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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(2): 92, 2020 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902037

RESUMO

The aim of the study was monitoring of phthalic acid esters in agricultural soils of the Czech Republic over the period of 6 years, namely dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). Monitoring took place in twelve regions of the Czech Republic. Soil samples were taken evenly from the top and bottom soil horizons using a zig-zag pattern. Soil samples were taken from arable land, permanent grassland, and hop field. Lyophilisation of the samples was done by ultrasound-assisted extraction using a mixture acetone-hexane (1:1). Phthalic acid esters were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. Subsequently, the results were statistically compared by analysing the principal components (PCA) to determine the effect of individual factors on the content of phthalic acid esters in agricultural soil. Factors such as precipitation, distance from a pollution source, amount of pesticides, and amount of artificial and organic fertilizers were taken into account. If we compare the concentrations established in this study with the limits set out in the Methodological Instruction of the Ministry of the Environment of the Czech Republic based on RSLs (Regional Screening Levels) issued by the USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency), none of these values were exceeded.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Agricultura , República Tcheca , Dibutilftalato/análise , Dietilexilftalato/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Ésteres/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Solo/química , Estados Unidos
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 1124-1131, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phthalates have been widely used as plasticizers in various industries and are widely focused on in the international community as a result of their reproductive toxicity. Exposure of Chinese residents to phthalates via edible vegetable oil occurs often. In the present study, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to detect the two main phthalates bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) in four major edible vegetable oil sources: an edible oil blend, soybean oil, peanut oil and rapeseed oil (a total of 1016 samples), as collected throughout China. Furthermore, cumulative risk assessment was used to estimate the reproductive health risk to Chinese residents caused by the phthalates that come from edible vegetable oils. RESULTS: Both phthalates were detected in four major edible vegetable oil sources. The phthalate with the highest detection rate was DBP (13.48%), followed by DEHP (7.78%). The results of the cumulative risk assessment showed that the hazard indices of these two phthalates in edible vegetable oils were less than 1, except in soybean oil. Nevertheless, the two phthalates had the lowest detection rates in soybean oil, which were 1.94% (DEHP) and 5.16% (DBP). In China, contamination levels of phthalates in the soils where oil crops are cultivated have a great influence on the phthalate concentrations in edible vegetable oils. CONCLUSION: It is recommended that Chinese residents who are consuming soybean oil choose well-known brands and regularly change their brand of consumption. The phthalates in edible vegetable oils pose a relatively small reproductive health risk to Chinese residents. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Plastificantes/análise , China , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Dibutilftalato/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Medição de Risco
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 698: 134264, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494416

RESUMO

Phthalate esters (PAEs) have been shown to be ubiquitous in abiotic and biotic environmental compartments; however, information about bioaccumulation behavior and human exposure, both via environmental exposure and the diet, are limited. Herein, we report the concentrations and composition profiles of phthalate esters (PAEs) in biological samples, river water, indoor air, and outdoor air samples collected from an agricultural site in western China. Dibutyl phthalate (DNBP) occupied a relatively high abundance in biological samples, discrepant with the environmental samples in which di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was the dominant congener. Significant correlations (P < 0.05) were observed between the biota and river water samples, indicating that river water heavily influenced PAE accumulation in biological samples. The mean log Bioaccumulation Factors (BAFs) varied from 0.91 to 2.96, which implies that most PAE congeners are not likely to accumulate in organisms. No obvious trends were observed between log octanol-water partition coefficient (KOW) and log BAF values, nor between log octanol-air partition coefficient (KOW) and biota-air accumulation factors (BAAFs). Nevertheless, the calculated log air-water partitioning factors (AWPFs) of diethyl phthalate (DEP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) were similar to predicted values whereas those for diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), DNBP and DEHP were significantly higher. The estimated daily intakes of PAEs via food ingestion and environmental exposure were 15, 9.4 and 1.2 ng/kg-bw/day in toddlers, children and adults, respectively, laying at the low end of the reported data and well below the reference dose.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Ésteres/análise , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , China , Dibutilftalato/análogos & derivados , Dibutilftalato/análise , Humanos
4.
Talanta ; 206: 120213, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514887

