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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 126182, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492953

RESUMO

Exposure to ambient particulate matters (PMs) has been associated with a variety of lung diseases, and high-fat diet (HFD) was reported to exacerbate PM-induced lung dysfunction. However, the underlying mechanisms for the combined effects of HFD and PM on lung functions remain poorly unraveled. By performing a comparative proteomic analysis, the current study investigated the global changes of histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) in rat lung exposed to long-term, real-world PMs. In result, after PM exposure the abundance of four individual histone PTMs (1 down-regulated and 3 up-regulated) and six combinatorial PTMs (1 down-regulated and 5 up-regulated) were significantly altered in HFD-fed rats while only one individual PTM was changed in rats with normal diet (ND) feeding. Histones H3K18ac, H4K8ac and H4K12ac were reported to be associated with DNA damage response, and we found that these PTMs were enhanced by PM in HFD-fed rats. Together with the elevated DNA damage levels in rat lungs following PM and HFD co-exposure, we demonstrate that PM exposure combined with HFD could induce lung injury through altering more histone modifications accompanied by DNA damage. Overall, these findings will augment our knowledge of the epigenetic mechanisms for pulmonary toxicity caused by ambient PM and HFD exposure.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Lesão Pulmonar , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Código das Histonas , Pulmão , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Proteômica , Ratos
2.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 156(5): 275-281, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470931

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease, with the increased prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic disorders in recent years. As the disease progresses, it leads to hepatic fibrosis, which may progress to hepatocellular carcinoma, but there is still no cure for severe hepatic fibrosis. Currently, in order to develop drugs for the treatment of NASH, the effects of candidate drugs are evaluated by a long-term administration to mice and rats that are fed a high-fat or methionine-deficient diet to reproduce the pathology of fatty liver and liver fibrosis. Since drug development using these experimental animals is time-consuming and costly, in vitro models that reproduce the pathology of NASH have recently been developing. In this review, we will outline the current issues in the diagnosis and treatment of NASH, and introduce our research for the discovery of early diagnostic markers and the development of new therapeutic agents using liver organoid cultures derived from mouse models of NASH.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Descoberta de Drogas , Fígado , Cirrose Hepática , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Organoides , Ratos
3.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) ; 67(4): 217-224, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470996

RESUMO

It is well known that dietary fiber stimulates the release of satiety hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which in turn suppresses appetite. In order to evaluate appetite regulating role of enzymatically synthesized glycogen (ESG, one of the resistant starch), we examined the effects of dietary supplementation of ESG on food intake and cecal proglucagon gene expression in normal and high fat diet-fed mice. Twenty four male ICR mice were weighed and assigned to four groups: normal diet group; normal diet containing 25% ESG group; high-fat diet (HFD) group; HFD containing 25% ESG group. Each group was fed the relevant diets for 3 wk. All data were analyzed by a two-way ANOVA with the main effects of HFD and ESG. ESG significantly decreased food intake and increased the weight of the cecum and cecal content. Plasma total short chain fatty acids concentration was significantly elevated by ESG. The mRNA levels of proglucagon in the cecum and plasma total GLP-1 concentration were significantly increased by ESG. The mRNA levels of appetite regulating neuropeptides such as neuropeptide Y, agouti-related protein, proopiomelanocortin, and cocain- and amphetamine-regulating transcript in the hypothalamus were not influenced by ESG. There is no significant interaction between diet and ESG in any parameters. These results suggest that ESG-induced upregulation of GLP-1 production in the cecum suppresses food intake in mice and that fecal fermentation may be involved in the anorexigenic effect.


