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1.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(3): 1141-1151, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742910

RESUMO

The concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PCNs in the soil samples around a typical secondary copper smelter were determined simultaneously, and then the impact of the smelter on the surrounding environment and the health risks of workers in the study area were analyzed and evaluated. PCDD/F, PCB, and PCN concentrations were in the range of 17.2-370, 1.20-14.2, and 70.9-950 pg·g-1 in the soil around the smelter, respectively. High concentrations of PCDD/Fs and PCNs were observed at the sample sites close to the secondary copper smelter (<300 m), and their concentrations exponentially decreased with an increase in distance from the smelter. The results of the source analysis showed that the secondary copper smelter had a significant impact on the PCDD/Fs and PCNs content and congener profiles of the soil within 300 m of its surroundings. In addition, the PCDD/Fs pollution in the surrounding soil may also have been affected by the historical use of pentachlorophenol or sodium pentachlorophenol in addition to the secondary copper smelter. The health risk assessment results showed that the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks of workers exposed to PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PCNs in the surrounding soil were within acceptable levels, and that oral ingestion was the main exposure route. Although the health risk assessment only considered the exposure of workers to these pollutants in an outdoor environment during working hours, the carcinogenic risk values of the two soil samples had reached 0.47×10-6 and 0.15×10-6 (threshold value 10-6), so they should attract our attention. PCDD/Fs had the highest contribution rate (96%) to the total carcinogenic risk (PCDD/Fs+PCBs+PCNs), and they were the dioxins that need to be the primary concern and control in the study area.


Assuntos
Bifenilos Policlorados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Cobre , Dibenzofuranos , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados , Humanos , Naftalenos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Solo
2.
Environ Int ; 152: 106450, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684732

RESUMO

Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs) are emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that have similar or higher toxicities than the notorious dioxins. Toxicities, formation mechanisms, and environmental fates of PBDD/Fs are lacking because accurate quantification, especially of higher brominated congeners, is challenging. PBDD/F analysis is difficult because of photolysis and thermal degradation and interference from polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Here, literatures on PBDD/F analysis and environmental occurrences are reviewed to improve our understanding of PBDD/F environmental pollution and human exposure levels. Although PBDD/Fs behave similarly to dioxins, different congener profiles between PBDD/Fs and dioxins in the environment indicates their different sources and formation mechanisms. Herein, potential sources and formation mechanisms of PBDD/Fs were critically discussed, and current knowledge gaps and future directions for PBDD/F research are highlighted. An understanding of PBDD/F formation pathways will allow for development of synergistic control strategies for PBDD/Fs, dioxins, and other dioxin-like POPs.


Assuntos
Dioxinas , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Dibenzofuranos/análise , Dioxinas/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise
3.
Aquat Toxicol ; 234: 105786, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735685

RESUMO

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) has endogenous functions in mammalian vascular development and is necessary for mediating the toxic effects of a number of environmental contaminants. Studies in mice have demonstrated that AHR is necessary for the formation of the renal, retinal, and hepatic vasculature. In fish, exposure to the prototypic AHR agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces expression of the AHR biomarker cyp1a throughout the developing vasculature and produces vascular malformations in the head and heart. However, it is not known whether the vascular structures that are sensitive to loss of AHR function are also disrupted by aberrant AHR activation. Here, we report that TCDD-exposure in zebrafish disrupts development of 1) the subintestinal venous plexus (SIVP), which vascularizes the developing liver, kidney, gut, and pancreas, and 2) the superficial annular vessel (SAV), an essential component of the retinal vasculature. Furthermore, we determined that TCDD exposure increased the expression of bmp4, a key molecular mediator of SIVP morphogenesis. We hypothesize that the observed SIVP phenotypes contribute to one of the hallmarks of TCDD exposure in fish - the failure of the yolk sac to absorb. Together, our data describe novel TCDD-induced vascular phenotypes and provide molecular insight into critical factors producing the observed vascular malformations.


