = 78) or digestive tract (n = 41) infection on different farms located across widely separated provinces in Turkey. The samples were screened for BCoV using RT-nested PCR targeting the N gene, which identified BCoV in 35 samples (9 faeces and 26 nasal discharge). RT-PCR analysis of the S gene produced partial/full-length S gene sequences from 11 samples (8 faeces and 3 nasal discharge samples). A phylogenetic tree of the S gene sequences was made to analyze the genetic relationships among BCoVs from Turkey and other countries. The results showed that the local strains present in faeces and nasal discharge samples had many different amino acid changes. Some of these changes were shown in previous studies to be critical for tropism. This study provides new data on BCoV in Turkey that will be valuable in designing effective vaccine approaches and control strategies.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus Bovino/genética , Diarreia/veterinária , RNA Viral/genética , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Agricultura , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Coronavirus Bovino/classificação , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária , Evolução Molecular , Fezes/virologia , Humanos , Mutação , Cavidade Nasal/virologia , Filogenia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Turquia/epidemiologia
7.
Arch Virol ; 166(8): 2273-2278, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059971

RESUMO

Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) is a highly contagious infectious pathogen of cats globally. However, there is no information on the molecular identification and characterization of FPV in Bangladesh. Here, 8.16% (8/98) and 18.37% (18/98) of diarrheic cats tested positive for FPV by an immunochromatography (IC) test and PCR, respectively. The IC test showed 44.44% sensitivity and 100% specificity in comparison with PCR. Our newly sequenced Bangladeshi FPV strain (MN826076) showed the highest (99.71%) sequence identity to strains from the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Strain MN826076 contained two characteristic amino acid variations in VP2 identifying it as an FPV strain: valine at position 103 and aspartic acid at position 323. Phylogenetically, the VP2 of strain MN826076 was found to be closely related to 19 FPV strains, sharing the same clade.


Assuntos
Diarreia/veterinária , Diarreia/virologia , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/classificação , Panleucopenia Felina/diagnóstico , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Animais , Bangladesh , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Gatos , China , Cromatografia de Afinidade , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/genética , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Portugal , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tailândia , Emirados Árabes Unidos
8.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(3): 377, 2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34184109

RESUMO

Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is one of the most common and economically significant viral infections in cattle. Different risk factors have been associated with viral exposure and transmission, generating endemic regions with different biotype circulations. To find the BVD status in the northeastern region of Colombia, this study aimed to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with the disease in non-vaccinated farms. For this purpose, a two-time point sampling strategy was developed, obtaining serum from 1157 animals housed in 25 farms distributed in 46 townships, thus for antibody detection against non-structural protein 3 (NS3, p80) of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) using an indirect ELISA test. For the first time in Colombia, the presence of serological persistent cattle was evaluated in 1047 animals 3 weeks later of first sampling. The information on a standardized questionnaire with closed and dichotomic answers was used to calculate the putative risk factors. The association analysis by univariate and multivariate logistic regression reported odds ratios (OR) with a 95% of confidence interval (C.I). The overall seroprevalence was 65% (95% CI 62.5-72.9%), with variations according to age ranges. The prevalence of persistent serological positive corresponded to 37.7% (95% CI 34.2-41.5). The risk factors found by multivariate analyses were the lease of pastures (OR = 2.071 CI 1.485-3.690), the use of the same needle (OR = 2.249 CI 1.354-3.736), the molasses supplementation (OR = 2.742 CI 1.156-5.807), and the native Creole breed (OR = 1.895 CI 1.416-2.804). The results of this study confirmed the endemism and higher common exposure to BVDV, as well as the presence of serological persistent cattle in Valledupar, Colombia.


