Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.864
Filtrar
1.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372536

RESUMO

Equine rotavirus group A (ERVA) is one of the most common causes of foal diarrhea. Starting in February 2021, there was an increase in the frequency of severe watery to hemorrhagic diarrhea cases in neonatal foals in Central Kentucky. Diagnostic investigation of fecal samples failed to detect evidence of diarrhea-causing pathogens including ERVA. Based on Illumina-based metagenomic sequencing, we identified a novel equine rotavirus group B (ERVB) in fecal specimens from the affected foals in the absence of any other known enteric pathogens. Interestingly, the protein sequence of all 11 segments had greater than 96% identity with group B rotaviruses previously found in ruminants. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis demonstrated clustering of the ERVB with group B rotaviruses of caprine and bovine strains from the USA. Subsequent analysis of 33 foal diarrheic samples by RT-qPCR identified 23 rotavirus B-positive cases (69.69%). These observations suggest that the ERVB originated from ruminants and was associated with outbreaks of neonatal foal diarrhea in the 2021 foaling season in Kentucky. Emergence of the ruminant-like group B rotavirus in foals clearly warrants further investigation due to the significant impact of the disease in neonatal foals and its economic impact on the equine industry.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Cavalos/virologia , Rotavirus/patogenicidade , Animais , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Diarreia/etiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Fezes/virologia , Kentucky , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Rotavirus/classificação , Infecções por Rotavirus/veterinária
2.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372544

RESUMO

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), a highly transmissible intestinal pathogen, causes mild to severe clinical symptoms, such as anorexia, vomiting and watery diarrhea, in piglets and/or sows. Since the first report of PDCoV infection in Hong Kong in 2012, the virus has readily disseminated to North America and several countries in Asia. However, to date, no unified phylogenetic classification system has been developed. To fill this gap, we classified historical PDCoV reference strains into two major genogroups (G-I and G-II) and three subgroups (G-II-a, G-II-b and G-II-c). In addition, no genetic research on the whole PDCoV genome or spike gene has been conducted on isolates from Taiwan so far. To delineate the genetic characteristics of Taiwanese PDCoV, we performed whole-genome sequencing to decode the viral sequence. The PDCoV/104-553/TW-2015 strain is closely related to the G-II-b group, which is mainly composed of PDCoV variants from China. Additionally, various mutations in the Taiwanese PDCoV (104-553/TW-2015) strain might be linked to the probability of recombination with other genogroups of PDCoVs or other porcine coronaviruses. These results represent a pioneering phylogenetic characterization of the whole genome of a PDCoV strain isolated in Taiwan in 2015 and will potentially facilitate the development of applicable preventive strategies against this problematic virus.


Assuntos
Deltacoronavirus/classificação , Deltacoronavirus/genética , Suínos/virologia , Animais , Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Diarreia/genética , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Filogenia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Taiwan , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
3.
Arch Virol ; 166(10): 2847-2852, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363534

RESUMO

Porcine astrovirus (PAstV) is distributed worldwide and has been reported to cause diarrhea in pigs. PAstV belongs to the family Astroviridae and genus Mamastrovirus. PAstVs are divided into five diverse genotypes (PAstV1-PAstV5) on the basis of phylogenetic analysis of a part of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene and the capsid gene. However, knowledge regarding the clinical significance and molecular characteristics of PAstV in Haryana, India, is limited. In this study, we investigated the presence of PAstV by RT-PCR of the partial RdRp gene in 110 rectal swabs collected from diarrheic pigs in different parts of Haryana, India. Of these, 35 samples (31.8%) tested positive for PAstV, with the highest positivity observed among weaning piglets 3 to 9 weeks of age (47.7%, 21/44), followed by fattening pigs 9 to 24 weeks of age (28.5%, 8/28). Phylogenetic analysis of the partial RdRp gene revealed circulation of four different genotypes (PAstV1, PAstV2, PAstV4, and PAstV5) in Haryana, with PAstV1 being the predominant genotype. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of PAstV1 and PAstV5 in the pig population of India. The PAstV sequences revealed high genetic variability and genetic heterogeneity in a relatively confined area.


