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1.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231178, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320403

RESUMO

An assessment of the production, distribution and fate of highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) biomarkers produced by sea ice and pelagic diatoms is necessary to interpret their detection and proportions in the northern Bering and Chukchi Seas. HBIs measured in surface sediments collected from 2012 to 2017 were used to determine the distribution and seasonality of the biomarkers relative to sea ice patterns. A northward gradient of increasing ice algae deposition was observed with localized occurrences of elevated IP25 (sympagic HBI) concentrations from 68-70°N and consistently strong sympagic signatures from 71-72.5°N. A declining sympagic signature was observed from 2012 to 2017 in the northeast Chukchi Sea, coincident with declining sea ice concentrations. HBI fluxes were investigated on the northeast Chukchi shelf with a moored sediment trap deployed from August 2015 to July 2016. Fluxes of sea ice exclusive diatoms (Nitzschia frigida and Melosira arctica) and HBI-producing taxa (Pleurosigma, Haslea and Rhizosolenia spp.) were measured to confirm HBI sources and ice associations. IP25 was detected year-round, increasing in March 2016 (10 ng m-2 d-1) and reaching a maximum in July 2016 (1331 ng m-2 d-1). Snowmelt triggered the release of sea ice algae into the water column in May 2016, while under-ice pelagic production contributed to the diatom export in June and July 2016. Sea ice diatom fluxes were strongly correlated with the IP25 flux, however associations between pelagic diatoms and HBI fluxes were inconclusive. Bioturbation likely facilitates sustained burial of sympagic organic matter on the shelf despite the occurrence of pelagic diatom blooms. These results suggest that sympagic diatoms may sustain the food web through winter on the northeast Chukchi shelf. The reduced relative proportions of sympagic HBIs in the northern Bering Sea are likely driven by sea ice persistence in the region.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Camada de Gelo/microbiologia , Microalgas/isolamento & purificação , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Terpenos/análise , Regiões Árticas , Biomarcadores/análise , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Cadeia Alimentar , Microalgas/metabolismo , Oceanos e Mares , Estações do Ano , Terpenos/metabolismo
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 191: 110226, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981955

RESUMO

Since 2006, harmful dinoflagellate blooms of Cochlodinium geminatum have infrequently occurred in the Pearl River Estuary, South China. During late October to early November in 2018, C. geminatum blooms occurred again in the region. To investigate the blooming mechanism in certain temporal conditions, we analysed the changes in the environmental parameters and phytoplankton community structure during and after the bloom. The results indicated that the water temperature and salinity had large impacts on the bloom. During the C. geminatum bloom, the phytoplankton community structure changed and the number of dominant species decreased. After the bloom, the species number and abundance of diatoms increased, as the species diversity was recovering. Retinal was detected in the field samples and cultured C. geminatum. It has been demonstrated to exist in some algae species (e.g. Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, Bacillariophyta, and Euglenophyt), and our results indicates that such teratogens also exist in dinoflagellates. The highest concentration of retinal was detected during the bloom. This result indicates that the retinal content may accumulate during a bloom. Retinal has been demonstrated to be a teratogenic agent and may therefore present a potential risk to aquatic organisms during a bloom episode. This research provided more comprehensive information concerning the ecological influences of C. geminatum blooms.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados/química , Dinoflagelados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estuários , Retinoides/análise , Teratogênios/análise , China , Clorófitas/química , Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Fenômenos Ecológicos e Ambientais , Fitoplâncton/isolamento & purificação , Rios , Salinidade
3.
Microbiome ; 7(1): 153, 2019 12 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diatoms are of great significance to primary productivity in oceans, yet little is known about their biogeographic distribution in oligotrophic rivers. RESULTS: With the help of metabarcoding analysis of 279 samples from the Yangtze River, we provided the first integral biogeographic pattern of planktonic and benthic diatoms over a 6030 km continuum along the world's third largest river. Our study revealed spatial dissimilarity of diatoms under varying landforms, including plateau, mountain, foothill, basin, foothill-mountain, and plain regions, from the river source to the estuary. Environmental drivers of diatom communities were interpreted in terms of photosynthetically active radiation, temperature, channel slope and nutrients, and human interference. Typical benthic diatoms, such as Pinnularia, Paralia, and Aulacoseira, experienced considerable reduction in relative abundance downstream of the Three Gorges Dam and the Xiluodu Dam, two of the world's largest dams. CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed that benthic diatoms are of particular significance in characterizing motile guild in riverine environments, which provides insights into diatom biogeography and biogeochemical cycles in large river ecosystems.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/classificação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos , Plâncton/classificação , Rios , China , Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Ecossistema , Plâncton/isolamento & purificação
4.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0225551, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790456

