Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 250
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Aquat Toxicol ; 212: 20-27, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039523

RESUMO

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a series of highly persistent organic pollutants (POPs), are ubiquitous in marine ecosystems. As key primary producers, microalgae are of great importance on evaluating the environmental outcome of PBDEs pollution. In this study, the toxic mechanisms of BDE-47 on the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana were evaluated by measuring multiple physiological processes. Three concentrations of BDE-47 (25, 15 and 5 µg L-1) were used along with two controls (blank: no BDE-47 or DMSO; negative control: only DMSO). Experiments lasted 144 h (6 days), in which the actual BDE-47 concentrations, cell densities, nutrient (nitrate and phosphate) uptake, pigment compositions, photosynthetic physiology, cell morphology and cellular contents (organic carbon and nitrogen) were measured at 12-48 h intervals. The toxic mechanisms of BDE-47 on T. pseudonana cells were evaluated by measuring multiple physiological processes including photosynthesis, nutrient uptake, cellular material synthesis and cell cycle progressions. The cell divisions of T. pseudonana were severely inhibited by the stress of BDE-47, but the photosynthetic parameters were much less declined and recovered earlier than the cell divisions in the same BDE-47 treatments. The unsuppressed uptake rates of nutrients, increased cell volume and cellular contents indicated the cellular material synthesis proceeded normally. Finally, we found that the cell cycle was arrested in G2/M phase under the stress of BDE-47, we thus concluded that the inhibition of cell divisions by BDE-47 was not due to the lack of energy or cellular materials, where the cell cycle arrest happened; this might be the most important toxicological outcome.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/efeitos dos fármacos , Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/toxicidade , Fenômenos Fisiológicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Carbono/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diatomáceas/citologia , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Pigmentos Biológicos/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Appl Opt ; 58(12): 3104-3114, 2019 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044784

RESUMO

Modern microscopes are designed with functionalities that are tailored to enhance image contrast. Dark-field imaging, phase contrast, differential interference contrast, and other optical techniques enable biological cells and other phase-only objects to be visualized. Quantitative phase imaging refers to an emerging set of techniques that allow for the complex transmission function of the sample to be measured. With this quantitative phase image available, any optical technique can then be simulated; it is trivial to generate a phase contrast image or a differential interference contrast image. Rheinberg illumination, proposed almost a century ago, is an optical technique that applies color contrast to images of phase-only objects by introducing a type of optical staining via an amplitude filter placed in the illumination path that consists of two or more colors. In this paper, the complete theory of Rheinberg illumination is derived, from which an algorithm is proposed that can digitally simulate the technique. Results are shown for a number of quantitative phase images of diatom cells obtained via digital holographic microscopy. The results clearly demonstrate the potential of the technique for label-free color staining of subcellular features.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/citologia , Holografia/métodos , Iluminação , Microscopia de Contraste de Fase/métodos , Coloração e Rotulagem/métodos , Algoritmos
3.
Biomater Sci ; 7(5): 1833-1841, 2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30907899

RESUMO

Uncontrollable hemorrhage is the main cause of death in military and civilian accidents. It is therefore necessary and an urgent requirement to develop a safe and efficient hemostatic material. In this study, the hemostatic performance of frustules of three centric diatom species (Thalassiosira weissflogii, Thalassiosira sp., and Cyclotella cryptica) with similar shapes and different sizes was investigated. The complicated structure of T. weissflogii, leading to its highest BET surface area (169.5 m2 g-1) and liquid absorption (51.4 ± 1.6 times the weight of liquid), exhibited the shortest hemostasis time (158 ± 8.19 s) in in vitro blood coagulation. Thalassiosira sp. had a shorter hemostasis time (167.33 ± 14.74 s) than that of QuikClot® and C. cryptica, indicating that diatom size also played an important role in hemostasis due to the interface reaction between the material and plasma protein. The in vivo hemostasis results further confirmed this conclusion. Diatom frustules also exhibited favorable blood compatibility (<5%), and no significant cell toxicity could be observed from the three frustules. Our results suggest that the coagulation effect of frustules is strengthened upon a decrease in the size and increase in the liquid absorbability. This report provides valuable information for the medical application of diatom frustules in the field of hemorrhage control.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Fenômenos Químicos , Diatomáceas/citologia , Hemorragia/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis/uso terapêutico , Materiais Biocompatíveis/toxicidade , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Parede Celular/química , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemorragia/fisiopatologia , Teste de Materiais , Camundongos , Porosidade , Coelhos , Ratos
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 656: 1063-1070, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30625638

