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2.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500607

RESUMO

Based on the adsorption performance of a porous nanocomposite with limestone (LS), activated carbon (AC) and sodium alginate (SG), a unique, multifunctional LS-AC-SG nanocomposite absorbent was designed and prepared for extracting antibiotics and drugs from aqueous solutions. The composite exhibited the following advantages: quick and simple to prepare, multifunctionality and high efficiency. Amoxicillin (AMX) and diclofenac (DCF) were chosen as the conventional antibiotic and the drug, respectively. The prepared nanocomposite's physicochemical characteristics were calculated through numerous characterization methods. The structure of the surface was made up of interconnected pores that can easily confine pollutants. The surface area was measured to be 27.85 m2/g through BET analysis. The results show that the maximum absorption capacity of amoxicillin and diclofenac was 99.6% and 98.4%, respectively, at a contact time of 40 min. The maximum removal of amoxicillin and diclofenac was reached at pH = 2. Adsorption analysis revealed that adsorption isotherm and kinetic data matched the pseudo-first-order kinetic and the Langmuir isotherm models. The results imply that the synthesized nanocomposites have the capacity to remove amoxicillin (AMX) and diclofenac (DCF) from aqueous solutions.


Assuntos
Alginatos/química , Antibacterianos/química , Carbonato de Cálcio/química , Carvão Vegetal/química , Nanocompostos/química , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Soluções/química , Água/química , Adsorção , Amoxicilina/química , Diclofenaco/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Porosidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Purificação da Água/métodos
3.
Water Res ; 204: 117466, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530227

RESUMO

We present a conceptual and mathematical framework leading to the development of a biodegradation model capable to interpret the observed reversibility of the Pharmaceutical Sodium Diclofenac along its biological degradation pathway in groundwater. Diclofenac occurrence in water bodies poses major concerns due to its persistent (and bioactive) nature and its detection in surface waters and aquifer systems. Despite some evidences of its biodegradability at given reducing conditions, Diclofenac attenuation is often interpreted with models which are too streamlined, thus potentially hampering appropriate quantification of its fate. In this context, we propose a modeling framework based on the conceptualization of the molecular mechanisms of Diclofenac biodegradation which we then embed in a stochastic context, thus enabling one to quantify predictive uncertainty. We consider reference environmental conditions (biotic and denitrifying) associated with a set of batch experiments that evidence the occurrence of a reversible biotransformation pathway, a feature that is fully captured by our model. The latter is then calibrated in the context of a Bayesian modeling framework through an Acceptance-Rejection Sampling approach. By doing so, we quantify the uncertainty associated with model parameters and predicted Diclofenac concentrations. We discuss the probabilistic nature of uncertain model parameters and the challenges posed by their calibration with the available data. Our results are consistent with the recalcitrant behavior exhibited by Diclofenac in groundwater and documented through experimental data and support the observation that unbiased estimates of the hazard posed by Diclofenac to water resources should be assessed through a modeling strategy which fully embeds uncertainty quantification.


Assuntos
Diclofenaco , Água Subterrânea , Teorema de Bayes , Biodegradação Ambiental , Recursos Hídricos
4.
Xenobiotica ; 51(10): 1181-1187, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514945

RESUMO

1. Morin, a natural flavonol, is present in many plants. It has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities and is often used as an adjuvant treatment for arthritis. Diclofenac sodium is the first-choice drug in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. However, the herb-drug interaction (HDI) between morin and diclofenac sodium remains unclear.2. The aim of the present research was to investigate whether and how morin affect the pharmacokinetic profile of diclofenac sodium.3. The enzyme kinetic and pharmacokinetic studies showed that morin significantly accelerated the metabolism and reduced systemic exposure of diclofenac sodium. Interestingly, the effect of morin on the pharmacokinetic profile of diclofenac sodium was not in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, the effect of morin on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was further investigated.4. The results implied that the influence mechanism of morin on the pharmacokinetic of diclofenac sodium might be related to CYP2C9 and P-gp. Attention should be paid to the risk of HDI between morin and diclofenac sodium in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Diclofenaco , Flavonoides , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides , Interações Ervas-Drogas , Ratos
5.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 125936, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492865