Assuntos
Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/toxicidade , Veia Retiniana/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/metabolismo , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/genética , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/metabolismo , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Fígado/irrigação sanguínea , Veia Retiniana/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Veias/efeitos dos fármacos , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 214: 112092, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690008

RESUMO

Over the last two decades, effect-directed analysis (EDA) gained importance as a seminal screening tool for tracking biological effects of environmental organic micro-pollutants (MPs). As EDA using high-performance liquid chromatography and bioassays is costly and time consuming, recent implementations of this approach have combined high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) with effect-based methods (EBMs) using cell-based bioassays, enabling the detection of estrogenic, androgenic, genotoxic, photosystem II (PSII)- inhibiting, and dioxin-like sample components on a HPTLC plate. In the present study, the developed methodologies were applied as a HPTLC-based bioassay battery, to investigate toxicant elimination efficiency of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and to characterize the toxic potential of landfill leachates. Activity levels detected in untreated landfill leachates, expressed as reference compound equivalence (EQ) concentration, were up to 16.8 µg ß-naphthoflavone-EQ L-1 (indicating the degree of dioxin-like activity), 1.9 µg estradiol-EQ L-1 (estrogenicity) and 8.3 µg diuron-EQ L­1 (PSII-inhibition), dropping to maximal concentrations of 47 ng ß-naphthoflavone-EQ L-1, 0.7 µg estradiol-EQ L-1 and 53.1 ng diuron-EQ L-1 following treatment. Bisphenol A (BPA) is suggested to be the main contributor to estrogenic activity, with concentrations determined by the planar yeast estrogen screen corresponding well to results from chemical analysis. In the investigated WWTP samples, a decrease of estrogenic activity of 6-100% was observed following treatment for most of the active fractions, except of a 20% increase in one fraction (Rf = 0.568). In contrast, androgenicity with concentrations up to 640 ng dihydrotestosterone-EQ L-1 was completely removed by treatment. Interestingly, genotoxic activity increased over the WWTP processes, releasing genotoxic fractions into receiving waters. We propose this combined HPTLC and EBM battery to contribute to an efficient, cheap, fast and robust screening of environmental samples; such an assay panel would allow to gain an estimate of potential biological effects for prioritization prior to substance identification, and its routine application will support an inexpensive identification of the toxicity drivers as a first tier in an EDA strategy.


Assuntos
Bioensaio/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Purificação da Água , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Estrogênios/toxicidade , Fenóis , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Águas Residuárias/análise , beta-Naftoflavona
5.
Aquat Toxicol ; 233: 105794, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662880

RESUMO

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) are environmental contaminants known to impact cardiac development, a key step in the embryonic development of most animals. To date, little is understood of the molecular mechanism driving the observed cardiac defects in exposed fishes. The literature shows PCB & TCDD derived cardiac defects are concurrent with, but not caused by, expression of cyp1A, due to activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) gene activation pathway. However, in this study, detailed visualization of fish hearts exposed to PCBs and TCDD show that, in addition to a failure of cardiac looping in early heart development, the inner endocardial lining of the heart fails to maintain proper cell adhesion and tissue integrity. The resulting gap between the endocardium and myocardium in both zebrafish and Atlantic sturgeon suggested functional faults in endothelial adherens junction formation. Thus, we explored the molecular mechanism triggering cardiac defects using immunohistochemistry to identify the location and phosphorylation state of key regulatory and adhesion molecules. We hypothesized that PCB and TCDD activates AhR, phosphorylating Src, which then phosphorylates the endothelial adherens junction protein, VEcadherin. When phosphorylated, VEcadherin dimers, found in the endocardium and vasculature, separate, reducing tissue integrity. In zebrafish, treatment with PCB and TCDD contaminants leads to higher phosphorylation of VEcadherin in cardiac tissue suggesting that these cells have reduced connectivity. Small molecule inhibition of Src phosphorylation prevents contaminant stimulated phosphorylation of VEcadherin and rescues both cardiac function and gross morphology. Atlantic sturgeon hearts show parallels to contaminant exposed zebrafish cardiac phenotype at the tissue level. These data suggest that the mechanism for PCB and TCDD action in the heart is, in part, distinct from the canonical mechanism described in the literature and that cardiac defects are impacted by this nongenomic mechanism.