RESUMO

The community structure and assemblages of marine benthic organisms were investigated in coastal areas near the Jang Bogo Antarctic Research Station in Terra Nova Bay during the 2012-2018 summer seasons. We also examined the recovery pattern of marine benthic organisms following disturbance due to the construction of the Jang Bogo Station. A total of 26 taxa were identified in the study area during the experimental period. Species number and diversity indices (richness, evenness, and diversity) were relatively low compared to data previously reported from Terra Nova Bay. Sphaerotylus antarcticus, Clavularia frankliniana, Hydractinia sp., Iridaea cordata, Fragilariopsis spp., Alcyonium antarcticum, and Metalaeospira pixelli were the dominant species in this area. Of these, the diatom Fragilariopsis spp. were the most abundant species, indicating their key role in maintaining the marine benthic community and controlling biogeochemical cycling. During the construction of the Jang Bogo Station, sediment coverage increased and diatoms declined due to the release of sediment into the coastal area. In February 2014, one month after the disturbance due to cyclone, the diatom coverage increased dramatically and thereby species number, richness index, and diversity index steadily rose from 2015 to 2018. However, non-metric multidimensional scaling ordination analysis of species similarities among sampling times showed that community structure had not completely recovered by 2018. Thus, long-term monitoring is required to elucidate the post-disturbance settlement mechanisms of marine benthic organisms at the study area in Terra Nova Bay.


Assuntos
Baías/microbiologia , Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Monitorização de Parâmetros Ecológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fitoplâncton/isolamento & purificação , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Regiões Antárticas , Biota , Monitorização de Parâmetros Ecológicos/tendências , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Estações do Ano
5.
Pol J Microbiol ; 68(4): 527-539, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880896

RESUMO

Ulleungdo and Dokdo are volcanic islands with an oceanic climate located off the eastern coast of South Korea. In the present study, we used barcoded Illumina MiSeq to analyze eukaryotic microalgal genera collected from Seonginbong, the highest peak on Ulleungdo, and from groundwater sites on Dongdo and Seodo Islands, which are part of Dokdo. Species richness was significantly greater in the Seonginbong samples than in the Dongdo and Seodo samples, with 834 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified from Seonginbong compared with 203 OTUs and 182 OTUs from Dongdo and Seodo, respectively. Taxonomic composition analysis was also used to identify the dominant microalgal phyla at each of the three sites, with Chlorophyta (green algae) the most abundant phyla on Seonginbong and Dongdo, and Bacillariophyta (diatoms) the most abundant on Seodo. These findings suggest that differences in the abundances of Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta species in the Seonginbong, Dongdo, and Seodo samples are due to variations in species richness and freshwater resources at each sampling location. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to detail freshwater microalgal communities on Ulleungdo and Dokdo. As such, the number of species identified in the Seonginbong, Dongdo, and Seodo samples might be an indicator of the ecological differences among these sites and varying characteristics of their microbial communities. Information regarding the microalgal communities also provides a basis for understanding the ecological interactions between microalgae species and other eukaryotic microorganisms.Ulleungdo and Dokdo are volcanic islands with an oceanic climate located off the eastern coast of South Korea. In the present study, we used barcoded Illumina MiSeq to analyze eukaryotic microalgal genera collected from Seonginbong, the highest peak on Ulleungdo, and from groundwater sites on Dongdo and Seodo Islands, which are part of Dokdo. Species richness was significantly greater in the Seonginbong samples than in the Dongdo and Seodo samples, with 834 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified from Seonginbong compared with 203 OTUs and 182 OTUs from Dongdo and Seodo, respectively. Taxonomic composition analysis was also used to identify the dominant microalgal phyla at each of the three sites, with Chlorophyta (green algae) the most abundant phyla on Seonginbong and Dongdo, and Bacillariophyta (diatoms) the most abundant on Seodo. These findings suggest that differences in the abundances of Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta species in the Seonginbong, Dongdo, and Seodo samples are due to variations in species richness and freshwater resources at each sampling location. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to detail freshwater microalgal communities on Ulleungdo and Dokdo. As such, the number of species identified in the Seonginbong, Dongdo, and Seodo samples might be an indicator of the ecological differences among these sites and varying characteristics of their microbial communities. Information regarding the microalgal communities also provides a basis for understanding the ecological interactions between microalgae species and other eukaryotic microorganisms.