RESUMO

This study reports the different degradation mechanisms of carbamazepine (CBZ) and diclofenac (DCF) by single-atom Barium (Ba) embedded g-C3N4. Single-atom Ba is anchored onto g-C3N4 by forming ionic bond with triazine ring, thus greatly enhances the photocatalytic activity with an atom ratio of 1.78%. CBZ undergoes a typical photocatalysis mechanism, while DCF is degraded via a photosensitization-like process, which does not need band gap excitation of photocatalyst. By means of Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculation, the selectivity is found to be related with the different valence excitation modes of CBZ and DCF. Specifically, CBZ undergoes a local excitation, which does not obviously affect molecular configuration. In contrast, DCF undergoes a charge transfer excitation, which significantly changes the reactive sites distribution and facilitates photosensitization-like degradation. Due to the different degradation mechanism, the effects of pH, co-existed anions, and water matrix are also different. Since photosensitization-like mechanism does not rely on photo-generated holes mediated oxidation, the degradation efficient of DCF shows higher anti-interference capacity in real water.


Assuntos
Carbamazepina , Diclofenaco , Bário , Catálise , Oxirredução
6.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 126199, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492963

RESUMO

This study reports the photocatalytic degradation of diclofenac by hybrid materials prepared by combination of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) and titanium-metal organic framework (NH2-MIL-125), in different mass proportions (MOF:C3N4 of 25:75, 50:50 and 75:25). The hybrid materials were fully characterized, and their properties compared to those of the individual components, whose presence was confirmed by XRD. The porous structure was the result of the highly microporous character of the MOF and the non-porous one of g-C3N4. The band gap values were very close to that of MOF component. Photoluminescence measurements suggested an increase on the recombination rate associated to the presence of g-C3N4. Photodegradation tests of diclofenac (10 mg·L-1) were performed under UV LED irradiation at 384 nm. The hybrid materials showed higher photocatalytic activity than the individual components, suggesting the occurrence of some synergistic effect. The photocatalyst with a MOF:g-C3N4 ratio of 50:50 yielded the highest conversion rate, allowing complete disappearance of diclofenac in 2 h. Experiments with scavengers showed that superoxide radicals and holes played a major role in the photocatalytic process photodegradation, being that of hydroxyl radicals less significant. From the identification of by-products species, a degradation pathway was proposed for the degradation of diclofenac under the experimental operating conditions.


Assuntos
Diclofenaco , Água , Catálise , Dietilamida do Ácido Lisérgico/análogos & derivados , Fotólise
7.
Water Res ; 204: 117647, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536687

RESUMO

Understanding the in-sewer stability of analgesic biomarkers is important for interpreting wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) data to estimate community-wide analgesic drugs consumption. The in-sewer stability of a suite of 19 analgesics and their metabolites was assessed using lab-scale sewer reactors. Target biomarkers were spiked into wastewater circulating in simulated gravity, rising main and control (no biofilm) sewer reactors. In-sewer transformation was observed over a hydraulic retention time of 12 h. All investigated biomarkers were stable under control reactor conditions. In gravity sewer conditions, diclofenac, desmetramadol, ibuprofen carboxylic acid, ketoprofen, lidocaine and tapentadol were highly stable (0-20% transformation in 12 h). Valdecoxib, parecoxib, etoricoxib, indomethacin, naltrexone, naloxone, piroxicam, ketoprofen, lidocaine, tapentadol, oxymorphone, hydrocodone, meperidine, hydromorphone were considered as moderately stable biomarkers (20-50% transformation in 12 h). Celecoxib and sulindac were considered unstable biomarkers (>50% transformation in 12 h). Ketoprofen, lidocaine, tapentadol, meperidine, hydromorphone were transformed to 0-20% whereas diclofenac, desmetramadol, ibuprofen carboxylic acid, valdecoxib, parecoxib, etoricoxib, indomethacin, naltrexone, piroxicam were transformed up to 20-50% in 12 h in rising main reactor (RMR). These biomarkers were considered as highly stable and stable biomarkers in RMR, respectively. Sulindac, celecoxib, naloxone, oxymorphone and hydrocodone were transformed more than 50% in 12 h and considered as unstable biomarkers in RMR. This study provides the information for a better understanding of the in-sewer loss of the analgesics before using them in WBE biomarkers for estimating drug loads at the population level.


