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1.
Pol J Microbiol ; 68(4): 527-539, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880896

RESUMO

Ulleungdo and Dokdo are volcanic islands with an oceanic climate located off the eastern coast of South Korea. In the present study, we used barcoded Illumina MiSeq to analyze eukaryotic microalgal genera collected from Seonginbong, the highest peak on Ulleungdo, and from groundwater sites on Dongdo and Seodo Islands, which are part of Dokdo. Species richness was significantly greater in the Seonginbong samples than in the Dongdo and Seodo samples, with 834 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified from Seonginbong compared with 203 OTUs and 182 OTUs from Dongdo and Seodo, respectively. Taxonomic composition analysis was also used to identify the dominant microalgal phyla at each of the three sites, with Chlorophyta (green algae) the most abundant phyla on Seonginbong and Dongdo, and Bacillariophyta (diatoms) the most abundant on Seodo. These findings suggest that differences in the abundances of Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta species in the Seonginbong, Dongdo, and Seodo samples are due to variations in species richness and freshwater resources at each sampling location. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to detail freshwater microalgal communities on Ulleungdo and Dokdo. As such, the number of species identified in the Seonginbong, Dongdo, and Seodo samples might be an indicator of the ecological differences among these sites and varying characteristics of their microbial communities. Information regarding the microalgal communities also provides a basis for understanding the ecological interactions between microalgae species and other eukaryotic microorganisms.Ulleungdo and Dokdo are volcanic islands with an oceanic climate located off the eastern coast of South Korea. In the present study, we used barcoded Illumina MiSeq to analyze eukaryotic microalgal genera collected from Seonginbong, the highest peak on Ulleungdo, and from groundwater sites on Dongdo and Seodo Islands, which are part of Dokdo. Species richness was significantly greater in the Seonginbong samples than in the Dongdo and Seodo samples, with 834 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified from Seonginbong compared with 203 OTUs and 182 OTUs from Dongdo and Seodo, respectively. Taxonomic composition analysis was also used to identify the dominant microalgal phyla at each of the three sites, with Chlorophyta (green algae) the most abundant phyla on Seonginbong and Dongdo, and Bacillariophyta (diatoms) the most abundant on Seodo. These findings suggest that differences in the abundances of Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta species in the Seonginbong, Dongdo, and Seodo samples are due to variations in species richness and freshwater resources at each sampling location. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to detail freshwater microalgal communities on Ulleungdo and Dokdo. As such, the number of species identified in the Seonginbong, Dongdo, and Seodo samples might be an indicator of the ecological differences among these sites and varying characteristics of their microbial communities. Information regarding the microalgal communities also provides a basis for understanding the ecological interactions between microalgae species and other eukaryotic microorganisms.


Assuntos
Microalgas/isolamento & purificação , Clorófitas/classificação , Clorófitas/genética , Diatomáceas/classificação , Diatomáceas/genética , Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Água Doce/análise , Ilhas , Microalgas/classificação , Microalgas/genética , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
2.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1077: 87-94, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307725

RESUMO

The most challenging part in performing a single cell ICP-MS (sc-ICP-MS) approach is the sample preparation, in particular the reduction of the ionic background. This step is, in many cases, time-consuming and required for each sample separately. Furthermore, sc-ICP-MS measurements are mostly carried out "manually", given the fact that present systems are not allowing for an automated change of samples. Thus, within this work, we developed an approach based on a HPLC system coupled on-line with sc-ICP-MS via a set of switching valves as well as an in-line filter for automated cell washing. This set-up enables the ionic background removal as well as analysis of single cells completely automated without any manual sample pretreatment. Our approach was applied for the analysis of the single celled diatom species Cyclotella meneghiniana, a marine diatom species, on the basis of 24Mg and facilitates testing in 11 min per sample, requiring only around 10,000 cells in a volume of 10 µL and approx. 10 mL of a 5% MeOH/95% deionized water (v/v) mixture. Even at extremely saline culturing media concentrations (up to 1000 mg L-1 magnesium) our on-line approach worked sufficiently allowing for distinction of ionic and particulate fractions. Furthermore, a set of diatom samples was analyzed completely automated without the need for changing samples manually. So, utilizing this approach enables analyzing a high quantity of samples in a short time and therefore in future the investigation of ecotoxicological effects is simplified for example in terms of metal accumulation by taking biovariability into account.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Magnésio/química , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos
3.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 66: 79-85, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229802