RESUMO

Phthalate esters (PAEs) are an important kind of environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals, and have attracted great attention in environmental field. Present study described a new method for rapid and sensitive determination of PAEs including dibenzyl phthalate (DPhP), dibutyl phthalate (DnPP), and dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) from aqueous matrices based on magnetic solid-phase extraction. Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers-grafted magnetic-nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized, and the expected integration of more multifunctional sites of PAMAM dendrimers and rapid separation property was utilized for method development. To achieve the best extraction efficiency, several important parameters were optimized including the dosage of the adsorbent, sample pH, kind and volume of eluent, extraction time, desorption time, ionic strength. Under the optimal conditions, three phthalate esters were well enriched and simultaneously determined by high performance liquid chromatography with variable wavelength detector (VWD). Excellent linearities were observed in the range of 0.1-600 µg L-1 for DPhP and DnPP and 0.5-600 µg L-1 for DCHP, and all correlation coefficients (R2) were larger than 0.997. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N = 3) were ranged from 0.025 to 0.16 µg L-1. The spiked recoveries of PAEs in real water samples were in the range of 93.5-101.8% with satisfied relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 0.9 to 4.1%. The prepared magnetic materials have shown good adsorption capability for PAEs and the developed method earned merits such as high sensitivity, simplicity, rapidness and environmental friendliness, which can be used as a robust alternative tool for monitoring PAEs in water samples.


Assuntos
Dendrímeros/química , Ésteres/análise , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Dibutilftalato/análise , Lagos/análise , Limite de Detecção , Oceanos e Mares , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(10): 627, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501942

RESUMO

In this work, we investigated possible contamination of phthalates in seawater and sediment around the eastern coast of Thailand in the area of Chonburi, Rayong, and Chanthaburi. The main focus was on Pradu Bay east of Map Ta Phut, a well-known industrial and economic hub in Thailand. Among six selected phthalates of interest, diethyl phthalate (DEP), and benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) were not found in any sample, while the concentrations of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and dioctyl phthalate (DnOP) were very low or undetectable in most samples. In December 2014, the concentration of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in Pradu Bay were 0.23-0.77 and 0.31-0.91 µg L-1 in seawater, respectively and non-detected (ND)-0.80 and ND-1.65 µg g-1 for 11 out of 20 sediment samples. DBP and DEHP were considered as the predominant congeners. A surface mapping system provided us an overview concentration distribution of DBP and DEHP congeners in seawater and sediment in Pradu Bay, showing a correlation between water and sediment and allowing a prediction of a possible point source. A comparison with the EU standard concentration limit in surface water confirmed that the phthalate concentration in this area was acceptable. However, continuous monitoring of phthalate congeners in the matrices should be done to detect a possible increase in their concentrations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to determine concentrations of phthalates in seawater and sediment along the east coast of Thailand.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Água do Mar/química , Dibutilftalato/análise , Dietilexilftalato/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ésteres/análise , Tailândia
6.
Chemosphere ; 236: 124377, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548171

RESUMO

In this study, the application of different nanomaterials as dispersants in matrix solid phase dispersion has been evaluated for the extraction of fifteen phthalates from different environmental samples prior to their separation and quantification by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Within the evaluated nanomaterials, including graphene oxide, multi-walled carbon nanotubes and iron 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate metal-organic framework, the last one showed the best results in terms of extraction capacity and sample clean-up. The effects of the different parameters affecting the sample pretreatment efficiency were exhaustively evaluated. The whole methodology was validated for agricultural soil and sand, using dibutyl phthalate-3,4,5,6-d4 as surrogate. Recovery values ranged from 70 to 120% for both matrices with RSD values lower than 20% and the limits of quantification of the method achieved were in the range 0.14-2.7 µg/kg dry weight. Finally, the analysis of soil samples from different locations of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) was carried out finding the presence of BBP, DIBP and DBP in the range 5-52 µg/kg dry weight in agricultural soils, and DIPP, DNOP and DINP in the range 2-101 µg/kg dry weight in sand samples.


