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1.
C R Biol ; 343(1): 41-52, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720487

RESUMO

Diatom identification is a key step in using these microorganisms as water quality bioindicators. Morphological diagnosis is a difficult task due to the enormous number of species and their microscopic size. This can be overcome using molecular tools to complement the diagnosis. The main goal of this work was to obtain the DNA barcode of Ecuadorian epilithic diatoms with a wide geographical distribution, a well-defined ecological range and characteristics that allow them to be reliable indicator species. Unialgal diatom cultures were obtained from environmental samples of Ecuadorian Andean streams. Morphological characterization of cultures was carried out under SEM microscopy. For molecular characterization, 18SV4 and rbcL barcodes were sequenced from each strain and blasted against a GenBank database. A phylogenetic tree for each barcode was constructed using the ML method including sequences of strains of the studied species from different geographical locations. The results showed the following five species to be suitable as bioindicators and these were isolated. Sellaphora seminulum (strain JA01b, c), Nitzschia fonticola (strain SP02a) and N. palea (strain CA01a) are tolerant to eutrophication; Eolimna minima (strain CH02a) is a mesotrophic water bioindicator, and Achnanthidium minutissimum (strain JA01a) is an oligotrophic water bioindicator. The comparison with the GenBank database of the barcoding regions supported the morphological identification. The barcoding sequences of the strains showed a high percentage of identity with the sequences reported in INSDC databases for the same species. The topology of the phylogenetic trees demonstrates that epilithic diatoms from Ecuador are closely related to those of same species isolated from other geographical regions. This study is a first attempt to establish a morphological and molecular taxonomic reference library for neotropical diatoms. This study demonstrates that it would be feasible to use the existing barcoding data for diatoms to develop molecular tools for the bioassessment of aquatic ecosystems in the Ecuadorian Andean region.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/classificação , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Qualidade da Água , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , Diatomáceas/genética , Ecossistema , Equador , Eutrofização , Filogenia , Rios
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3320, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620776

RESUMO

Benthic diatoms are the main primary producers in shallow freshwater and coastal environments, fulfilling important ecological functions such as nutrient cycling and sediment stabilization. However, little is known about their evolutionary adaptations to these highly structured but heterogeneous environments. Here, we report a reference genome for the marine biofilm-forming diatom Seminavis robusta, showing that gene family expansions are responsible for a quarter of all 36,254 protein-coding genes. Tandem duplications play a key role in extending the repertoire of specific gene functions, including light and oxygen sensing, which are probably central for its adaptation to benthic habitats. Genes differentially expressed during interactions with bacteria are strongly conserved in other benthic diatoms while many species-specific genes are strongly upregulated during sexual reproduction. Combined with re-sequencing data from 48 strains, our results offer insights into the genetic diversity and gene functions in benthic diatoms.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Diatomáceas/genética , Ecossistema , Evolução Molecular , Genoma/genética , Diatomáceas/classificação , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Água Doce , Tamanho do Genoma , Genômica/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Água do Mar , Especificidade da Espécie , Transcriptoma/genética
3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8481, 2020 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439981

RESUMO

A long-term change of a subtidal macroalgal assemblage has been investigated in Maxwell Bay, King George Island (KGI) of the Antarctic coast by a revisit survey after 30 years. Field surveys were done by SCUBA diving at six sites in 2016-2018 to directly compare with the previous survey conducted in 1988-1993 at the same sites. The total number of macroalgal species was similar between the previous and the present survey, 25 and 27 species respectively. However, the macroalgal assemblage changed substantially with the average similarity of 48.2% between the two surveys. Also, the species-level abundance showed a high variability between surveys. On the other hand, over the 30 years interval there was little overall change at the between-site level hierarchical structure in the subtidal communities of Maxwell Bay. The sites near the penguin rookery consistently showed the highest biodiversity, indicating the importance of land-based nutrients input in Antarctic coastal habitats. A noticeable pattern change over 30 years was the increase of Desmarestia complex and Plocamium cartilagineum and the decrease of Himantothallus grandifolius. Both groups are still dominant, but the shift from Himantothallus to Desmarestia-Plocamium may reflects temperature rise on the Maxwell Bay coast compared to the past.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/classificação , Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Ilhas , Regiões Antárticas , Geografia , Especificidade da Espécie , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2382, 2020 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404869