Assuntos
Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina , Doenças dos Bovinos , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
9.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(9): 10217-10231, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147217

RESUMO

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection has a major effect on the health of cows and consequently on herd performance. Many countries have implemented control or eradication programs to mitigate BVDV infection and its negative effects. These negative effects of BVDV infection on dairy herds are well documented, but there is much less information about the effects of new introduction of BVDV on dairy herds already participating in a BVDV control program. The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of a new BVDV introduction in BVDV-free herds participating in the Dutch BVDV-free program on herd performance. Longitudinal herd-level surveillance data were combined with herd information data to create 4 unique data sets, including a monthly test-day somatic cell count (SCC) data set, annual calving interval (CIV) and culling risk (CR) data sets, and a quarterly calf mortality rate (CMR) data set. Each database contained 2 types of herds: herds that remained BVDV free during the whole study period (defined as free herds), and herds that lost their BVDV-free status during the study period (defined as breakdown herds). The date of losing the BVDV-free status was defined as breakdown date. To compare breakdown herds with free herds, a random breakdown date was artificially generated for free herds by simple random sampling from the distribution of the breakdown month of the breakdown herds. The SCC and CIV before and after a new introduction of BVDV were compared through linear mixed-effects models with a Gaussian distribution, and the CR and CMR were modeled using a negative binomial distribution in generalized linear mixed-effects models. The explanatory variables for all models included herd type, BVDV status, year, and a random herd effect. Herd size was included as an explanatory variable in the SCC, CIV, and CMR model. Season was included as an explanatory variable in the SCC and CMR model. Results showed that free herds have lower SCC, CR, CMR, and shorter CIV than the breakdown herds. Within the breakdown herds, the new BVDV introduction affected the SCC and CMR. In the year after BVDV introduction, the SCC was higher than that in the year before BVDV introduction, with a factor of 1.011 [2.5th to 97.5th percentile (95% PCTL): 1.002, 1.020]. Compared with the year before BVDV breakdown, the CMR in the year of breakdown and the year after breakdown was higher, with factors of 1.170 (95% PCTL: 1.120; 1.218) and 1.096 (95% PCTL: 1.048; 1.153), respectively. This study reveals that a new introduction of BVDV had a negative but on average relatively small effect on herd performance in herds participating in a BVDV control program.


Assuntos
Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina , Doenças dos Bovinos , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina Tipo 1 , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina , Animais , Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/prevenção & controle , Bovinos , Contagem de Células/veterinária , Diarreia/veterinária , Feminino
10.
Zool Res ; 42(4): 461-468, 2021 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34156173

RESUMO

During a 2018 antimicrobial resistance surveillance of Escherichia coli isolates from diarrheal calves in Xinjiang Province, China, an unexpectedly high prevalence (48.5%) of fosfomycin resistance was observed. This study aimed to reveal the determinants of fosfomycin resistance and the underlying transmission mechanism. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening showed that all fosfomycin-resistant E. coli carried the fosA3 gene. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and southern blot hybridization revealed that the 16 fosA3-positive isolates belonged to four different PFGE patterns (i.e., A, B, C, D). The fosA3 genes of 11 clonally related strains (pattern D) were located on the chromosome, while others were carried by plasmids. Whole-genome and long-read sequencing indicated that the pattern D strains were E. coli O101: H9-ST10, and the pattern C, B, and A strains were O101: H9-ST167, O8: H30-ST1431, and O101: H9 with unknown ST, respectively. Among the pattern C strains, the bla CTX-M-14 gene was co-localized with the fosA3 gene on the F18: A-: B1 plasmids. Interestingly, phylogenetic analysis based on core genome single nucleotide polymorphisms (cgSNPs) showed that the O101: H9-ST10 strains were closely related to a Australian-isolated Chroicocephalus-origin E. coli O101: H9-ST10 strain producing CTX-M-14 and FosA3, with a difference of only 11 SNPs. These results indicate possible international dissemination of the high-risk E. coli clone O101: H9-ST10 by migratory birds.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Charadriiformes/microbiologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/classificação , Migração Animal , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Austrália , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , beta-Lactamases/genética
11.
J Gen Virol ; 102(5)2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950806