Assuntos
Dibutilftalato/isolamento & purificação , Nanoestruturas/química , Poluentes do Solo/isolamento & purificação , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Dibutilftalato/análise , Grafite/análise , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida/instrumentação , Espanha , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 695: 133793, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425996

RESUMO

Due to the extensive presence of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the environment, it is very important to develop highly efficient methods for determining their environmental concentrations and for risk assessment. In this study, europium (Eu3+) and samarium (Sm3+) were employed as fluorescent labels to develop a dual-labeled time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TRFIA) for the sensitive detection of diethyl phthalate (DEP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) in aquatic environments. Under optimum conditions, the half-maximal inhibition concentration (IC50) and limit of detection (LOD, IC10) of the TRFIA were 28.1 and 4.9ng/mL for DEP, and 33.4 and 3.9ng/mL for DBP, respectively. The cross-reactivities of the TRFIA between these two phthalates and with their analogues were negligible. The proposed method indicated satisfactory accuracy with recoveries of 78.30-120.13% for DEP and 78.58-113.07% for DBP, which were in good agreement with the gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis results of the same samples. Meanwhile, the results of the immunoassay were used to evaluate the presence and environmental risk of those pollutants in the inner rivers of Zhenjiang city. The concentrations of DEP and DBP ranged from non-detectable to 61.31ng/mL and from non-detectable to 94.57ng/mL, respectively. The results of the potential ecological risk assessment by the risk quotient method showed that there were some sampling points exceeding risk limits, and the total ecological risk of DBP was higher than that of DEP.


Assuntos
Dibutilftalato/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Água Doce/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Fluorimunoensaio/métodos
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 696: 133982, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470327

RESUMO

Phthalates (PAEs) are in a group of artificial chemicals with potential adverse effects to human health and they can be frequently detected in environmental matrices due to its extensive usage. However, seasonal patterns of concentrations in atmosphere and risks posed by PAEs in airborne PM2.5 to Chinese population have not been well characterized. During the period of November 2015 to March 2017, samples of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were collected in four cities of Guangzhou, Shanghai, Beijing and Harbin, which are major metropolitan areas of various latitudes of China. Concentrations of fourteen PAEs in airborne PM2.5 were quantified using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Estimated daily intakes (EDIs), hazard quotients (HQs) and hazard index (HI) were calculated. Lifetime average daily doses (LADD) and incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCR) of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) for four age groups, which divide with infant, toddler, adolescent and adult, by inhalation route were evaluated. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), Diethyl phthalate (DEP), Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), and DEHP were the four major PAEs contaminants in these PM2.5 samples. The sum concentrations of DMP, DEP, DBP and DEHP in Guangzhou, Shanghai, Beijing and Harbin ranged from 32.5-76.1, 10.1-101, 8.02-107 and 13.5-622 ng/m3, with mean concentrations of 59.1, 50.8, 43.8 and 136 ng/m3, respectively. The concentration of total PAEs in PM2.5 from higher latitudes city (Harbin) was higher than those from lower latitudes cities (Guangzhou and Shanghai). Total concentrations of PAEs were significantly higher during warmer seasons than those during colder seasons among the four cities. Although the EDIs, HQs, and HI for all age groups were less than the threshold set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), the highest values of 70-years ILCR from Shanghai and Harbin were 1.2 × 10-6 and 1.3 × 10-6, which were slightly beyond the acceptable level of 10-6. These findings reveal that the cancer risks of DEHP bound to PM2.5 in these two cites should be of particular concern.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , China , Cidades , Dibutilftalato/análise , Humanos , Lactente , Ácidos Ftálicos , Estações do Ano
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 183: 109569, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454751