RESUMO

Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa) commonly blooms in summer while Cyclotella meneghiniana (C. meneghiniana) outbreaks in fall in water reservoirs of Southeast China. Pre-oxidation has been demonstrated to enhance the algae removal from chemical coagulation processes. However, excessive dosage of pre-oxidant can increase the disinfection by-products formation potential (DBPsFP). Additionally, the DBPs formation mechanisms from algae during the pre-oxidation-coagulation-chlorination processes have not well elucidated. In this study, the objectives were to investigate the trichloromethane (TCM) formation, the changes of water quality indexes, and the morphology changes of algal cells from M. aeruginosa or C. meneghiniana contaminated water during potassium permanganate (KMnO4) or chlorine (Cl2) pre-oxidation-coagulation-chlorination disinfection. The results showed that the TCM yield for two algal species decreased with the dosage increase of KMnO4 pre-oxidation, but increased with the dosage increase of pre-chlorination. Therefore, the 2.0 mg/L KMnO4 or 0.5 mg/L Cl2 was proposed as the optimal dosage for preventing both M. aeruginosa blooms in summer and for C. meneghiniana outbreaks in fall. M. aeruginosa exhibited a slightly higher TCM yield than C. meneghiniana in these treatment processes. Based on the release of potassium (K) ion and SEM analysis, KMnO4 had less damage on cell integrity than Cl2 at the dosage ≤2.0 mg/L. In addition, C. meneghiniana was easier to be disrupted by both pre-oxidants than M. aeruginosa, combining with subsequent coagulation led to different value of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), UV-visible absorbance (UV254) and turbidity.


Assuntos
Cloro/química , Clorofórmio/metabolismo , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Microcystis/metabolismo , Permanganato de Potássio/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Diatomáceas/citologia , Diatomáceas/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Floculação , Halogenação , Microcystis/citologia , Microcystis/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxidantes/química , Oxirredução , Qualidade da Água
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(1): 29, 2018 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30591969

RESUMO

In this paper, the algal cell density of cyanobacteria, green algae, and diatoms and their responses to the hydrochemical factors were analyzed to reveal the structural characteristics of water quality in an urban river. A total of nine sampling sites from upstream to downstream was explored in our study. At each site, the density of algae was identified every week during the wet season (June-October) from 2012 to 2017, and in situ detection was used for the relative 11 hydrochemical variables. The temporal and spatial characteristics of 14 variables were analyzed using a heatmap coupled with the cluster analysis method. The trend of each parameter was analyzed using the smoothing method with locally weighted regression. The nonmetric multidimensional scaling method was employed to detect the temporal and spatial similarities among algae along hydrochemical gradients. The responses of algal density to hydrochemical variables were analyzed using a redundancy analysis. The results showed that the water temperature (Wtemp), pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), cyanobacteria, and diatoms exhibited significant declining trends, and significant increasing trends were shown in the permanganate index, chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, and total phosphorus; the cyanobacteria exhibited certain differences with green algae and diatoms in summer and the downstream areas of the river. The temporal-spatial homogeneity of algal to hydrochemical variables showed the key influencing factors of Wtemp for cyanobacteria density, chlorophyll for green algae density, DO, and pH for diatoms. The results presented here are valuable for deepening our understanding of river ecosystem evaluations and effective environmental management, as well as an important reference for the sustainable development of aquatic biological resources.