Assuntos
Infecções por Astroviridae/veterinária , Mamastrovirus/genética , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Infecções por Astroviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Astroviridae/virologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Diarreia/virologia , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Índia/epidemiologia , Mamastrovirus/classificação , Mamastrovirus/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/genética , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia
4.
J Gen Virol ; 102(8)2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424158

RESUMO

Bovine astrovirus (BoAstV) belongs to genus Mamastravirus (MAstV). It can be detected in the faeces of both diarrhoeal and healthy calves. However, its prevalence, genetic diversity, and association with cattle diarrhoea are poorly understood. In this study, faecal samples of 87 diarrhoeal and 77 asymptomatic calves from 20 farms in 12 provinces were collected, and BoAstV was detected with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The overall prevalence rate of this virus in diarrhoeal and asymptomatic calves was 55.17 % (95 % CI: 44.13, 65.85 %) and 36.36 % (95 % CI: 25.70, 48.12 %), respectively, indicating a correlation between BoAstV infection and calf diarrhoea (OR=2.15, P=0.024). BoAstV existed mainly in the form of co-infection (85.53 %) with one to five of nine viruses, and there was a strong positive correlation between BoAstV co-infection and calf diarrhoea (OR=2.83, P=0.004). Binary logistic regression analysis confirmed this correlation between BoAstV co-infection and calf diarrhoea (OR=2.41, P=0.038). The co-infection of BoAstV and bovine rotavirus (BRV) with or without other viruses accounted for 70.77 % of all the co-infection cases. The diarrhoea risk for the calves co-infected with BoAstV and BRV was 8.14-fold higher than that for the calves co-infected with BoAstV and other viruses (OR=8.14, P=0.001). Further, the co-infection of BoAstV/BRV/bovine kobuvirus (BKoV) might increase the risk of calf diarrhoea by 14.82-fold, compared with that of BoAstV and other viruses (OR=14.82, P <0.001). Then, nearly complete genomic sequences of nine BoAstV strains were assembled by using next-generation sequencing (NGS) method. Sequence alignment against known astrovirus (AstV) strains at the levels of both amino acids and nucleotides showed a high genetic diversity. Four genotypes were identified, including two known genotypes MAstV-28 (n=3) and MAstV-33 (n=2) and two novel genotypes designated tentatively as MAstV-34 (n=1) and MAstV-35 (n=3). In addition, seven out of nine BoAstV strains showed possible inter-genotype recombination and cross-species recombination. Therefore, our results increase the knowledge about the prevalence and the genetic evolution of BoAstV and provide evidence for the association between BoAstV infection and calf diarrhoea.


Assuntos
Infecções por Astroviridae , Doenças dos Bovinos , Coinfecção , Diarreia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/virologia , Infecções por Astroviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Astroviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Astroviridae/virologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Coinfecção/virologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Prevalência
5.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199978

RESUMO

Rotavirus A (RVA) has been considered the main cause of diarrheal disease in children under five years in emergency services in both developed and developing countries. RVA belongs to the Reoviridae family, which comprises 11 segments of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) as a genomic constellation that encodes for six structural and five to six nonstructural proteins. RVA has been classified in a binary system with Gx[Px] based on the spike protein (VP4) and the major outer capsid glycoprotein (VP7), respectively. The emerging equine-like G3P[8] DS-1-like strains reported worldwide in humans have arisen an important concern. Here, we carry out the complete genome characterization of a previously reported G3P[8] strain in order to recognize the genetic diversity of RVA circulating among infants in Colombia. A near-full genome phylogenetic analysis was done, confirming the presence of the novel equine-like G3P[8] with a Wa-like backbone for the first time in Colombia. This study demonstrated the importance of surveillance of emerging viruses in the Colombian population; furthermore, additional studies must focus on the understanding of the spread and transmission dynamic of this important RVA strain in different areas of the country.