RESUMO

Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is a ubiquitous soil contaminant. We have investigated the sorption, degradation and residue of DBP in 20 types of agricultural soils and aimed to identify the major soil properties that dominate the fate of DBP. Sorption isotherms of DBP in all soils were fitted well with the Freundlich model. The sorption coefficient (Kf) varied between 3.99 and 36.1 mg1-1/nL1/n/kg. Path analysis indicated that 59.9% of variation in Kf could be explained by the combination of pH, organic carbon (OC) and clay content. Degradation of DBP in the 20 soils was well described by the first-order kinetic model, with half-lives (t1/2) ranging from 0.430 to 4.99 d. The residual DBP concentration after 60 d of incubation (R60) ranged from 0.756 to 2.15 mg/kg and the residual rates ranged from 3.97% to 9.63%. The Kf value was significantly positively correlated with t1/2 and R60. Moreover, soil pH, microbial biomass carbon (Cmic) and OC were identified as dominating factors that explained 84.4% of variation in t1/2. The R60 data indicated 72.2% of its variability attributable to the combination of OC and Cmic. The orders of the relative importance of dominating factors on the Kf, t1/2 and R60 were OC > pH > clay, Cmic > pH > OC and OC > Cmic, respectively. This work contributes to better understand the fate of DBP in soils and make scientific decisions about accelerating its dissipation in different soils.


Assuntos
Dibutilftalato/análise , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Adsorção , Agricultura , Carbono/análise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Solo/normas
10.
Chemosphere ; 236: 124293, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310966

RESUMO

Herein, we investigated the distribution of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) in the tissues of wheat grown on DBP-contaminated soils and determined the activity of detoxifying enzymes [cytochrome P450 (P450) and glutathione S-transferase (GST)] in these tissues at different growth stages of wheat. The content of DBP in wheat grown on all soil types increased with increasing DBP stress concentration, and the DBP content of each tissue decreased as wheat growth progressed. Under the same conditions, the DBP content of roots exceeded that of leaves and stems, and the DBP content of all tissues decreased in the order of brown soil > fluvo-aquic soil > cinnamon soil. The decrease of DBP content with growth and the content of mono-n-butyl dicarboxylate (MBP, main metabolite of DBP) followed the order of cinnamon soil > fluvo-aquic soil > brown soil; the latter parameter initially increased and then decreased as growth progressed. The changes in P450 content and GST activities in wheat tissues were highly consistent with the corresponding changes in DBP and MBP content, except for the DBP stress level of 40 mg kg-1 at the seedling stage. Based on the obtained results, it was speculated that P450 and GST were strongly involved in the metabolism of DBP in wheat: oxygen atoms were inserted into the aldehyde C-H bond of the species generated after hydrolysis of ester groups under the action of P450 to achieve hydrocarbon hydroxylation under mild conditions and generate MBP.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Dibutilftalato/análise , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Triticum/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Folhas de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Caules de Planta/química , Plântula/metabolismo
11.
Environ Pollut ; 248: 1036-1045, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091636

RESUMO

Electronic waste (e-waste) has emerged as a global environmental problem because of its massive production volume and un-structured management policy. Since the rate of e-waste accumulation is startling and the combinatorial effects of toxicants are complex, we have investigated six phthalic acid esters (PAEs), bis (2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA)), bisphenol A (BPA), sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and eight heavy metals (HMs) in the surface soil of e-waste recycling workshops and nearby open dumpsites in four metropolitan cities of India viz., New Delhi (north), Kolkata (east), Mumbai (west) and Chennai (south). Average concentration of ∑16PAHs (1259 ng/g), ∑6PAEs (396 ng/g), BPA (140 ng/g) and ∑8HM (1288 mg/kg) in the informal e-waste recycling sites were higher than ∑16PAHs (1029 ng/g), ∑6PAEs (93 ng/g), BPA (121 ng/g) and ∑8HM (675 mg/kg) in dumpsites. Almost 50-90% of BPA, bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), ∑7carcPAHs and copper (Cu) were from e-waste sites predominantly from metal recovery sites (EWR). Extensive combustion of e-waste particularly in the EWR sites at New Moore market and Pudupet in Chennai and Wire Lane, Kurla of Mumbai can explain the segregation of diethyl phthalate (DEP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) and carcinogenic PAHs in the first principal component (PC-1). Copper and lead along with highly abundant plasticizers like DEHP, dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and BPA were loaded in PC-2. Combined impact of burning the plastic cables in e-waste and acid leaching process especially at Mandoli in New Delhi might have driven this result. Loading of chrysene, DEHA and low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs mostly in dumpsite soil might have resulted from incomplete combustion of dumped e-waste. Copper was found to exhibit the highest pollution estimated by geo-accumulation index (Igeo). Maximum estimated carcinogenic risk for adults via dermal contact was due to copper, followed by chromium, lead and nickel.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Resíduo Eletrônico/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Fenóis/análise , Plastificantes/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos , Cidades , Dibutilftalato/análise , Ésteres/análise , Índia , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Reciclagem , Solo/química
12.
Dokl Biol Sci ; 484(1): 13-15, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31016497