Assuntos
Clorófitas/citologia , Cianobactérias/citologia , Diatomáceas/citologia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Rios/química , Movimentos da Água , China , Clorofila/análise , Clorófitas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cianobactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecossistema , Eutrofização , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Estações do Ano , Urbanização , Qualidade da Água
7.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 135: 562-568, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30301074

RESUMO

The characteristics of phytoplankton assemblages were analyzed by the Utermöhl method in the southern Yellow Sea in summer, 2008. A total of 113 species (including varieties and forms), belonging to 51 genera and 3 phyla, were identified. Diatom was the most dominant group. The dominant species included Eucampia zoodiacus, Leptocylindrus danicus, Chaetoceros affinis, Thalassionema nitzschioides, Skeletonema costatum, Paralia sulcata and Chaetoceros tortissimus, which were eurytopic and temperate species. The cell abundance of phytoplankton ranged from 0.04 to 620.08 cells·mL-1 with an average of 27.52 cells·mL-1. Horizontally, the cell abundance showed a decreasing trend from the south to the north. In terms of vertical distribution, the values in surface and subsurface water layers were higher than those in bottom water layers. Results of correlation analysis showed that phytoplankton cell abundance was positively correlated with water temperature, ammonia and nitrite concentrations, and negatively correlated with salinity and silicate concentration.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Fitoplâncton , Biodiversidade , China , Diatomáceas/citologia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Oceanos e Mares , Fitoplâncton/citologia , Salinidade , Estações do Ano , Temperatura Ambiente
8.
J Phycol ; 54(6): 918-922, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30270437

RESUMO

Pseudo-nitzschia nanaoensis sp. nov. is described from waters around Nan'ao Island (South China Sea), using morphological data and molecular evidence. This species is morphologically most similar to P. brasiliana, but differs by a denser arrangement of fibulae, interstriae, and poroids, as well as by the structure of the valvocopula and the narrow second band. Pseudo-nitzschia nanaoensis constitutes a monophyletic lineage and is well differentiated from other species on the LSU and ITS2 sequence-structure trees. Pseudo-nitzschia nanaoensis makes up the basal node on the LSU tree, and forms a sister clade with a group of P. pungens and P. multiseries on the ITS2 tree. The ability of cultured strains to produce domoic acid was assessed, including its possible induction by the presence of a copepod and brine shrimp, by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. However, no strains showed detectable domoic acid.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/classificação , Ácido Caínico/análogos & derivados , Toxinas Marinhas/metabolismo , China , DNA de Protozoário/análise , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/análise , Diatomáceas/citologia , Diatomáceas/genética , Diatomáceas/ultraestrutura , Ácido Caínico/metabolismo , Filogenia
9.
Protist ; 169(4): 466-483, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30025232

RESUMO

Reproductive development in Ardissonea crystallina revealed a unique mode of enlargement involving a combination of novel and known structures. In light microscopy, auxospores of this elongated polar centric diatom were superficially similar to the auxospores of pennates. With SEM we found three different components in the auxospore wall. In the youngest, nearly spherical cell-stage, the wall consisted only of a delicate veil containing minute siliceous spherules. Incunabular elements developed underneath this layer. Second, a previously unknown form of specifically modified incunabular scales shaped the subsequent ellipsoidal-capsule auxospore stage. Third, there was a clear contribution of scales to the development of scaly transverse perizonial bands (or scaly bands, for brevity). Such bands, although noted by previous researchers, have not been fully appreciated for the evolutionary information they may convey: possibly common among polar centrics but not pennates. Finally, we propose maintaining the term transverse perizonium to refer to these bands in polar diatoms, but to introduce the differentiation of scaly bands described here from pinnate bands (currently known as typical of pennates). Further research into band types among polar centrics may provide new insights into the relationship between the groups within polar centrics that are currently unresolved by molecular methods.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/citologia , Diatomáceas/classificação , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esporos/citologia
10.
Genome Biol Evol ; 10(9): 2310-2325, 2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30060189

RESUMO

The establishment of the mitochondrion is seen as a transformational step in the origin of eukaryotes. With the mitochondrion came bioenergetic freedom to explore novel evolutionary space leading to the eukaryotic radiation known today. The tight integration of the bacterial endosymbiont with its archaeal host was accompanied by a massive endosymbiotic gene transfer resulting in a small mitochondrial genome which is just a ghost of the original incoming bacterial genome. This endosymbiotic gene transfer resulted in the loss of many genes, both from the bacterial symbiont as well the archaeal host. Loss of genes encoding redundant functions resulted in a replacement of the bulk of the host's metabolism for those originating from the endosymbiont. Glycolysis is one such metabolic pathway in which the original archaeal enzymes have been replaced by bacterial enzymes from the endosymbiont. Glycolysis is a major catabolic pathway that provides cellular energy from the breakdown of glucose. The glycolytic pathway of eukaryotes appears to be bacterial in origin, and in well-studied model eukaryotes it takes place in the cytosol. In contrast, here we demonstrate that the latter stages of glycolysis take place in the mitochondria of stramenopiles, a diverse and ecologically important lineage of eukaryotes. Although our work is based on a limited sample of stramenopiles, it leaves open the possibility that the mitochondrial targeting of glycolytic enzymes in stramenopiles might represent the ancestral state for eukaryotes.