RESUMO

Although the diagnosis of drowning may appear straightforward the reality is that it is sometimes one of the most difficult in forensic pathology. To begin with, there is no universal agreement on what constitutes drowning with some definitions using the term in the absence of a lethal outcome. Next are the significant problems that arise in finding immersed bodies and in assessing the death scene. Prolonged post mortem intervals are associated with artefactual modifications of the body from putrefaction and post mortem animal predation. Both of these may create and disguise injuries. The absence of pathognomonic pathological features at autopsy and the presence of potentially life threatening underlying organic illnesses complicate determination of both the cause and manner of death. There may even be no autopsy findings to indicate that immersion had occurred. Finally, the unreliability of laboratory tests with significant overlap with control cases where death had no association with immersion presents further problems. Thus lethal drowning remains a complex event that requires the use of a wide variety of information sources, not just data gleaned from the dissection table.


Assuntos
Afogamento/diagnóstico , Patologia Legal/métodos , Animais , Aorta/patologia , Comorbidade , Consenso , Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Afogamento/patologia , Eletrólitos/análise , Hemorragia/patologia , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Tamanho do Órgão , Seios Paranasais/patologia , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Sistema Respiratório/patologia , Pele/patologia , Baço/patologia , Terminologia como Assunto , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Túnica Íntima/patologia
4.
Forensic Sci Int ; 297: 204-216, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30831412

RESUMO

Diatom analysis is very effective for positive diagnosis of water inhalation in drowning. However, conventional strong acid diatom testing is laborious and potentially dangerous. We propose a simple, fast, and safe protocol using inexpensive reagents such as papain, SDS, and 5 N HCl for extracting diatoms from lung, kidney, and liver tissues. First, we determined optimal conditions for papain digestion using porcine tissues. Papain digestion was clearly superior to Proteinase K digestion. Next, for assessing the assay effectiveness in practical cases, the papain digestion protocol was applied to 80 tissue samples from 20 suspected drowning victims. Left and right lung tissues (1 g each) were digested in 15-mL conical centrifuge tubes. Kidney and liver tissues (10 g each) were extracted in 175-mL conical centrifuge bottles. Papain dissolved all organs sufficiently and permitted clear visualization of diatoms, although papain's solubilization activity was still inferior to strong acid digestion. The proposed enzymatic method requires only a low-speed centrifuge and water bath. Diatoms typically can be extracted from tissue samples within 3-5 h. The cost of protease is reduced some 6-fold by using papain in place of Proteinase K. Thus, the proposed method can be useful as a less-laborious, less-hazardous, and less-costly minimal test when the conventional strong acid digestion method is not performed due to personnel, equipment, budgetary limitation, or environmental and safety considerations.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Afogamento/diagnóstico , Patologia Legal/métodos , Indicadores e Reagentes , Papaína , Animais , Cadáver , Centrifugação/instrumentação , Endopeptidase K , Humanos , Incubadoras , Rim/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Pulmão/patologia , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Suínos
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(4): 201, 2019 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826892

RESUMO

Both environmental and geographic factors interact to structure the metacommunities in river networks, but the importance of these factors is difficult to distinguish. We used six aquatic taxonomic groups to test the relationship between environmental and geographic factors and their effect on species turnover patterns in an agriculturally dominated river (Chaohu Lake Basin, China). The relationships between three dissimilarity indices and geographic distance were assessed using the Mantel test while considering the differences in environmental factors between sites. Then, we employed a variation partitioning method to distinguish the isolated and combined effects of environmental and geographic distance on species turnover. There were significant relationships between environmental distance and species turnover in all groups. All organisms except periphytic diatoms were significantly correlated with two geographic (Euclidean and network) distances when the Chao dissimilarity index was considered. The results suggest that the strength of the correlations changed with environmental and geographic distances and with the aquatic community. The communities displayed more complex relationships with the distance measures when different dissimilarity (Jaccard, Chao, and Bray-Curtis dissimilarity) indices were considered. Nevertheless, aquatic communities are strongly influenced by both environmental and geographic distance, and the former has a stronger effect than the latter.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Diatomáceas/classificação , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes/classificação , Fitoplâncton/classificação , Rotíferos/classificação , Zooplâncton/classificação , Agricultura , Animais , China , Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Geografia , Lagos , Fitoplâncton/isolamento & purificação , Rios , Rotíferos/isolamento & purificação , Zooplâncton/isolamento & purificação
7.
Microb Ecol ; 77(2): 288-303, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30019110