Assuntos
Analgésicos , Cetoprofeno , Ácidos Carboxílicos , Diclofenaco , Ibuprofeno
8.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481441

RESUMO

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and muscle relaxants (MR) are successfully used to relieve pain, both in monotherapy and in combinations. The use of fixed drug combinations not only greatly facilitates daily clinical practice and increases patient adherence, but due to the potentiation of pharmacological effects, it allows to achieve better treatment results. This paper presents 3 clinical cases of successful inpatient use of a fixed combination of diclofenac 75 mg and orphenadrine 30 mg in the form of an infusion solution (NEODOLPASSE) for relief of acute back musculoskeletal pain syndrome.


Assuntos
Dor Aguda , Diclofenaco , Dor Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Diclofenaco/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Orfenadrina/uso terapêutico , Medição da Dor
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 798: 149276, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333427

RESUMO

Horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-catalyzed hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidation could degrade a variety of organic pollutants, but the intrinsic drawback of slow degradation rate limited its widespread application. In this study, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) was introduced into HRP/H2O2 system as an electron shuttle to enhance diclofenac degradation under neutral pH conditions. The green-colored ABTS radical (ABTS•+), generated by the oxidation of ABTS with HRP-catalyzed H2O2 oxidation, was proved to be the main reactive species for the rapid degradation of diclofenac in HRP/H2O2/ABTS system. There was no destruction of ABTS/ABTS•+ in HRP/H2O2/ABTS system, and ABTS was verified as an ideal electron shuttle. The reaction conditions including solution pH (4.5-10.5), HRP concentration (0-8 units mL-1) and H2O2 concentration (0-500 µM) would impact the formation of ABTS•+, and affect the degradation of diclofenac in HRP/H2O2/ABTS system. Moreover, compared with Fenton and hydroxylamine/Fenton systems, HRP/H2O2/ABTS system had better diclofenac degradation efficiency, higher H2O2 utilization efficiency and stronger anti-interference capacity in actual waters. Overall, the present study provided a meaningful and promising way to enhance the degradation of organic pollutants in water with HRP-catalyzed H2O2 oxidation.


Assuntos
Diclofenaco , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Benzotiazóis , Catálise , Elétrons , Peroxidase do Rábano Silvestre/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Peróxidos , Ácidos Sulfônicos
10.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 69(8): 721-726, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334515

RESUMO

Hospital preparations are frequently prepared in Japanese hospitals when ready-made formulations to meet patients' needs are unavailable. Although the quality of hospital preparations have to be ensured for efficacy and safety, such quality evaluation tends to be insufficient mainly due to lack of manpower and experimental environments in hospitals. In this paper, we investigated the applicability of quantitative (q)NMR spectroscopy to the quality control of diclofenac gargles as examples of hospital preparations, as it has various merits for the quantitative analysis of mixtures in solutions. Diclofenac gargles are composed of diclofenac, tranexamic acid, and lidocaine, and are used for the pain relief of stomatitis induced by cancer chemotherapy. Aliquots of the gargles, which were prepared five times, were mixed with dimethylsulfone as an internal standard, followed by qNMR measurements. Water signal suppression was achieved using a pulse program, water suppression enhanced through T1 effects, because the pulse program was superior to other ones such as presaturation and one-dimensional nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy in terms of quantitativeness. Concentrations of the three medicinal ingredients were simultaneously determined based on the signals selected by considering the spectral separation and the quantitativeness. Consequently, the gargles were found to be prepared with constant quality, and were stable at room temperature for at least four weeks. qNMR is considered to be potentially useful for the quality control of various hospital preparations because of minimal sample pretreatments, lack of need of calibration curves, and its comprehensive detection abilities.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/análise , Diclofenaco/análise , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/síntese química , Diclofenaco/síntese química , Hospitais , Humanos , Japão , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445561