Assuntos
Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon , Glicogênio , Animais , Ceco , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5249, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475397

RESUMO

The wake-active orexin system plays a central role in the dynamic regulation of glucose homeostasis. Here we show orexin receptor type 1 and 2 are predominantly expressed in dorsal raphe nucleus-dorsal and -ventral, respectively. Serotonergic neurons in ventral median raphe nucleus and raphe pallidus selectively express orexin receptor type 1. Inactivation of orexin receptor type 1 in serotonin transporter-expressing cells of mice reduced insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obesity, mainly by decreasing glucose utilization in brown adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Selective inactivation of orexin receptor type 2 improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in obese mice, mainly through a decrease in hepatic gluconeogenesis. Optogenetic activation of orexin neurons in lateral hypothalamus or orexinergic fibers innervating raphe pallidus impaired or improved glucose tolerance, respectively. Collectively, the present study assigns orexin signaling in serotonergic neurons critical, yet differential orexin receptor type 1- and 2-dependent functions in the regulation of systemic glucose homeostasis.


Assuntos
Glucose/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Receptores de Orexina/metabolismo , Neurônios Serotoninérgicos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Homeostase , Região Hipotalâmica Lateral/citologia , Região Hipotalâmica Lateral/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fibras Nervosas/metabolismo , Obesidade/etiologia , Receptores de Orexina/genética , Orexinas/metabolismo , Núcleos da Rafe/metabolismo , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
5.
J Med Food ; 24(9): 978-986, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524028

RESUMO

Epigenetic regulation by histone acetyltransferase (HAT) is associated with various biological processes and the progression of diseases, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The objective of this study was to investigate whether the hypolipidemic properties of black mulberry (Morus atropurpurea Roxb.) fruit extract (BME) contribute toward protection against NAFLD by HAT inhibition. HepG2 cells were treated with oleic and palmitic acids to induce lipid accumulation, which was significantly attenuated by the treatment with BME at 50 and 100 µg/mL. BME also markedly reduced the expression of proteins associated with lipogenesis, which was attributed to the BME-mediated downregulation of lipogenic genes in HepG2 cells. BME significantly inhibited in vitro total HAT and p300 activities. In addition, BME suppressed total acetylated lysine as well as specific histone acetylation of proteins H3K14 and H3K27 in HepG2 cells. Mice were then fed with either a chow diet or western diet (WD), with or without BME (1%, w/w) supplementation, for 12 weeks to confirm hypolipidemic activity of BME. BME attenuated serum nonesterified fatty acids and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels, which was likely associated with the downregulation of hepatic lipogenic gene expression in WD-fed obese mice. Taken together, the hypolipidemic activity of BME was observed in HepG2 cells treated with fatty acids as well as in livers of obese mice, and the hepatoprotection of BME is likely associated with the inhibition of acetylation. Further investigation is warranted to determine whether BME can be developed into an efficacious dietary intervention to attenuate the progression of NAFLD by epigenetic regulation in clinical settings.


Assuntos
Morus , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Acetilação , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Epigênese Genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Células Hep G2 , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
6.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110467, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399465

RESUMO

Gut microbiota dysbiosis and oxidative stress may play important roles in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Fermented foods contain probiotics and other bioactive components that may improve gastrointestinal health and provide other health benefits. Here, we investigated the effect of Lactobacillus-fermented black barley on NAFLD rats. Adult Sprague Dawley rats were randomized into four groups: normal chow diet (NC), high-fat diet (HF), HF + fermented black barley treatment (HB) and HF + Lactobacillus treatment (HL). The rats in the HB and HL groups were continuously administered fermented black barley or Lactobacillus, respectively, for 12 weeks (1 mL/100 g·BW, containing 1 × 108 CFU/mL Lactobacillus). Compared with the HF treatment, HB treatment effectively inhibited the increase in body weight, liver and abdominal fat indexes and hepatic lipids (p < 0.01), increased hepatic SOD activity (p < 0.05), decreased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs) (p < 0.01) and improved liver function. Moreover, Lactobacillus-fermented black barley exhibited regulatory effect on high-fat diet-induced intestinal microbiota dysbiosis by increasing the relative microbiota abundance and diversity, increasing the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes, decreasing the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, increasing the abundances of some intestinal probiotics (such as Akkermansia and Lactococcus), and influencing some of the fecal metabolites related to hormones and lipid metabolism. The supplementation of fermented cereal food might be a new effective and safe preventive dietary strategy against NAFLD.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hordeum , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Lactobacillus , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
7.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110530, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399508