RESUMO

Two annual Baltic Sea phytoplankton blooms occur in spring and summer. The bloom intensity is determined by nutrient concentrations in the water, while the period depends on weather conditions. During the course of the bloom, dead cells sink to the sediment where their degradation consumes oxygen to create hypoxic zones (< 2 mg/L dissolved oxygen). These zones prevent the establishment of benthic communities and may result in fish mortality. The aim of the study was to determine how the spring and autumn sediment chemistry and microbial community composition changed due to degradation of diatom or cyanobacterial biomass, respectively. Results from incubation of sediment cores showed some typical anaerobic microbial processes after biomass addition such as a decrease in NO2- + NO3- in the sediment surface (0-1 cm) and iron in the underlying layer (1-2 cm). In addition, an increase in NO2- + NO3- was observed in the overlying benthic water in all amended and control incubations. The combination of NO2- + NO3- diffusion plus nitrification could not account for this increase. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, the addition of cyanobacterial biomass during autumn caused a large increase in ferrous iron-oxidizing archaea while diatom biomass amendment during spring caused minor changes in the microbial community. Considering that OTUs sharing lineages with acidophilic microorganisms had a high relative abundance during autumn, it was suggested that specific niches developed in sediment microenvironments. These findings highlight the importance of nitrogen cycling and early microbial community changes in the sediment due to sinking phytoplankton before potential hypoxia occurs.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Cianobactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Fitoplâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Biomassa , Cianobactérias/classificação , Cianobactérias/genética , Cianobactérias/isolamento & purificação , Diatomáceas/classificação , Diatomáceas/genética , Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Eutrofização , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Nitratos/análise , Nitratos/metabolismo , Nitritos/análise , Nitritos/metabolismo , Filogenia , Fitoplâncton/classificação , Fitoplâncton/genética , Fitoplâncton/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano , Água do Mar/química , Água do Mar/microbiologia
8.
Environ Pollut ; 244: 617-626, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30384067

RESUMO

Plastic debris carry fouling a variety of class-size organisms, among them harmful microorganisms that potentially play a role in the dispersal of allochthonous species and toxic compounds with ecological impacts on the marine environment and human health. We analyzed samples of marine plastics floating at the sea surface using a molecular qPCR assay to quantify the attached microalgal taxa, in particular, harmful species. Diatoms were the most abundant group of plastic colonizers with maximum abundance of 8.2 × 104 cells cm-2 of plastics, the maximum abundance of dinoflagellates amounted to 1.1 × 103 cells cm-2 of plastics. The most abundant harmful microalgal taxon was the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia spp., including at least 12 toxic species, and the dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata with 6606 and 259 cells cm-2, respectively. The abundance of other harmful microalgal species including the toxic allochthonous dinoflagellate Alexandrium pacificum ranged from 1 to 73 cells cm-2. In the present study, a direct relationship between the abundance of harmful algal species colonizing the plastic substrates and their toxin production was found. The levels of potential toxins on plastic samples ranged from 101 to 102 ng cm-2, considering the various toxin families produced by the colonized harmful microalgal species. We also measured the rate of adhesion by several target microalgal species. It ranged from 1.8 to 0.3 day-1 demonstrating the capacity of plastic substrate colonizing rapidly by microalgae. The present study reports the first estimates of molecular quantification of microorganisms including toxin producing species that can colonize plastics. Such findings provide important insights for improving the monitoring practice of plastics and illustrate how the epi-plastic community can exacerbate the harmful effects of plastics by dispersal, acting as an alien and toxic species carrier and potentially being ingested through the marine trophic web.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dinoflagelados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Monitoramento Ambiental , Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Microalgas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plásticos/química , Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Dinoflagelados/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Microalgas/isolamento & purificação , Resíduos/análise
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 190(11): 689, 2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30377842