RESUMO

Rotavirus C (RVC) is associated with acute diarrhoea in both children and young animals. Because of its frequent occurrence, additional sequences have recently been generated. In this study, we sequenced 21 complete genomes from porcine diarrhoea samples and analysed them together with all available reference sequences collected from the GenBank database [National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)]. Based on phylogenetic analysis and genetic distance calculation, the number of each segment was identified as 31G, 26P, 13I, 5R, 5C, 5M, 12A, 10 N, 9T, 8E and 4 H for genotypes encoding VP7, VP4, VP6, VP1, VP2, VP3 and NSP1, NSP2, NSP3, NSP4 and NSP5, respectively. From the analysis, genotypes G19-G31, P[22]-P[26], R5, A9-A12, N9-N10, T7-T9 and E6-E8 were defined as newly identified genotypes, and genotype C6 was combined with C5, and M6 was combined with M1, due to their closely related nature. Estimated with the identity frequency ratio between the intergenotype and intragenotype, the nucleotide identity cutoff values for different genotypes were determined as 85, 85, 86, 84, 83, 84, 82, 87, 84, 81 and 79 % for VP7, VP4, VP6, VP1, VP2, VP3, NSP1, NSP2, NSP3, NSP4 and NSP5, respectively. Genotyping of the 49 US strains indicated possible segment reassortment in 9 of the 11 segments, with the exceptions being VP1 and NSP5, and the most prevalent genotypes for each segment genes in the USA were G6/G5/G21/G9-P5/P4-I6/I5-R1-C5-M1-A8-N1/N10-T1-E1-H1. Our study updated the genotypes of RVC strains and provided more evidence of RVC strain diversity that may be relevant to better understand genetic diversity, and the distribution and evolution of RVC strains.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Genoma Viral , Infecções por Rotavirus/veterinária , Rotavirus/classificação , Rotavirus/genética , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Diarreia/veterinária , Diarreia/virologia , Evolução Molecular , Genes Virais , Genótipo , Filogenia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Suínos , Estados Unidos , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
12.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(2): 299, 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33939008

RESUMO

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) are two important pathogens associated with a variety of disease syndromes that result in substantial financial losses in animal husbandry. This study was performed to assess the seroprevalence of antibodies to BVDV and PPRV among alpacas raised in Shanxi Province of northern China. Serum samples were obtained from 246 alpacas in Taiyuan (n=182), Xinzhou (n=31), and Jinzhong cities (n=33) of Shanxi Province, and serological testing was carried out using the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall seroprevalence to BVDV was 3.25% (95% CI 1.03-5.47), and seropositive alpacas were found only in Taiyuan City. The overall PPRV seroprevalence in alpacas was 28.86% (95% CI 23.20-34.52). While no PPRV-seropositive alpacas were found in Xinzhou City, the seroprevalence of PPRV was 90.91% (95% CI 81.10-100.72) in Jinzhong City and 22.53% (95% CI 16.46-28.60) in Taiyuan City, respectively, which showed a statistically significant difference. To our knowledge, the present work is the first report on seroprevalence of BVDV and PPRV in alpacas in China, which provides baseline information for the control of infection.


Assuntos
Camelídeos Americanos , Doenças das Cabras , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , China/epidemiologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Cabras , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
13.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 24: 100567, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34024383