RESUMO

Among numerous contaminants, the ubiquitous occurrence of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in the environment and their plausible harmful impact on nontarget organisms have made them one of the most important areas of concern in recent years. Crop plants can also potentially be exposed to NSAIDs, since the concentration of these pharmaceuticals is constantly rising in the surface water and soil. Our goal was to evaluate the stress response of two crop plants, maize and tomato, to treatment with selected NSAIDs, naproxen and diclofenac. The focus of the research was on the growth response, photosynthetic efficiency, selected oxidative stress factors (such as the H2O2 level and the rate of lipid peroxidation) as well as the total phenolic content, which represents the non-enzymatic protectants against oxidative stress. The results indicate that susceptibility to the NSAIDs that were tested is dependent on the plant species. A higher sensitivity of tomato manifested in growth inhibition, a decrease in the content of the photosynthetic pigments and a reduction in the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII and the activity of PSII, which was estimated using the Fv/Fm and Fv/F0 ratios. Based on the growth results, it was also possible to reveal that diclofenac had a more toxic effect on tomato. In contrast to tomato, in maize, neither the content of the photosynthetic pigments nor growth appeared to be affected by DFC and NPX. However, both drugs significantly decreased in maize Fv and Fm, which are particularly sensitive to stress. A higher H2O2 concentration accompanied, in most cases, increasing lipid peroxidation, indicating that oxidative stress occurred in response to the selected NSAIDs in the plant species that were studied. The higher phenolic content of the plants after NSAIDs treatment may, in turn, indicate the activation of defense mechanisms in response to the oxidative stress that is triggered by these drugs.


Assuntos
Diclofenaco/farmacologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Naproxeno/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Oxidantes/farmacologia , Fenóis/farmacologia , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/metabolismo
12.
ACS Sens ; 6(9): 3485-3493, 2021 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436869

RESUMO

Because the broadly consumed pain killer diclofenac (DCF) is a recognized pollutant, monitoring of its concentration is routinely performed in surface waters. As a valuable alternative to chromatographic and immunochemical assays, we developed a piezoelectric immunosensor to quantify DCF, first in buffer (PBS) and then in river water samples. A sensing layer comprising DCF was built up on the surface of silica-coated quartz sensors using a robust coupling chemistry. Binding of a highly affine monoclonal anti-DCF antibody was monitored in real time by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) measurements from which were determined a dissociation constant KD of 0.24 nM and an acoustic antibody surface coverage of 1120 ng/cm2 at saturation. On the other hand, an optical antibody surface coverage of 260 ng/cm2 was determined by combined nanoplasmonic sensing measurement, giving a hydration percentage of 75% for the antibody monolayer. DCF assay was further set up following a competitive format for which binding of antibody to the sensing layer is inhibited by DCF in solution. The piezoelectric sensor response expressed as frequency shift ΔF was inversely related to the concentration of DCF with a dynamic range of 15-46 nM and a limit of detection (LoD) of 9.5 nM (2.8 µg/L) in PBS. This piezoelectric immunosensor was eventually applied to the assay of DCF in surface water samples taken at three different locations in the Seine and Marne rivers. The calculated concentration of DCF in these samples was in good agreement with official data published by the French center of water analysis eaufrance.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Recursos Hídricos , Acústica , Diclofenaco , Imunoensaio
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 791: 148172, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412396

RESUMO

Diclofenac (DIC) is one of the most widely consumed drugs in the world, and its presence in the environment as well as potential effects on organisms are the subject of numerous recent scientific works. However, it is becoming clear that the risk posed by pharmaceuticals in the environment needs to be viewed more broadly and their numerous derivatives should also be considered. In fact, already published results confirm that the transformation products of NSAIDs including DIC may cause a variety of potentially negative effects on marine organisms, sometimes showing increased biological activity. To date, however, little is known about bioconcentration of DIC and DIC metabolites and the role of sex in this process. Therefore, the present study for the first time evaluates sex-related differences in DIC bioconcentration and estimates bioconcentration potential of DIC metabolite, 4-OH DIC, in the Mytilus trossulus tissues. In the experiment lasting 7 days, mussels were exposed to DIC and 4-OH DIC at concentrations 68.22 and 20.85 µg/L, respectively. Our study confirms that DIC can be taken up by organisms not only in its native form, but also as a metabolite, and metabolised further. Furthermore, in the present work, mass balance was performed and the stability of both studied compounds under experimental conditions was analysed. Obtained results suggest that DIC is more stable than its derivative under the tested conditions, but further analyses of the environmental fate of these compounds are necessary.


Assuntos
Mytilus , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Bioacumulação , Diclofenaco/análogos & derivados
14.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1652021 05 19.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346575

RESUMO

Topical NSAIDs are currently recommended in several national and international guidelines for knee osteoarthritis, hand osteoarthritis and acute musculoskeletal pain. However, there is still widespread skepticism about the effectiveness of this treatment. This article discusses different reasons for this skepticism, a short summary of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of topical NSAIDs and an overview of available evidence regarding efficacy and safety. Based on this evidence topical NSAIDs have a clear place in the treatment of knee and hand osteoarthritis and acute musculoskeletal pain. Due to less systemic side effects they should be recommended before an oral NSAID is considered. Topical NSAIDs might even be an option for patients with contra-indications for oral NSAIDs. There is a large variety of available topical NSAIDs. Of the available topical NSAIDs in the Netherlands, diclofenac gel seems the most sensible choice.