RESUMO

Soil micro-organisms drive the global carbon and nutrient cycles that underlie essential ecosystem functions. Yet, we are only beginning to grasp the drivers of terrestrial microbial diversity and biogeography, which presents a substantial barrier to understanding community dynamics and ecosystem functioning. This is especially true for soil protists, which despite their functional significance have received comparatively less interest than their bacterial counterparts. Here, we investigate the diversification of Pinnularia borealis, a rare biosphere soil diatom species complex, using a global sampling of >800 strains. We document unprecedented high levels of species-diversity, reflecting a global radiation since the Eocene/Oligocene global cooling. Our analyses suggest diversification was largely driven by colonization of novel geographic areas and subsequent evolution in isolation. These results illuminate our understanding of how protist diversity, biogeographical patterns, and members of the rare biosphere are generated, and suggest allopatric speciation to be a powerful mechanism for diversification of micro-organisms.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecossistema , Microbiologia do Solo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Diatomáceas/classificação , Diatomáceas/genética , Evolução Molecular , Geografia , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie
5.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231902, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330168

RESUMO

Pseudo-nitzschia is a cosmopolitan genus, some species of which can produce domoic acid (DA), a neurotoxin responsible for the Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP). In this study, we identified P. subpacifica for the first time in Todos Santos Bay and Manzanillo Bay, in the Mexican Pacific using SEM and molecular methods. Isolates from Todos Santos Bay were cultivated under conditions of phosphate sufficiency and deficiency at 16°C and 22°C to evaluate the production of DA. This toxin was detected in the particulate (DAp) and dissolved (DAd) fractions of the cultures during the exponential and stationary phases of growth of the cultures. The highest DA concentration was detected during the exponential phase grown in cells maintained in P-deficient medium at 16°C (1.14 ± 0.08 ng mL-1 DAd and 4.71 ± 1.11 × 10-5 ng cell-1 of DAp). In P-sufficient cultures DA was higher in cells maintained at 16°C (0.25 ± 0.05 ng mL-1 DAd and 9.41 ± 1.23 × 10-7 ng cell-1 of DAp) than in cells cultured at 22°C. Therefore, we confirm that P. subpacifica can produce DA, especially under P-limited conditions that could be associated with extraordinary oceanographic events such as the 2013-2016 "Blob" in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. This event altered local oceanographic conditions and possibly generated the presence of potential harmful species in areas with economic importance on the Mexican Pacific coast.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/genética , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Ácido Caínico/análogos & derivados , Filogenia , Sequência de Bases , Técnicas de Cultura , Diatomáceas/classificação , Ácido Caínico/metabolismo , Laboratórios , Temperatura
6.
Protist ; 171(2): 125713, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325416

RESUMO

In many marine littoral and sublittoral benthic habitats, we find small diatoms with few features resolvable with light microscopy (LM) other than internal costae across their valves. While classically those internal costae have defined their identification and classification, the use of electron microscopy and of molecular data have started to reveal the true diversity of unrelated forms and genera (e.g., Anaulus, Eunotogramma, Hustedtiella, or Plagiogramma) which possess these structures. Here we describe the new genus Ambo, in an attempt to clarify some of the polyphyly of taxa with internal costa by formally transferring Anaulus balticus, Anaulus simonsenii, and Plagiogramma tenuissimum as well as Ambo gallaeciae, described here. Related to this, we attempt to document and characterize the genus Anaulus itself, which was formally described by Ehrenberg with an illustration. A search by LM of mica designated by Ehrenberg as the holotype of Anaulus scalaris, the generitype of Anaulus, failed to recover a specimen which adequately describes the genus to the exclusion of other genera with internal costa. We also present morphological and molecular data for Anaulus creticus and suggest a new genus-Ceratanaulus-to reflect the distinct morphological and molecular characters we documented.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/classificação , Organismos Aquáticos/genética , Biodiversidade , Diatomáceas/classificação , Diatomáceas/genética , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
7.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 148: 106808, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243996