RESUMO

The endogenous esters of orthophthalic acid, dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), have been first detected in bacterial pathogens of plants (Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. sepedonicus, Pectobacterium carotovorum ssp. carotovorum, Rhizobium rhizogenes, Rhizobium radiobacter) and bacterial pathogens of animal (Escherichia coli).


Assuntos
Dibutilftalato/análise , Dietilexilftalato/análise , Escherichia coli/química , Pectobacterium/química , Rhizobium/química
13.
Environ Pollut ; 250: 1-7, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981178

RESUMO

Plastic film mulching is a common practice to increase crop yield in dryland, while the wide use of plastic film has resulted in ubiquitous phthalate esters (PAEs) releasing into the soil. PAEs in soil could be taken up and accumulated by dietary intake of food crops such as wheat, thus imposing health risks to residents. In the present study, samples from a long-term location-fixed field experiment were examined to clarify the accumulation of PAEs in soil and wheat, and to assess the human health risks from PAEs via dietary intake of wheat grain under plastic film mulching cultivation in dryland. Results showed that concentrations of PAEs in grains from mulching plots ranged from 4.1 to 12.6 mg kg-1, which were significantly higher than those in the control group. There was a positive correlation for the PAE concentrations between wheat grains and field soils. Concentrations of PAEs in the soil were in the range of 1.8-3.5 mg kg-1 for the mulching treatment, and 0.9-2.7 mg kg-1 for the control group. Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were detected in all soil and grain samples, and DEHP was found to be the dominant PAE compound in grains. Based on DEHP concentrations in wheat grains, the values of carcinogenic risk for adults were higher than the recommended value 10-4. Results indicated that wheat grains from film mulching plots posed a considerable non-carcinogenic risk to residents, with children being the most sensitive resident group. Findings of this work call the attention to the potential pollution of grain crops growing in the plastic film mulching crop production systems.


Assuntos
Dibutilftalato/análise , Dietilexilftalato/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Plásticos/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Triticum/metabolismo , Criança , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Dibutilftalato/metabolismo , Dietilexilftalato/metabolismo , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
14.
Chemosphere ; 226: 316-320, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939370

RESUMO

Phosphorus-based compounds are used as plasticizers in the manufacture of many products found in the indoor environment. Here we quantitatively investigated dermal exposure to phosphorus-based compounds contained in 45 nail polishes purchased in Japan. The alternative plasticizer triphenyl phosphate (TPhP) was detected in some samples of the nail polishes made in the USA (concentration, 1.1-1.8 wt%). The potential dermal exposure rates for TPhP, estimated using ConsExpo (version 5.0; Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment), were in the range 200 (5%ile)-1700 (50%ile)-5000 (95%ile) ng kg-bw-1 day-1, which is more than 1400 times the reported values for exposure via dust ingestion and inhalation. Thus, dermal exposure via nail polish may be a major route of exposure to TPhP. The margin of exposure range for TPhP was 3.6 × 105-4.1 × 104-1.4 × 104. For comparison, the potential dermal exposure rate range for the conventional plasticizer dibutyl phthalate and the alternative plasticizer acetyl tributyl citrate was 360-3500-14,000 and 430-4100-17,000 ng kg-bw-1 day-1, respectively, and the margin of exposure range was 4.1 × 103-4.2 × 102-1.1 × 102 and 2.3 × 105-2.4 × 104-5.9 × 103, respectively.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Compostos de Fósforo/análise , Plastificantes/análise , Administração Cutânea , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Citratos/análise , Cosméticos/química , Dibutilftalato/análise , Poeira/análise , Humanos , Japão , Organofosfatos/análise , Fósforo/análise
15.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 127: 163-172, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30904481