Assuntos
Blastocystis/metabolismo , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Glicólise , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Evolução Biológica , Blastocystis/citologia , Blastocystis/enzimologia , Blastocystis/genética , Diatomáceas/citologia , Diatomáceas/enzimologia , Diatomáceas/genética , Metabolismo Energético , Genoma Mitocondrial , Mitocôndrias/genética , Simbiose , Transformação Genética
11.
J Phycol ; 54(4): 557-570, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29908074

RESUMO

Some diatoms are able to colonize as epibionts on their potential zooplankton predators. Here, we report Pseudohimantidium pacificum living on the copepod Corycaeus giesbrechti and as a new finding on Oithona nana, Protoraphis atlantica living on the copepod Pontellopsis brevis, Protoraphis hustedtiana on the cypris larvae of barnacles, and Falcula hyalina on the copepod Acartia lilljeborgii. The epizoic diatoms were able to grow as free-living forms under culture conditions. Pseudohimantidium pacificum and P. atlantica appeared as the most derived species from their benthic diatom ancestors. The mucilage pad or stalk of the strains of these species showed important morphological distinction when compared with their epizoic forms. Barnacle larvae explore benthic habitats before settlement, and epibiosis on them is an example where P. hustedtiana profits from the host behavior for dispersal of its benthic populations. Molecular phylogenies based on the SSU rRNA and RuBisCO large subunit (rbcL) gene sequences revealed F. hyalina as an independent lineage within the Fragilariales (Tabularia, Catacombas, and others), consistent with its morphological distinction in the low number of rows (≤6) in the ocellulimbus, among other features. We propose the transfer of F. hyalina to the genus Pseudofalcula gen. nov. Molecular phylogeny suggests a single order for the members of the Cyclophorales and the Protoraphidales, and that the epibioses of araphid diatoms on marine zooplankton have been independently acquired several times. These clades are constituted of both epizoic and epiphytic/epilithic forms that evidence a recent acquisition of the epizoic modus vivendi.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/classificação , Zooplâncton/classificação , Animais , DNA Ribossômico/análise , Diatomáceas/citologia , Diatomáceas/genética , Diatomáceas/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Filogenia , Fitoplâncton/classificação , Fitoplâncton/citologia , Fitoplâncton/genética , Fitoplâncton/ultraestrutura , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase/análise , Zooplâncton/citologia , Zooplâncton/genética , Zooplâncton/ultraestrutura
12.
Ecotoxicology ; 27(6): 675-688, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29797171

RESUMO

The impact of cadmium on the diatom Nitzschia palea (Kützing) W. Smith 1856 was studied by examining the relation between valve deformities and response through biological processes and genetic expression. Cultures of N. palea were exposed to two Cd treatments (C1 = 2.4 ± 0.6 and C2 = 42.6 ± 4.2 µg Cd/L) along with a control (C0 = 0 µg Cd/L) for 28 days. Cadmium bioaccumulation, diatoms growth, photosynthetic efficiencies, valve deformities and genetic expression were investigated during the course of the experiment. Cadmium exposure had significant effects on bioaccumulation, growth, valve deformities and genetic expression. Maximal effects for all studied endpoints were recorded after 7 days of exposure for the C2 treatment, which corresponded to the sampling time and condition with maximum cadmium bioaccumulation. Abnormal raphe formations (deviation from its lateral position) were significantly more abundant in the C2 treatment compared to the control. Molecular responses were related to cadmium level based on the number of genes impacted, intensity of the response and the frequency of observations. The expression of genes involved in the regulation of mitochondrial metabolism, photosynthesis, oxidative stress and silica metabolism was affected by cadmium exposure.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Algas/genética , Cádmio/toxicidade , Diatomáceas/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Proteínas de Algas/metabolismo , Diatomáceas/citologia , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
13.
Plant Physiol ; 177(3): 953-965, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29773581