RESUMO

Although previous phylogenetic analyses suggested that the araphid diatom family Plagiogrammaceae is monophyletic, there is still not a clear understanding of relationships among the genera, and the taxonomy of several genera--Dimeregramma and Plagiogramma--remains questionable in light of paraphyly for both genera using molecular and morphological data. We have expanded the available DNA for molecular work for dozens of plagiogrammacean clones and analyzed 29 morphological characters from plagiogrammarian taxa and closely related genera, to increase understanding of the evolutionary history and systematics of the family and re-evaluate the current taxonomical classification of plagiogrammacean genera. The addition of more taxa and more data confirm the results from previous molecular phylogenies: most plagiogrammacean genera are monophyletic, except for Dimeregramma and Plagiogramma. Interestingly, the morphological analysis resolves only Talaroneis and Glyphodesmis as monophyletic. Given these results, we feel there is limited support for retaining Dimeregramma and Plagiogramma as distinct genera, and formally propose amending Plagiogramma and transferring six Dimeregramma species. As the Plagiogrammaceae is also one of the first-diverging clades of pennate diatoms, we also used these molecular data to estimate the age of the family, based on multiple calibration points derived from fossil taxa within or close to the Plagiogrammaceae. The results indicated that the Plagiogrammaceae evolved more than 114 million year ago and its diversification appears to correspond to a time of climate cooling. Additionally, we described a new monotypic genus (Coccinelloidea) with one new species C. gracilis, and five new species within established genera, e.g. Plagiogramma marginalis, Plagiogramma harenae, Plagiogramma porcipellis, Neofragilaria montgomeryii and Psammogramma anacarae.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/classificação , Diatomáceas/genética , Filogenia , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Mudança Climática , Diatomáceas/citologia , Diatomáceas/ultraestrutura , Fósseis , Análise de Sequência de DNA
8.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230284, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294095

RESUMO

Large, old and heterogenous lake systems are valuable sources of biodiversity. The analysis of current spatial variability within such lakes increases our understanding of the origin and establishment of biodiversity. The environmental sensitivity and the high taxonomic richness of diatoms make them ideal organisms to investigate intra-lake variability. We investigated modern intra-lake diatom diversity in the large and old sub-arctic Lake Bolshoe Toko in Siberia. Our study uses diatom-specific metabarcoding, applying a short rbcL marker combined with next-generation sequencing and morphological identification to analyse the diatom diversity in modern sediment samples of 17 intra-lake sites. We analysed abundance-based compositional taxonomic diversity and generic phylogenetic diversity to investigate the relationship of diatom diversity changes with water depth. The two approaches show differences in taxonomic identification and alpha diversity, revealing a generally higher diversity with the genetic approach. With respect to beta diversity and ordination analyses, both approaches result in similar patterns. Water depth or related lake environmental conditions are significant factors influencing intra-lake diatom patterns, showing many significant negative correlations between alpha and beta diversity and water depth. Further, one near-shore and two lagoon lake sites characterized by low (0-10m) and medium (10-30m) water depth are unusual with unique taxonomic compositions. At deeper (>30m) water sites we identified strongest phylogenetic clustering in Aulacoseira, but generally much less in Staurosira, which supports that water depth is a strong environmental filter on the Aulacoseira communities. Our study demonstrates the utility of combining analyses of genetic and morphological as well as phylogenetic diversity to decipher compositional and generic phylogenetic patterns, which are relevant in understanding intra-lake heterogeneity as a source of biodiversity in the sub-arctic glacial Lake Bolshoe Toko.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Diatomáceas , Lagos/microbiologia , Filogenia , Diatomáceas/classificação , Diatomáceas/genética , Sibéria
9.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231790, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32310971

RESUMO

Seemingly empty spaces in various archaeological settings have left many unanswered questions. This paper focuses on the appearance, maintenance and possible function of a large empty area situated at the summit plateau of the Iron Age oppidum Bibracte in France. Multidisciplinary research of the infill of the ditch that delimited this area in the 1st century BC has provided evidence on the primary function and the formation processes of the structure itself, and for the reconstruction of the appearance, maintenance and function of the area it enclosed. The results allow us to gain insight into a variety of topics, including the role of trees, hygiene measures and waste management strategies at this urbanised hilltop centre. This paper demonstrates that multi-proxy analyses provide detailed insight into the function of archaeological features in a local environmental context and the potential of such approaches in archaeology.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Urbanização/história , Arqueologia/métodos , Diatomáceas/classificação , França , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Fenômenos Geológicos , História Antiga , Humanos , Datação Radiométrica/métodos , Árvores/classificação , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/história
10.
ISME J ; 14(2): 347-363, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624346