Assuntos
Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Bifenilos Policlorados/toxicidade , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/toxicidade , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Animais , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Embrião não Mamífero/anormalidades , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração/embriologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 106(4): 683-689, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33590262

RESUMO

Air samples were collected around industrial parks in Jiangsu, China, to allow the concentrations, profiles, and risk assessment of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), and metals to be investigated. The concentrations of ΣPBDD/Fs and ΣPCNs were 1324.26-2080.98 fg/m3 (11.35-42.57 fg I-TEQ/m3) and 10,404.9-29,322.9 fg/m3 (1.32-7.19 fg I-TEQ/ m3), respectively. The highest concentration of ΣPBDD/Fs and ΣPCNs were observed at site C. PBDD/Fs were mainly dominated by PBDFs. The main contributor to the ΣPBDD/Fs in all samples was 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpBDF, which accounted for 25.75%-39.4%. For PCNs, the predominating homologues were tetra-, tri- and penta-CNs, which contributed 30.7%-43.3%, 24.7%-31.0%, and 10.6%-21.6%, respectively. As for metals, the pollution of As, Mn, Cr, and Ni in most samples exceeded National Ambient Air Quality Standards of China. Assessing the risk of inhalation exposure showed that there were potential carcinogenic risks to local residents.


Assuntos
Dioxinas , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Atmosfera , China , Dibenzofuranos/análise , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados/análise , Dioxinas/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Naftalenos , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Medição de Risco
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 775: 145830, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33621885

RESUMO

The levels and accumulation characteristics of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in nine pools of representative plant-origin foodstuffs randomly collected from markets located in five regions of the Chinese mainland during 2018-2019. The collected foodstuffs consisted of cereals, beans, potatoes, leafy vegetables, root and stem vegetables, melon vegetables, legume vegetables, edible fungi, and mixed vegetable oil. In the fresh plant food pools, the concentrations of toxic equivalency (WHO-TEQ) were in the ranges of 0.9-14.5 pg/kg in upperbound (UB) scenario and 0.002-7.3 pg/kg in lowerbound (LB) scenario on a fresh weight basis; and TriCDFs and TeCBs were the predominant PCDD/F and PCB homologues, respectively. In the mixed vegetable oil, the WHO-TEQ concentrations were 129.4 pg/kg and 103.6 pg/kg on a lipid weight basis in UB and LB scenarios, respectively; and high-chlorinated PCDD/F and PCB homologues were much more abundant. The estimated plant food-borne dietary intakes of WHO-TEQ by a standard adult in the five surveyed regions were in the ranges of 3.39-4.20 and 1.57-2.13 pg WHO-TEQ/kg body weight/month in UB and LB scenarios, respectively. Among all surveyed regions, consumption of cereals and vegetable oil made up the primary contributions to the estimated dietary intakes of WHO-TEQ. TriCDFs accounted for 41.1-83.9% of the PCDD/Fs dietary intakes via consumption of plant foods, and TeCBs made up 61.2-73.0% of the PCBs dietary intakes via consumption of plant foods, suggesting that the potential toxic effects of TriCDFs and TeCBs on human health should be concerned.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos , Dioxinas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Adulto , Benzofuranos/análise , China , Dibenzofuranos , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados , Dioxinas/análise , Ingestão de Alimentos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise
8.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 164: 112053, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548807