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the possibility that Spirulina platensis crude polysaccharides may ameliorate the lipid and carbohydrate metabolism disorder, including obesity, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, hepatic steatosis, and gut dysbiosis. The results showed Spirulina platensis crude polysaccharides could improve body weight, serum/liver lipid and carbohydrate indexes, and liver antioxidant parameters in high-sucrose and high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rats, which were accompanied by regulated liver mRNA expressions involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism disorder. In addition, SPLP intervention significantly decreased cecal level of propionic acid in HFD-fed rats. Notably, the SPLP could alter the relative abundance of Firmicutes, Bacteroides, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria at phylum levels. Based on Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, serum/liver lipid and carbohydrate profiles were found significantly positively correlated with genera Romboutsia, Allobaculum, Blautia, Phascolarctobacterium, Bifidobacterium, Coprococcus, Turicibacter, Erysipelotrichaceae_unclassified, Olsenella, Escherichia/Shigella, Coprobacillus, Lachnospiracea incertae, and Lactobacillus, but strongly negatively correlated with genera Atopostipes, Flavonifractor, Porphyromonadaceae_unclassified, Barnesiella, Oscillibacter, Paraprevotella, Jeotgalicoccus, Corynebacterium, Alloprevotella and Bacteroides. It was concluded that oral administration of SPLP could remarkably ameliorate the lipid and carbohydrate metabolism disorder and significantly modulate the intestinal microbiota in HFD-fed rats.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipídeos , Polissacarídeos , Ratos , Spirulina , Sacarose
8.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110550, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399527

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is considered a rapidly growing chronic disease that threatens human health worldwide. Extracts of various seaweeds have been shown to have anti-diabetic activity. Sargarsum fusiforme, an edible brown seaweed, has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-obesity activities. In this study, we investigated the beneficial effect of an ethanol extract of S. fusiforme (EE) on type 2 diabetes in mice induced with high-fat diet (HFD) and streptozotocin (STZ). Administering EE to the diabetic mice significantly reduced food intake, water intake and fasting blood glucose (FBG), while improving glucose tolerance, lipid profile and ameliorating hepatic oxidative stress. Furthermore, these animals also exhibited significantly diminished epididymal fat deposition, as well as less pathological changes in the heart and liver tissues, while displaying some highly enriched benign gut bacteria (e.g., Intestinimonas, Oscillibacter, Lachnoclostridium, unidentified_Lachnospiraceae, Roseburia and Anaerotruncus) and a lower abundance of bacteria associated with diabetes or other metabolic diseases (e.g., Enterorhabdus and Romboutsia). Metabolomic analysis revealed reduced levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), such as l-valine and l-isoleucine, aromatic amino acids (AAA), such as l-tyrosine and l-phenylalanine, and increased levels of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (4-HPA) in the gut content, suggesting that EE may impact T2DM through modulation of these compounds in the gut of the animals. Taken together, the results implied that S. fusiforme may contain valuable active components other than polysaccharides that have potential benefit in alleviating T2DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hiperglicemia , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Etanol , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Estreptozocina
9.
J Med Food ; 24(8): 841-851, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342510