RESUMO

Microplankton population of Asia's largest coastal lagoon Chilika was studied for five major groups, bacillariophyceae, cyanophyceae, chlorophyceae, dinophyceae, rotifera, and tintinninae. The study reported presence of 233 species of microplankton whose average annual abundance was 1631 cells/l. The physicochemical parameters contributing to the spatio-temporal fluctuations in microplankton diversity, abundance, and community structure were identified as salinity, pH, DO, nitrate, and silicate. Salinity, transparency, depth, and silicate most explained the abundance of bacillariophyceae; nitrate, pH, and DO influenced cyanophyceae; salinity, transparency, and chlorophyll concentration influenced chlorophyceae; salinity, depth, and water temperature influenced dinophyceae; salinity, free CO2, and nitrate-influenced rotifers, whereas salinity, pH, DO, and depth influenced tintinnids. Biotic-abiotic relationships revealed particular preference of environmental conditions at species level in groups like bacillariophyceae, cyanophyceae, and dinophyceae. Although the lagoon is shallow, bacillariophyceae-environment interaction showed depth can be a critical factor for species like Aulocoseira sp., Amphipleura sp., and Rhophalodia sp. Species of dinoflagellates like Dinophysis caudata, Noctiluca scintillans, and Protoperidinium proliferated in lower level of silicate. Unlike other cyanophyceae species Streptococcus sp., Chroococcus sp., Diplococcus sp., Aphanocapsa sp., and Gloeocapsa sp. were negatively influenced by nitrate concentration. The study provides better scope for ecological management of the lagoon with respect to conserving biodiversity and hydrological quality of the ecosystem.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias/isolamento & purificação , Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Dinoflagelados/isolamento & purificação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Plâncton/classificação , Rotíferos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Biodiversidade , Clorofila/análise , Ecossistema , Índia , Nitratos/análise , Salinidade , Estações do Ano , Temperatura Ambiente
10.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0203953, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30248115

RESUMO

Blooms of Microcystis and other harmful cyanobacteria can degrade water quality by producing cyanotoxins or other toxic compounds. The goals of this study were (1) to facilitate understanding of community structure for various aquatic microorganisms in brackish water and freshwater regions with emphasis on cyanobacteria, and (2) to test a hypothesis that Microcystis genotypes that tolerate higher salinity were blooming in brackish water environments during the severe drought, 2014. Shotgun metagenomic analysis revealed that cyanobacteria dominated the brackish water region while bacteria dominated the freshwater region. A group of cyanobacteria (e.g., Aphanizomenon, Microcystis, Planktothrix, Pseudanabaena), bacteria (e.g., Bacillus, Porphyrobacter), and diatoms (Phaeodactylum and Thalassiosira) were abundant in the brackish water region. In contrast, Hassallia (cyanobacteria) and green algae (Nannochloropsis, Chlamydomonas, and Volvox) were abundant in the landward freshwater region. Station variation was also apparent. One landward sampling station located downstream of an urbanized area differed substantially from the other stations in terms of both water chemistry and community structure, with a higher percentage of arthropods, green algae, and eukaryotes. Screening of the Microcystis internal transcribed spacer region revealed six representative genotypes, and two of which were successfully quantified using qPCR (Genotypes I and VI). Both genotypes occurred predominantly in the freshwater region, so the data from this study did not support the hypothesis that salinity tolerant Microcystis genotypes bloomed in the brackish water region in 2014.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias/genética , Cianobactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia da Água , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biodiversidade , Clorófitas/classificação , Clorófitas/genética , Cianobactérias/classificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Diatomáceas/classificação , Diatomáceas/genética , Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Estuários , Água Doce/microbiologia , Genótipo , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Metagenômica , Microcystis/genética , Microcystis/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Águas Salinas , Salinidade , São Francisco , Análise Espaço-Temporal
11.
Protist ; 169(5): 615-631, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30096708