RESUMO

To estimate realistic exposure to a chemical, the aggregate exposure from multiple consumer products should be considered. A receptor-based aggregate exposure assessment was conducted according to individuals' exposure factors and simultaneous use patterns including co-use and non-use. A product-based aggregate exposure assessment was conducted by product usage rates of population and users' exposure factors. Two aggregate exposure assessments were compared. Exposure factors for 31 cosmetic products were collected by face-to-face interviews with 1001 members of the Korean population through national representative sampling. The concentrations of phthalates in 214 cosmetic products were analyzed by GC-MS-MS. The average aggregate exposure dose (AED) determined by the receptor-based method for di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and diethyl phthalate (DEP) were 0.68 ±â€¯0.87, 1.08 ±â€¯5.71, and 2.47 ±â€¯9.05 µg/kg/day, respectively. The cosmetics that contributed most to the receptor-based AED were skin care and body care products for DEHP, nail care products for DnBP, and fragrance and hair care products for DEP. The young female group showed the highest exposure. The product-based aggregate exposure assessment method underestimated high exposure but overestimated average exposure for DnBP and DEP. The receptor-based aggregate exposure assessment method would be used to determine high exposure groups.


Assuntos
Cosméticos/química , Dibutilftalato/toxicidade , Dietilexilftalato/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , Adulto , Dibutilftalato/análise , Dietilexilftalato/análise , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , República da Coreia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Chemosphere ; 225: 443-450, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897469

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the biodegradation of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) by Burkholderia pyrrocinia B1213. The results showed that DEHP at concentration of 500 mg/L in a mineral salt medium containing 1.0% yeast extract can be almost completely degraded (98.05%) by strain B1213. The optimal condition for DEHP degradation was pH 7.0, temperature 30 °C. Moreover, B1213 shows better degradation effect on long-chain PAEs, such as DEHP, which provides a great potential for its use in bioremediation of soils contaminated with PAEs. The kinetic studies showed that DEHP depletion curves fit well to the modified Gompertz model. The mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-dibutyl phthalate (MBP), phthalic acid (PA) and 4-oxo-hexanoic acid were identified as the metabolites of DEHP by HPLC-ESI-QTOFMS. The detection of MBP and 4-oxo-hexanoic acid as intermediates prompted us to propose a novel and more complete DEHP biodegradation pathway compared to the classic pathway: DEHP is first degraded to MEHP by esterases, which is then converted to MBP through ß-oxidation. Then MBP is degraded to PA by esterases, which is then converted to protocatechuate (PCA) under aerobic conditions rapidly. PCA is ultimately cleaved to generate CO2 and H2O via 4-oxo-hexanoic acid.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Burkholderia/metabolismo , Dibutilftalato/metabolismo , Dietilexilftalato/metabolismo , Plastificantes/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Dibutilftalato/análise , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Ácidos Ftálicos/metabolismo
17.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 140: 101-106, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30803623

RESUMO

Effects of Cylindrotheca closterium, a marine benthic diatom, on the fate of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) in a water-sediment system were investigated. Model calculation results showed that DBP residue was 38.5% lower in the system with C. closterium than in the system without C. closterium. The net flux from water to sediment increased by 7.3 times in the presence of C. closterium. As a result, the total biodegradation flux of DBP in the system with C. closterium was increased by 25.6%. According to the 16 s rDNA sequencing, the presence of C. closterium decreased the bacterial population as well as bacterial community diversity in sediments. Moreover, the population of C. closterium, capable of efficiently degrading DBP, was much higher than that of the dominant DBP-degrading bacteria, demonstrating that degradation of DBP by C. closterium should be the main reason for the degradation enhancement in sediments.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Dibutilftalato/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Água do Mar/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Biodegradação Ambiental , China , Diatomáceas/efeitos dos fármacos , Dibutilftalato/metabolismo , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Microbiologia da Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
18.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 140: 107-115, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30803624