RESUMO

Marine diatoms are prominent phytoplankton organisms that perform photosynthesis in extremely variable environments. Diatoms possess a strong ability to dissipate excess absorbed energy as heat via nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ). This process relies on changes in carotenoid pigment composition (xanthophyll cycle) and on specific members of the light-harvesting complex family specialized in photoprotection (LHCXs), which potentially act as NPQ effectors. However, the link between light stress, NPQ, and the existence of different LHCX isoforms is not understood in these organisms. Using picosecond fluorescence analysis, we observed two types of NPQ in the pennate diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum that were dependent on light conditions. Short exposure of low-light-acclimated cells to high light triggers the onset of energy quenching close to the core of photosystem II, while prolonged light stress activates NPQ in the antenna. Biochemical analysis indicated a link between the changes in the NPQ site/mechanism and the induction of different LHCX isoforms, which accumulate either in the antenna complexes or in the core complex. By comparing the responses of wild-type cells and transgenic lines with a reduced expression of the major LHCX isoform, LHCX1, we conclude that core complex-associated NPQ is more effective in photoprotection than is the antenna complex. Overall, our data clarify the complex molecular scenario of light responses in diatoms and provide a rationale for the existence of a degenerate family of LHCX proteins in these algae.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/metabolismo , Aclimatação , Clorofila/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Diatomáceas/citologia , Fluorescência , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Luz , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/genética , Organismos Geneticamente Modificados , Processos Fotoquímicos , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/genética , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo
14.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 5484, 2018 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29615779

RESUMO

Diatoms are photosynthetic microalgae, a group with a major environmental role on the planet due to the biogeochemical cycling of silica and global fixation of carbon. However, they can evolve into harmful blooms through a resourceful communication mechanism, not yet fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that a population of diatoms under darkness show quasi-periodic electrical oscillations, or intercellular waves. The origin is paracrine signaling, which is a feedback, or survival, mechanism that counteracts changes in the physicochemical environment. The intracellular messenger is related to Ca2+ ions since spatiotemporal changes in their concentration match the characteristics of the intercellular waves. Our conclusion is supported by using a Ca2+ channel inhibitor. The transport of Ca2+ ions through the membrane to the extracellular medium is blocked and the intercellular waves disappear. The translation of microalgae cooperative signaling paves the way for early detection and prevention of harmful blooms and an extensive range of stress-induced alterations in the aquatic ecosystem.


Assuntos
Escuridão , Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Transporte Biológico , Cálcio/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Citosol/metabolismo , Diatomáceas/citologia , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Espaço Extracelular/metabolismo , Comunicação Parácrina
15.
Appl Opt ; 57(7): B197-B204, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29522021

RESUMO

We propose a compact imaging system that integrates an augmented reality head mounted device with digital holographic microscopy for automated cell identification and visualization. A shearing interferometer is used to produce holograms of biological cells, which are recorded using customized smart glasses containing an external camera. After image acquisition, segmentation is performed to isolate regions of interest containing biological cells in the field-of-view, followed by digital reconstruction of the cells, which is used to generate a three-dimensional (3D) pseudocolor optical path length profile. Morphological features are extracted from the cell's optical path length map, including mean optical path length, coefficient of variation, optical volume, projected area, projected area to optical volume ratio, cell skewness, and cell kurtosis. Classification is performed using the random forest classifier, support vector machines, and K-nearest neighbor, and the results are compared. Finally, the augmented reality device displays the cell's pseudocolor 3D rendering of its optical path length profile, extracted features, and the identified cell's type or class. The proposed system could allow a healthcare worker to quickly visualize cells using augmented reality smart glasses and extract the relevant information for rapid diagnosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the integration of digital holographic microscopy with augmented reality devices for automated cell identification and visualization.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/citologia , Holografia/métodos , Microscopia/instrumentação , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão/métodos , Fitoplâncton/citologia , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Imagem Tridimensional/métodos , Dispositivos Ópticos
16.
J Phycol ; 54(2): 275-298, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29419886

