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1.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0273148, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36190936

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION & BACKGROUND: Prolonged (duration >7 to 13 days) diarrhea (ProD) in under-five children is a universal health problem including Bangladesh. Data on epidemiology and associated or risk factors of ProD are limited, particularly in Bangladesh where a high burden of ProD is reported. This study intended to assess the case load of ProD and its associated or risk factors compared to acute diarrhea (AD, duration ≤7 days). METHODS: We analyzed the data collected between 1996-2014 from a hospital-based Diarrheal-Disease-Surveillance-System (DDSS) in the 'Dhaka Hospital' of International Centre for Diarrhoeal Diseases, Bangladesh (icddr,b). The DDSS enrolled a 2% systematic sample, regardless of age, sex, and diarrhea severity. The data included information on socio-demographic factors, environmental history, clinical characteristics, nutritional status, and diarrhea-pathogens. After cleaning of data, relevant information of 21,566 under-five children were available who reported with ≤13 days diarrhea (including AD and ProD), and their data were analyzed. Variables found significantly associated with ProD compared to AD in bi-variate analysis were used in logistic regression model after checking the multicollinearity between independent variables. RESULTS: The mean±SD age of the children was 14.9±11.7 months and 40.4% were female; 7.6% had ProD and 92.4% had AD. Age <12 months, mucoid- or bloody-stool, warmer months (April-September), drug used at home before seeking care from hospital, and history of diarrhea within last one month were found associated with ProD (p<0.05); however, rotavirus infection was less common in children with ProD (p<0.05). ProD children more often needed inpatient admission than AD children (14.4 vs. 6.3, p<0.001). Case fatality rate of ProD vs. AD was 0.3% (n = 5) vs. 0.1% (n- = 22) respectively (p = 0.051). CONCLUSION: A considerable proportion (7.6%) of under-five children reporting to icddr,b hospital suffered from ProD. Understanding the above-mentioned associated or risk factors is likely to help policy makers formulating appropriate strategies for alleviating the burden and effectively managing ProD in under-five children.


Assuntos
Diarreia , Infecções por Rotavirus , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Infecções por Rotavirus/complicações , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia
2.
J Virol ; 96(17): e0006522, 2022 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35993737

RESUMO

Swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV) is a recently emerging bat-borne coronavirus responsible for high mortality rates in piglets. In vitro studies have indicated that SADS-CoV has a wide tissue tropism in different hosts, including humans. However, whether this virus potentially threatens other animals remains unclear. Here, we report the experimental infection of wild-type BALB/c and C57BL/6J suckling mice with SADS-CoV. We found that mice less than 7 days old are susceptible to the virus, which caused notable multitissue infections and damage. The mortality rate was the highest in 2-day-old mice and decreased in older mice. Moreover, a preliminary neuroinflammatory response was observed in 7-day-old SADS-CoV-infected mice. Thus, our results indicate that SADS-CoV has potential pathogenicity in young hosts. IMPORTANCE SADS-CoV, which likely has originated from bat coronaviruses, is highly pathogenic to piglets and poses a threat to the swine industry. Little is known about its potential to disseminate to other animals. No efficient treatment is available, and the quarantine strategy is the only preventive measure. In this study, we demonstrated that SADS-CoV can efficiently replicate in suckling mice younger than 7 days. In contrast to infected piglets, in which intestinal tropism is shown, SADS-CoV caused infection and damage in all murine tissues evaluated in this study. In addition, neuroinflammatory responses were detected in some of the infected mice. Our work provides a preliminary cost-effective model for the screening of antiviral drugs against SADS-CoV infection.