RESUMO

A total of 14 phthalate esters (PAEs) were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to better understand its occurrence and distribution in seawater samples of M2 seamount in the Tropical Western Pacific Ocean (TWPO). The concentrations of ΣPAEs in the seawater ranged from 12.13 ng L-1 to 60.69 ng L-1 (av. 28.86 ng L-1), dominated by dibutyl phthalate (DBP), di(2­ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP). ΣPAEs concentrations in the southwest of the seamount were lower than those in the northeast, with the minima appearing above the seamount summit. Current-seamount interaction was reckoned to be the principal driving factors in the distribution of PAEs. DEHP posed a medium risk in seawater, suggesting that marine plastic pollution has become an urgent environmental issue that calls for more attention and actions. Microplastics leaching and atmospheric deposition might be the potential sources of PAEs.


Assuntos
Dibutilftalato/análogos & derivados , Dietilexilftalato/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Água do Mar/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Dibutilftalato/análise , Oceano Pacífico , Clima Tropical
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(11): 11224-11233, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30796663

RESUMO

In attempts to evaluate the environmental risk produced by plastic markets, the levels and congener profiles of phthalate esters (PAEs) in soil, vegetable, and sediment samples collected from the plastic market in China, where numerous plastic products are exchanged every year, were investigated. The concentrations of ∑22PAEs ranged from 2131 to 27,805 ng g-1 in agricultural soils, from 8023 to 37,556 ng g-1 in vegetables and from 9031 to 87,329 ng g-1 in sediments. The predominant PAE pollutants were di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), and dibenzyl phthalate (DBzP). The mean percentages of the predominant PAEs in the soil, vegetable, and sediment samples accounted for 98.4%, 97.3%, and 99.5% of the total PAEs, respectively. The concentrations of PAEs at the sites around the plastic market were significantly higher than those at other pollution sites, such as sites contaminated by agricultural plastic film, electronic waste (e-waste) recycling sites, and industrial parks, indicating that the plastic market was an important pollution source. The DEHP concentrations in the soils, vegetables, and sediments and the DnBP concentrations in the vegetables all exceeded the environmental risk levels (ERL) or the environmental allowable levels (EAL), indicating that the plastic market posed potential environmental risks.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Resíduos Industriais/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Plásticos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Verduras/química , China , Dibutilftalato/análogos & derivados , Dibutilftalato/análise , Poluição Ambiental , Ésteres/análise , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Resíduos Industriais/economia , Plásticos/análise , Plásticos/economia
20.
Chemosphere ; 221: 99-106, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30634153

RESUMO

Paperboard used as packaging, a non-inert material, can transfer chemicals into food. Over the years, endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), such as NonylPhenols (NPs), BisPhenol A (BPA) and phthalates have been shown to migrate from packaging materials into food. Due to chronic exposure and mixture effects of these EDCs, they could cause health effects even at very low doses. Many EDCs are still unknown and many more are still unregulated. The ERE-CALUX bioassay was used as a bioanalytical tool to investigate estrogenic activities of paperboard food packaging and its characteristics, including recycling rate and printing ink. A "worst case" scenario with full extraction is compared to a dry food migration experiment. By measuring an overall estrogenic activity, known and unknown estrogenic chemicals and mixture effects are taken into account and the data are compared to molecule specific analysis. Estrogenic activities ranged from 682 ±â€¯66 pg E2 eq./dm2 to 3250 ±â€¯400 pg E2 eq./dm2 for "worst case" extraction and from 347 ±â€¯30 pg E2 eq./dm2 to 1350 ±â€¯70 pg E2 eq./dm2 for migration experiments. A two-factor ANOVA revealed a relationship between estrogenic activity and the recycling rate of the paperboard, but no significant difference with printing ink was observed for these paperboard samples. Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and 1,2-cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid diisononyl ester (DINCH) were determined in all extraction and migrations experiment samples. A Spearman rank correlation analysis showed a relationship between the estrogenic activity and the total phthalates as well as with each compound individually.


Assuntos
Bioensaio/métodos , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Estrogênios/análise , Embalagem de Alimentos , Dibutilftalato/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Reciclagem
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