Assuntos
Microalgas/isolamento & purificação , Clorófitas/classificação , Clorófitas/genética , Diatomáceas/classificação , Diatomáceas/genética , Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Água Doce/análise , Ilhas , Microalgas/classificação , Microalgas/genética , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
6.
BMC Microbiol ; 19(1): 225, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caulerpa lentillifera is one of the most important economic green macroalgae in the world. Increasing demand for consumption has led to the commercial cultivation of C. lentillifera in Japan and Vietnam in recent decades. Concomitant with the increase of C. lentillifera cultivation is a rise in disease. We hypothesise that epiphytes or other microorganisms outbreak at the C. lentillifera farm may be an important factor contributing to disease in C. lentillifera. The main aims are obtaining differences in the microbial community structure and diversity between healthy and diseased C. lentillifera and key epiphytes and other microorganisms affecting the differences through the results of high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis in the present study. RESULTS: A total of 14,050, 2479, and 941 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained from all samples using 16S rDNA, 18S rDNA, and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) high-throughput sequencing, respectively. 16S rDNA sequencing and 18S rDNA sequencing showed that microbial community diversity was higher in diseased C. lentillifera than in healthy C. lentillifera. Both PCoA results and UPGMA results indicated that the healthy and diseased algae samples have characteristically different microbial communities. The predominant prokaryotic phyla were Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Acidobacteria, Acidobacteria and Parcubacteria in all sequences. Chlorophyta was the most abundant eukaryotic phylum followed by Bacillariophyta based on 18S rDNA sequencing. Ascomycota was the dominant fungal phylum detected in healthy C. lentillifera based on ITS sequencing, whereas fungi was rare in diseased C. lentillifera, suggesting that Ascomycota was probably fungal endosymbiont in healthy C. lentillifera. There was a significantly higher abundance of Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Bacillariophyta, Ulvales and Tetraselmis in diseased C. lentillifera than in healthy C. lentillifera. Disease outbreaks significantly change carbohydrate metabolism, environmental information processing and genetic information processing of prokaryotic communities in C. lentillifera through predicted functional analyses using the Tax4Fun tool. CONCLUSIONS: Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Bacillariophyta, Ulvales and Tetraselmis outbreak at the C. lentillifera farm sites was an important factor contributing to disease in C. lentillifera.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Caulerpa/microbiologia , Clorófitas/classificação , Diatomáceas/classificação , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biodiversidade , Caulerpa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caulerpa/parasitologia , Clorófitas/genética , DNA Intergênico , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Diatomáceas/genética , Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Japão , Microbiota , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vietnã
7.
Toxins (Basel) ; 11(9)2019 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480725

RESUMO

ß-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is a non-protein amino acid that has been implicated as a risk factor for motor neurone disease (MND). BMAA is produced by a wide range of cyanobacteria globally and by a small number of marine diatoms. BMAA is commonly found with two of its constitutional isomers: 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (2,4-DAB), and N-(2-aminoethyl)glycine (AEG). The isomer 2,4-DAB, like BMAA, has neurotoxic properties. While many studies have shown BMAA production by cyanobacteria, few studies have looked at other algal groups. Several studies have shown BMAA production by marine diatoms; however, there are no studies examining freshwater diatoms. This study aimed to determine if some freshwater diatoms produced BMAA, and which diatom taxa are capable of BMAA, 2,4-DAB and AEG production. Five axenic diatom cultures were established from river and lake sites across eastern Australia. Cultures were harvested during the stationary growth phase and intracellular amino acids were extracted. Using liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), diatom extracts were analysed for the presence of both free and protein-associated BMAA, 2,4-DAB and AEG. Of the five diatom cultures analysed, four were found to have detectable BMAA and AEG, while 2,4-DAB was found in all cultures. These results show that BMAA production by diatoms is not confined to marine genera and that the prevalence of these non-protein amino acids in Australian freshwater environments cannot be solely attributed to cyanobacteria.