Assuntos
Alphacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Diarreia , Camundongos , Doenças dos Suínos , Alphacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Animais , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Diarreia/complicações , Diarreia/veterinária , Diarreia/virologia , Humanos , Camundongos/virologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias/complicações , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias/veterinária , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias/virologia , Suínos/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
3.
J Virol ; 96(15): e0055022, 2022 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35862708

RESUMO

The basis for rotavirus (RV) host range restriction (HRR) is not fully understood but is likely multigenic. RV genes encoding VP3, VP4, NSP1, NSP2, NSP3, and NSP4 have been associated with HRR in various studies. With the exception of NSP1, little is known about the relative contribution of the other RV genes to HRR. VP4 has been linked to HRR because it functions as the RV cell attachment protein, but its actual role in HRR has not been fully assessed. We generated a collection of recombinant RVs (rRVs) in an isogenic murine-like RV genetic background, harboring either heterologous or homologous VP4 genes from simian, bovine, porcine, human, and murine RV strains, and characterized these rRVs in vitro and in vivo. We found that a murine-like rRV encoding a simian VP4 was shed, spread to uninoculated littermates, and induced diarrhea comparably to rRV harboring a murine VP4. However, rRVs carrying VP4s from both bovine and porcine RVs had reduced diarrhea, but no change in fecal shedding was observed. Both diarrhea and shedding were reduced when VP4 originated from a human RV strain. rRVs harboring VP4s from human or bovine RVs did not transmit to uninoculated littermates. We also generated two rRVs harboring reciprocal chimeric murine or bovine VP4. Both chimeras replicated and caused disease as efficiently as the parental strain with a fully murine VP4. These data suggest that the genetic origin of VP4 partially modulates HRR in the suckling mouse and that both the VP8* and VP5* domains independently contribute to pathogenesis and transmission. IMPORTANCE Human group A rotaviruses (RVs) remain the most important cause of severe acute gastroenteritis among infants and young children worldwide despite the introduction of several safe and effective live attenuated vaccines. The lack of knowledge regarding fundamental aspects of RV biology, such as the genetic basis of host range restriction (HRR), has made it difficult to predictively and efficiently design improved, next-generation live attenuated rotavirus vaccines. Here, we engineered a collection of VP4 monoreassortant RVs to systematically explore the role of VP4 in replication, pathogenicity, and spread, as measures of HRR, in a suckling mouse model. The genetic and mechanistic bases of HRR have substantial clinical relevance given that this restriction forms the basis of attenuation for several replication-competent human RV vaccines. In addition, a better understanding of RV pathogenesis and the determinants of RV spread is likely to enhance our ability to improve antiviral drug and therapy development.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Capsídeo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Infecções por Rotavirus , Rotavirus , Animais , Animais Lactentes , Proteínas do Capsídeo/metabolismo , Bovinos/virologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Diarreia/virologia , Haplorrinos/virologia , Humanos , Hibridização Genética , Camundongos/virologia , Rotavirus/classificação , Rotavirus/patogenicidade , Rotavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Rotavirus/veterinária , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Suínos/virologia , Vacinas Atenuadas , Virulência , Replicação Viral/genética
4.
J Virol ; 96(11): e0046922, 2022 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35583324

RESUMO

Coronavirus (CoV) nonstructural protein 1 (nsp1) inhibits cellular gene expression and antagonizes interferon (IFN) response. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infects pigs and causes high mortality in neonatal piglets. We hypothesized that a recombinant PEDV carrying mutations at the conserved residues N93 and N95 of nsp1 induces higher IFN responses and is more sensitive to IFN responses, leading to virus attenuation. We mutated PEDV nsp1 N93 and N95 to A93 and A95 to generate the recombinant N93/95A virus using the infectious clone of a highly virulent PEDV strain, PC22A (icPC22A), and evaluated N93/95A virus in vitro and in vivo. Compared with icPC22A, the N93/95A mutant replicated to significantly lower infectious titers, triggered stronger type I and III IFN responses, and was more sensitive to IFN treatment in vitro. To evaluate the pathogenicity and immunogenicity, 5-day-old gnotobiotic piglets were orally inoculated with the N93/95A or icPC22A strain or mock inoculated and then challenged at 22 days postinoculation (dpi) with icPC22A. icPC22A in all pigs (100% [5/5]) caused severe diarrhea and death within 6 dpi. Only one pig (25% [1/4]) died in the N93/95A group. Compared with the icPC22A group, significantly delayed and diminished fecal PEDV shedding was detected in the N93/95A group. Postchallenge, all piglets in N93/95A group were protected from severe diarrhea and death, whereas all pigs in the mock-challenged group developed severe diarrhea, and 25% (1/4) of them died. In summary, nsp1 N93A and N95A mutations attenuated PEDV but retained viral immunogenicity and can be targets for the development of live attenuated vaccines for PEDV. IMPORTANCE PEDV causes porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) and remains a great threat to the swine industry worldwide because no effective vaccines are available yet. Safe and effective live attenuated vaccines can be designed using reverse genetics to induce lactogenic immunity in pregnant sows to protect piglets from the deadly PED. We found that an engineered PEDV mutant carrying N93A and N95A mutations of nsp1 was partially attenuated and remained immunogenic in neonatal pigs. Our study suggested that nsp1 N93 and N95 can be good targets for the rational design of live attenuated vaccines for PEDV using reverse genetics. Because CoV nsp1 is conserved among alphacoronaviruses (α-CoVs) and betacoronaviruses (ß-CoVs), it may be a good target for vaccine development for other α-CoVs or ß-CoVs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Interferons , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína , Doenças dos Suínos , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Diarreia/veterinária , Diarreia/virologia , Feminino , Interferons/imunologia , Mutação , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética
5.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0264577, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35213667