Assuntos
Dor Aguda , Dor Musculoesquelética , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Administração Tópica , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Diclofenaco , Humanos , Osteoartrite do Joelho/tratamento farmacológico
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 796: 148851, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271379

RESUMO

Diclofenac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used in livestock farming, with lethal effects on vultures when reaching high concentrations in the carcasses they feed on. There are evidences showing that it caused the decline of >95% of vultures of the Gyps genus in Southern Asia until its ban in 2006. In March 2013 two veterinary drugs containing diclofenac were authorized in Spain. The scientific and conservationist communities alerted on the foreseeable risks to European vulture populations based on previous experiences. Several risk assessments modelled the expected impact on vultures, and media campaigns were launched to ban the veterinary use of diclofenac. Here, we evaluate the situation of Spanish vultures after seven years (2013-2019) since the marketing authorisation of the veterinary use of diclofenac was granted. The present assessment takes into consideration the awareness measures adopted to avoid an inappropriate use of the drug, the results of the monitoring programs performed both for vultures and livestock in the wild and from toxicological tests, as well as the review of the published models on the expected mortality of vultures. The measures adopted seem to have been adequate and have avoided impacts at vulture population level despite the finding of one cinereous vulture lethally intoxicated by diclofenac in 2020. In view of the results, we discuss the different situations from the veterinary use of this drug between Southern Asia and Spain. Finally, surveillance priorities and future prospects are proposed to prevent risks from possible changes in the current circumstances, regarding the use of diclofenac and other NSAIDs potentially harmful like flunixin.


Assuntos
Falconiformes , Drogas Veterinárias , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides , Diclofenaco/toxicidade , Espanha
16.
Chemosphere ; 284: 131306, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225128

RESUMO

In this work, the novel hollow mesoporous coagulant was prepared by chitosan-polydopamine coating and permanganate loading into silica nanoparticles for investigating the simultaneous enrichment and degradation of diclofenac sodium (DCFS) combined with ultraviolet irradiation. The enrichment kinetic of DCFS was explained well with pseudo-second-order model, indicating the exist of hydrogen bonding. Based on the correlation coefficients, the enriched isotherms were fitted by models which accorded with the BET > Freundlich > Langmuir sequence. The result showed that, in addition to the coagulant and DCFS, there were aromatic stackings among DCFS molecules. Due to both effects of which, the DCFS enrichment could be realized significantly in the range of pH 4.0-9.0. It was degraded at the copresence of ultraviolet and permanganate released from coagulant in acidic aqueous medium. The release mechanism was simulated through Korsmayer-Peppas model, implying case-II transport and Fickian diffusion. Additionally, Mn (V) and •OH radicals were vital in the DCFS degradation process. The coagulant could be reloaded at least ten times and that from each cycle was used directly for DCFS removal for six times without rinse process, which provided a potential application in environmental remediation.


Assuntos
Diclofenaco , Dióxido de Silício , Compostos de Manganês , Óxidos
17.
Water Sci Technol ; 84(2): 431-444, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312349

RESUMO

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been widely detected in wastewater and surface water, indicating that the removal of NSAIDs by wastewater treatment plants was not efficient. Electrochemical advanced oxidation technology is considered to be an effective process. This study presents an investigation of the kinetics, mechanism, and influencing factors of diclofenac (DCF) degradation by an electrochemical process with boron-doped diamond anodes. Relative operating parameters and water quality parameters are examined. It appears that the degradation follows the pseudo-first-order degradation kinetics. DCF degradation was accelerated with the increase of pH from 6 to 10. The degradation was promoted by the addition of electrolyte concentrations and current density. Humic acid and bicarbonate significantly inhibited the degradation, whereas chloride accelerated it. According to the quenching tests, hydroxyl radicals (•OH) and sulfate radicals contributed 76.5% and 6.5%, respectively, to the degradation. Sodium sulfate remains a more effective electrolyte, compared to sodium nitrate and sodium phosphate, suggesting the quenching effect of nitrate and phosphate on •OH. Major DCF transformation products were identified. According to the degradation products detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, hydroxylation and decarboxylation are the main pathways of DCF degradation; while dechlorination, chlorination, and nitro substitution are also included in this electrochemical degradation process.