RESUMO

In this study, recent and aged inputs of five classes of organic contaminants (i.e. PCBs, OCPs, PCDD/Fs, PAHs, and n-Alkanes) were evaluated in eight deep sediment cores of the Venice Lagoon, collected along the path of a new waterway whose excavation is under evaluation by local authorities, to assess the environmental quality status of the area. Diagnostic indices were calculated for identifying pollutant distribution patterns and their major emission sources, whose relative contribution was quantified by a Positive Matrix Factorization source apportionment model. Sedimentary depth profiles highlighted higher contamination in the top layer, mainly related to ship traffic combustion and vehicular/industrial emissions from the mainland. Nevertheless, a significant level of pollution has been detected also in the deeper layers, probably due to the transport of particulate matter through the aquifers underlying the lagoon seabed. The results underlined the threat posed by the possible resuspension of pollutants in the water column during contaminated sediment dredging.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluentes Ambientais , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Dibenzofuranos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise
9.
Chemosphere ; 272: 129882, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588142

RESUMO

In September 2013 a waste-to-energy (WTE) incinerator located in the Turin area (Piedmont, Northern Italy) started to produce energy by the incineration of municipal solid wastes. The plant, one of the largest WTE incinerator in Europe, burns up to 490,000 tons of waste per year. A health surveillance program was implemented in order to evaluate the potential health effects on the population living near the plant. This program included a biomonitoring study aimed at assessing levels of several environmental contaminants including, among others, PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs. Before the WTE incinerator start-up (T0), a group of 85 subjects (41 "exposed" and 44 "not exposed" subjects) was randomly selected for enrollment by the local health units among individuals aged 36-50 years who had been living in the same area for at least five years prior to the study. Subjects were balanced by exposure area, sex and five-year age classes. As from the study design, the same cohort was re-evaluated after three years of incinerator activity (T2). A parallel study was conducted on a group of 12 farmers living and/or working in farms located in an area in the range of 5 km around the incinerator. Results of this study did not evidence any impact of the WTE plant on human exposure to PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs. In fact, no significant differences were found in the concentrations of PCDDs + PCDFs, DL-PCBs, and NDL-PCBs measured in the population group residing near the plant after three years of activity (T2) with respect to the control group. A significant decrease of serum concentrations of all the analytes was observed at T2 in both groups compared to T0. Serum concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs in the group of farmers were higher than those observed in the adult population under study.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos , Bifenilos Policlorados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Adulto , Benzofuranos/análise , Monitoramento Biológico , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Incineração , Itália , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise
10.
Bioresour Technol ; 328: 124847, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609883

RESUMO

Sewage sludge contains various classes of organic pollutants, limiting its land application. Sludge composting can effectively remove some organic pollutants. This review summarizesrecent researches on concentration changes and dissipation of different organic pollutants including persistent organic pollutants during sludge composting, and discusses their dissipation pathways and the current understanding on dissipation mechanism. Some organic pollutants like PAHs and phthalates were removed mainly through biodegradation or mineralization, and their dissipation percentages were higher than those of PCDD/Fs and PCBs. Nevertheless, some recalcitrant organic pollutants could be sequestrated in organic fractions of sludge mixtures, and their levels and ARG abundance even increased after sludge composting in some studies, posing potential risks for land application. This review demonstrated that microbial community and their corresponding degradation for organic pollutants were influenced by different pollutants, bulking agents, composting methods and processes. Further research perspectives on removing organic pollutants during sludge composting were highlighted.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Poluentes Ambientais , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Dibenzofuranos , Esgotos , Solo
11.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 50(1): 104-110, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517970

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish the determination method for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans(PCDD/Fs) in human serum, and further to provide an operable and scientific determination protocal and basis for conducting human health risk assessment for PCDD/Fs. METHODS: The serum samples were pretreated by C18 column solid phase extraction, acid silica gel column and activated carbon column purification, separated by DB-5 MS capillary column(60 m×0. 25 mm×0. 25 µm), and PCDD/Fs was quantitative analyzed by high resolution mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The method detection limit was in the range of 0. 35-3. 26 pg/g lipid. This method was further validated using international serum standard reference material sample SRM 1958. According to the reference mass fraction values given for SRM 1958, the concentrations of 17 PCDD/Fs monomers were all in the range of reference mass fraction values, and the relative standard deviation was 2%-19%(n=3). This method was further applied to determination PCDD/Fs in actual serum of human body. The result showed that the recovery rate of isotope labeled PCDD/Fs internal standards were in the range of 61%-135%. CONCLUSION: The performance of the method is highly sensitive, stable and highly accurate, which meets the requirements for the determination of PCDD/Fs in human serum and the method can be applied to human health risk assessment for PCDD/Fs in the future.