RESUMO

The diatom genus Entomoneis is known from the benthos and plankton of marine, brackish, and freshwaters. Entomoneis includes diatoms with a bilobate keel elevated above the valve surface, a sigmoid canal raphe, and numerous girdle bands. Owing mostly to the scarcity of molecular data for a diverse set of species, the phylogeny of Entomoneis has not been investigated in depth. The few previous studies that included Entomoneis were focused on broader questions and the available data were from a small number of either unidentified Entomoneis or well-known species (e.g., E. paludosa). Since the first description of new species combining both molecular and morphological characters (E. tenera), we have continued to cultivate and investigate Entomoneis in the plankton of the Adriatic Sea. Combined multigene phylogeny (SSU rDNA sequences, rbcL, and psbC genes) and morphological observations (LM, SEM and TEM) revealed six new Entomoneis species supported by phylogenetic and morphological data: E. pusilla, E. gracilis, E. vilicicii, E. infula, E. adriatica, and E. umbratica. The most important morphological features for species delineation were cell shape, the degree and mode of torsion, valve apices, the appearance and structure of the transition between keel and valve body, the ultrastructure and the shape of the girdle bands, and the arrangement and density of perforations along the valve and valvocopulae. Our results highlight the underappreciated diversity of Entomoneis and call for a more in-depth morphological and molecular investigation of this genus especially in planktonic habitats.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/classificação , Diatomáceas/citologia , Proteínas de Algas/análise , Croácia , DNA de Algas/análise , DNA Ribossômico/análise , Diatomáceas/genética , Diatomáceas/ultraestrutura , Mar Mediterrâneo , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Filogenia
17.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 125: 205-211, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29475086

RESUMO

Siliceous frustules of diatom algae contain unique long-chain polyamines, including those having more than six nitrogen atoms. These polyamines participate in the formation of the siliceous frustules of the diatoms but their precise physiological role is not clear. The main hypotheses include formation of a polyamine and polyphosphate supramolecular matrix. We have synthesized novel fluorescent dyes from a synthetic oligomeric mixture of polyamines and the fluorophore 7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole. The long polyamine chain ensures the high affinity of these dyes to silica, which allows their application in the staining of siliceous materials, such as valves of diatom algae and fossilized samples from sediments. The fluorescently stained diatom valves were found to be promising liquid flow tracers in hydrodynamic tests. Furthermore, complexation of the polyamine component of the dyes with carbonic polymeric acids results in changes to the visible spectrum of the fluorophore, which allows study of the stability of the complex vs the length of the polyamine chain. Using poly (vinyl phosphonic acid) as a model for phosphate functionality in silaffins (a potential matrix in the formation of biogenic silica) little complexation with the polyamine fluorophores was observed, bringing into question the role of a polyamine - polymeric phosphate matrix in biosilicification.


Assuntos
4-Cloro-7-nitrobenzofurazano/química , Poliaminas Biogênicas , Diatomáceas , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Coloração e Rotulagem/métodos , Poliaminas Biogênicas/química , Poliaminas Biogênicas/metabolismo , Diatomáceas/citologia , Diatomáceas/metabolismo
18.
Folia Microbiol (Praha) ; 63(4): 493-498, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29478213