RESUMO

Bovine rotavirus (BRV) is considered the leading cause of calf diarrhea worldwide, including Bangladesh. In this study we aimed to identify risk factors for BRV infection and determine the G and P genotypes of BRV strains in diarrheic calves. Fecal samples were collected from 200 diarrheic calves in three districts between January 2014 and October 2015. These samples were screened to detect the presence of BRV using rapid test-strips BIO K 152 (RTSBK). The RTSBK positive samples were further tested by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the silver staining technique to detect rotavirus dsRNA. Risk factors were identified by multivariable logistic regression analysis. The G and P genotypes of BRV were determined by RT-PCR and sequencing. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the neighbor-joining method using CLC sequence viewer 8.0. About 23% of the diarrheic calves were BRV positive. The odds of BRV infection were 3.8- (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.0-14.7) and 3.9-times (95% CI:1.1-14.2) higher in Barisal and Madaripur districts, respectively, than Sirrajganj. The risk of BRV infection was 3.1-times (95% CI: 1.5-6.5) higher in calves aged ≤ 5 weeks than those aged >5 weeks. Moreover, the risk of BRV infection was 2.6-times (95% CI:1.1-5.8) higher in crossbred (Holstein Friesian, Shahiwal) than indigenous calves. G6P[11] was the predominant genotype (94.4%), followed by G10P[11] (5.6%). The BRV G6 strains were found to be closest (98.9-99.9%) to Indian strains, and BRV G10 strains showed 99.9% identities with Indian strain. The VP4 gene of all P[11] strains showed >90% identities to each other and also with Indian strains. The most frequently identified BRV genotype was G6P[11]. About 23% of calf diarrhea cases were associated with BRV. To control disease, high-risk areas and younger crossbred calves should be targeted for surveillance and management. The predominant genotype could be utilized as the future vaccine candidate or vaccines with the dominant genotype should be used to control BRV diarrhea in Bangladesh.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Diarreia/patologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/diagnóstico , Rotavirus/genética , Animais , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/classificação , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Masculino , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Rotavirus/classificação , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia
6.
Cell Rep ; 38(1): 110172, 2022 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986351

RESUMO

During the 2013-2016 West African (WA) Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak, severe gastrointestinal symptoms were common in patients and associated with poor outcome. Delta peptide is a conserved product of post-translational processing of the abundant EBOV soluble glycoprotein (sGP). The murine ligated ileal loop model was used to demonstrate that delta peptide is a potent enterotoxin. Dramatic intestinal fluid accumulation follows injection of biologically relevant amounts of delta peptide into ileal loops, along with gross alteration of villous architecture and loss of goblet cells. Transcriptomic analyses show that delta peptide triggers damage response and cell survival pathways and downregulates expression of transporters and exchangers. Induction of diarrhea by delta peptide occurs via cellular damage and regulation of genes that encode proteins involved in fluid secretion. While distinct differences exist between the ileal loop murine model and EBOV infection in humans, these results suggest that delta peptide may contribute to EBOV-induced gastrointestinal pathology.