RESUMO

Diatoms emerged in the Mesozoic period and presently constitute one of the main primary producers in the world's ocean and are of a major economic importance. In the current study, using whole genome sequencing of ten accessions of the model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, sampled at broad geospatial and temporal scales, we draw a comprehensive landscape of the genomic diversity within the species. We describe strong genetic subdivisions of the accessions into four genetic clades (A-D) with constituent populations of each clade possessing a conserved genetic and functional makeup, likely a consequence of the limited dispersal of P. tricornutum in the open ocean. We further suggest dominance of asexual reproduction across all the populations, as implied by high linkage disequilibrium. Finally, we show limited yet compelling signatures of genetic and functional convergence inducing changes in the selection pressure on many genes and metabolic pathways. We propose these findings to have significant implications for understanding the genetic structure of diatom populations in nature and provide a framework to assess the genomic underpinnings of their ecological success and impact on aquatic ecosystems where they play a major role. Our work provides valuable resources for functional genomics and for exploiting the biotechnological potential of this model diatom species.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/genética , Diatomáceas/classificação , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Genoma , Genômica , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Polimorfismo Genético
11.
Microbiome ; 7(1): 153, 2019 12 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diatoms are of great significance to primary productivity in oceans, yet little is known about their biogeographic distribution in oligotrophic rivers. RESULTS: With the help of metabarcoding analysis of 279 samples from the Yangtze River, we provided the first integral biogeographic pattern of planktonic and benthic diatoms over a 6030 km continuum along the world's third largest river. Our study revealed spatial dissimilarity of diatoms under varying landforms, including plateau, mountain, foothill, basin, foothill-mountain, and plain regions, from the river source to the estuary. Environmental drivers of diatom communities were interpreted in terms of photosynthetically active radiation, temperature, channel slope and nutrients, and human interference. Typical benthic diatoms, such as Pinnularia, Paralia, and Aulacoseira, experienced considerable reduction in relative abundance downstream of the Three Gorges Dam and the Xiluodu Dam, two of the world's largest dams. CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed that benthic diatoms are of particular significance in characterizing motile guild in riverine environments, which provides insights into diatom biogeography and biogeochemical cycles in large river ecosystems.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/classificação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos , Plâncton/classificação , Rios , China , Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Ecossistema , Plâncton/isolamento & purificação
12.
Pol J Microbiol ; 68(4): 527-539, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880896

RESUMO

Ulleungdo and Dokdo are volcanic islands with an oceanic climate located off the eastern coast of South Korea. In the present study, we used barcoded Illumina MiSeq to analyze eukaryotic microalgal genera collected from Seonginbong, the highest peak on Ulleungdo, and from groundwater sites on Dongdo and Seodo Islands, which are part of Dokdo. Species richness was significantly greater in the Seonginbong samples than in the Dongdo and Seodo samples, with 834 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified from Seonginbong compared with 203 OTUs and 182 OTUs from Dongdo and Seodo, respectively. Taxonomic composition analysis was also used to identify the dominant microalgal phyla at each of the three sites, with Chlorophyta (green algae) the most abundant phyla on Seonginbong and Dongdo, and Bacillariophyta (diatoms) the most abundant on Seodo. These findings suggest that differences in the abundances of Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta species in the Seonginbong, Dongdo, and Seodo samples are due to variations in species richness and freshwater resources at each sampling location. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to detail freshwater microalgal communities on Ulleungdo and Dokdo. As such, the number of species identified in the Seonginbong, Dongdo, and Seodo samples might be an indicator of the ecological differences among these sites and varying characteristics of their microbial communities. Information regarding the microalgal communities also provides a basis for understanding the ecological interactions between microalgae species and other eukaryotic microorganisms.Ulleungdo and Dokdo are volcanic islands with an oceanic climate located off the eastern coast of South Korea. In the present study, we used barcoded Illumina MiSeq to analyze eukaryotic microalgal genera collected from Seonginbong, the highest peak on Ulleungdo, and from groundwater sites on Dongdo and Seodo Islands, which are part of Dokdo. Species richness was significantly greater in the Seonginbong samples than in the Dongdo and Seodo samples, with 834 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified from Seonginbong compared with 203 OTUs and 182 OTUs from Dongdo and Seodo, respectively. Taxonomic composition analysis was also used to identify the dominant microalgal phyla at each of the three sites, with Chlorophyta (green algae) the most abundant phyla on Seonginbong and Dongdo, and Bacillariophyta (diatoms) the most abundant on Seodo. These findings suggest that differences in the abundances of Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta species in the Seonginbong, Dongdo, and Seodo samples are due to variations in species richness and freshwater resources at each sampling location. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to detail freshwater microalgal communities on Ulleungdo and Dokdo. As such, the number of species identified in the Seonginbong, Dongdo, and Seodo samples might be an indicator of the ecological differences among these sites and varying characteristics of their microbial communities. Information regarding the microalgal communities also provides a basis for understanding the ecological interactions between microalgae species and other eukaryotic microorganisms.