RESUMO

Obesity is a relevant health hazard characterized as a chronic noncommunicable disease, with severe comorbidities that cause mortality worldwide. Acrocomia aculeata is a Brazilian palm with edible fruits. Its pulp contains fibers, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), such as oleic acid and carotenoids. In this context, our study aimed to elucidate the protective effect of the lyophilized A. aculeata pulp added at the rates of 1%, 2%, and 4% to a high-fat (HF) diet (rich in saturated fats and cholesterol), for 90 days, in mice. The treatment with 4% pulp induced a significant increase in the biochemical parameters of serum cholesterol HDL-C (high-density lipoprotein) compared with the control. According to the evaluation of the epididymal tissue, the groups treated with A. aculeata pulp exhibited smaller fat deposits compared with the HF diet group. Therefore, we infer that the predominant components in A. aculeata, particularly fibers and MUFAs, promote beneficial effects on health parameters during simultaneous exposure to food rich in saturated fat and cholesterol, typical of the Western diet. This is the first study to correlate the presence of fatty acids from A. aculeata pulp in different proportions added in a HF diet with metabolic and histological parameters in Swiss mice.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Gorduras na Dieta , Adipócitos , Animais , Colesterol , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados , Hipertrofia , Lipoproteínas HDL , Camundongos
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4725, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354051

RESUMO

Gut microbiota deficient mice demonstrate accelerated glucose clearance. However, which tissues are responsible for the upregulated glucose uptake remains unresolved, with different studies suggesting that browning of white adipose tissue, or modulated hepatic gluconeogenesis, may be related to enhanced glucose clearance when the gut microbiota is absent. Here, we investigate glucose uptake in 22 different tissues in 3 different mouse models. We find that gut microbiota depletion via treatment with antibiotic cocktails (ABX) promotes glucose uptake in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and cecum. Nevertheless, the adaptive thermogenesis and the expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) are dispensable for the increased glucose uptake and clearance. Deletion of Ucp1 expressing cells blunts the improvement of glucose clearance in ABX-treated mice. Our results indicate that BAT and cecum, but not white adipose tissue (WAT) or liver, contribute to the glucose uptake in the gut microbiota depleted mouse model and this response is dissociated from adaptive thermogenesis.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Adipócitos Bege/metabolismo , Adipócitos Marrons/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Ceco/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Vida Livre de Germes , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Termogênese/fisiologia , Proteína Desacopladora 1/deficiência , Proteína Desacopladora 1/genética , Proteína Desacopladora 1/metabolismo
11.
J Med Food ; 24(8): 873-882, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406876

RESUMO

Ancient traditions showed that fermented enzyme foods have beneficial health effects on the body. However, only a few studies have reported on its impact on weight loss and metabolic syndrome. Therefore, it is necessary to verify whether diet supplementation with fermented enzyme foods can have a beneficial functional impact on the body. We examined the antiobesity properties of fermented mixed grain (FMG) with digestive enzymes (FMG) in diet-induced obese mice. Sixty C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to six dietary groups: (1) normal diet (ND), (2) high-fat diet (HFD), (3) Bacilus Coagulans, (4) steamed grain, (5) low-dose FMG (L-FMG), and (6) high-dose FMG (H-FMG) supplement for 12 weeks. The results showed that H-FMG supplement dramatically decreased body weight and fat mass with simultaneous decreases in plasma lipid contents. Furthermore, H-FMG significantly lowered fasting blood glucose concentrations and improved glucose tolerance compared with the HFD group. Also, the concentrations of inflammatory cytokines secreted from adipocytes in H-FMG-supplemented mice decreased dramatically. Taken together, our findings indicated that H-FMG can ameliorate HFD-induced obesity and its associated complications and could be used as a potential preventive intervention for obesity.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Doenças Metabólicas , Adiposidade , Animais , Peso Corporal , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4829, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376643

RESUMO

Plasma hyaluronan (HA) increases systemically in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the HA synthesis inhibitor, 4-Methylumbelliferone, has been proposed to treat the disease. However, HA is also implicated in normal physiology. Therefore, we generated a Hyaluronan Synthase 2 transgenic mouse line, driven by a tet-response element promoter to understand the role of HA in systemic metabolism. To our surprise, adipocyte-specific overproduction of HA leads to smaller adipocytes and protects mice from high-fat-high-sucrose-diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance. Adipocytes also have more free glycerol that can be released upon beta3 adrenergic stimulation. Improvements in glucose tolerance were not linked to increased plasma HA. Instead, an HA-driven systemic substrate redistribution and adipose tissue-liver crosstalk contributes to the systemic glucose improvements. In summary, we demonstrate an unexpected improvement in glucose metabolism as a consequence of HA overproduction in adipose tissue, which argues against the use of systemic HA synthesis inhibitors to treat obesity and T2D.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Dioxóis/farmacologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Ácido Hialurônico/metabolismo , Lipólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/citologia , Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Intolerância à Glucose/metabolismo , Homeostase , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4768, 2021 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362888