Assuntos
Ebolavirus/metabolismo , Enterotoxinas/toxicidade , Gastroenterite/virologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/patologia , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/toxicidade , Animais , Diarreia/virologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
7.
Viruses ; 14(1)2022 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35062336

RESUMO

Group A rotaviruses remain the leading cause of diarrhoea in children aged <5 years. Mozambique introduced rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix®) in September 2015. We report rotavirus genotypes circulating among symptomatic and asymptomatic children in Manhiça District, Mozambique, pre- and post-vaccine introduction. Stool was collected from enrolled children and screened for rotavirus by enzyme-immuno-sorbent assay. Positive specimens were genotyped for VP7 (G genotypes) and VP4 (P genotypes) by the conventional reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The combination G12P[8] was more frequently observed in pre-vaccine than in post-vaccine introduction, in moderate to severe diarrhoea (34%, 61/177 vs. 0, p < 0.0001) and controls (23%, 26/113 vs. 0, p = 0.0013) and mixed genotypes (36%, 24/67 vs. 7% 4/58, p = 0.0003) in less severe diarrhoea. We observed changes in post-vaccine compared to pre-vaccine introduction, where G3P[4] and G3P[8] were prevalent in moderate to severe diarrhoea (10%, 5/49 vs. 0, p = 0.0002; and 14%, 7/49 vs. 1%, 1/177, p < 0.0001; respectively), and in less severe diarrhoea (21%, 12/58 vs. 0, p = 0.003; and 24%, 14/58 vs. 0, p < 0.0001; respectively). Our surveillance demonstrated the circulation of similar genotypes contemporaneously among cases and controls, as well as switching from pre- to post-vaccine introduction. Continuous surveillance is needed to evaluate the dynamics of the changes in genotypes following vaccine introduction.


Assuntos
Epidemiologia Molecular , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Rotavirus/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus , Vacinas Atenuadas
8.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 145: 112398, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781142

RESUMO

Rotavirus (RV) is one of the main pathogens that induce infantile diarrhea and by now no effective drugs are available for RV-induced infantile diarrhea. Thus the development of novel models is of vital importance for the pathological research of RV-induced infantile diarrhea, as well as the progress of the associated treatment strategy. Here we introduced for the first time that RV-Wa strain and RV-SA-11 strain could infect 5 dpf(day post fertilization) and 28 dpf larvae, to induce infantile diarrhea model that was highly consistent with the clinical infection of infants. RV infection significantly changed the signs, survival rate and inflammation of larvae. Some important indicators, including the levels of RV antigen VP4 and VP6, the in vivo RV tracking, and the RV particles were also analyzed, which collectively demonstrated that the model was successfully established. More importantly, we also determined the potentials of the proposed RV-infected zebrafish model for anti-viral drug assessment. In conclusion, we established a RV-infected zebrafish model with formulated relevant indicators both larvae and adult fish, which might be served as a high throughput platform for antiviral drug screening.


Assuntos
Diarreia/virologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Larva , Taxa de Sobrevida , Peixe-Zebra
9.
Virology ; 567: 26-33, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34952414

RESUMO

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is an emerging swine enteropathogenic coronavirus that cause severe diarrhea, resulting in high mortality in neonatal piglets. Little is known regarding the pathogenicity of PDCoV in different infective dose and the dynamic changes in the composition of the gut microbiota in PDCoV-induced diarrhea piglets. In this study, 5-day-old piglets were experimentally infected with different dose of PDCoV. The challenged piglets developed typical symptoms, characterized by acute and severe watery diarrhea from 1 to 8 days post-inoculation (DPI), and viral shedding was detected in rectal swab until 11 DPI. Tissues of small intestines displayed significant macroscopic and microscopic lesions with clear viral antigen expression. However, no significant differences among groups were found in challenged piglets. Then alteration in gut microbiota in the jejunum and colon of PDCoV infected-piglets were analyzed using 16S rRNA sequencing. PDCoV infection reduced bacterial diversity and richness, and significantly altered the structure and abundance of the microbiota from the phylum to genus. Fusobacterium, and Proteobacteria was significantly increased (P < 0.05), while the abundance of Bacteroidota was markedly decreased in the infected-piglets. Furthermore, microbial function prediction indicated that the changes in intestinal bacterial also affected the immune system, excretory system, circulatory system, neurodegenerative disease, cardiovascular disease, xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism, etc. These findings suggest that regulating gut microbiota community may be an effective approach for preventing PDCoV infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Deltacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Antígenos Virais/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Colo/microbiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/microbiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Diarreia/patologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Diarreia/virologia , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/patologia , Jejuno/microbiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/patologia , Virulência , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Aumento de Peso
11.
Pediatrics ; 149(1)2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34918158