RESUMO

To understand the diversity of the diatom genus Chaetoceros Ehrenberg, the C. lorenzianus complex was previously chosen as a model and three new species were described. In the present study, yet another new species, Chaetoceros pauciramosus sp. nov., was discovered from Chinese tropical waters and the temperate south-eastern Baltic Sea. In the latter locality it has been known since 2003 and identified as C. cf lorenzianus, and now found to comprise a dominating component of the autumn phytoplankton community. Vegetative cells and resting spores were examined by light and electron microscopy. The LSU and SSU of the nuclear rDNA were sequenced. The characters suggesting that C. pauciramosus belongs to C. lorenzianus complex are: 1) the vegetative cells contain four or more chloroplasts, 2) the cells have stiff setae and form regular straight chains, 3) the terminal setae differ in the direction from the intercalary setae. The relationship was well-supported by molecular phylogenetic analyses inferred from both LSU and SSU markers. The primary valve of the resting spore has two conical elevations, each with dichotomously branching processes, similar to other species in the C. lorenzianus complex. Each process forms a tree-like structure with the pointed distal tips which possess one or two thin spikes, that distinguishes C. pauciramosus from allied taxa. In the phylogenetic trees, Chaetoceros pauciramosus clustered with C. elegans, in agreement with their morphologically similar resting spores.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Fitoplâncton/isolamento & purificação , Águas Salinas/análise , Água do Mar/parasitologia , China , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Diatomáceas/classificação , Diatomáceas/genética , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Filogenia , Fitoplâncton/classificação , Fitoplâncton/genética , Fitoplâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Água do Mar/análise
13.
Environ Microbiol ; 20(8): 3109-3126, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30117243

RESUMO

Diatoms are a highly successful group of photosynthetic protists that often thrive under adverse environmental conditions. Members of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia are ecologically important diatoms which are able to subsist during periods of chronic iron limitation and form dense blooms following iron fertilization events. The cellular strategies within diatoms that orchestrate these physiological responses to variable iron concentrations remain largely uncharacterized. Using a combined transcriptomic and proteomic approach, we explore the exceptional ability of a diatom isolated from the iron-limited Northeast Pacific Ocean to reorganize its intracellular processes as a function of iron. We compared the molecular responses of Pseudo-nitzschia granii observed under iron-replete and iron-limited growth conditions to those of other model diatoms. Iron-coordinated molecular responses demonstrated some agreement between gene expression and protein abundance, including iron-starvation-induced-proteins, a putative iron transport system and components of photosynthesis and the Calvin cycle. Pseudo-nitzschia granii distinctly differentially expresses genes encoding proteins involved in iron-independent photosynthetic electron transport, urea acquisition and vitamin synthesis. We show that P. granii is unique among studied diatoms in its physiology stemming from distinct cellular responses, which may underlie its ability to subsist in low iron regions and rapidly bloom to outcompete other diatom taxa following iron enrichment.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/genética , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Diatomáceas/classificação , Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Transporte de Elétrons , Oceano Pacífico , Fotossíntese , Proteômica , Transcriptoma
14.
Forensic Sci Int ; 290: e19-e23, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30025595

RESUMO

Fishing activities are considered one of the most relevant threats for cetaceans and sea turtles conservation since these animals are sometimes found dead entangled in fishing gears. Currently, postmortem diagnosis is based mainly on the presence of nets and lines on the body and the related marks and injuries evident at gross examination. A more detailed and objective evidence is needed to clarify doubts cases and the diatoms technique, used in forensic human medicine, could support drowning diagnosis also in this field. Diatoms' investigation was implemented to be applied in marine vertebrate on 8 striped (Stenella coeruleoalba) and 1 bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus) dolphins and 5 sea turtles (Caretta caretta) stranded along the Italian coastlines with a likely cause of death hypothized on necropsies carried out by veterinary pathologists. Diatoms were microscopically searched in the bone marrow collected from long bones implementing protocols used in human medicine and their presence was observed in 4 cetaceans and 2 sea turtles. Despite a clear relation between diatoms' presence and amount and the likely cause of death was not proved due to the poor number of samples, the higher burden of diatoms was found in 3 animals deemed to be death for the interaction with human activity. Despite more studied are necessary to identify the possible relation between the cause of death and diatoms' findings, the present study implemented this technique to be adapted to marine animals, confirming its possible application also in veterinary forensic medicine.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea/patologia , Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa , Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Afogamento/diagnóstico , Stenella , Tartarugas , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Afogamento/veterinária , Ciências Forenses , Projetos Piloto
15.
Protist ; 169(4): 539-568, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30036779