RESUMO

Bariatric surgeries such as the Vertical Sleeve Gastrectomy (VSG) are invasive but provide the most effective improvements in obesity and Type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized a potential role for the gut hormone Fibroblast-Growth Factor 15/19 which is increased after VSG and pharmacologically can improve energy homeostasis and glucose handling. We generated intestinal-specific FGF15 knockout (FGF15INT-KO) mice which were maintained on high-fat diet. FGF15INT-KO mice lost more weight after VSG as a result of increased lean tissue loss. FGF15INT-KO mice also lost more bone density and bone marrow adipose tissue after VSG. The effect of VSG to improve glucose tolerance was also absent in FGF15INT-KO. VSG resulted in increased plasma bile acid levels but were considerably higher in VSG-FGF15INT-KO mice. These data point to an important role after VSG for intestinal FGF15 to protect the organism from deleterious effects of VSG potentially by limiting the increase in circulating bile acids.


Assuntos
Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/farmacologia , Gastrectomia/efeitos adversos , Tecido Adiposo , Animais , Cirurgia Bariátrica , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/sangue , Glicemia , Densidade Óssea , Medula Óssea , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Homeostase , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Obesidade/cirurgia , Perda de Peso
14.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21804, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383974

RESUMO

During the last few decades, the consumption of low-calorie sweeteners, as a substitute for caloric sweeteners, has sharply increased. Although research shows that caloric versus low-calorie sweeteners can have differential effects on the brain, it is unknown which neuronal populations are responsible for detecting the difference between the two types of sweeteners. Using in vivo two-photon calcium imaging, we investigated how drinking sucrose or sucralose (a low-calorie sweetener) affects the activity of glutamatergic neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. Furthermore, we explored the consequences of consuming a free-choice high fat diet on the calorie detection abilities of these glutamatergic neurons. We found that glutamatergic neurons indeed can discriminate sucrose from water and sucralose, and that consumption of a free-choice high fat diet shifts the glutamatergic neuronal response from sucrose-specific to sucralose-specific, thereby disrupting calorie detection. These results highlight the disruptive effects of a diet high in saturated fat on calorie detection in the lateral hypothalamus.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Região Hipotalâmica Lateral/fisiopatologia , Animais , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras/métodos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/métodos , Feminino , Região Hipotalâmica Lateral/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Edulcorantes/administração & dosagem
15.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 54(10): e11391, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406209

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), characterized by hepatosteatosis and steatohepatitis, is intrinsically related to obesity. Our previous study reported on the anti-obese activity of α,ß-amyrin (AMY), a pentacyclic triterpene isolated from Protium heptaphyllum. This study investigated its ability to prevent fatty liver and the underlying mechanism using the mouse model of NAFLD. NAFLD was induced in male Swiss mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) for 15 weeks. The controls were fed a normal chow diet (ND). The mice were simultaneously treated with AMY at 10 and 20 mg/kg or fenofibrate at 50 mg/kg. Lipid levels along with metabolic and inflammatory parameters were assessed in liver and serum. The liver sections were histologically examined using H&E staining. RT-qPCR and western blotting assays were performed to analyze signaling mechanisms. Mice fed HFD developed severe hepatic steatosis with elevated triglycerides and lipid droplets compared with ND controls. This was associated with a decrease in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity, an increase of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling, and enhanced sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1) expression, which have roles in lipogenesis, inhibition of lipolysis, and inflammatory response. AMY treatment reversed these signaling activities and decreased the severity of hepatic steatosis and inflammatory response, evidenced by serum and liver parameters as well as histological findings. AMY-induced reduction in hepatic steatosis seemed to involve AMPK-mTORC1-SREBP1 signaling pathways, which supported its beneficial role in the prevention and treatment of NAFLD.