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To inform next steps in pediatric diarrhea burden reduction by understanding the shifting enteropathogen landscape after rotavirus vaccine implementation. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of 1788 medically attended children younger than 5 years, with and without gastroenteritis, after universal rotavirus vaccine implementation in Peru. We tested case and control stools for 5 viruses, 19 bacteria, and parasites; calculated coinfection-adjusted attributable fractions (AFs) to determine pathogen-specific burdens; and evaluated pathogen-specific gastroenteritis severity using Clark and Vesikari scales. RESULTS: Six pathogens were independently positively associated with gastroenteritis: norovirus genogroup II (GII) (AF 29.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 28.0-32.3), rotavirus (AF 8.9, 95% CI: 6.8-9.7), sapovirus (AF 6.3, 95% CI: 4.3-7.4), astrovirus (AF 2.8, 95% CI: 0.0-4.0); enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat stable and/or heat labile and heat stable (AF 2.4, 95% CI: 0.6-3.1), and Shigella spp. (AF 2.0, 95% CI: 0.4-2.2). Among typeable rotavirus cases, we most frequently identified partially heterotypic strain G12P[8] (54 of 81, 67%). Mean severity was significantly higher for norovirus GII-positive cases relative to norovirus GII-negative cases (Vesikari [12.7 vs 11.8; P < .001] and Clark [11.7 vs 11.4; P = .016]), and cases in the 6- to 12-month age range relative to cases in other age groups (Vesikari [12.7 vs 12.0; P = .0002] and Clark [12.0 vs 11.4; P = .0016]). CONCLUSIONS: Norovirus is well recognized as the leading cause of pediatric gastroenteritis in settings with universal rotavirus vaccination. However, sapovirus is often overlooked. Both norovirus and sapovirus contribute significantly to the severe pediatric disease burden in this setting. Decision-makers should consider multivalent vaccine acquisition strategies to target multiple caliciviruses in similar countries after successful rotavirus vaccine implementation.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/virologia , Gastroenterite/parasitologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Norovirus/genética , Peru , Estudos Prospectivos , Rotavirus/genética , Sapovirus/genética , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
12.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 367, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34852811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is one of the most common clinical symptoms in cats and can be caused by infectious pathogens and investigation of the prevalence, co-infection and seasonality of enteropathogens are not well-established in diarrheic cats. RESULTS: Fecal samples of 1620 diarrheic cats were collected and enteropathogens were detected using real-time PCR. We retrospectively investigated the clinical features, total/seasonal prevalence, and infection patterns of enteropathogens. The positive infection rate was 82.59%. Bacterial, viral, and protozoal infections accounted for 49.3, 37.57, and 13.13% of cases, respectively. Feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) was the most common pathogen (29.37%), followed by Clostridium (C.) perfringens, Campylobacter (C.) coli, feline parvovirus, and Tritrichomonas foetus. The seasonality of enteropathogens was observed with peaks as follows: bacterial infections peaked in October, viral infections peaked in November, and protozoal infections peaked in August. Viral and protozoal infections showed differences in prevalence according to patient age. In the infection patterns, the ratios of single infections, mixed infections, and co-infections were 35.72, 9.87, and 54.41%, respectively. FECV was predominant in single infections. The most common patterns of multiple infections were C. perfringens and C. coli in mixed infections and C. perfringens and FECV in co-infections. CONCLUSIONS: Infection patterns differed according to the enteropathogen species, seasonality, and age distribution in cats. The results of this study might be helpful to understand in clinical characteristics of feline infectious diarrhea. In addition, continued monitoring of feline enteropathogens is required.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus Felino/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/veterinária , Fezes/microbiologia , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Campylobacter , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Gatos , Infecções por Clostridium/epidemiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/microbiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Clostridium perfringens , Coinfecção/veterinária , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Diarreia/virologia , Panleucopenia Felina/epidemiologia , Panleucopenia Felina/virologia , Prevalência , República da Coreia , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(12): 1135-1143, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34870393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rotavirus causes 215,000 deaths from severe childhood diarrhea annually. Concerns exist that a monovalent vaccine (RV1) and a pentavalent vaccine (RV5) may be less effective against rotavirus strains not contained in the vaccines. We estimated the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of RV1 and RV5 against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis caused by vaccine (homotypic) and nonvaccine (partially and fully heterotypic) strains. METHODS: After conducting a systematic review, we meta-analyzed 31 case-control studies (N = 27,293) conducted between 2006 and 2020 using a random-effects regression model. RESULTS: In high-income countries, RV1 VE was 10% lower against partially heterotypic (P = 0.04) and fully heterotypic (P = 0.10) compared with homotypic strains (homotypic VE: 90% [95% confidence intervals (CI): 82-94]; partially heterotypic VE: 79% [95% CI: 71-85]; fully heterotypic VE: 80% [95% CI: 65-88]). In middle-income countries, RV1 VE was 14-16% lower against partially heterotypic (P = 0.06) and fully heterotypic (P = 0.04) compared with homotypic strains (homotypic VE: 81% [95% CI: 69-88]; partially heterotypic VE: 67% [95% CI: 54-76]; fully heterotypic VE: 65% [95% CI: 51-75]). Strain-specific RV5 VE differences were less pronounced, and primarily derived from high-income countries. Limited data were available from low-income countries. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccine effectiveness of RV1 and RV5 was somewhat lower against nonvaccine than vaccine strains. Ongoing surveillance is important to continue long-term monitoring for strain replacement, particularly in low-income settings where data are limited.