Assuntos
Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Dibenzofuranos , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Extração em Fase Sólida
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 770: 145262, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513488

RESUMO

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are ubiquitous contaminants with adverse health effects in the ecosystem. One of such effects is endocrine disruption in humans and wildlife even at background exposure concentrations. This study assessed maternal breastmilk concentrations of POPs; brominated flame retardants (BFRs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), and the potential health risks posed to the nursing infants. We also evaluated the association of these POPs with total 3,3',5-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3), L-thyroxine (T4), and 3,3',5'-triiodo-L-thyronine (rT3) levels measured in human breast milk. Thirty breastmilk samples were collected from Kampala, Uganda between August and December 2018. Hexabromobenzene was not detected while the maximum level of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabrombiphenyl was 64.7 pg/g lw. The median levels of total indicator PCBs, PBDEs, dioxin-like PCBs, and PCDD/Fs in the samples were 159 pg/g lw, 511 pg/g lw, 1.16 pg TEQ/g lw, and 0.4 pg TEQ/g lw, respectively. These levels were lower than those reported in other countries. Owing to their bio accumulative nature, PCBs -81, -169, and ∑PCDD/Fs increased with increase in maternal age. Estimated dietary intakes for dioxin-like PCBs and PCDD/Fs were lower than those reported elsewhere but were higher than the WHO tolerable daily intakes suggesting potential health risks to nursing infants. In adjusted single pollutant models, PCB-126, PCB-169, and ∑PCBTEQ were negatively associated with T3, while 1,2,3,4,5,7,8-HpCDF was positively associated with rT3. Although these associations did not persist in multipollutant models, our findings suggest potential thyroid hormone disruption by POPs in mothers. This may reduce the levels of thyroid hormones transferred from the mother to the neonates and, hence, adversely influence infant growth. A temporal study with a bigger sample size is required to corroborate these findings.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Bifenilos Policlorados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Dibenzofuranos , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados , Exposição Dietética , Ecossistema , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Feminino , Homeostase , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Leite Humano/química , Mães , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Hormônios Tireóideos , Uganda
13.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 106(4): 670-675, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486542

RESUMO

Electric arc furnaces (EAFs) in steelmaking plants are a major source of dioxins. Preheating of steelmaking raw materials is widely used in EAFs to reduce energy consumption. Few studies have investigated emissions of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from EAFs, and the PCB emission levels and characteristics during preheating are unknown. In this study, PCB concentrations and distributions in stack gases emitted during EAF preheating were determined. The average dioxin-like PCB concentrations in stack gases emitted during preheating of three EAFs were 1236.1, 81,664.4, and 669.8 pg/Nm3, respectively. These values were greatly influenced by the composition of the steelmaking raw materials. The PCB profiles in all samples were dominated by less-chlorinated homologs. PCB emission factor for preheating in the EAFs is 0.58 µg WHO-TEQ/ton averagely, indicating significant emissions of PCBs from preheating process. The data will be useful for developing approaches for preventing and controlling PCB emissions from EAFs.