Assuntos
Diamino Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Diamino Aminoácidos/química , Austrália , Cromatografia Líquida , Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Isomerismo , Lagos/microbiologia , Rios/microbiologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
8.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1077: 87-94, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307725

RESUMO

The most challenging part in performing a single cell ICP-MS (sc-ICP-MS) approach is the sample preparation, in particular the reduction of the ionic background. This step is, in many cases, time-consuming and required for each sample separately. Furthermore, sc-ICP-MS measurements are mostly carried out "manually", given the fact that present systems are not allowing for an automated change of samples. Thus, within this work, we developed an approach based on a HPLC system coupled on-line with sc-ICP-MS via a set of switching valves as well as an in-line filter for automated cell washing. This set-up enables the ionic background removal as well as analysis of single cells completely automated without any manual sample pretreatment. Our approach was applied for the analysis of the single celled diatom species Cyclotella meneghiniana, a marine diatom species, on the basis of 24Mg and facilitates testing in 11 min per sample, requiring only around 10,000 cells in a volume of 10 µL and approx. 10 mL of a 5% MeOH/95% deionized water (v/v) mixture. Even at extremely saline culturing media concentrations (up to 1000 mg L-1 magnesium) our on-line approach worked sufficiently allowing for distinction of ionic and particulate fractions. Furthermore, a set of diatom samples was analyzed completely automated without the need for changing samples manually. So, utilizing this approach enables analyzing a high quantity of samples in a short time and therefore in future the investigation of ecotoxicological effects is simplified for example in terms of metal accumulation by taking biovariability into account.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Magnésio/química , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos
9.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 66: 79-85, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229802

RESUMO

Although the diagnosis of drowning may appear straightforward the reality is that it is sometimes one of the most difficult in forensic pathology. To begin with, there is no universal agreement on what constitutes drowning with some definitions using the term in the absence of a lethal outcome. Next are the significant problems that arise in finding immersed bodies and in assessing the death scene. Prolonged post mortem intervals are associated with artefactual modifications of the body from putrefaction and post mortem animal predation. Both of these may create and disguise injuries. The absence of pathognomonic pathological features at autopsy and the presence of potentially life threatening underlying organic illnesses complicate determination of both the cause and manner of death. There may even be no autopsy findings to indicate that immersion had occurred. Finally, the unreliability of laboratory tests with significant overlap with control cases where death had no association with immersion presents further problems. Thus lethal drowning remains a complex event that requires the use of a wide variety of information sources, not just data gleaned from the dissection table.


Assuntos
Afogamento/diagnóstico , Patologia Legal/métodos , Animais , Aorta/patologia , Comorbidade , Consenso , Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Afogamento/patologia , Eletrólitos/análise , Hemorragia/patologia , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Tamanho do Órgão , Seios Paranasais/patologia , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Sistema Respiratório/patologia , Pele/patologia , Baço/patologia , Terminologia como Assunto , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Túnica Íntima/patologia
10.
Sci Justice ; 59(3): 292-305, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054818