Assuntos
Resistência à Insulina , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Fígado , Masculino , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Ácido Oleanólico/análogos & derivados , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1
16.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444955

RESUMO

Diet and dietary components have profound effects on the composition of the gut microbiota and are among the most important contributors to the alteration in bacterial flora. This review examines the effects the "Western", "plant-based", "high-fat", "medical ketogenic", and "Mediterranean" diets have on the composition of the gut microbiota in both mice and human subjects. We show that specific dietary components that are commonly found in the "plant-based" and "Mediterranean" diet play a role in shifting the microbial composition. This review further evaluates the bacterial metabolites that are associated with diet, and their role in systemic inflammation and metabolic endotoxemia. Furthermore, the associations between diet/dietary components and altering bacterial composition, may lead to potential therapeutic targets for type II diabetes, obesity, and inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Animais , Dieta/métodos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Dieta Cetogênica/efeitos adversos , Dieta Mediterrânea/efeitos adversos , Dieta Vegetariana/efeitos adversos , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Endotoxemia/etiologia , Endotoxemia/microbiologia , Humanos , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/microbiologia , Camundongos
17.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445045

RESUMO

In recent years, strong evidence has emerged that exposure to a maternal high-fat diet (HFD) provokes changes in the structure, function, and development of the offspring's brain and may induce several neurodevelopmental and psychiatric illnesses. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of a maternal HFD during pregnancy and lactation on depressive-like behavior and Cnr1 gene expression (encoding the CB1 receptor) in brain structures of rat offspring and to investigate the epigenetic mechanism involved in this gene expression. We found that a maternal HFD during pregnancy and lactation induced a depressive-like phenotype at postnatal days (PNDs) 28 and 63. We found that a maternal HFD decreased the Cnr1 mRNA levels in the prefrontal cortex with the increased levels of miR-212-5p and methylation of CpG islands at the Cnr1 promoter and reduced the level of Cnr1 gene expression in the dorsal striatum with an increased level of miR-154-3p in adolescent male offspring. A contrasting effect of a maternal HFD was observed in the hippocampus, where upregulation of Cnr1 gene expression was accompanied by a decrease of miR-154-3p (at PNDs 28 and 63) and miR-212-5p (at PND 63) expression and methylation of CpG islands at the Cnr1 promoter in male offspring. In summary, we showed that a maternal HFD during pregnancy and lactation triggered several epigenetic mechanisms in the brains of rat offspring, which may be related to long-lasting alterations in the next generation and produce behavioral changes in offspring, including a depressive-like phenotype.


Assuntos
Depressão/genética , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/metabolismo , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Lactação/genética , Masculino , Gravidez , Ratos
18.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445047

RESUMO

Sargassum fusiforme alginate (SF-Alg) possess many pharmacological activities, including hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic. However, the hypoglycemic mechanisms of SF-Alg remain unclear due to its low bioavailability. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic effect of SF-Alg on high-fat diet (HFD)/streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 2 diabetes (T2D) mice. SF-Alg intervention was found to significantly reduce fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglycerides (TG), and total cholesterol (TC), while increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and improving glucose tolerance. In addition, administrating SF-Alg to diabetic mice moderately attenuated pathological changes in adipose, hepatic, and heart tissues as well as skeletal muscle, and diminished oxidative stress. To probe the underlying mechanisms, we further analyzed the gut microbiota using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, as well as metabolites by non-targeted metabolomics. Here, SF-Alg significantly increased some benign bacteria (Lactobacillus, Bacteroides, Akkermansia Alloprevotella, Weissella and Enterorhabdus), and significantly decreased harmful bacteria (Turicibacter and Helicobacter). Meanwhile, SF-Alg dramatically decreased branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and aromatic amino acids (AAAs) in the colon of T2D mice, suggesting a positive benefit of SF-Alg as an adjvant agent for T2D.