Assuntos
Microalgas/isolamento & purificação , Clorófitas/classificação , Clorófitas/genética , Diatomáceas/classificação , Diatomáceas/genética , Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Água Doce/análise , Ilhas , Microalgas/classificação , Microalgas/genética , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
13.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 15116, 2019 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641158

RESUMO

Diatoms (Bacillariophyta) are ubiquitous microalgae which produce a siliceous exoskeleton and which make a major contribution to the productivity of oceans and freshwaters. They display a huge diversity, which makes them excellent ecological indicators of aquatic ecosystems. Usually, diatoms are identified using characteristics of their exoskeleton morphology. DNA-barcoding is an alternative to this and the use of High-Throughput-Sequencing enables the rapid analysis of many environmental samples at a lower cost than analyses under microscope. However, to identify environmental sequences correctly, an expertly curated reference library is needed. Several curated libraries for protists exists; none, however are dedicated to diatoms. Diat.barcode is an open-access library dedicated to diatoms which has been maintained since 2012. Data come from two sources (1) the NCBI nucleotide database and (2) unpublished sequencing data of culture collections. Since 2017, several experts have collaborated to curate this library for rbcL, a chloroplast marker suitable for species-level identification of diatoms. For the latest version of the database (version 7), 605 of the 3482 taxonomical names originally assigned by the authors of the rbcL sequences were modified after curation. The database is accessible at https://www6.inra.fr/carrtel-collection_eng/Barcoding-database .


Assuntos
Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Diatomáceas/classificação , Diatomáceas/genética , Biblioteca Gênica , Sequência de Bases , Curadoria de Dados , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Geografia , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase/genética
14.
BMC Microbiol ; 19(1): 225, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caulerpa lentillifera is one of the most important economic green macroalgae in the world. Increasing demand for consumption has led to the commercial cultivation of C. lentillifera in Japan and Vietnam in recent decades. Concomitant with the increase of C. lentillifera cultivation is a rise in disease. We hypothesise that epiphytes or other microorganisms outbreak at the C. lentillifera farm may be an important factor contributing to disease in C. lentillifera. The main aims are obtaining differences in the microbial community structure and diversity between healthy and diseased C. lentillifera and key epiphytes and other microorganisms affecting the differences through the results of high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis in the present study. RESULTS: A total of 14,050, 2479, and 941 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained from all samples using 16S rDNA, 18S rDNA, and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) high-throughput sequencing, respectively. 16S rDNA sequencing and 18S rDNA sequencing showed that microbial community diversity was higher in diseased C. lentillifera than in healthy C. lentillifera. Both PCoA results and UPGMA results indicated that the healthy and diseased algae samples have characteristically different microbial communities. The predominant prokaryotic phyla were Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Acidobacteria, Acidobacteria and Parcubacteria in all sequences. Chlorophyta was the most abundant eukaryotic phylum followed by Bacillariophyta based on 18S rDNA sequencing. Ascomycota was the dominant fungal phylum detected in healthy C. lentillifera based on ITS sequencing, whereas fungi was rare in diseased C. lentillifera, suggesting that Ascomycota was probably fungal endosymbiont in healthy C. lentillifera. There was a significantly higher abundance of Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Bacillariophyta, Ulvales and Tetraselmis in diseased C. lentillifera than in healthy C. lentillifera. Disease outbreaks significantly change carbohydrate metabolism, environmental information processing and genetic information processing of prokaryotic communities in C. lentillifera through predicted functional analyses using the Tax4Fun tool. CONCLUSIONS: Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Bacillariophyta, Ulvales and Tetraselmis outbreak at the C. lentillifera farm sites was an important factor contributing to disease in C. lentillifera.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Caulerpa/microbiologia , Clorófitas/classificação , Diatomáceas/classificação , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biodiversidade , Caulerpa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caulerpa/parasitologia , Clorófitas/genética , DNA Intergênico , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Diatomáceas/genética , Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Japão , Microbiota , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vietnã
15.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 145: 105-117, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590766