Assuntos
Diamante , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Boro , Diclofenaco , Eletrodos , Oxirredução
18.
Anticancer Res ; 41(8): 4083-4088, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Efficient drug encapsulation and regulation of drug release are important factors for sustained drug release and application for release-controlled anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory drug delivery. In the present study, a direct evaluation system for drug-release from model carrier (e.g., alginate-gel beads) was examined using the mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate as an index. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Alginate-gel beads were coated with the uncoupler SF6847 (SF beads) and used as a model microparticle-type drug. The real-time monitoring of SF6847 release from prepared alginate-gel beads was performed using the mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate. Release profiles of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs, mefenamic acid (MEF) and diclofenac (DIC)] from alginate-gel beads as well as SF beads were investigated using the real time monitoring system. RESULTS: SF6847 release from alginate-gel beads was clearly detected using the rat liver mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate. The release features of MEF and DIC from alginate-gel beads were defined by the present trial monitoring system, and these NSAIDs exhibited different release profiles. CONCLUSION: The present drug monitoring system detected released drugs, and the release profile reflected the molecular properties of the test drugs. This system may be applied to the design and development of precise sustained drug release systems (e.g., anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory drugs).


Assuntos
Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Alginatos/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Respiração Celular , Diclofenaco/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Ácido Mefenâmico/química , Nitrilas/química , Ratos , Desacopladores/química
19.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 22(5): 199, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212274

RESUMO

An emulsion is a biphasic dosage form comprising of dispersed phase containing droplets that are uniformly distributed into a surrounding liquid which forms the continuous phase. An emulsifier is added at the interface of two immiscible liquids to stabilize the thermodynamically unstable emulsion. Various types of emulsions such as water-in-oil (w-o), oil-in-water (o-w), microemulsions, and multiple emulsions are used for delivering certain drugs in the body. Water (aqueous) phase is commonly used for encapsulating proteins and several other drugs in water-in-oil-in-water (w-o-w) emulsion technique. But this method has posed certain problems such as decreased stability, burst release, and low entrapment efficiency. Thus, a novel "solid-in-oil-in-water" (s-o-w) emulsion system was developed for formulating certain drugs, probiotics, proteins, antibodies, and tannins to overcome these issues. In this method, the active ingredient is encapsulated as a solid and added to an oil phase, which formed a solid-oil dispersion. This dispersion was then mixed with water to form a continuous phase for enhancing the drug absorption. This article focuses on the various studies done to investigate the effectiveness of formulations prepared as solid-oil-water emulsions in comparison to conventional water-oil-water emulsions. A summary of the results obtained in each study is presented in this article. The s-o-w emulsion technique may become beneficial in near future as it has shown to improve the stability and efficacy of the entrapped active ingredient.


Assuntos
Portadores de Fármacos/química , Emulsões/química , Óleos/química , Água/química , Diclofenaco/química , Diclofenaco/metabolismo , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Microesferas , Nanoestruturas/química , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico/química , Proteínas/química , Proteínas/metabolismo
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281100

RESUMO

In the present research, the effect of two hybrid treatments, ozone followed by powdered activated carbon (PAC) or PAC followed by ozone (O3), was studied for the removal of two drugs present in water: diclofenac and carbamazepine. In the study, two initial concentrations of each of the contaminants, 0.7 mg L-1 and 1.8 mg L-1, were used. Different doses of PAC between 4-20 mg L-1 were studied as variables, as well as different doses of O3 between 0.056-0.280 mg L-1. The evolution of the concentration of each contaminant over time was evaluated. From the results obtained, it was concluded that the combined treatment with ozone followed by PAC reduces between 50% and 75% the time required to achieve 90% removal of diclofenac when compared with the time required when only activated carbon was used. In the case of carbamazepine, the time required was 97% less. For carbamazepine, to achieve reduction percentages of up to 90%, O3 treatment followed by PAC acted faster than PAC followed by O3. In the case of diclofenac, PAC treatment followed by O3 was faster to reach concentrations of up to 90%. However, to reach yields below 80%, O3 treatment followed by PAC was more efficient.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Adsorção , Carbamazepina , Carvão Vegetal , Diclofenaco , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
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