RESUMO

Cryptosporidiosis of neonatal dairy calves causes diarrhea, resulting in important economic losses. In Argentina, prevalence values of Cryptosporidium spp. and other enteropathogens such as group A rotavirus (RVA), bovine coronavirus (BCoV) and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC, endotoxin STa+), have been independently studied in different regions. However, an integrative epidemiological investigation on large-scale farms has not been carried out. In this study, fecal samples (n = 908) were randomly collected from diarrheic and healthy calves from 42 dairy farms, and analyzed for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp., RVA, BCoV, ETEC (STa+) and Salmonella spp. In all sampled dairy farms, dams had been vaccinated against rotavirus and gram-negative bacteria to protect calves against neonatal diarrhea. The proportion of calves shedding Cryptosporidium spp., RVA, and BCoV in animals younger than 20 days of age were 29.8%, 12.4% and 6.4%, and in calves aged between 21 and 90 days, 5.6%, 3.9%, and 1.8%, respectively. ETEC was absent in the younger, and occurred only sporadically in the older group (0.9%), whereas Salmonella spp. was absent in both. The observed sporadic finding or even absence of bacterial pathogens might be explained by the frequent use of parenteral antibiotics in 25.3% and 6.5% of the younger and the older group of calves, respectively, within 2 days prior to sampling and/or vaccination of dams against gram-negative bacteria. Diarrhea was observed in 28.8% (95% CI, 24.7-32.8%) of the younger calves and 11.7% (95% CI, 9.1-15.5%) of the older calves. Importantly, Cryptosporidium spp. (odds ratio (OR) = 5.7; 95% CI, 3.3-9.9; p < 0.0001) and RVA (OR = 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.1; p < 0.05) were both found to be risk factors for diarrhea in calves younger than 20 days old. Based on its high prevalence and OR, our results strongly suggest that Cryptosporidium spp. is the principal causative factor for diarrhea in the group of neonatal calves, whereas RVA seems to play a secondary role in the etiology of diarrhea in the studied farms, with about three-times lower prevalence and a half as high OR. Furthermore, a coinfection rate of Cryptosporidium spp. and RVA of 3.7% was observed in the group of younger calves, which strengthens the assumption that these events are independent. In contrast, due to a low infection rate of enteropathogens in older calves, mixed infection (<< 1%) was virtually absent in this group.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/patogenicidade , Indústria de Laticínios , Diarreia/veterinária , Infecções por Rotavirus/veterinária , Fatores Etários , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Argentina/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavirus Bovino/genética , Coronavirus Bovino/patogenicidade , Cryptosporidium/genética , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/parasitologia , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Rotavirus/genética , Rotavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia
14.
J Vet Med Sci ; 83(6): 984-989, 2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33896875

RESUMO

A 7-year 6-month-old, castrated male Shiba dog presented with a 1-month history of lethargy, anorexia, vomiting, and frequent watery diarrhea. Weight loss, hypoalbuminemia, anemia, and leukocytosis were detected at the first visit. The dog was diagnosed with non-responsive enteropathy (NRE) based on clinical and histopathological examinations. Since the dog did not respond to the immunosuppressive drugs, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was performed during the treatment with chlorambucil. A single endoscopic FMT into the cecum and colon drastically recovered clinical signs and clinicopathological abnormalities and corrected dysbiosis in the dog. No recurrence or adverse events were observed. The present case report suggests that FMT, possibly together with chlorambucil, might be a treatment option for NRE in Shiba dogs that have poorer prognosis compared with other dog breeds.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Enteropatias , Animais , Clorambucila/uso terapêutico , Diarreia/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Disbiose/veterinária , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal/veterinária , Fezes , Enteropatias/veterinária , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916636

RESUMO

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a viral pathogen associated with serious problems in the cattle industry. Cattle persistently infected (PI) with BVDV are mild or asymptomatic; however, they become a source of BVDV transmission to other cattle. Hence, it is important to rapidly identify and remove the PI animals from cattle herds. Whereas cattle acutely infected (AI) with BVDV have various symptoms, yet they generally recover within 3 weeks. However, there is a paucity of information concerning clinical characteristics of AI cattle. Further accumulation of information would be required to accurately diagnose AI cattle with BVDV. Here, we attempted to obtain valuable information via various analyses using a case report of BVD outbreak that occurred for approximately four months in Iwate Prefecture in 2017. Using eight calves and multiple tests (real-time RT-PCR, virus isolation, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and virus neutralization assay) over 6 weeks, we diagnosed the continuous BVD outbreak as an acute infection and not a persistent one. Additionally, we revealed that the sporadic case was caused by low pathogenic BVDV2 via BVDV genotyping and phylogenetic analysis. The data suggest that BVDV2 AI animals might also be a source of transmission to susceptible calves; hence, it might persist for a long period owing to multiple AI animals. These findings provide useful information to diagnose AI and PI cattle with BVDV in the field.