RESUMO

Environmental indicators are increasingly sought and analysed in a range of forensic reconstructions. Although the majority of casework and research studies are concerned with the criminal investigation of terrestrial habitats (soils, sediments, plants etc.), freshwater environments are also frequently encountered as crime scenes. As such, microalgae, particularly diatoms, may provide useful circumstantial trace evidence following their transfer to a victim or perpetrator. Diatom analysis is a relatively underused technique in forensic ecology, although an increased empirical research focus is beginning to recognise the evidential value of a transferred assemblage. This study aimed to examine three of the spatial and temporal variables known to influence the extent of an initial transfer of trace particulates, within the context of freshwater diatoms to clothing. A series of experiments were designed to consider the impact of recipient surface characteristics (clothing type), source environment conditions (seasonality), and morphological (type of diatom) variability, on the total number (no. per cm2) and species richness (total no. sp.) of an evidential diatom sample recovered from clothing. Nine commonly used clothing materials were immersed in a freshwater river at three times of year - the early and late spring and in the winter. Diatoms were recovered using a H2O2 extraction technique and examined microscopically. The results demonstrated that diatom transfer to clothing varies significantly, with a greater abundance and a higher species richness transferred to coarse woven surfaces including acrylic, linen, and viscose. Significantly fewer diatoms were transferred to clothing in the winter, in line with seasonal fluctuations in the source environment diatom community. Furthermore, variation in the relative abundance of particular diatom species was identified between clothing types, provisionally suggesting that morphological characteristics may also support or limit the transfer of material. These findings highlight that, although clothing may offer a valuable repository of freshwater diatom trace evidence, the interpretation of evidential material should be approached within an exclusionary framework. Thus, empirical data has been generated to develop evidence bases within forensic ecology, demonstrating some of the spatial and temporal factors which may contribute to or limit the transfer of evidence.


Assuntos
Vestuário , Diatomáceas/classificação , Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Ciências Forenses/métodos , Água Doce/análise , Microscopia/métodos , Estações do Ano
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(4): 201, 2019 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826892

RESUMO

Both environmental and geographic factors interact to structure the metacommunities in river networks, but the importance of these factors is difficult to distinguish. We used six aquatic taxonomic groups to test the relationship between environmental and geographic factors and their effect on species turnover patterns in an agriculturally dominated river (Chaohu Lake Basin, China). The relationships between three dissimilarity indices and geographic distance were assessed using the Mantel test while considering the differences in environmental factors between sites. Then, we employed a variation partitioning method to distinguish the isolated and combined effects of environmental and geographic distance on species turnover. There were significant relationships between environmental distance and species turnover in all groups. All organisms except periphytic diatoms were significantly correlated with two geographic (Euclidean and network) distances when the Chao dissimilarity index was considered. The results suggest that the strength of the correlations changed with environmental and geographic distances and with the aquatic community. The communities displayed more complex relationships with the distance measures when different dissimilarity (Jaccard, Chao, and Bray-Curtis dissimilarity) indices were considered. Nevertheless, aquatic communities are strongly influenced by both environmental and geographic distance, and the former has a stronger effect than the latter.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Diatomáceas/classificação , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes/classificação , Fitoplâncton/classificação , Rotíferos/classificação , Zooplâncton/classificação , Agricultura , Animais , China , Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Geografia , Lagos , Fitoplâncton/isolamento & purificação , Rios , Rotíferos/isolamento & purificação , Zooplâncton/isolamento & purificação
12.
Forensic Sci Int ; 297: 204-216, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30831412

RESUMO

Diatom analysis is very effective for positive diagnosis of water inhalation in drowning. However, conventional strong acid diatom testing is laborious and potentially dangerous. We propose a simple, fast, and safe protocol using inexpensive reagents such as papain, SDS, and 5 N HCl for extracting diatoms from lung, kidney, and liver tissues. First, we determined optimal conditions for papain digestion using porcine tissues. Papain digestion was clearly superior to Proteinase K digestion. Next, for assessing the assay effectiveness in practical cases, the papain digestion protocol was applied to 80 tissue samples from 20 suspected drowning victims. Left and right lung tissues (1 g each) were digested in 15-mL conical centrifuge tubes. Kidney and liver tissues (10 g each) were extracted in 175-mL conical centrifuge bottles. Papain dissolved all organs sufficiently and permitted clear visualization of diatoms, although papain's solubilization activity was still inferior to strong acid digestion. The proposed enzymatic method requires only a low-speed centrifuge and water bath. Diatoms typically can be extracted from tissue samples within 3-5 h. The cost of protease is reduced some 6-fold by using papain in place of Proteinase K. Thus, the proposed method can be useful as a less-laborious, less-hazardous, and less-costly minimal test when the conventional strong acid digestion method is not performed due to personnel, equipment, budgetary limitation, or environmental and safety considerations.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Afogamento/diagnóstico , Patologia Legal/métodos , Indicadores e Reagentes , Papaína , Animais , Cadáver , Centrifugação/instrumentação , Endopeptidase K , Humanos , Incubadoras , Rim/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Pulmão/patologia , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Suínos
13.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 95(5)2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30889236