RESUMO

Until now only one group of diatoms, the Bacillariaceae, was known to contain heterotrophic representatives. We show that a second group, represented by species in the genus Tursiocola, has undergone evolutionary loss of photosynthesis within the Bacillariophyta. Heterotrophy was evidenced by the presence of only apochlorotic cells in live and motile specimens. Three species of Tursiocola (T. bondei sp. nov., T. alata sp. nov., and T. gracilis sp. nov.), of which at least two are apochlorotic, are described as new to science from the skin of Florida manatees. T. ziemanii and T. varicopulifera were also observed to be apochlorotic. A new morphological feature termed a "fastigium" was observed on some Tursiocola spp. and is described as an extension of the mantle margin at the valve apex that overhangs the apex and extends towards the valve face. The presence of greatly elevated marginal ridges on the valve face of T. alata sp. nov. is a newly observed morphological character within the genus. Phylogenetic analyses using ribosomal RNA sequences indicate that Tursiocola is monophyletic, though morphological character analysis suggests paraphyly as species of the closely related Epiphalaina genus are embedded within a larger Tursiocola clade.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Trichechus manatus/microbiologia , Animais , Diatomáceas/classificação , Diatomáceas/ultraestrutura , Pele/microbiologia
16.
ISME J ; 12(11): 2807-2810, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30013161

RESUMO

Metabarcoding has offered unprecedented insights into microbial diversity. In many studies, short DNA sequences are binned into consecutively lower Linnaean ranks, and ranked groups (e.g., genera) are the units of biodiversity analyses. These analyses assume that Linnaean ranks are biologically meaningful and that identically ranked groups are comparable. We used a metabarcode dataset for marine planktonic diatoms to illustrate the limits of this approach. We found that the 20 most abundant marine planktonic diatom genera ranged in age from 4 to 134 million years, indicating the non-equivalence of genera because some have had more time to diversify than others. However, species richness was largely independent of genus age, suggesting that disparities in species richness among genera were better explained by variation in rates of speciation and extinction. Taxonomic classifications often do not reflect phylogeny, so genus-level analyses can include phylogenetically nested genera, further confounding rank-based analyses. These results underscore the indispensable role of phylogeny in understanding patterns of microbial diversity.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/classificação , Biodiversidade , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Diatomáceas/genética , Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Fitoplâncton/classificação , Fitoplâncton/genética , Fitoplâncton/isolamento & purificação
17.
J Eukaryot Microbiol ; 65(6): 792-803, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29655213

RESUMO

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) has been regarded as a proxy for metabolic activity and population growth in microbes, but the limitations and assumptions of this approach should be better defined, particularly in eukaryotic microalgae. In this study, the 18S rRNA/rDNA ratio of a marine diatom, Skeletonema tropicum, was examined in batch and semi-continuous cultures subjected to low nitrogen and phosphorus treatments at a temperature of 20 °C. In the semi-continuous cultures, the measured 18S rRNA/rDNA ratio ranged from 4.0 × 102 to 5.0 × 103 , and the logarithmic form of this ratio increased linearly with the population growth rate under both low nitrogen and low phosphorus conditions. In batch cultures grown under low nitrogen or low phosphorus conditions, log (rRNA/rDNA) also increased linearly with growth rate when the latter ranged between -0.4 and 1.5 day-1 . The 18S rRNA/rDNA ratios of Skeletonema sampled from in the southern East China Sea were substantially lower than measured from laboratory cultures. Among the field samples, ratios obtained at a coastal station were higher than those obtained farther offshore. These results imply higher growth rate at the coastal station, but the influences of other factors, such as cell size and temperature, cannot be ruled out.


Assuntos
DNA Ribossômico/genética , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Diatomáceas/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Sequência de Bases , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , China , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Nitrogênio , Fósforo , Crescimento Demográfico , RNA/isolamento & purificação , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Temperatura Ambiente
18.
Extremophiles ; 22(5): 699-711, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29705928

RESUMO

The acid mine drainage that originates in the abandoned gold mine in San Luis, Argentina, is released into La Carolina stream. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of this mine drainage on the physicochemical parameters of the area studied and on both prokaryotic and eukaryotic community structure. In addition, specific relationships between microbial taxonomic groups and physicochemical parameters were established. The drainage that flows into La Carolina stream acidifies the stream and increases its sulfate, Zn, Cd and Te concentrations. Microbial analysis showed that prokaryotic community structure is mainly affected by pH values. Actinobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were abundant in samples characterized by low pH values, while Nitrospirae, Chloroflexi, Deltaproteobacteria, Thaumarchaeota and Euryarchaeota were associated with high concentrations of heavy metals. Otherwise, Alphaproteobacteria was present in samples taken in sunlit areas. Regarding eukaryotic community structure, the sunlight had the greatest impact. Inside the mine, in the absence of light, fungi and protists members were the most abundant microorganisms, while those samples taken in the presence of light displayed algae (green algae and diatoms) as the most abundant ones. After receiving the mine drainage, the stream showed a decrease in the diatom abundance and green algae predominated.