Assuntos
Dioxinas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados , Dioxinas/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Gases/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 212: 111971, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513480

RESUMO

In this study, an AhR-responsive reporter-gene cell-based bioassay CALUX was used to assess the biological potency of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) in top soil samples collected from a former airbase (A-So) and remote regions from urban and agricultural areas in Thua Thien Hue, Vietnam. In top soil collected from A-So airbase, Bioanalytical EQuivalent (BEQ) concentrations of up to 2700 pg 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) per g dry weight (pg BEQ-TCDD g-1 dw) were assessed. Interestingly, while BEQ values for dl-PCBs were found to be up to 13 pg BEQ-TCDD g-1 dw, the dl-PCB activity was not detected in all the hotspot sample extracts. In contrasts, BEQ values for dioxin like compounds from remote regions were much lower and occasionally below the quantification limits of the method. The BEQ activities obtained in this study have a similar trend to the WHO-TEQ results for the samples collected in the A-So airbase. However, BEQ values were higher than those of TEQ, probably reflecting the presence of additional AhR ligands and/or possible non-additive interactions in the sample mixture. This study confirms that after more than 60 years, a strong residual pollution of PCDD/Fs remains on this former air base following the use and storage of Agent Orange during the Vietnam War, raising a health risk for populations exposed in this area because livestock animals graze there.


Assuntos
Agente Laranja , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Animais , Benzofuranos , Bioensaio/métodos , Dibenzofuranos , Dioxinas/toxicidade , Genes Reporter , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Vietnã
15.
Chemosphere ; 272: 129617, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485041

RESUMO

Dioxins are highly toxic chemicals with serious health risks, for which there is no safe level of exposure. Because of the slow decomposition of dioxins, the removal of these persistent environmental pollutants still remains a challenge. Based on theoretical studies, the present work investigates the degradation mechanism of the most toxic type of dioxin-related compounds by low-energy electron irradiation. To explore the rearrangement manner of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induced by excess electron attachment, the B3LYP-D3(BJ)/def2-TZVP//B3LYP-D3(BJ)/6-311++G(d,p) level of density functional theory was applied. Electron attachment resulted in a remarkable decrease in the activation barrier of the rearrangement reaction in a thermodynamically preferred reaction. An activation energy as low as 6.6 kcal/mol provides a strong demonstration that this pathway is the most effective in comparison to the neutral or radical rearrangement mechanisms. The attachment of electrons in the above energy range to C-Cl σ∗orbital is more likely than attachment to the LUMO of TCDD with π∗ orbital character. This σ∗ anion then undergoes a C-O σ bond rupture over a small barrier to produce a relatively stable intermediate, n-IM. The formed n-IM is again reactive toward a subsequent C-O bond rupture along with an intramolecular C-C coupling to produce the products, (E)-4,4',5,5'-tetrachloro-[1,1'-bi(cyclohexylidene)]-3,3',5,5'-tetraene-2,2'-dione and (Z)-4,4',5,5'-tetrachloro-[1,1'-bi(cyclohexylidene)]-3,3',5,5'-tetraene-2,2'-dione. The thermodynamic driving force for the anionic mechanism ensures the formation of the products to be irreversible enough to be purified. The purified products, with their active carbonyl groups, can react in many different ways with a wide range of nucleophile compounds.


Assuntos
Dioxinas , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Elétrons , Modelos Teóricos , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/toxicidade , Termodinâmica
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 211: 111947, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503546