RESUMO

Photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (PPE) are key components of primary production in marine and freshwater ecosystems. In contrast with those of marine environments, freshwater PPE groups have received little attention. In this work, we used flow cytometry cell sorting, microscopy and metabarcoding to investigate the composition of small photosynthetic eukaryote communities from six eutrophic shallow lakes in South America, Argentina. We compared the total molecular diversity obtained from PPE sorted populations as well as from filtered total plankton samples (FTP). Most reads obtained from sorted populations belonged to the classes: Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyceae and Bacillariophyceae. We retrieved sequences from non-photosynthetic groups, such as Chytridiomycetes and Ichthyosporea which contain a number of described parasites, indicating that these organisms were probably in association with the autotrophic cells sorted. Dominant groups among sorted PPEs were poorly represented in FTP and their richness was on average lower than in the sorted samples. A significant number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were exclusively found in sorting samples, emphasizing that sequences from FTP underestimate the diversity of PPE. Moreover, 22% of the OTUs found among the dominant groups had a low similarity (<95%) with reported sequences in public databases, demonstrating a high potential for novel diversity in these lakes.


Assuntos
Eucariotos/isolamento & purificação , Lagos/parasitologia , Argentina , Biodiversidade , Clorófitas/classificação , Clorófitas/citologia , Clorófitas/genética , Clorófitas/metabolismo , Diatomáceas/classificação , Diatomáceas/genética , Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Eucariotos/classificação , Eucariotos/genética , Eucariotos/metabolismo , Citometria de Fluxo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Lagos/análise , Fotossíntese , Filogenia
15.
Microb Ecol ; 77(2): 288-303, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30019110

RESUMO

Two annual Baltic Sea phytoplankton blooms occur in spring and summer. The bloom intensity is determined by nutrient concentrations in the water, while the period depends on weather conditions. During the course of the bloom, dead cells sink to the sediment where their degradation consumes oxygen to create hypoxic zones (< 2 mg/L dissolved oxygen). These zones prevent the establishment of benthic communities and may result in fish mortality. The aim of the study was to determine how the spring and autumn sediment chemistry and microbial community composition changed due to degradation of diatom or cyanobacterial biomass, respectively. Results from incubation of sediment cores showed some typical anaerobic microbial processes after biomass addition such as a decrease in NO2- + NO3- in the sediment surface (0-1 cm) and iron in the underlying layer (1-2 cm). In addition, an increase in NO2- + NO3- was observed in the overlying benthic water in all amended and control incubations. The combination of NO2- + NO3- diffusion plus nitrification could not account for this increase. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, the addition of cyanobacterial biomass during autumn caused a large increase in ferrous iron-oxidizing archaea while diatom biomass amendment during spring caused minor changes in the microbial community. Considering that OTUs sharing lineages with acidophilic microorganisms had a high relative abundance during autumn, it was suggested that specific niches developed in sediment microenvironments. These findings highlight the importance of nitrogen cycling and early microbial community changes in the sediment due to sinking phytoplankton before potential hypoxia occurs.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Cianobactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Fitoplâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Biomassa , Cianobactérias/classificação , Cianobactérias/genética , Cianobactérias/isolamento & purificação , Diatomáceas/classificação , Diatomáceas/genética , Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Eutrofização , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Nitratos/análise , Nitratos/metabolismo , Nitritos/análise , Nitritos/metabolismo , Filogenia , Fitoplâncton/classificação , Fitoplâncton/genética , Fitoplâncton/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano , Água do Mar/química , Água do Mar/microbiologia
16.
Environ Pollut ; 244: 617-626, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30384067