Assuntos
Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia , Rotavirus/classificação , Rotavirus/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Diarreia/virologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Rotavirus/genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia
14.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34960771

RESUMO

While recent changes in treatment have reduced the lethality of idiopathic chronic diarrhea (ICD), this condition remains one of the most common causes of rhesus macaque deaths in non-human primate research centers. We compared the viromes in fecal swabs from 52 animals with late stage ICD and 41 healthy animals. Viral metagenomics targeting virus-like particles was used to identify viruses fecally shed by each animal. Five viruses belonging to the Picornaviridae, one to the Caliciviridae, one to the Parvoviridae, and one to the Adenoviridae families were identified. The fraction of reads matching each viral species was then used to estimate and compare viral loads in ICD cases versus healthy controls. None of the viruses detected in fecal swabs were strongly associated with ICD.


Assuntos
Diarreia/etiologia , Fezes/virologia , Viroses/complicações , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença Crônica , Diarreia/virologia , Macaca mulatta , Metagenômica
15.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(44): e301, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34783217

RESUMO

We used serial rectal swabs to investigate the amount and duration of virus secretion through the gastrointestinal tract and assessed the association between fecal shedding and gastrointestinal symptoms and to clarify the clinical usefulness testing rectal swabs. We enrolled ten adult patients hospitalized with symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Respiratory and stool specimens were collected by physicians. The presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was confirmed using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. All ten patients had respiratory symptoms, six had diarrhea, and seven were positive for SARS-CoV-2 on rectal swabs. The viral loads in the respiratory specimens was higher than those in the rectal specimens, and no rectal specimens were positive after the respiratory specimens became negative. There was no association between gastrointestinal symptoms, pneumonia, severity, and rectal viral load. Rectal swabs may play a role in detecting SARS-CoV-2 in individuals with suspected COVID-19, regardless of gastrointestinal symptoms.