Assuntos
Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Rotavirus , Criança , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Genes Virais , Genoma Viral , Genômica , Genótipo , Humanos , Filogenia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rotavirus/classificação , Rotavirus/genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/diagnóstico , Análise de Sequência de DNA
6.
Arch Virol ; 166(9): 2461-2468, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212242

RESUMO

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) can be spread by animal activity. Although cattle farming is widespread in Turkey, there are few studies of BCoV. The aim of this study was to evaluate the current situation regarding BCoV in Turkey. This is the first study reporting the full-length nucleotide sequences of BCoV spike (S) genes in Turkey. Samples were collected from 119 cattle with clinical signs of respiratory (n = 78) or digestive tract (n = 41) infection on different farms located across widely separated provinces in Turkey. The samples were screened for BCoV using RT-nested PCR targeting the N gene, which identified BCoV in 35 samples (9 faeces and 26 nasal discharge). RT-PCR analysis of the S gene produced partial/full-length S gene sequences from 11 samples (8 faeces and 3 nasal discharge samples). A phylogenetic tree of the S gene sequences was made to analyze the genetic relationships among BCoVs from Turkey and other countries. The results showed that the local strains present in faeces and nasal discharge samples had many different amino acid changes. Some of these changes were shown in previous studies to be critical for tropism. This study provides new data on BCoV in Turkey that will be valuable in designing effective vaccine approaches and control strategies.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus Bovino/genética , Diarreia/veterinária , RNA Viral/genética , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Agricultura , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Coronavirus Bovino/classificação , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária , Evolução Molecular , Fezes/virologia , Humanos , Mutação , Cavidade Nasal/virologia , Filogenia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Turquia/epidemiologia
7.
Arch Virol ; 166(9): 2369-2386, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216267

RESUMO

Rotaviruses are segmented double-stranded RNA viruses with a high frequency of gene reassortment, and they are a leading cause of global diarrheal deaths in children less than 5 years old. Two-thirds of rotavirus-associated deaths occur in low-income countries. Currently, the available vaccines in developing countries have lower efficacy in children than those in developed countries. Due to added safety concerns and the high cost of current vaccines, there is a need to develop cost-effective next-generation vaccines with improved safety and efficacy. The reverse genetics system (RGS) is a powerful tool for investigating viral protein functions and developing novel vaccines. Recently, an entirely plasmid-based RGS has been developed for several rotaviruses, and this technological advancement has significantly facilitated novel rotavirus research. Here, we review the recently developed RGS platform and discuss its application in studying infection biology, gene reassortment, and development of vaccines against rotavirus disease.


Assuntos
Genética Reversa , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/genética , Rotavirus/genética , Animais , Pré-Escolar , Análise Custo-Benefício , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Plasmídeos , RNA Viral/genética , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/economia , Proteínas Virais/genética
8.
Arch Virol ; 166(9): 2479-2486, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218319

RESUMO

Rotaviruses are important causative agents of acute gastroenteritis in children. In China, rotavirus infection has a prevalence rate of 30% and is therefore considered a serious public health problem. This study was carried out to investigate the clinical and molecular epidemiological characteristics of rotavirus infections in children under 5 years old with acute diarrhea in Shandong province, China. From July 2017 to June 2018, a total of 1211 fecal specimens were tested, and the prevalence of rotavirus infection was 32.12%. The mean age of the infected children was 12.2 ± 10.9 months, and the highest infection rate was observed in children aged 7-12 months, with a rate of 41.64%. G9P[8] (76.61%) was the most prevalent genotype combination, followed by G2P[4] (7.20%), G3P[8] (3.60%), and G9P[4] (2.06%). In addition to diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration were the most common clinical signs. In general, there was no significant difference in clinical manifestations among different age groups. However, the clinical manifestations differed significantly between vaccinated and unvaccinated children. Vaccinated children showed lower incidence and frequency of vomiting, lower incidence and degree of dehydration, and lower incidence of severe cases than unvaccinated children. These findings suggest that it is necessary to continuously monitor changes in the characteristics of rotavirus infections. Moreover, the introduction of vaccines into the national immunization program to prevent and control rotavirus infection is needed in China.