Assuntos
Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/transmissão , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina Tipo 2/genética , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina Tipo 2/patogenicidade , Diarreia/veterinária , Diarreia/virologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Doença Aguda , Fatores Etários , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/diagnóstico , Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina Tipo 2/classificação , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina Tipo 2/isolamento & purificação , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Japão/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Vet Rec ; 188(12): e296, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33870517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rotavirus infections of neonatal and older pigs are widely reported. Analysis of rotavirus group C prevalence and diversity has not previously been reported for Australian pig farms. METHODS: Twenty-seven farms with or without diarrhoea present among neonatal or older pigs were enrolled across eastern Australia. Fresh faecal samples were analysed by ELISA for rotavirus and RNA extractions by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and RT-PCR for rotavirus. Rotavirus group C samples were genotyped via sequencing. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Rotavirus infection was diagnosed in pigs on 10 of 19 farms investigated for neonatal diarrhoea, four with group A and six with group C; also among post-weaned (5- to 11-week-old) diarrhoeic pigs on two farms. Neonatal rotavirus group C infections were exclusively noted in piglets less than 1-week-old, consisting of farm infections with a single VP7 genotype (G5 or G6). Infections in post-weaned pigs were associated with multiple VP7 genotypes (G1, G3). This first report of rotavirus group C infections of Australian pigs suggests they may form a limited population of VP7 genotypes.


Assuntos
Diarreia/veterinária , Infecções por Rotavirus/veterinária , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/virologia , Austrália , Diarreia/virologia , Fazendas , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Rotavirus/genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Suínos
17.
ACS Infect Dis ; 7(8): 2093-2101, 2021 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818076

RESUMO

The prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria causing neonatal diarrhea in calves has become a serious problem in the control of infection. Due to increasing antibiotic resistance, bacteriophages with probiotics are considered the best alternative. The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of a suppository containing probiotic strains of Lactobacillus spp. and bacteriophages specific for pathogenic E. coli in young calves with diarrhea. The study evaluated therapeutic and prophylactic effects (specific and nonspecific humoral response). The study was carried out on 24 female HF calves, aged 2 to 7 days and weighing from 35 to 46 kg. The calves were divided into four groups (n = 6) as follows: Group 1, healthy control that received no medicine; Group 2, positive control with diarrhea; Group 3, healthy calves that received medicine; Group 4, calves with diarrhea that received medicine. The animals received suppositories containing Lactobacillus spp. and bacteriophages specific for pathogenic E. coli for 5 days. On the first day, the calves received the suppositories twice-in the morning and 12 h later; subsequently they were administered once a day. The health status of the calves was observed for 11 days after the first application of suppositories. A protective and preventive effect of the experimental therapy was obtained in the research. The probiotic-phage suppositories reduced the duration of diarrhea in calves, completely eliminating it within 24-48 h after use. The therapy stimulated the activation of immune mechanisms in calves, which translated into an enhanced specific and nonspecific response and increased resistance to infection.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Escherichia coli , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Bovinos , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/veterinária , Feminino , Terapias em Estudo
18.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 52(1): 337-342, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827196

RESUMO

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most common species of microsporidia that infects humans and animals worldwide. However, no information is available on E. bieneusi infection among zoo animals in the Republic of Korea (ROK). Here, we investigated the prevalence of E. bieneusi among animals kept in zoos and the zoonotic potential of the E. bieneusi identified. E. bieneusi was detected only in one African lion (Panthera leo) with diarrhea, using PCR and sequencing analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the rRNA gene. A phylogenetic analysis based on the ITS gene showed that the lion isolate was classified into a novel genotype KPL belonging to Group 2. The KPL genotype identified in this study differed from genotype I in 6 nucleotides and from genotype I-like in 3 nucleotides, respectively, indicating that Group 2 has the capacity to infect a wide range of hosts. This is the first report of the presence of E. bieneusi in an African lion housed in a zoo in the ROK. Further investigation is necessary to study E. bieneusi infection among zoo animals in various regions and to determine the transmission route, in order to control E. bieneusi infection.