RESUMO

The Beagle Channel is a remote subantarctic environment where mussel aquaculture initiatives have existed since the early 1990s. Here we analyze phytoplankton biomass and composition, and the occurrence of harmful microalgae species and their toxins at three sites during the period 2015-2016. The occurrence of potentially harmful algae was observed throughout the study period, including toxigenic dinoflagellates such as Alexandrium catenella (Group I of the A. tamarense complex), A. ostenfeldii, Dinophysis acuminata, Gonyaulax spinifera, Azadinium sp., and the diatoms Pseudo-nitzschia australis and P. fraudulenta. Toxic dinoflagellates were detected in low densities whereas a Pseudo-nitzschia bloom was observed in late February. Isolates of A. catenella and P. delicatissima sensu stricto were phylogenetically characterized. The toxin profile of A. catenella was dominated by GTX4, while P. delicatissima sensu stricto showed no production of the neurotoxin domoic acid in culture conditions. The results provide base-line information for the management of harmful algal blooms in this little explored subantarctic area.


Assuntos
Aquicultura , Diatomáceas/química , Dinoflagelados/química , Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Fitoplâncton/química , Animais , Biomassa , Diatomáceas/classificação , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dinoflagelados/classificação , Dinoflagelados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Microalgas/química , Microalgas/classificação , Microalgas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fitoplâncton/classificação , Fitoplâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , América do Sul
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623119

RESUMO

The study of diatoms-unicellular algae of the class Bacillariophyceae-has several applications, first and foremost the evaluation of freshwater ecosystem quality according to the Water Frame Directive 2000/60/EC (WFD). Identification at the species level is a crucial step in diatom studies, considering that species belonging to the same genus have different geographical distributions and different ecological requirements. The Rapid Method for Identification of Italian Diatom Species is aimed at guiding users in the classification of freshwater diatom species. It consists of a digitized flow chart that leads, step by step, to the identification, starting with an image capture by light or electron microscopy. This rapid and easy tool could be useful to workers of an environmental agency when performing the operational monitoring required by the WFD to classify surface waters. It will also expand the application of diatoms in numerous fields. This method has been patented in Italy.


Assuntos
Classificação/métodos , Diatomáceas/classificação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Itália
17.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 35(4): 444-447, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532155

RESUMO

Abstract: Objective To detect the diatom population diversity in Dianchi by constructing a 18S rDNA clone library. Methods DNA from diatoms in 6 water samples of Dianchi was amplified with diatom 18S rDNA specific primer.The 18S rDNA clone library was constructed, and clones were randomly selected for sequence. Sequence alignment was performed by BLAST. The diatom population distribution in Dianchi was analyzed and the phylogenetic tree of diatom 18S rDNA in Dianchi waters was established with the MEGA v7.0.14 software. Results Two hundred and forty clones were sequenced, with 167 diatom sequences obtained, including 11 diatom species such as Stephanodiscus, Diatoma, and Melosira. There were certain differences in diatom population distribution among the 6 samples. Conclusion The population distribution of diatom species in Dianchi shows unique features and the sequence analysis of diatom 18S rDNA has a certain reference value to the inference of forensic drowning sites.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/classificação , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , China , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Afogamento , Ciências Forenses , Humanos
18.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(10): 603, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482206