RESUMO

A simultaneous application of negative phase contrast and polarization microscopy was used to study the internal structure of microbial cells. Negative phase contrast allowed us to display the fine cell structures with a refractive index of light approaching that of the environment, e.g., the cytoplasm, and converted an invisible phase image to a visible amplitude one. In the polarizing microscope, cross-polarizing filters, together with first-order quartz compensator and a turntable, showed maximum birefringence of individual structures. Material containing algae was collected in ponds in the villages Sýkorice and Zbecno (Protected Landscape Area Krivoklátsko). Objects were studied in a laboratory microscope (Carl Zeiss Jena, type NfpK), equipped with a basic body In Ph 160 with an exchangeable module Ph, LOMO St. Petersburg turntable mounted on a centering holder of our own construction and a Nikon D 70 digital SLR camera. Anisotropic granules were found only in the members of two orders of algae (Euglenales, Euglenophyceae and Chlorococcales, Chlorophyceae). They always showed strong birefringence and differed in both number and size. An important finding concerned thin pellicles in genus Euglena (Euglenales, Euglenophyceae) which exhibited weak birefringence. In genus Pediastrum (Chlorococcales, Chlorophyceae), these granules were found only in living coenobium cells. In contrast, dead coenobium cells contained many granules without birefringence-an important finding. Another important finding included birefringent lamellar structure of the transverse cell wall and weak birefringence of pyrenoids in filamentous algae of genus Spirogyra (Zygnematales, Conjugatophyceae). It was clearly displayed by the negative phase contrast and has not been documented by other methods. This method can also record the very weak birefringence of the frustule of a diatom of genus Pinnularia (Naviculales, Bacillariophyceae), which was further reinforced by the use of quartz compensator-an important finding. Simultaneous use of negative phase contrast and polarization microscopy allowed us to study not only birefringent granules of storage substances in microorganisms, but also the individual lamellae of the cell walls of filamentous algae and very thin frustule walls in diatoms. These can be visualized only by this contrast method, which provides a higher resolution (subjective opinion only) than other methods such as positive phase contrast or relief contrast.


Assuntos
Biologia Celular/instrumentação , Técnicas Citológicas/métodos , Microscopia de Contraste de Fase , Microscopia de Polarização , Anisotropia , Birrefringência , Parede Celular/química , Clorófitas/química , Clorófitas/citologia , Citoplasma/química , Diatomáceas/química , Diatomáceas/citologia , Euglênidos/química , Euglênidos/citologia , Zygnematales/química , Zygnematales/citologia
19.
Photosynth Res ; 137(1): 41-52, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29322482

RESUMO

Cell size has implications for the package effect in photon absorption as well as for metabolic scaling of metabolism. In this study, we have avoided species-related differences by using isolates of the marine planktonic diatom Coscinodiscus granii with cells of different sizes and grown at different light intensities to investigate their energy allocation strategies. To make full use of incident light, several fold variations in cellular chlorophyll a content were employed across cell size. This modulation of pigment-related light absorbance was deemed effective as similar light absorbing capacities were found in all treatments. Unexpected low values of O2 evolution rate at the highest irradiance level of 450 µmol photons m-2 s-1 were found in medium and large cells, regardless of more photons being absorbed under these conditions, suggesting the operation of alternative electron flows acting as electron sinks. The growth rate was generally larger at higher irradiance levels except for the large cells, in which growth slowed at 450 µmol photons m-2 s-1, suggesting that larger cells achieved a balance between growth and photoprotection by sacrificing growth rate when exposed to high light. Although the ratio of carbon demand to rates of uncatalysed CO2 diffusion to the cell surface reached around 20 in large cells grown under higher irradiance, the carbon fixation rate was not lowered, due to the presence of a highly effective carbon dioxide concentrating mechanism.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/citologia , Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Clorofila A , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transferência de Energia , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Luz Solar
20.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 74, 2018 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29311545

RESUMO

Photosynthesis by marine diatoms plays a major role in the global carbon cycle, although the precise mechanisms of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) uptake remain unclear. A lack of direct measurements of carbonate chemistry at the cell surface has led to uncertainty over the underlying membrane transport processes and the role of external carbonic anhydrase (eCA). Here we identify rapid and substantial photosynthesis-driven increases in pH and [CO32-] primarily due to the activity of eCA at the cell surface of the large diatom Odontella sinensis using direct simultaneous microelectrode measurements of pH and CO32- along with modelling of cell surface inorganic carbonate chemistry. Our results show that eCA acts to maintain cell surface CO2 concentrations, making a major contribution to DIC supply in O. sinensis. Carbonate chemistry at the cell surface is therefore highly dynamic and strongly dependent on cell size, morphology and the carbonate chemistry of the bulk seawater.


Assuntos
Carbonatos/metabolismo , Microambiente Celular , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Fitoplâncton/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Carbono/química , Carbono/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Carbonatos/química , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Diatomáceas/citologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Modelos Biológicos , Fotossíntese , Fitoplâncton/citologia , Água do Mar/química
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA