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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(11): 688, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664528

RESUMO

Understanding the relative impact sizes of environmental factors and nutrients on the high annual variation of phytoplankton abundance in eutrophic rivers is important for aquatic ecosystem management efforts. In this study, we used phytoplankton dynamic datasets in the eutrophic Fenhe River to show the variations and drivers of phytoplankton abundance under complex, fluctuating environmental conditions during 2012-2017. The temporal and spatial variations of nutrients in the river depicted that the total phosphorus (TP) concentration was higher in the wet season and in downstream. There were increases in total nitrogen (TN) concentration in the normal season and in upstream. The structural equation model (SEM) showed that the phytoplankton abundance increased during the wet season despite the decrease in the TN:TP ratio and was reduced upstream due to the highest TN:TP ratio. Among the environmental variables, water temperature (WT) was an important predictor and positively correlated temporally and spatially to phytoplankton. The interaction of nutrients with the phytoplankton community at different temperature levels indicated that different phytoplankton groups have different nutrient requirements. We can conclude that enhances in temperature and TP concentration will significantly increase phytoplankton abundance and dominance of cyanobacteria and green algae in the future, whereas there was insignificant effect on diatoms. These data indicated that temperature and TP content were the important abiotic factors influencing the phytoplankton growth of the water body, which could provide a reference for the evaluation of environmental alterations in the future.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Fitoplâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Temperatura Ambiente , Poluentes da Água/análise , China , Clorófitas , Cianobactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecossistema , Eutrofização , Nitrogênio/análise , Nutrientes , Fósforo/análise , Rios/química , Estações do Ano
2.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 145: 105-117, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590766

RESUMO

The Beagle Channel is a remote subantarctic environment where mussel aquaculture initiatives have existed since the early 1990s. Here we analyze phytoplankton biomass and composition, and the occurrence of harmful microalgae species and their toxins at three sites during the period 2015-2016. The occurrence of potentially harmful algae was observed throughout the study period, including toxigenic dinoflagellates such as Alexandrium catenella (Group I of the A. tamarense complex), A. ostenfeldii, Dinophysis acuminata, Gonyaulax spinifera, Azadinium sp., and the diatoms Pseudo-nitzschia australis and P. fraudulenta. Toxic dinoflagellates were detected in low densities whereas a Pseudo-nitzschia bloom was observed in late February. Isolates of A. catenella and P. delicatissima sensu stricto were phylogenetically characterized. The toxin profile of A. catenella was dominated by GTX4, while P. delicatissima sensu stricto showed no production of the neurotoxin domoic acid in culture conditions. The results provide base-line information for the management of harmful algal blooms in this little explored subantarctic area.


Assuntos
Aquicultura , Diatomáceas/química , Dinoflagelados/química , Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Fitoplâncton/química , Animais , Biomassa , Diatomáceas/classificação , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dinoflagelados/classificação , Dinoflagelados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Microalgas/química , Microalgas/classificação , Microalgas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fitoplâncton/classificação , Fitoplâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , América do Sul
3.
Microb Cell Fact ; 18(1): 161, 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have shown that stress induction and genetic engineering can effectively increase lipid accumulation, but lead to a decrease of growth in the majority of microalgae. We previously found that elevated CO2 concentration increased lipid productivity as well as growth in Phaeodactylum tricornutum, along with an enhancement of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (OPPP) activity. The purpose of this work directed toward the verification of the critical role of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), the rate-limiting enzyme in the OPPP, in lipid accumulation in P. tricornutum and its simultaneous rapid growth rate under high-CO2 (0.15%) cultivation. RESULTS: In this study, G6PDH was identified as a target for algal strain improvement, wherein G6PDH gene was successfully overexpressed and antisense knockdown in P. tricornutum, and systematic comparisons of the photosynthesis performance, algal growth, lipid content, fatty acid profiles, NADPH production, G6PDH activity and transcriptional abundance were performed. The results showed that, due to the enhanced G6PDH activity, transcriptional abundance and NAPDH production, overexpression of G6PDH accompanied by high-CO2 cultivation resulted in a much higher of both lipid content and growth in P. tricornutum, while knockdown of G6PDH greatly decreased algal growth as well as lipid accumulation. In addition, the total proportions of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid, especially the polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5, n-3), were highly increased in high-CO2 cultivated G6PDH overexpressed strains. CONCLUSIONS: The successful of overexpression and antisense knockdown of G6PDH well demonstrated the positive influence of G6PDH on algal growth and lipid accumulation in P. tricornutum. The improvement of algal growth, lipid content as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids in high-CO2 cultivated G6PDH overexpressed P. tricornutum suggested this G6PDH overexpression-high CO2 cultivation pattern provides an efficient and economical route for algal strain improvement to develop algal-based biodiesel production.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Diatomáceas/genética , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/genética , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Engenharia Genética , Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Microalgas/genética , Microalgas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microalgas/metabolismo , NADP/metabolismo , Via de Pentose Fosfato , Fotossíntese
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 694: 133396, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401512

RESUMO

The Arabian Sea is prone to large-scale algal blooms during winter monsoon annually. However, it is unclear why dinoflagellate, especially Noctiluca scintillans, replaced diatoms as the main bloom species. Based on in situ, remote sensing and numerical-model data off Pakistan, we found a stratified water with less salty, suitable temperature (~24 °C) and low-light conditions at the subsurface, as well as the organic nutrient accumulation and silicate limitation, were crucial for the growth of N. scintillans and outcompeting diatoms. The superposition of cyclonic eddy promoted N. scintillans pumping to surface and forming large-scale bloom. Subsequently, the shading effect of surface bloom caused the disappearance of subsurface chlorophyll maximum layer. This result suggests that the combined effects of nutrient structure and hydrodynamics play an important role in the prevalence of N. scintillans.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dinoflagelados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Monitoramento Ambiental , Eutrofização , Paquistão , Fitoplâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estações do Ano , Água do Mar , Temperatura Ambiente
5.
Molecules ; 24(16)2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426449

RESUMO

In recent years, there has become a growing need for the development of antifouling technology for application in the marine environment. The accumulation of large quantities of biomass on these surfaces cause substantial economic burdens within the marine industry, or adversely impact the performance of sensor technologies. Here, we present a study of transparent coatings with potential for applications on sensors or devices with optical windows. The focus of the study is on the abundance and diversity of biofouling organisms that accumulate on glass panels coated with novel transparent or opaque organically modified silicate (ORMOSIL) coatings. The diatom assessment was used to determine the effectiveness of the coatings against biofouling. Test panels were deployed in a marine environment in Galway Bay for durations of nine and thirteen months to examine differences in biofilm formation in both microfouling and macrofouling conditions. The most effective coating is one which consists of precursor, tetraethyl orthosilicate (HC006) that has a water contact angle > 100, without significant roughness (43.52 nm). However, improved roughness and wettability of a second coating, diethoxydimethylsilane (DMDEOS), showed real promise in relation to macrofouling reduction.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Diatomáceas/efeitos dos fármacos , Silanos/farmacologia , Organismos Aquáticos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Incrustação Biológica/prevenção & controle , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transição de Fase , Silanos/química , Propriedades de Superfície/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(15)2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366087

RESUMO

The baseline of a specific variable defines the average behavior of that variable and it must be built from long data series that represent its spatial and temporal variability. In coastal and marine waters, phytoplankton can produce blooms characterized by a wide range of total cells number or chlorophyll a concentration. Classifying a phytoplankton abundance increase as a bloom depends on the species, the study area and the season. The objective of this study was to define the baseline of satellite absorption coefficients in Todos Santos Bay (Baja California, Mexico) to determine the presence of phytoplankton blooms based on the satellite inherent optical properties index (satellite IOP index). Two field points were selected according to historical bloom reports. To build the baseline, the data of phytoplankton absorption coefficients ( a p h y , G I O P ) and detritus plus colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) ( a d C D O M , G I O P ) from the generalized inherent optical property (GIOP) satellite model of the NASA moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS-Aqua) sensor was studied for the period 2003 to 2016. Field data taken during a phytoplankton bloom event on June 2017 was used to validate the use of satellite products. The association between field and satellite data had a significant positive correlation. The satellite baseline detected a trend change from high values to low values of the satellite IOP index since 2010. Improved wastewater treatment to waters discharged into the Bay, and increased aquaculture of filter-feeding mollusks could have been the cause. The methodology proposed in this study can be a supplementary tool for permanent in situ monitoring programs. This methodology offers several advantages: A complete spatial coverage of the specific coastal area under study, appropriate temporal resolution and a tool for building an objective baseline to detect deviation from average conditions during phytoplankton bloom events.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fitoplâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clorofila/análise , Eutrofização , Estações do Ano
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 182: 109455, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344592

RESUMO

Irgarol 1051 is highly toxic to marine autotrophs and has been widely used as an antifouling booster biocide. This study tested the toxicities of two s-triazine derivatives of Irgarol, namely M2 (3-[4-tert-butylamino-6-methylthiol-s-triazin-2-ylamino]propionaldehyde) and M3 (2-methylthio-4,6-bis-tert-butylamino-s-triazine) to two marine diatom species, Skeletonema costatum and Thalassiosira pseudonana through standard acute (96h) and chronic (7d) growth inhibition tests. Results showed that both of the two chemicals significantly inhibited the growth of S. costatum (M2: 96h-EC50 = 6789.7 µg L-1, 7d-EC50 = 3503.7 µg L-1; M3: 96h-EC50 = 45193.9 µg L-1, 7d-EC50 = 5330.0 µg L-1) and T. pseudonana (M2: 96h-EC50 = 366.2 µg L-1, 7d-EC50 = 312.5 µg L-1; M3: 96h-EC50 = 2633.4 µg L-1, 7d-EC50 = 710.5 µg L-1), while their toxicity effects were much milder than Irgarol and its major degradation product M1. By comparing with previous findings, the susceptibilities of these s-triazine compounds to two tested species were ranked as: Irgarol > M1 ≫ M2 > M3. This study promotes future research efforts on better understanding of the ecotoxicities of M2 and M3, and incorporating such information to improve the current monitoring, risk assessment and regulation of the use of Irgarol.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/efeitos dos fármacos , Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Triazinas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desinfetantes/química , Especificidade da Espécie , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Testes de Toxicidade , Triazinas/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
8.
Bioresour Technol ; 289: 121717, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279322

RESUMO

To enhance biodiesel production and quality from a bloom-forming diatom Skeletonema costatum, a two-stage model, in which cells were cultured in nutrient replete conditions first and then transferred to nutrient limitation conditions, was explored. Compared to one-stage model, nutrient limitation in the second stage significantly increased lipid content in spite of decreasing growth; consequently, Si-limitation and N-Si-limitation respectively increased lipid productivity by 37.6% and 76.7% for 6 h induction, and 42.8% and 113.7% for 12 induction. Nutrient limitation enhanced the proportions of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) but reduced polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). Therefore, N-Si-limitation reduced iodine value by 33.7% and 45.6% but increased cetane number by 6.4% and 21.6% for 6 and 24 h induction, respectively. These findings indicate that the two-stage model with N-Si-limitation can enhance lipid productivity as well as biodiesel quality from diatoms.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Lipídeos/biossíntese , Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Silício/farmacologia , Diatomáceas/efeitos dos fármacos , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(24): 24503-24515, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230246

RESUMO

Diatoms play an important role as ecological indicators, and some species of diatoms can easily cause water blooms, thereby decreasing the production capacity of water treatment plants and endangering drinking water safety. Mastering the diatom community dynamics is crucial for water supply. In this study, diatom composition, spatial distribution and succession were investigated in Datun Reservoir, Donghu Reservoir and Shuangwangcheng Reservoir, which are important drinking water sources in Shandong province, China. Results showed that the three reservoirs could be classified as being between mesotrophic and moderately eutrophic. The diatom community in each of the three reservoirs exhibited no obvious seasonal succession. The diatom communities in the three reservoirs were relatively simple in composition, with Synedra and Cyclotella being the most dominant groups all year round. Synedra had a negative relationship with NO2-N. Cyclotella had a positive association with NO3-N, but was negatively associated with NH4-N and CODMn in the three reservoirs. Through the analysis of diatom and environmental factors, the three reservoirs have the potential of hosting diatom blooms in summer, when the higher temperature combines with reduced water flow.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Monitoramento Ambiental , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Fósforo/análise , Estações do Ano
10.
Aquat Toxicol ; 212: 20-27, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039523

RESUMO

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a series of highly persistent organic pollutants (POPs), are ubiquitous in marine ecosystems. As key primary producers, microalgae are of great importance on evaluating the environmental outcome of PBDEs pollution. In this study, the toxic mechanisms of BDE-47 on the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana were evaluated by measuring multiple physiological processes. Three concentrations of BDE-47 (25, 15 and 5 µg L-1) were used along with two controls (blank: no BDE-47 or DMSO; negative control: only DMSO). Experiments lasted 144 h (6 days), in which the actual BDE-47 concentrations, cell densities, nutrient (nitrate and phosphate) uptake, pigment compositions, photosynthetic physiology, cell morphology and cellular contents (organic carbon and nitrogen) were measured at 12-48 h intervals. The toxic mechanisms of BDE-47 on T. pseudonana cells were evaluated by measuring multiple physiological processes including photosynthesis, nutrient uptake, cellular material synthesis and cell cycle progressions. The cell divisions of T. pseudonana were severely inhibited by the stress of BDE-47, but the photosynthetic parameters were much less declined and recovered earlier than the cell divisions in the same BDE-47 treatments. The unsuppressed uptake rates of nutrients, increased cell volume and cellular contents indicated the cellular material synthesis proceeded normally. Finally, we found that the cell cycle was arrested in G2/M phase under the stress of BDE-47, we thus concluded that the inhibition of cell divisions by BDE-47 was not due to the lack of energy or cellular materials, where the cell cycle arrest happened; this might be the most important toxicological outcome.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/efeitos dos fármacos , Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/toxicidade , Fenômenos Fisiológicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Carbono/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diatomáceas/citologia , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Pigmentos Biológicos/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Environ Pollut ; 250: 873-882, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085473

RESUMO

The potential presence of nanoplastics (NP) in aquatic environments represents a growing concern regarding their possible effects on aquatic organisms. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of polystyrene (PS) amino-modified particles (50  nm PSNH2) on the cellular and metabolic responses of the diatom Chaetoceros neogracile cultures at two essential phases of the growth cycle, i.e. exponential (division) and stationary (storage) phases. Both cultures were exposed for 4 days to low (0.05 µg mL-1) and high (5 µg mL-1) concentrations of PS-NH2. Exposure to NP impaired more drastically the major cellular and physiological parameters during exponential phase than during the stationary phase. Only an increase in ROS production was observed at both culture phases following NP exposures. In exponential phase cultures, large decreases in chlorophyll content, esterase activity, cellular growth and photosynthetic efficiency were recorded upon NP exposure, which could have consequences on the diatoms life cycle and higher food-web levels. The observed differential responses to NP exposure according to culture phase could reflect i) the higher concentration of Transparent Exopolymer Particles (TEP) at stationary phase leading to NP aggregation and thus, probably minimizing NP effects, and/or ii) the fact that dividing cells during exponential phase may be intrinsically more sensitive to stress. This work evidenced the importance of algae physiological state for assessing the NP impacts with interactions between NP and TEP being one key factor affecting the fate of NP in algal media and their impact to algal' cells.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/efeitos dos fármacos , Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Clorofila/metabolismo , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Cadeia Alimentar , Modelos Teóricos , Tamanho da Partícula
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(24): 6683-6690, 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140797

RESUMO

Fungicides are frequently detected in natural water and have gained increasing attention as a result of their potential toxicity to non-target aquatic organisms. Carbendazim (CAR), a commonly used fungicide, was selected to explore its toxicity and biodegradation in a typical freshwater diatom Navicula sp. Results showed that the growth of Navicula sp. was inhibited by CAR, with a 24 h EC50 value of 2.18 mg L-1. Although the algal growth rate was recovered after 72 h of exposure, the chlorophyll a content remained significantly decreased when the concentration of CAR was above 0.5 mg L-1. Moreover, Navicula sp. had a negative effect on the removal of CAR, and the acute toxicity by CAR was likely due to its rapid accumulation in algal cells. Mass spectrometric data revealed the transformation products of CAR from hydroxylation, methylation, decarboxylation, demethylation, and deamination in algal cultures. These results provide a better understanding of the environmental risks of CAR in water and point to the need for additional studies on the potential adverse biological effects of its intermediates.


Assuntos
Benzimidazóis/metabolismo , Carbamatos/metabolismo , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Fungicidas Industriais/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Benzimidazóis/química , Benzimidazóis/toxicidade , Carbamatos/química , Carbamatos/toxicidade , Diatomáceas/química , Diatomáceas/efeitos dos fármacos , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Água Doce/análise , Fungicidas Industriais/química , Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Espectrometria de Massas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
13.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(2): e20170863, 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141008

RESUMO

Diatom growth strategies, which are used as a proxy to analyze disturbances and environmental impacts, can also provide reliable information about environmental gradients. In this study, we used diatom communities and biological traits to assess the structure of epilithic diatoms after an oil spill in a large tributary of the Iguaçu River (Paraná, Brazil). Epilithon and water samples were taken on July 12th, 2004, and after an unexpected oil spill, on the following days: 09/19, 10/03, and 10/13/2004. We observed that the spill caused a distinct shift in both diatom composition and guild group. Diversity decreased and pollution-tolerant diatoms of the motile group became dominant in response to the elevated nutrient levels and reduced light. Tube-forming diatoms, which are strong competitors for light, dominated the epilithon 24 days after the oil spill. Both diatom guilds and growth forms were successfully used to predict the environmental conditions. While diatom guilds responded to disturbances along a temporal gradient, changes inside the guilds were the main factor for understanding the environmental gradient.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/efeitos dos fármacos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Petróleo/efeitos adversos , Óleos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Brasil , Vazamento de Resíduos Químicos , Diatomáceas/classificação , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rios/química
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(6): 382, 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111231

RESUMO

At present, there are few studies on the quantitative analysis of connectivity from the perspective of biocenology. This study aimed to develop a new quantitative assessment method for river connectivity based on the analysis of the effect of river connectivity on the phytoplankton community in the Shaying River, which has multiple gates. The results showed that from the view of the phytoplankton density and biomass, cryptophytes were the dominant phytoplankton group, but the cyanobacteria density was highest in the summer. In the top 10 of degrees of dominance, there were 4 species of cyanobacteria, 3 species of cryptophytes, 2 species of diatoms, and 1 species of chlorophytes. Based on the seasonal compositions and variations of the phytoplankton community, the river barriers had a great effect on the community. The community composition of the Shaying River has been transformed from a river-type community dominated by diatoms to a lake-type community dominated by cyanophytes. PCA (principal component analysis) indicated that there were obvious differences in the community structure among the sections partitioned by various river gates. According to the relative positions of the entire phytoplankton community and the relative sequence of the river gates, a potential gradient representing the river connectivity can be found; thus, the river connectivity can be quantitatively described from the perspective of the phytoplankton community, and hereby, the corresponding quantitative methods can be established. Characterizing the connectivity of rivers based on biota will facilitate assessing the effects of multiple barriers and understanding river connectivity, and provide the support for the effective management of rivers.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fitoplâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rios/química , Movimentos da Água , Biomassa , Biota , Cianobactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lagos/química , Análise de Componente Principal , Estações do Ano
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 659: 1242-1255, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096337

RESUMO

Freshwater diatom communities are known to respond to a wide range of environmental factors, however, the depth gradient is usually neglected and few studies are available, especially in large reservoirs. During the ALqueva hydro-meteorological EXperiment (ALEX) field campaign, diatom communities were studied in the margins and in three platforms (from the surface to the bottom of the reservoir) located in the limnetic zone of the Alqueva reservoir, one of the largest artificial lakes in western Europe. A detailed meteorological and physico-chemical characterization of the reservoir was carried out from June to September in Summer 2014, when the reservoir was stratified, to relate these variables with diatom assemblages. Despite the large dimensions of the reservoir, no differences in the water physico-chemical characteristics and diatom descriptors were detected among platforms. Small changes in diatom assemblages, ecological guilds, taxa richness and Shannon diversity index were observed between sampling campaigns. Nevertheless, differences in diatoms were detected along a depth gradient, both in terms of diatom assemblages and ecological guilds. Taxa richness, Shannon diversity index, Pielou's evenness and Specific Pollution sensitivity Index (SPI) also differed with depth, with the lowest values of all indices detected at surface samples, increasing with depth, reaching the highest values at 20 m for taxa richness, Shannon diversity and Pielou's evenness indices.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Água Doce , Portugal
16.
Environ Pollut ; 249: 610-619, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933758

RESUMO

Nowadays, the occurrence of a large volume of plastic litter in oceanic and coastal zones has increased concern about its impacts on marine organisms. The degradation of plastic polymers leads to the formation of smaller fragments at both micro and nano scale (<5 mm and <1 µm respectively). Nanoplastics (NPs), due to their smaller size and high specific surface area can establish colloidal interactions with marine microalgae, therefore potential toxicity can be led. . To assess this hypothesis, the aim of the present study is to examine the behaviour of polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs) of different sizes (50 and 100 nm) in marine water and their possible effects at different physiological and cellular levels in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Different biomarkers and stress responses in P. tricornutum were analysed when organisms were exposed to environmentally relevant PS NPs concentrations between 0.1 and 50 mg L-1. Our results showed significant differences between controls and exposure microalgae, indicating toxicity. After 24 h, an increase in oxidative stress biomarkers, damage to the photosynthetic apparatus, DNA damage and depolarization of mitochondrial and cell membrane from 5 mg L-1 were observed. Further after 72 h the inhibition of population growth and chlorophyll content were observed. Examining effects the effects related to PS NPs size, the smallest (50 nm) induced greater effects at 24 h while bigger PS NPs (100 nm) at72 h. This bigger particles (100 nm) showed more stability (in size distribution and spherical form) in the different culture media assayed, when compared with the rest of particles used. Strong adsorption and/or internalization of PS NPs was confirmed through changes in cell complexity and cell size as well as the fluorescence of 100 nm fluoresbrite PS NPs after washing cell surface.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microalgas/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Fitoplâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Clorofila/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Diatomáceas/efeitos dos fármacos , Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Água Doce , Membranas Mitocondriais/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoplâncton/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoplâncton/fisiologia , Água/metabolismo
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(16): 16388-16395, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982194

RESUMO

Diatoms are experiencing striking fluctuations in seawater carbonate chemistry in the natural marine environment, especially in coastal seawaters. Here, we show that the diatoms Thalassiosira weissflogii and Phaeodactylum tricornutum, which utilize different carbon acquisition mechanisms, respond differently to short-term changes in seawater carbonate chemistry. Our results showed that T. weissflogii showed significantly higher photosynthetic oxygen evolution rates than that of P. tricornutum at low levels of CO2 or HCO3-. This suggests that T. weissflogii had higher affinities for CO2 or HCO3- when their concentrations were not sufficient to support saturated growth and photosynthesis. While the activity of Rubisco in P. tricornutum positively correlated with carbonic anhydrases (CA), we observed negative relationship between Rubisco and CA activity in the diatom T. weissflogii. These contrasting physiological responses of diatoms with varied carbon acquisition mechanisms indicate different abilities to cope up with abrupt changes in seawater carbonate chemistry. We propose that the ability to respond to varying carbonate chemistry may act as one determinant of the diatom distributions and phytoplankton community structures.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase/metabolismo , Água do Mar/química , Carbono/metabolismo , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Fitoplâncton/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 177: 7-17, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954010

RESUMO

Algae blooms frequently occur in the coastal areas of China, and pose numbers of adverse effects to marine environment. Nitzschia closterium is one of the algal species associated with algae blooms and was selected as the target algae of this work. This study was the first attempt to investigate the effect of carbon source restriction on the growth of N. closterium during marine phytoplankton blooms. Experiments were implemented in the CO2-restricted (include three nutritional conditions) and CO2-unrestricted systems, respectively. The stable isotope ratios (δ13C and δ15N) and fatty acids (FAs) profiles were measured. Here we hypothesized that the deficient carbon source could lead to the changes of stable isotope ratios and FAs profiles in the N. closterium. The results showed that the δ13C of N. closterium enriched under the CO2 restriction during the culture time (the isotopic difference greater than 27.8‰), whereas depleted under CO2-unrestricted system. Furthermore, within the CO2 restriction, δ15N showed the enrichment trend with increasing culture time under the nitrogen deficiency conditions, where leveled off under the nitrogen non-deficiency conditions. A total of 12 FAs in N. closterium were detected. Within CO2 restriction, FA 20:5n-3c was the predominant congener in all the three conditions. In addition, FA 16:1n-7c was highest in nitrogen deficient, while FA 16:3 was highest in phosphorus deficient condition. Consequently, the deficient carbon sources leaded to inhibit the FA (14:0, 16:0, 16:1n-7c, 16:3, 18:0, 18:3n-3c) synthesis. Overall, the present study provided the new approach to investigate the forming mechanisms of marine phytoplankton blooms by using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions as well as FAs profiles.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Biomassa , Carbono/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , China , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Eutrofização , Nitrogênio/análise , Nitrogênio/química , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/química , Fitoplâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fitoplâncton/metabolismo
19.
Extremophiles ; 23(3): 347-357, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888506

RESUMO

Alkaline soda lakes are unique habitats found in specific geographic regions, usually with dry climate. The Carpathian Basin is one of those regions very important for habitat and biodiversity conservation in Europe, with natural soda lakes found in Austria, Hungary and Serbia. In comparison to other two countries from Central Europe, algal biodiversity studies of saline soda lakes in Serbia are scarce. Lake Velika Rusanda has the highest measured salinity of all saline lakes in the Carpathian Basin and there were no reports of its diatom species richness and diversity till now. We conducted 2-year investigation programme to study biodiversity and seasonal dynamics of diatoms in this lake. A total of 27 diatom taxa were found, almost all of them attached to reed and much less in benthos and plankton. Five new diatom species for Serbia were recorded, Craticula halopannonica, Navicymbula pusilla, Hantzschia weyprechtii, Nitzschia thermaloides and Navicula staffordiae. The last mentioned is new for Europe as well. Lake Velika Rusanda is inhabited mostly by alkaliphilous and halophilic diatoms. Since diatoms are used as bioindicators in soda lakes, our results will improve their further application in ecological status assessment of these fragile habitats in the Carpathian Basin.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Diatomáceas , Lagos/microbiologia , Salinidade , Microbiologia da Água , Diatomáceas/classificação , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sérvia
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(14): 14266-14276, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864033

RESUMO

Ecosystem-based management is one of the strategies to protect the coastal areas. One of the key elements is phytoplankton community composition since it represents a good indicator of anthropogenic pressures. This identifies the seasonal patterns of phytoplankton, and its alterations by the stress factors induced by human activities are highly valuable. This research represents the first attempt to study that 476 km of western Mediterranean coastal belongs to the Valencian Community (Spain) based on the phytoplankton composition approach. The water samples during a 5-year period (6757 water samples) were taken to determine its phytoplankton group's dynamics and its relationship with anthropogenic stressors by means of a series of plots and statistical analyses. Diatoms are the group that most contribute to the whole community composition with two periods of maximum abundance. The Prasinophyceae and Cryptophyceae show unimodal patterns varying its maximum values depending on the season. The picocyanobacteria group exhibited the clearest and best-defined pattern. Other groups have no clear seasonal pattern and become abundant in areas of higher anthropogenic pressure. Graphical abstract Figure A contains poor quality of text in image. Otherwise, please provide replacement figure file.A new graphical abstract, with higher quality is attached.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fitoplâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estações do Ano , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Diatomáceas/classificação , Diatomáceas/efeitos dos fármacos , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecossistema , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Mar Mediterrâneo , Fitoplâncton/classificação , Fitoplâncton/efeitos dos fármacos , Água do Mar/química , Espanha
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