Assuntos
Enterocytozoon/isolamento & purificação , Leões , Microsporidiose/veterinária , República da Coreia , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Enterocytozoon/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Microsporidiose/microbiologia , Filogenia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
19.
Res Vet Sci ; 136: 453-463, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812288

RESUMO

In order to identify and evaluate health related constraints faced by Ugandan pig farmers, a veterinary herd health management approach (VHHM) was applied in 20 randomly selected pig farms in the Lira district, Uganda. Regular herd visits were conducted between July 2018 and June 2019, using e.g. interviews, observations, clinical examinations and laboratory analyzes to gather qualitative and quantitative data on relevant aspects of the production. The pig farmers kept on average 18.6 pigs, including 2.6 sows/year. The production figures varied considerably but were generally poor. The sows produced 1.6 litters/year and 8.2 piglets born alive per litter, the average daily gain was 101 g/day, and the mortality in growers was 9.7%. Four major constraints were identified; poor nutrition, infectious diseases, inferior biosecurity, and poor reproductive management. The quantity and quality of feed was suboptimal. Endo- and ectoparasites were very common, causing diarrhea, bronchitis, pneumonia, skin lesions and pruritus. Post-weaning diarrhea associated with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli was important in the two largest herds, and parvoviral antibodies were found in seven herds, two experiencing problems with mummified fetuses. Biosecurity practices were insufficient and inconsistent, with free-ranging pigs and the use of village boars being the major risks. Reproductive figures were affected by poor estrus detection and service management. Overall, farmers lacked important knowledge on good management practices. In conclusion, the VHHM identified several important constraints that should be addressed in order to increase the productivity of Ugandan pig herds.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Pobreza , Suínos , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/veterinária , Fazendas , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Reprodução , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Uganda , Medicina Veterinária , Desmame
20.
Res Vet Sci ; 136: 464-471, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819754

RESUMO

Diarrhea is the most common cause of mortality and morbidity in dairy calves during the first weeks of life. It is responsible for the majority of costs related to animal death and treatments, as well as lower productivity due to reduced weight gain. Therefore, studies that focus on strategies to reduce diarrhea incidence and to improve animal welfare are very important for the dairy industry. For that reason, the beneficial effects of red propolis on the health status of preweaned dairy calves was studied. Animal disease data usually present incomplete observations of interest time, so-called censored observations and one of the statistical techniques for this modeling type is the survival analysis, hence it is a set of methods for analyzing data where the response variable is the time until the occurrence of an event of interest. We propose among some methods of survival data analysis, the long-term models. The motivation to study these models is the fact that part of the population is not susceptible to the event of interest during the period of the study, considered as immune or cured. In this paper, we studied the Weibull distribution in a structure of long-term model, including the covariates in the proportion of cured through the logistic link function. Besides, we used the residual analysis to check the assumptions of the model. The reason for the choice of the Weibull distribution was that this model is very flexibility to model a variety of data sets, among them animal science and long-term survival data. We illustrate its application with a case study from an animal experiment, which examined the time till the occurrence of diarrhea in Holstein calves, where a proportion of the animals were not susceptible to this health condition. This experiment aimed to verify the efficiency of red propolis in disease prevention and the influence of that on the proportion of animals that are not susceptible to diarrhea.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/veterinária , Própole/uso terapêutico , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Incidência , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Ganho de Peso
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