RESUMO

The spatial and temporal variation of phytoplankton communities including HAB species in relation to the environmental characteristics was investigated in the protected meso-oligotrophic Mellah lagoon located in the South Western Mediterranean. During 2016, a biweekly monitoring of phytoplankton assemblages and the main abiotic factors were realized at three representative stations. Taxonomic composition, abundance, and diversity index were determined. In total, 227 phytoplankton species (160 diatoms and 53 dinoflagellates) were inventoried. There was a clear dominance of diatoms (62.9%) compared with dinoflagellates (36.8%). Diatoms dominated in spring and dinoflagellates developed in summer and early autumn in Mellah showing a marked seasonal trend. Data showed that the dynamic of the phytoplankton taxa evolving in the lagoon was mainly driven by temperature and salinity. For the first time, a number of potentially toxic species have been identified, including 2 diatoms (Pseudo-nitzschia group delicatissima, Pseudo-nitzschia group seriata) and 5 dinoflagellates (Alexandrium minutum, Alexandrium tamarense/catenella, Dinophysis acuminata, Dinophysis sacculus, Prorocentrum lima). These harmful species could threat the functioning of the Mellah lagoon and human health and require the establishment of a monitoring network. Finally, our study suggests that the observed decrease of the phytoplankton diversity between 2001 and 2016 could result from the reduction in water exchanges between the lagoon and the adjacent coast following the gradual clogging of the channel.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fitoplâncton/classificação , Estações do Ano , Argélia , Diatomáceas/classificação , Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Dinoflagelados/classificação , Dinoflagelados/fisiologia , Fitoplâncton/fisiologia , Salinidade , Temperatura
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(3): 521-526, July-Sept. 2019. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001458

RESUMO

Abstract Since the foundation of the Malacological Center in 1980, Universidad Centro Americana (UCA), Managua-Nicaragua, has been monitoring and collecting the marine, terrestrial, fluvial and lake mollusk population of the country. Many specimens have been photographed by Scanning Electronic Microscope (SEM), and in one of these, observation of the hairy periostracum reveals a seemingly thriving population of minute protists in possible symbiosis with their host. Adequate magnification and comparison with previous studies allowed the determination of these hosts as diatoms, testaceous amoebae, yeast, phacus, spores and other undetermined organisms which occur in tropical forests on rocks, trees and leaves. Here illustrated are diatoms and other organisms detected for the first time on the periostracum of a tropical rainforest mollusk.


Resumo Desde a fundação do Centro Malacológico em 1980, a Universidad Central Americana (UCA), Manágua-Nicarágua, vem acompanhando e coletando a população de moluscos marinhos, terrestres, fluviais e lagoas do país. Muitos espécimes foram fotografados pelo microscópio eletrônico de varredura (SEM) e, em um deles, a observação do periostracum peludo revela uma população aparentemente próspera de protistas de minuto em possível simbiose com o hospedeiro. A ampliação adequada e a comparação com estudos anteriores permitem a determinação dessas diatomáceas, amebas testaceas, leveduras, phacus, esporos e outros organismos indeterminados que ocorrem em florestas tropicais em rochas, árvores e folhas. Aqui estão as diatomeas e outros organismos pela primeira vez detectados no periostracum de um molusco tropical.


Assuntos
Animais , Caramujos/fisiologia , Simbiose , Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Diatomáceas/classificação , Floresta Úmida , Nicarágua
20.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11590, 2019 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406160

RESUMO

Despite important progress, uncertainty persists regarding the ecological forces driving microbial community assembly. Here, we present the first study to use phylogenetic information to interpret the structure and diversity of diatom communities. We examined local phylogenetic divergence and beta- phylogenetic diversity in a large dataset of 595 freshwater benthic diatom communities and we investigated how this diversity is influenced by gradients in nutrients, pH, organic matter and catchment size. Overall, we found that diatom communities were phylogenetically clustered, i.e. species within communities were more closely related than expected by chance. Phylogenetic clustering was stronger in nutrient-poor environments and in sites with a small catchment area. The variation of the phylogenetic beta-diversity index was much better explained by space and environment than the variation of the taxonomic index was. Both approaches detected a significant effect of environment and space on diatom community turnover. Our results support the view that diatom communities are primarily shaped by environmental filtering, in particular by nutrient availability. Moreover, they highlight the importance of considering dispersal-related processes and the depth of phylogenetic signal in functional traits when interpreting patterns of diversity.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Filogenia , Diatomáceas/classificação , Ecossistema , Água Doce
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