Assuntos
Epidemiologia Molecular , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Rotavirus/genética , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/virologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência , Infecções por Rotavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus , Vacinação
9.
Arch Virol ; 166(9): 2591-2596, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244861

RESUMO

Between 2016 and 2018, the prevalence of porcine kobuvirus (PKoV) and porcine astrovirus (PAstV) in Korean wild boars (n = 845) was 28.0% and 10.7%, respectively. Coinfection by both viruses was detected in 5.1% of boars. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 134 PKoV isolates belonged to diverse lineages within the species Aichivirus C; however, one strain (WKoV16CN-8627) clustered with bovine kobuvirus (Aichivirus B). Forty-seven PAstVs belonged to lineage PAstV4, and only one strain (WAst17JN-10931) was a novel addition to lineage PAstV2. The two viruses were more prevalent in boars weighing ≤ 60 kg than in boars weighing > 61 kg.


Assuntos
Kobuvirus/classificação , Kobuvirus/isolamento & purificação , Mamastrovirus/classificação , Mamastrovirus/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Sus scrofa/virologia , Animais , Infecções por Astroviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Astroviridae/virologia , Bovinos , DNA Viral , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Genótipo , Kobuvirus/genética , Mamastrovirus/genética , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
10.
Res Vet Sci ; 139: 32-42, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246941

RESUMO

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is an enteropathogenic coronavirus; it causes diarrhea in pigs and is associated with high morbidity and mortality in sucking piglets. In this study, we performed in vitro and in vivo experiments to determine the inhibitory effects of Lactobacillus plantarum metabolites (LPM) on PEDV replication. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed exopolysaccharides to be one of the main components of LPM. We then determine whether L. plantarum exopolysaccharides (LPE) have an antiviral effect and also detected the expression levels of the apoptosis-related genes Bax and Bcl-2 and of the pro-apoptotic protein caspase-3. Further, we assessed the transcription levels of an immune-related protein (STAT1) and antiviral factors (MX1, MX2, ISG15, ZAP, PKR, and OAS1). Our results showed that the most effective method was to pretreat cells with LPM and that the optimal dose of LPM that could be safely administered to Vero cells was 1/8 times of the stock solution. LPE had a strong inhibitory effect on PEDV; the most effective method of administration was to co-incubate cells with LPE and PEDV, and the optimal concentration of LPE was 1.35 mg/mL. To conclude, LPE prevented PEDV adsorption and also alleviated inflammatory responses and induced early apoptosis of injured cells, but it could not regulate the immune function of cells.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças dos Suínos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/veterinária , Diarreia/virologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/imunologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Células Vero , Ligação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Virus Genes ; 57(4): 338-357, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34106412

RESUMO

The exact evolutionary patterns of human G4P[6] rotavirus strains remain to be elucidated. Such strains possess unique and strain-specific genotype constellations, raising the question of whether G4P[6] strains are primarily transmitted via independent interspecies transmission or human-to-human transmission after interspecies transmission. Two G4P[6] rotavirus strains were identified in fecal specimens from hospitalized patients with severe diarrhea in Thailand, namely, DU2014-259 (RVA/Human-wt/THA/DU2014-259/2014/G4P[6]) and PK2015-1-0001 (RVA/Human-wt/THA/PK2015-1-0001/2015/G4P[6]). Here, we analyzed the full genomes of the two human G4P[6] strains, which provided the opportunity to study and confirm their evolutionary origin. On whole genome analysis, both strains exhibited a unique Wa-like genotype constellation of G4-P[6]-I1-R1-C1-M1-A8-N1-T1-E1-H1. The NSP1 genotype A8 is commonly found in porcine rotavirus strains. Furthermore, on phylogenetic analysis, each of the 11 genes of strains DU2014-259 and PK2015-1-0001 appeared to be of porcine origin. On the other hand, the two study strains consistently formed distinct clusters for nine of the 11 gene segments (VP4, VP6, VP1-VP3, and NSP2-NSP5), strongly indicating the occurrence of independent porcine-to-human interspecies transmission events. Our observations provide important insights into the origin of zoonotic G4P[6] strains, and into the dynamic interaction between porcine and human rotavirus strains.


Assuntos
Diarreia/genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/genética , Rotavirus/genética , Doenças dos Suínos/genética , Animais , Diarreia/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Humanos , Filogenia , Rotavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Rotavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Suínos/genética , Suínos/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
12.
Arch Virol ; 166(8): 2273-2278, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059971

RESUMO

Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) is a highly contagious infectious pathogen of cats globally. However, there is no information on the molecular identification and characterization of FPV in Bangladesh. Here, 8.16% (8/98) and 18.37% (18/98) of diarrheic cats tested positive for FPV by an immunochromatography (IC) test and PCR, respectively. The IC test showed 44.44% sensitivity and 100% specificity in comparison with PCR. Our newly sequenced Bangladeshi FPV strain (MN826076) showed the highest (99.71%) sequence identity to strains from the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Strain MN826076 contained two characteristic amino acid variations in VP2 identifying it as an FPV strain: valine at position 103 and aspartic acid at position 323. Phylogenetically, the VP2 of strain MN826076 was found to be closely related to 19 FPV strains, sharing the same clade.


Assuntos
Diarreia/veterinária , Diarreia/virologia , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/classificação , Panleucopenia Felina/diagnóstico , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Animais , Bangladesh , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Gatos , China , Cromatografia de Afinidade , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/genética , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Portugal , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tailândia , Emirados Árabes Unidos
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 614, 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the global roll-out of rotavirus vaccines (RotaTeq/Rotarix / ROTAVAC/Rotasiil), mortality and morbidity due to group A rotavirus (RVA) remains high in sub-Saharan Africa, causing 104,000 deaths and 600,000 hospitalizations yearly. In Cameroon, Rotarix™ was introduced in March 2014, but, routine laboratory diagnosis of rotavirus infection is not yet a common practice, and vaccine effectiveness studies to determine the impact of vaccine introduction have not been done. Thus, studies examining RVA prevalence post vaccine introduction are needed. The study aim was to determine RVA prevalence in severe diarrhoea cases in Littoral region, Cameroon and investigate the role of other diarrheagenic pathogens in RVA-positive cases. METHODS: We carried out a study among hospitalized children < 5 years of age, presenting with acute gastroenteritis in selected hospitals of the Littoral region of Cameroon, from May 2015 to April 2016. Diarrheic stool samples and socio-demographic data including immunization and breastfeeding status were collected from these participating children. Samples were screened by ELISA (ProSpecT™ Rotavirus) for detection of RVA antigen and by gel-based RT-PCR for detection of the VP6 gene. Co-infection was assessed by multiplexed molecular detection of diarrheal pathogens using the Luminex xTAG GPP assay. RESULTS: The ELISA assay detected RVA antigen in 54.6% (71/130) of specimens, with 45, positive by VP6 RT-PCR and 54, positive using Luminex xTAG GPP. Luminex GPP was able to detect all 45 VP6 RT-PCR positive samples. Co-infections were found in 63.0% (34/54) of Luminex positive RVA infections, with Shigella (35.3%; 12/34) and ETEC (29.4%; 10/34) detected frequently. Of the 71 ELISA positive RVA cases, 57.8% (41/71) were fully vaccinated, receiving two doses of Rotarix. CONCLUSION: This study provides insight on RVA prevalence in Cameroon, which could be useful for post-vaccine epidemiological studies, highlights higher than expected RVA prevalence in vaccinated children hospitalized for diarrhoea and provides the trend of RVA co-infection with other enteric pathogens. RVA genotyping is needed to determine circulating rotavirus genotypes in Cameroon, including those causing disease in vaccinated children.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas do Capsídeo/isolamento & purificação , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Rotavirus/genética , Bioensaio , Camarões/epidemiologia , Criança Hospitalizada , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Infecções por Rotavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Rotavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/uso terapêutico , Vacinação , Vacinas Atenuadas/uso terapêutico
14.
Virus Genes ; 57(3): 284-288, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33970402

RESUMO

Lyon IARC polyomavirus (LIPyV), a newly discovered polyomavirus (PyV), was first identified in 2017 in human skin samples in the USA. Later, it was detected in several other countries in samples of human and feline origin. Our aim was to find out if the virus occurs in China. To this end, 100 fecal samples were collected from cats with diarrhea in Guangxi Province during 2016 and 2018 and tested with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Only 2 samples that originated from two related individuals were found to be positive. Based on the sequence identity of the 240-bp PCR products, the two positive samples supposedly contained identical viruses. Therefore, only one of them, which was designated as LIPyV-GXNN01, was selected for full genome amplification, cloning, sequencing and analysis. LIPyV-GXNN01, which comprises 5,263 nucleotides, has an early region that consists of small T antigen (ST-Ag) and large T antigen (LT-Ag) and a late region coding for the VP1, VP2, and VP3 structural proteins. Moreover, the LIPyV-GXNN01 strain structural proteins share 95.9-99.4%, 97.6-99.2%, and 97.1-99.2% nucleic acid identity with the VP1, VP2, and VP3of other LIPyV reference strains, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that GXNN01 clustered together with previously reported LIPyV strain. This present study is the first report of LIPyV in China.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais de Tumores/genética , Diarreia/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Polyomavirus/genética , Animais , Gatos , Diarreia/virologia , Humanos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Polyomavirus/isolamento & purificação , Polyomavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Polyomavirus/genética , Infecções por Polyomavirus/virologia , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
15.
J Gen Virol ; 102(5)2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950806

RESUMO

Rotavirus C (RVC) is associated with acute diarrhoea in both children and young animals. Because of its frequent occurrence, additional sequences have recently been generated. In this study, we sequenced 21 complete genomes from porcine diarrhoea samples and analysed them together with all available reference sequences collected from the GenBank database [National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)]. Based on phylogenetic analysis and genetic distance calculation, the number of each segment was identified as 31G, 26P, 13I, 5R, 5C, 5M, 12A, 10 N, 9T, 8E and 4 H for genotypes encoding VP7, VP4, VP6, VP1, VP2, VP3 and NSP1, NSP2, NSP3, NSP4 and NSP5, respectively. From the analysis, genotypes G19-G31, P[22]-P[26], R5, A9-A12, N9-N10, T7-T9 and E6-E8 were defined as newly identified genotypes, and genotype C6 was combined with C5, and M6 was combined with M1, due to their closely related nature. Estimated with the identity frequency ratio between the intergenotype and intragenotype, the nucleotide identity cutoff values for different genotypes were determined as 85, 85, 86, 84, 83, 84, 82, 87, 84, 81 and 79 % for VP7, VP4, VP6, VP1, VP2, VP3, NSP1, NSP2, NSP3, NSP4 and NSP5, respectively. Genotyping of the 49 US strains indicated possible segment reassortment in 9 of the 11 segments, with the exceptions being VP1 and NSP5, and the most prevalent genotypes for each segment genes in the USA were G6/G5/G21/G9-P5/P4-I6/I5-R1-C5-M1-A8-N1/N10-T1-E1-H1. Our study updated the genotypes of RVC strains and provided more evidence of RVC strain diversity that may be relevant to better understand genetic diversity, and the distribution and evolution of RVC strains.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Genoma Viral , Infecções por Rotavirus/veterinária , Rotavirus/classificação , Rotavirus/genética , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Diarreia/veterinária , Diarreia/virologia , Evolução Molecular , Genes Virais , Genótipo , Filogenia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Suínos , Estados Unidos , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
16.
Pediatr Dev Pathol ; 24(5): 445-449, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34048305

RESUMO

Millions of patients seek medical attention for diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, and abdominal pain. In the current environment, it is important to recognize that these symptoms may be the only manifestation or may precede more serious systemic complications of COVID-19. Herein, we describe the first case of ischemic colitis (IC) in a young adult who presented with diarrhea and highlight the laboratory pitfalls for patients with COVID-19 presenting with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Colite Isquêmica/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Down/fisiopatologia , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Adolescente , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Colite Isquêmica/complicações , Colite Isquêmica/fisiopatologia , Diarreia/complicações , Diarreia/virologia , Síndrome de Down/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Down/virologia , Gastroenteropatias/complicações , Gastroenteropatias/virologia , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res ; 21(4): 811-819, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34008471

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: World Health Organization recommends rotavirus vaccine for all national immunization programs (NIPs). To provide country-specific evidence, we conducted economic evaluation of a monovalent rotavirus vaccination using specific data of the pilot phase in Thailand. METHOD: A Markov model was adopted to compare the 2020 birth cohort once receiving rotavirus vaccination versus no vaccination from healthcare and societal perspective over five years. Data on disease burden, vaccine effectiveness, costs, and utilities were taken from a cohort study in two provinces of Thailand.  Sensitivity analyses were performed to test the robustness of the results. RESULTS: Rotavirus vaccination would reduce rotavirus diarrhea and costs of illness by 48% and 71%, respectively, over the first five years of life. At USD 13 per dose, vaccine was cost-effective with the ICERs of USD 4,114 and USD 1,571per QALY gained from healthcare and societal perspective, respectively. Results were sensitive to incidence and vaccine cost.  The budget for vaccine purchasing was estimated at USD13 million per year. CONCLUSION: Incorporating rotavirus vaccination into the NIP substantially reduced health and cost outcomes and was cost-effective for both perspectives. However, the government needs to negotiate vaccine price prior to program implementation to achieve favorable budget impact.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização/economia , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinação/economia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Análise Custo-Benefício , Diarreia/economia , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Cadeias de Markov , Projetos Piloto , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Infecções por Rotavirus/economia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/economia , Tailândia
18.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 24: 100567, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34024383

RESUMO

Cryptosporidiosis of neonatal dairy calves causes diarrhea, resulting in important economic losses. In Argentina, prevalence values of Cryptosporidium spp. and other enteropathogens such as group A rotavirus (RVA), bovine coronavirus (BCoV) and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC, endotoxin STa+), have been independently studied in different regions. However, an integrative epidemiological investigation on large-scale farms has not been carried out. In this study, fecal samples (n = 908) were randomly collected from diarrheic and healthy calves from 42 dairy farms, and analyzed for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp., RVA, BCoV, ETEC (STa+) and Salmonella spp. In all sampled dairy farms, dams had been vaccinated against rotavirus and gram-negative bacteria to protect calves against neonatal diarrhea. The proportion of calves shedding Cryptosporidium spp., RVA, and BCoV in animals younger than 20 days of age were 29.8%, 12.4% and 6.4%, and in calves aged between 21 and 90 days, 5.6%, 3.9%, and 1.8%, respectively. ETEC was absent in the younger, and occurred only sporadically in the older group (0.9%), whereas Salmonella spp. was absent in both. The observed sporadic finding or even absence of bacterial pathogens might be explained by the frequent use of parenteral antibiotics in 25.3% and 6.5% of the younger and the older group of calves, respectively, within 2 days prior to sampling and/or vaccination of dams against gram-negative bacteria. Diarrhea was observed in 28.8% (95% CI, 24.7-32.8%) of the younger calves and 11.7% (95% CI, 9.1-15.5%) of the older calves. Importantly, Cryptosporidium spp. (odds ratio (OR) = 5.7; 95% CI, 3.3-9.9; p < 0.0001) and RVA (OR = 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.1; p < 0.05) were both found to be risk factors for diarrhea in calves younger than 20 days old. Based on its high prevalence and OR, our results strongly suggest that Cryptosporidium spp. is the principal causative factor for diarrhea in the group of neonatal calves, whereas RVA seems to play a secondary role in the etiology of diarrhea in the studied farms, with about three-times lower prevalence and a half as high OR. Furthermore, a coinfection rate of Cryptosporidium spp. and RVA of 3.7% was observed in the group of younger calves, which strengthens the assumption that these events are independent. In contrast, due to a low infection rate of enteropathogens in older calves, mixed infection (<< 1%) was virtually absent in this group.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/patogenicidade , Indústria de Laticínios , Diarreia/veterinária , Infecções por Rotavirus/veterinária , Fatores Etários , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Argentina/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavirus Bovino/genética , Coronavirus Bovino/patogenicidade , Cryptosporidium/genética , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/parasitologia , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Rotavirus/genética , Rotavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 426, 2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957883

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Rotavirus A (RVA) is a significant cause of severe diarrheal illness and one of the common causes of death in children under the age of five. This study was aimed at detecting the prevalence of RVA in Pakistan after rotavirus vaccines were introduced. Fecal samples were obtained from 813 children from different hospitals in Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan, from January 2018 to December 2018. To obtain additional information from the parents / guardians of the children, a standard questionnaire was used. RESULTS: Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit (ELISA), rotavirus antigen was detected and ELISA positive samples were subjected to reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). The findings showed 22% prevalence of RVA in children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) via ELISA and 21% prevalence via RT-PCR in children with AGE. There was no statistically significant difference between gender, age and RVA infections. The winter, spring and fall/autumn seasons were statistically significant for RVA prevalence. CONCLUSION: The present study will provide post vaccine prevalence data for the health policy makers. The implementation of rotavirus vaccines, along with adequate nutrition for babies, clean water supply and maternal hygienic activities during infant feeding, is recommended. Furthermore, continuous surveillance is mandatory in the whole country to calculate the disease burden caused by RVA.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Rotavirus/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Estações do Ano
20.
Turk J Gastroenterol ; 32(2): 148-154, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33960938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), have fever, dry cough, dyspnea, and fatigue. The disease has now become a global pandemic. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between COVID-19 and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. METHODS: We collected and analyzed data on patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 by high-throughput sequencing or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. We reviewed electronic medical records of 405 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the Third Hospital of Wuhan. RESULTS: Among the 405 confirmed patients, 210 had no GI symptoms, 195 had GI symptoms, and the first symptom of 155 patients was GI. The prevalence of vascular and digestive diseases in the group with GI symptoms was significantly higher than in the group without GI symptoms. In patients with GI symptoms, the proportion with fever, cough, dysphoria, chest tightness, poor appetite, chest pain, and pharyngeal pain was significantly higher than in those without GI symptoms. There was no significant difference in imaging between the 2 groups. In patients with GI symptoms, the proportion with increased procalcitonin (PCT) level and decreased lymphocyte count was significantly higher than in those without GI symptoms. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 patients with GI symptoms had significantly more vascular and digestive system diseases and were more likely to have clinical manifestations of fever, cough, poor appetite, chest tightness, chest pain, insomnia, and pharyngeal pain. There were more patients with diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. Patients with GI symptoms were more likely to have increased PCT and decreased lymphocyte count.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/virologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Diarreia/sangue , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Náusea/sangue , Náusea/epidemiologia , Náusea/virologia , Pró-Calcitonina/sangue , Vômito/sangue , Vômito/epidemiologia , Vômito/virologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...