RESUMO

Plastic debris carry fouling a variety of class-size organisms, among them harmful microorganisms that potentially play a role in the dispersal of allochthonous species and toxic compounds with ecological impacts on the marine environment and human health. We analyzed samples of marine plastics floating at the sea surface using a molecular qPCR assay to quantify the attached microalgal taxa, in particular, harmful species. Diatoms were the most abundant group of plastic colonizers with maximum abundance of 8.2 × 104 cells cm-2 of plastics, the maximum abundance of dinoflagellates amounted to 1.1 × 103 cells cm-2 of plastics. The most abundant harmful microalgal taxon was the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia spp., including at least 12 toxic species, and the dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata with 6606 and 259 cells cm-2, respectively. The abundance of other harmful microalgal species including the toxic allochthonous dinoflagellate Alexandrium pacificum ranged from 1 to 73 cells cm-2. In the present study, a direct relationship between the abundance of harmful algal species colonizing the plastic substrates and their toxin production was found. The levels of potential toxins on plastic samples ranged from 101 to 102 ng cm-2, considering the various toxin families produced by the colonized harmful microalgal species. We also measured the rate of adhesion by several target microalgal species. It ranged from 1.8 to 0.3 day-1 demonstrating the capacity of plastic substrate colonizing rapidly by microalgae. The present study reports the first estimates of molecular quantification of microorganisms including toxin producing species that can colonize plastics. Such findings provide important insights for improving the monitoring practice of plastics and illustrate how the epi-plastic community can exacerbate the harmful effects of plastics by dispersal, acting as an alien and toxic species carrier and potentially being ingested through the marine trophic web.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dinoflagelados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Monitoramento Ambiental , Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Microalgas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plásticos/química , Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Dinoflagelados/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Microalgas/isolamento & purificação , Resíduos/análise
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 190(11): 689, 2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30377842

RESUMO

Microplankton population of Asia's largest coastal lagoon Chilika was studied for five major groups, bacillariophyceae, cyanophyceae, chlorophyceae, dinophyceae, rotifera, and tintinninae. The study reported presence of 233 species of microplankton whose average annual abundance was 1631 cells/l. The physicochemical parameters contributing to the spatio-temporal fluctuations in microplankton diversity, abundance, and community structure were identified as salinity, pH, DO, nitrate, and silicate. Salinity, transparency, depth, and silicate most explained the abundance of bacillariophyceae; nitrate, pH, and DO influenced cyanophyceae; salinity, transparency, and chlorophyll concentration influenced chlorophyceae; salinity, depth, and water temperature influenced dinophyceae; salinity, free CO2, and nitrate-influenced rotifers, whereas salinity, pH, DO, and depth influenced tintinnids. Biotic-abiotic relationships revealed particular preference of environmental conditions at species level in groups like bacillariophyceae, cyanophyceae, and dinophyceae. Although the lagoon is shallow, bacillariophyceae-environment interaction showed depth can be a critical factor for species like Aulocoseira sp., Amphipleura sp., and Rhophalodia sp. Species of dinoflagellates like Dinophysis caudata, Noctiluca scintillans, and Protoperidinium proliferated in lower level of silicate. Unlike other cyanophyceae species Streptococcus sp., Chroococcus sp., Diplococcus sp., Aphanocapsa sp., and Gloeocapsa sp. were negatively influenced by nitrate concentration. The study provides better scope for ecological management of the lagoon with respect to conserving biodiversity and hydrological quality of the ecosystem.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias/isolamento & purificação , Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Dinoflagelados/isolamento & purificação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Plâncton/classificação , Rotíferos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Biodiversidade , Clorofila/análise , Ecossistema , Índia , Nitratos/análise , Salinidade , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
18.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0203953, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30248115