Assuntos
Alginatos/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Sargassum/química , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperglicemia/sangue , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperglicemia/etiologia , Camundongos , Estreptozocina , Triglicerídeos/sangue
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445634

RESUMO

Cannabinoids have been reported as orexigenic, i.e., as promoting food intake that, among others, is controlled by the so-called "hunger" hormone, ghrelin. The aim of this paper was to look for functional and/or molecular interactions between ghrelin GHSR1a and cannabinoid CB2 receptors at the central nervous system (CNS) level. In a heterologous system we identified CB2-GHSR1a receptor complexes with a particular heteromer print consisting of impairment of CB2 receptor/Gi-mediated signaling. The blockade was due to allosteric interactions within the heteromeric complex as it was reverted by antagonists of the GHSR1a receptor. Cannabinoids acting on the CB2 receptor did not affect cytosolic increases of calcium ions induced by ghrelin acting on the GHSR1a receptor. In situ proximity ligation imaging assays confirmed the expression of CB2-GHSR1a receptor complexes in both heterologous cells and primary striatal neurons. We tested heteromer expression in neurons from offspring of high-fat-diet mouse mothers as they have more risk to be obese. Interestingly, there was a marked upregulation of those complexes in striatal neurons from siblings of pregnant female mice under a high-fat diet.


Assuntos
Corpo Estriado/patologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Grelina/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Obesidade/patologia , Receptor CB2 de Canabinoide/metabolismo , Receptores de Grelina/metabolismo , Animais , Canabinoides/farmacologia , Corpo Estriado/efeitos dos fármacos , Corpo Estriado/metabolismo , Feminino , Grelina/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Receptor CB2 de Canabinoide/genética , Receptores de Grelina/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Regulação para Cima
20.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 321(3): E433-E442, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34370596

RESUMO

Sepsis is a dysregulated systemic response to infection and can lead to organ damage and death. Obesity is a significant problem worldwide and affects outcomes from sepsis. Our laboratory demonstrated that white adipose tissue (WAT) undergoes browning during sepsis, a process whereby WAT adopts a brown adipose tissue phenotype. However, this browning process was not observed in obese mice during sepsis. White adipose tissue browning is detrimental in patients with burn injury and cancer. We hypothesize that norepinephrine (NE) induces WAT browning in nonobese mice but not in obese mice similarly to sepsis-induced WAT browning. Six-week-old C57BL/6 male mice were randomized to a high-fat diet or normal diet. After 6-7 wk of feeding, polymicrobial sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Norepinephrine was administered intraperitoneally via osmotic minipumps for 18 h or 72 h (no CLP) at which time tissue and plasma were harvested. Controls were mice that underwent CLP (no NE) with 18-h harvest. A separate group of mice underwent pretreatment with NE or vehicle infusion for 72 h, CLP was performed, and at 18 h had tissue and plasma harvested. Sepsis resulted in significant weight loss in both nonobese and obese mice. NE treatment alone caused weight loss in obese mice. Septic nonobese mice had higher uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) expression compared with control and obese septic mice. NE treatment increased UCP1 expression in nonobese, but not obese mice. NE-treated obese septic mice had lower lung myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), TNFα, and IL-6 levels compared with NE-treated nonobese septic mice. Obesity protects mice from septic-induced and NE-induced WAT browning.NEW & NOTEWORTHY White adipose tissue browning is detrimental in patients with burn injury and cancer. WAT browning occurs in nonobese mice and can be induced by ß receptor norepinephrine infusion, but obese mice are resistant to sepsis-induced and norepinephrine-induced WAT browning. We propose that the lack of WAT browning and unchanged inflammatory cytokine response may contribute to the protection of obese mice from sepsis.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Norepinefrina/administração & dosagem , Obesidade/metabolismo , Sepse/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Branco/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/complicações , Sepse/complicações
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