RESUMO

The chicken (Gallus gallus), which has three aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) isoforms (ckAHR1, ckAHR2, and ckAHR1ß) and two AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT) isoforms (ckARNT1 and ckARNT2), is highly sensitive to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and can serve as an avian model to gain an understanding of the mechanism underlying dioxin toxicity. To elucidate the mechanism of TCDD-induced immunotoxicity in avian species, we treated chicken embryos in ovo with graded concentrations of TCDD (1.5, 2.5, 3.0, 3.3, 3.5, and 4.0 µM). Initially, we measured mRNA expression levels of ckAHR and ckARNT isoforms and analyzed the T cell populations and transcriptome in the thymuses of TCDD-treated chicken embryos. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that mRNA expressions of ckAHR1 and ckARNT2 were dominant in the thymus. Severe weight loss and thymus atrophy were observed in the TCDD-treated embryos. Immunophenotyping analyses demonstrated significant increases in CD4+CD8-CD25+ and CD4+CD8+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) populations following TCDD exposure, suggesting that TCDD suppresses T cell-mediated immune responses in chicken embryos. In addition, thymic transcriptome analyses intimated that alteration of the signaling pathways related to erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 4 (ERBB4) and wnt family member 5A (WNT5A), and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) may be associated with the TCDD-induced thymus atrophy. We also observed significantly altered expression levels of genes including interleukine 13 receptor subunit alpha 2 (IL13RA2), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFß1), collagen type III alpha 1 chain (COL3A1), and collagen type IX alpha 3 chain (COL9A3), implying immunosuppression, fibrosis development, and collagen deposition. Collectively, these findings suggest that TCDD exposure activates the ckAHR1-ckARNT2 signaling pathway and suppresses immune responses through the prompted differentiation to CD4+CD8-CD25+ and CD4+CD8+CD25+ Tregs and altered expressions of immune-related genes in the thymus of chicken embryos.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/toxicidade , Animais , Translocador Nuclear Receptor Aril Hidrocarboneto/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas/metabolismo , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T , Transcriptoma
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 290, 2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436590

RESUMO

The environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) causes hepatic toxicity associated with prominent lipid accumulation in humans. Here, the authors report that the lysosomal copper transporter SLC46A3 is induced by TCDD and underlies the hepatic lipid accumulation in mice, potentially via effects on mitochondrial function. SLC46A3 was localized to the lysosome where it modulated intracellular copper levels. Forced expression of hepatic SLC46A3 resulted in decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and abnormal mitochondria morphology consistent with lower copper levels. SLC46A3 expression increased hepatic lipid accumulation similar to the known effects of TCDD exposure in mice and humans. The TCDD-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation was significantly decreased in Slc46a3-/- mice and was more pronounced when these mice were fed a high-fat diet, as compared to wild-type mice. These data are consistent with a model where lysosomal SLC46A3 induction by TCDD leads to cytosolic copper deficiency resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction leading to lower lipid catabolism, thus linking copper status to mitochondrial function, lipid metabolism and TCDD-induced liver toxicity.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte de Cobre/metabolismo , Cobre/metabolismo , Citosol/metabolismo , Homeostase , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Transportador de Folato Acoplado a Próton/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte de Cobre/genética , Citosol/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/ultraestrutura , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Íons , Fígado/metabolismo , Lisossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Modelos Biológicos , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/toxicidade , Transportador de Folato Acoplado a Próton/genética , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Especificidade por Substrato/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
18.
Environ Int ; 147: 106322, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348102

RESUMO

Oily seafood is an important food source which contains several key nutrients beneficial for human health. On the other hand, oily seafood also contains persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including the dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like-polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), potentially detrimental to human health. For a comprehensive comparison of the beneficial and potentially adverse health effects of seafood consumption, risk-benefit analyses are necessary. Risk-benefit analyses require reliable quantitative data and sound knowledge of uncertainties and potential biases. Our dataset comprised more than 4000 analyses of DLCs and more than 1000 analyses each of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and vitamin D in the three most important Norwegian commercial oily seafood species: Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) and farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). The levels of several DLC congeners were below the limit of quantification (LOQ), making estimation of true levels challenging. We demonstrate that the use of upper bound substitution of censored data will overestimate, while lower bound substitution will underestimate the actual levels of DLCs. Therefore, we implement an alternative robust statistical method by combining Maximum Likelihood Estimation, Regression on Order Statistics and Kaplan-Meier analyses, which is better suited for providing estimations of levels of these contaminants in seafood. Moreover, we illustrate the impact of the toxic equivalency factor (TEF) system on estimation of the sums of DLCs by comparing the TEF system to an alternative system of relative effect potency (REP) factors (Consensus Toxicity Factors). The levels of nutrients and contaminants were related to adequate intake (AI) and tolerable weekly intake (TWI), respectively. We used AI and the TWI values established by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The benefit and the risk were further viewed in the context of the Norwegian average intake of oily fish, and the Norwegian governmental official dietary recommendations of oily fish. Our results showed that both benefit and risk are met at the levels found of nutrients and DLCs in oily seafood. The comprehensive quantitative data presented here will be a key for future risk-benefit assessment of oily fish consumption. Together, our results underline that a refined formalized integrative risk-benefit assessment of oily fish in the diet is warranted, and that the data and methodology presented in this study are highly relevant for future integrated and multidisciplinary assessment of both risks and benefits of seafood consumption for human health.