RESUMO

Blooms of Microcystis and other harmful cyanobacteria can degrade water quality by producing cyanotoxins or other toxic compounds. The goals of this study were (1) to facilitate understanding of community structure for various aquatic microorganisms in brackish water and freshwater regions with emphasis on cyanobacteria, and (2) to test a hypothesis that Microcystis genotypes that tolerate higher salinity were blooming in brackish water environments during the severe drought, 2014. Shotgun metagenomic analysis revealed that cyanobacteria dominated the brackish water region while bacteria dominated the freshwater region. A group of cyanobacteria (e.g., Aphanizomenon, Microcystis, Planktothrix, Pseudanabaena), bacteria (e.g., Bacillus, Porphyrobacter), and diatoms (Phaeodactylum and Thalassiosira) were abundant in the brackish water region. In contrast, Hassallia (cyanobacteria) and green algae (Nannochloropsis, Chlamydomonas, and Volvox) were abundant in the landward freshwater region. Station variation was also apparent. One landward sampling station located downstream of an urbanized area differed substantially from the other stations in terms of both water chemistry and community structure, with a higher percentage of arthropods, green algae, and eukaryotes. Screening of the Microcystis internal transcribed spacer region revealed six representative genotypes, and two of which were successfully quantified using qPCR (Genotypes I and VI). Both genotypes occurred predominantly in the freshwater region, so the data from this study did not support the hypothesis that salinity tolerant Microcystis genotypes bloomed in the brackish water region in 2014.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias/genética , Cianobactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia da Água , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biodiversidade , Clorófitas/classificação , Clorófitas/genética , Cianobactérias/classificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Diatomáceas/classificação , Diatomáceas/genética , Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Estuários , Água Doce/microbiologia , Genótipo , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Metagenômica , Microcystis/genética , Microcystis/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Águas Salinas , Salinidade , São Francisco , Análise Espaço-Temporal
19.
Environ Microbiol ; 20(8): 3109-3126, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30117243

RESUMO

Diatoms are a highly successful group of photosynthetic protists that often thrive under adverse environmental conditions. Members of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia are ecologically important diatoms which are able to subsist during periods of chronic iron limitation and form dense blooms following iron fertilization events. The cellular strategies within diatoms that orchestrate these physiological responses to variable iron concentrations remain largely uncharacterized. Using a combined transcriptomic and proteomic approach, we explore the exceptional ability of a diatom isolated from the iron-limited Northeast Pacific Ocean to reorganize its intracellular processes as a function of iron. We compared the molecular responses of Pseudo-nitzschia granii observed under iron-replete and iron-limited growth conditions to those of other model diatoms. Iron-coordinated molecular responses demonstrated some agreement between gene expression and protein abundance, including iron-starvation-induced-proteins, a putative iron transport system and components of photosynthesis and the Calvin cycle. Pseudo-nitzschia granii distinctly differentially expresses genes encoding proteins involved in iron-independent photosynthetic electron transport, urea acquisition and vitamin synthesis. We show that P. granii is unique among studied diatoms in its physiology stemming from distinct cellular responses, which may underlie its ability to subsist in low iron regions and rapidly bloom to outcompete other diatom taxa following iron enrichment.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/genética , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Diatomáceas/classificação , Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Transporte de Elétrons , Oceano Pacífico , Fotossíntese , Proteômica , Transcriptoma
20.
Protist ; 169(5): 615-631, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30096708

RESUMO

To understand the diversity of the diatom genus Chaetoceros Ehrenberg, the C. lorenzianus complex was previously chosen as a model and three new species were described. In the present study, yet another new species, Chaetoceros pauciramosus sp. nov., was discovered from Chinese tropical waters and the temperate south-eastern Baltic Sea. In the latter locality it has been known since 2003 and identified as C. cf lorenzianus, and now found to comprise a dominating component of the autumn phytoplankton community. Vegetative cells and resting spores were examined by light and electron microscopy. The LSU and SSU of the nuclear rDNA were sequenced. The characters suggesting that C. pauciramosus belongs to C. lorenzianus complex are: 1) the vegetative cells contain four or more chloroplasts, 2) the cells have stiff setae and form regular straight chains, 3) the terminal setae differ in the direction from the intercalary setae. The relationship was well-supported by molecular phylogenetic analyses inferred from both LSU and SSU markers. The primary valve of the resting spore has two conical elevations, each with dichotomously branching processes, similar to other species in the C. lorenzianus complex. Each process forms a tree-like structure with the pointed distal tips which possess one or two thin spikes, that distinguishes C. pauciramosus from allied taxa. In the phylogenetic trees, Chaetoceros pauciramosus clustered with C. elegans, in agreement with their morphologically similar resting spores.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Fitoplâncton/isolamento & purificação , Águas Salinas/análise , Água do Mar/parasitologia , China , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Diatomáceas/classificação , Diatomáceas/genética , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Filogenia , Fitoplâncton/classificação , Fitoplâncton/genética , Fitoplâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Água do Mar/análise
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