Assuntos
Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/virologia , Reto/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/transmissão , Diarreia/etiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/virologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Carga Viral
16.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34834954

RESUMO

Bovine viral diarrhea virus's (BVDV) entry into bovine cells involves attachment of virions to cellular receptors, internalization, and pH-dependent fusion with endosomal membranes. The primary host receptor for BVDV is CD46; however, the complete set of host factors required for virus entry is unknown. The Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cell line is susceptible to BVDV infection, while a derivative cell line (CRIB) is resistant at the level of virus entry. We performed complete genome sequencing of each to identify genomic variation underlying the resistant phenotype with the aim of identifying host factors essential for BVDV entry. Three large compound deletions in the BVDV-resistant CRIB cell line were identified and predicted to disrupt the function or expression of the genes PTPN12, GRID2, and RABGAP1L. However, CRISPR/Cas9 mediated knockout of these genes, individually or in combination, in the parental MDBK cell line did not impact virus entry or replication. Therefore, resistance to BVDV in the CRIB cell line is not due to the apparent spontaneous loss of PTPN12, GRID2, or RABGAP1L gene function. Identifying the functional cause of BVDV resistance in the CRIB cell line may require more detailed comparisons of the genomes and epigenomes.


Assuntos
Linhagem Celular , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/fisiologia , Deleção de Genes , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Diarreia/virologia , Cães , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/genética , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 12/genética , Receptores de Glutamato/genética , Internalização do Vírus , Replicação Viral , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
17.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34835023

RESUMO

Recently, bovine enterovirus (BEV) has caused several respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases outbreaks in cattle. Monitoring the epidemiological and pathogenic characteristics of this virus is crucial to controlling its spread. We isolated a BEV strain with typical cytopathic effects from the faeces of cows with significant diarrhoeal symptoms in China and observed the viral particles within 20-30 nm through transmission electron microscopy. Then, we designated this strain as HB19-1 in this study. The multistep growth curves showed that the virus propagated well in the MDBK cells. Molecular genetic analysis of VP1 indicated that HB19-1 belonged to the BEV-F1 group. Although the challenged ICR mice did not exhibit typical disease symptoms in animal infection assay, we observed significant pathological damage in the lungs, intestines, and muscle tissues. In summary, we isolated a BEV strain HB19-1 causing severe diarrhoea in cattle and proposed reinforcing the epidemiological surveillance of this virus.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Diarreia/virologia , Enterovirus Bovino/classificação , Enterovirus Bovino/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , China , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Infecções por Enterovirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Enterovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enterovirus/patologia , Infecções por Enterovirus/virologia , Enterovirus Bovino/genética , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Genoma Viral , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
18.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5778455, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bovine rotavirus (BRV) and bovine coronavirus (BCoV) are the most common viral agents in neonatal calf diarrhea and result in serious economic consequences. The aim of the study was to determine the epidemiology of those viruses in randomly selected dairy farms of Addis Ababa. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2018 to April 2019 using a probability proportional to size (PPS) sampling technique. A total of 110 calves, less than 30 days of age, from 57 dairy herds were involved in the study. Associated factors of herds and calves were collected using semistructured interviews from farm owners and through physical observation of selected calves. Fecal samples were collected and analyzed using the sandwich ELISA method. Data generated from both semistructured interviews and laboratory investigation were analyzed using STATA_MP version 15. RESULTS: From the total 110 calves, 42 (38.18%) had diarrhea during the survey. The prevalence of bovine rotavirus and coronavirus was 3.64% (4/110) and 0.91% (1/110), respectively. Diarrhea, feeding colostrum timing, and sex of the neonatal calves had statistically significant association with bovine rotavirus infection (p < 0.05). All rotavirus-positive neonatal calves were identified in small scale dairy farms and in dairy farms that reported mortality though they lack statistically significant association. Only one coronavirus case was detected among the neonatal calves. The case was identified among small scale herds and in a herd with diarrheal cases. The sex of the coronavirus calf was female, diarrheic, and among 11-20 days old. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of rotavirus and coronavirus infections in neonatal calves was seldom in dairy farms of the study area. Rotavirus was more common than coronavirus, and further studies should be initiated on other (infectious and noninfectious) causes of neonatal calf diarrhea in the area.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Infecções por Rotavirus/veterinária , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavirus Bovino/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Transversais , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Diarreia/virologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Masculino , Mortalidade , Prevalência , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia
19.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 106(2): 523-524, 2021 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781263