Assuntos
Dioxinas , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Bifenilos Policlorados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Animais , Dibenzofuranos , Dioxinas/análise , Dioxinas/toxicidade , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Noruega , Nutrientes , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Medição de Risco , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Vitamina D
19.
Environ Res ; 192: 110279, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039529

RESUMO

Dioxin was historically one of the most common industrial contaminants with several major industry accidents, as well as governmental actions involving military service, having exposed large numbers of the worldwide population over the past century. Previous rat studies have demonstrated the ability of dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)) exposure to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease susceptibility in subsequent generations. The types of disease previously observed include puberty abnormalities, testis, ovary, kidney, prostate and obesity pathologies. The current study was designed to use an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) to identify potential sperm DNA methylation biomarkers for specific transgenerational diseases. Therefore, the transgenerational F3 generation dioxin lineage male rats with and without a specific disease were compared to identify differential DNA methylation regions (DMRs) as biomarkers for disease. The genomic features of the disease-specific DMRs were characterized. Observations demonstrate that disease-specific epimutation DMRs exist for the transgenerational dioxin lineage rats that can potentially be used as epigenetic biomarkers for testis, kidney, prostate and obesity diseases. These disease-specific DMRs were associated with genes that have previously been shown to be linked with the specific diseases. This EWAS for transgenerational disease identified potential epigenetic biomarkers and provides the proof of concept of the potential to develop similar biomarkers for humans to diagnose disease susceptibilities and facilitate preventative medicine.


Assuntos
Dioxinas , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Dioxinas/toxicidade , Epigênese Genética , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Maturidade Sexual , Espermatozoides/metabolismo
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 753: 142185, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207481

RESUMO

Dioxins have been an inconvenience to the Baltic Sea ecosystem for decades. Although the concentrations in the environment and biota have continuously decreased, dioxins still pose a risk to human health. The risk and its formation vary in different parts of the Baltic Sea, due to variability in the environmental and societal factors affecting it. This paper presents a systematic literature review and knowledge synthesis about the regional dioxin risk formation in four sub-areas of the Baltic Sea and evaluates, whether systemic approach changes our thinking about the risk and its effective management. We studied the dioxin flux from atmospheric deposition to the Baltic Sea food webs, accumulation to two commercially and culturally important fish species, Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras) and Baltic salmon (Salmo salar), and further to risk group members of four Baltic countries. Based on 46 studies, we identified 20 quantifiable variables and indexed them for commensurable regional comparison. Spatial differences in dioxin pollution, environmental conditions, food web dynamics, and the following dioxin concentrations in herring and salmon, together with fishing and fish consumption, affect how the final health risk builds up. In the southern Baltic Sea, atmospheric pollution levels are relatively high and environmental processes to decrease bioavailability of dioxins unfavorable, but the growth is fast, which curb the bioaccumulation of dioxins in the biota. In the North, long-range atmospheric pollution is minor compared to South, but the local pollution and slower growth leads to higher bioaccumulation rates. However, based on our results, the most remarkable differences in the dioxin risk formation between the areas arise from the social sphere: the emissions, origin of national catches, and cultural differences in fish consumption. The article suggests that acknowledging spatial characteristics of socio-ecological systems that generate environmental risks may aid to direct local focus in risk management.


Assuntos
Dioxinas , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Países Bálticos , Dioxinas/análise , Ecossistema , Peixes , Humanos , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
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