Assuntos
Ambientes Extremos , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Microbiota , Ácidos/análise , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Gammaproteobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Ouro/análise , Metagenoma , Metais Pesados/análise , Mineração
19.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 2284, 2018 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29396507

RESUMO

Marine microalgae are considered a potentially new and valuable source of biologically active compounds for applications in several biotechnology sectors. They can be easily cultured, have short generation times and enable an environmentally-friendly approach to drug discovery by overcoming problems associated with the over-utilization of marine resources and the use of destructive collection practices. Considering the increasing rate of antibiotic-resistance bacteria and infections by fungi, 46 microalgae have been screened in this study for possible antibacterial and antifungal activities. Two different extraction methods have been used in order to increase the probability of finding positive hits. In particular, we screened microalgae in both control and nutrient stress conditions. We also tested different strains for 7 species in order to study potentially different bioactivities due to strain diversity. Results showed that extracts of two diatoms, Skeletonema tropicum and Chaetoceros pseudocurvisetus, had anti-tuberculosis activity and were active only when cultured in the control and phosphate-starvation conditions, while the nitrogen starvation condition showed no activity. In addition, we tested both the organic and water extracts and found that only the organic extracts for both diatoms were active. The organic extracts of these two diatom species were not toxic on normal human cell lines.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Organismos Aquáticos/isolamento & purificação , Organismos Aquáticos/metabolismo , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Antituberculosos/isolamento & purificação , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida , Misturas Complexas/isolamento & purificação , Misturas Complexas/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mycobacterium bovis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 94(4)2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29360960

RESUMO

Photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (PPEs) play an important role in aquatic ecosystem functioning. There is still a relative lack of information on freshwater PPEs, especially in eutrophic lakes. We used a combination of flow cytometric sorting and pyrosequencing to investigate the PPEs community structure in more than 20 mesotrophic and eutrophic lakes along the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River in China. The abundance of PPEs ranged between 2.04 × 103 and 5.92 × 103 cells mL-1. The contribution of PPEs to total picophytoplankton abundance was generally higher in eutrophic lakes than in mesotrophic lakes. The sequencing results indicated that the Shannon diversity of PPEs was significantly higher in mesotrophic lakes than in eutrophic lakes. At the class level, PPEs were mainly dominated by three taxonomic groups, including Cryptophyceae, Coscinodiscophyceae and Chlorophyceae, and 15 additional known phytoplankton classes, including Synurophyceae, Dinophyceae, Chrysophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae and Prymnesiophyceae, were identified. Coscinodiscophyceae dominated in the most eutrophic lakes, while Chrysophyceae, Dinophyceae and other classes of PPEs were more abundant in the mesotrophic lakes. We also observed several PPEs operational taxonomic units, and those affiliated with Cyclotella atomus, Chlamydomonas sp. and Poterioochromonas malhamensis tended to be more prevalent in the eutrophic lakes. The canonical correspondence analysis and Mantel analysis highlighted the importance of environmental parameters as key drivers of PPEs community composition.


Assuntos
Chrysophyta/isolamento & purificação , Criptófitas/isolamento & purificação , Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Dinoflagelados/isolamento & purificação , Haptófitas/isolamento & purificação , Lagos/parasitologia , Fitoplâncton/isolamento & purificação , Rios/parasitologia , Estramenópilas/isolamento & purificação , China , Clorófitas/classificação , Clorófitas/genética , Chrysophyta/classificação , Chrysophyta/genética , Criptófitas/classificação , Criptófitas/genética , Diatomáceas/classificação , Diatomáceas/genética , Dinoflagelados/classificação , Dinoflagelados/genética , Ecossistema , Citometria de Fluxo , Haptófitas/classificação , Haptófitas/genética , Fotossíntese , Fitoplâncton/classificação , Fitoplâncton/genética , Estramenópilas/classificação , Estramenópilas/genética
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