RESUMO

Diarrhea is a notable global health problem in several developing countries, especially in children. Prior to the introduction of the rotavirus vaccination program in Ghana, a surveillance study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of the disease caused by rotavirus in children. In this report, we re-used archival stool samples from the pre-vaccine surveillance study to provide information on prevalence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in Ghanaian children. Re-analysis of the stool samples revealed co-infection of enterotoxigenic E. coli and rotavirus in 2% of the children whose samples were selected for this study. As Ghana is approaching 10 years post-implementation of the rotavirus vaccination program, the preliminary data presented in this report are a vital reference for subsequent studies aimed at ascertaining the effect of the vaccine on both rotavirus and enterotoxigenic E. coli.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/complicações , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Infecções por Rotavirus/complicações , Doença Aguda , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/etiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/etiologia , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(11): e0009953, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In April 2018, a diarrhea epidemic broke out in Dhaka city and adjoining areas, which continued through May. The Dhaka Hospital of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), a dedicated diarrheal disease hospital, had a large upsurge in patient visits during the epidemic. An enhanced understanding of the epidemiology of this epidemic may help health-related professionals better prepare for such events in the future. This study examined the microbial etiology and non-pathogen factors associated with diarrhea during the epidemic. The study also evaluated the patients' presentation and clinical course and estimated the potential mortality averted by treating patients during the epidemic. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data from the patients who were treated at Dhaka Hospital during the diarrhea epidemic between April 2 and May 12, 2018 and were enrolled into the Diarrheal Disease Surveillance System (DDSS) at icddr,b were compared with the DDSS-enrolled patients treated during the seasonally-matched periods in the flanking years using logistic regression. icddr,b Dhaka Hospital treated 29,212 diarrheal patients during the 2018 epidemic period (and 25,950 patients per comparison period on average). Vibrio cholerae was the most common pathogen isolated (7,946 patients; 27%) and associated with diarrhea during the epidemic (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1-2.0). The interaction of Vibrio cholerae with ETEC (AOR 2.7, 95% CI: 1.3-5.9) or Campylobacter (AOR 2.4, 95% CI: 1.1-5.1) was associated with further increased odds of diarrhea during the epidemic. In children under five years old, rotavirus was the most common pathogen (2,029 patients; 26%). Those who were adolescents (AOR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3-3.1) and young adults (AOR 1.9, 95% CI: 1.4-2.5) compared to children younger than five years, resided within a 10 km radius of Dhaka Hospital (AOR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1-2.2) compared to those living outside 20 km, borrowed money or relied on aid to pay for the transport to the hospital (AOR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.0), used tap water (AOR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.4-2.4) for drinking compared to tubewell water, and disposed of the solid waste directly outside the house (AOR 4.0, 95% CI: 2.7-5.9) were more likely to present with diarrhea during the epidemic. During the epidemic, patients were more likely to present with severe dehydration (odds ratio [OR] 1.6, 95% CI: 1.3-2.0) and require inpatient admission (OR 2.5, 95% CI: 1.9-3.3), intravenous rehydration (OR 1.7, 95% CI: 1.4-2.1), and antibiotics (OR 2.2, 95% CI: 1.8-2.7). The in-hospital case fatality rate was low (13 patients; 0.04%), and the hospital averted between 12,523 and 17,265 deaths during the epidemic. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Vibrio cholerae played the primary role in the 2018 diarrhea epidemic in Dhaka. Campylobacter, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, and rotavirus had a secondary role. Adolescents and adults, residents of the metropolitan area, and those who were relatively poor and lacked safe water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) practices comprised the most vulnerable groups. Despite the increased disease severity during the epidemic, the case fatality rate was less than 0.1%. icddr,b Dhaka Hospital saved as many as 17,265 lives during the epidemic.


Assuntos
Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Feminino , Hospitais Urbanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
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