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1.
BMJ ; 368: m315, 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32094151

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the dose-response relation between reduction in dietary sodium and blood pressure change and to explore the impact of intervention duration. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis following PRISMA guidelines. DATA SOURCES: Ovid MEDLINE(R), EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Wiley) and reference lists of relevant articles up to 21 January 2019. INCLUSION CRITERIA: Randomised trials comparing different levels of sodium intake undertaken among adult populations with estimates of intake made using 24 hour urinary sodium excretion. DATA EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS: Two of three reviewers screened the records independently for eligibility. One reviewer extracted all data and the other two reviewed the data for accuracy. Reviewers performed random effects meta-analyses, subgroup analyses, and meta-regression. RESULTS: 133 studies with 12 197 participants were included. The mean reductions (reduced sodium v usual sodium) of 24 hour urinary sodium, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were 130 mmol (95% confidence interval 115 to 145, P<0.001), 4.26 mm Hg (3.62 to 4.89, P<0.001), and 2.07 mm Hg (1.67 to 2.48, P<0.001), respectively. Each 50 mmol reduction in 24 hour sodium excretion was associated with a 1.10 mm Hg (0.66 to 1.54; P<0.001) reduction in SBP and a 0.33 mm Hg (0.04 to 0.63; P=0.03) reduction in DBP. Reductions in blood pressure were observed in diverse population subsets examined, including hypertensive and non-hypertensive individuals. For the same reduction in 24 hour urinary sodium there was greater SBP reduction in older people, non-white populations, and those with higher baseline SBP levels. In trials of less than 15 days' duration, each 50 mmol reduction in 24 hour urinary sodium excretion was associated with a 1.05 mm Hg (0.40 to 1.70; P=0.002) SBP fall, less than half the effect observed in studies of longer duration (2.13 mm Hg; 0.85 to 3.40; P=0.002). Otherwise, there was no association between trial duration and SBP reduction. CONCLUSIONS: The magnitude of blood pressure lowering achieved with sodium reduction showed a dose-response relation and was greater for older populations, non-white populations, and those with higher blood pressure. Short term studies underestimate the effect of sodium reduction on blood pressure. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42019140812.


Assuntos
Dieta Hipossódica , Hipertensão/dietoterapia , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/farmacologia
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(8): e19263, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080135

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To understand the possible effect of a novel salt substitute with very low sodium in reducing blood pressure, salt intake and use of anti-hypertensive medications among patients on regular medications, to inform the future randomized trials. DESIGN: Single-arm pilot trial. SETTING: A community health service center in Chongqing, China. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 43 patients with hypertension taking anti-hypertensive medications regularly. INTERVENTION: Patients received the salt substitute with 18% sodium chloride for 8 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Patients were followed up weekly for the use of antihypertensive medications and measurements of blood pressure. We collected 24-h urine before and after the trial to measure sodium and potassium intake. RESULTS: Among 39 patients who completed the 8 weeks' intervention, 30.8% patients stopped or reduced anti-hypertensive medications during the trial. For patients that stopped or reduced medication, the mean SBP and DBP before intervention were 122.1 ±â€Š9.6 and 68.9 ±â€Š9.4 mm Hg and both did not increase after intervention (SBP change: 2.8 mm Hg (-5.1, 10.8), P = .48; DBP change: 1.8 mm Hg (-2.2, 5.7), P = .38). For the rest patients, the mean SBP and DBP before intervention were 141.6 ±â€Š16.9 and 74.6 ±â€Š6.6 mm Hg but reduced significantly after the intervention (SBP change: -16.0 mm Hg (-21.3, -10.6), P < .001; DBP change: -5.5 mm Hg (-8.1, -2.9), P < .001). The 24-h urine sodium decreased (P < .001) and potassium increased (P < .001) among all patients. No severe adverse events were reported. CONCLUSIONS: The novel salt substitute showed potential in reducing blood pressure and use of antihypertensive medications. Further randomized double-blind controlled trial is warranted to validate these findings.Clinical Trial Registration-URL:http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03226327.


Assuntos
Dieta Hipossódica , Hipertensão/terapia , Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Potássio/urina , Sódio/urina , Cloreto de Sódio/administração & dosagem
3.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 67(1): 61-69, ene. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-186148

RESUMO

Aunque la nutrición de yodo en España ha mejorado en los últimos años, el problema no está resuelto del todo. Es preciso que las Instituciones sanitarias establezcan medidas para garantizar que la nutrición de yodo de toda la población sea la adecuada, especialmente entre los colectivos de mayor riesgo (niños y adolescentes, mujeres en edad fértil, mujeres embarazadas y madres lactantes). Debe aconsejarse un bajo consumo de sal, pero que esta sea yodada. También es imprescindible que las agencias de control alimentario establezcan un control efectivo sobre una adecuada yodación de la sal. En las futuras encuestas de salud debería incluirse indicadores sobre la nutrición de yodo. El estudio EUthyroid y la Declaración de Cracovia sobre la nutrición de yodo brindan una oportunidad para establecer un plan paneuropeo para la prevención de la deficiencia de yodo que debería ser considerada y aprovechada por las autoridades sanitarias


Although iodine nutrition in Spain has improved in recent years, the problem is not completely resolved. It is necessary that health institutions establish measures to ensure an adequate iodine nutrition of the population, especially among the highest risk groups (children and adolescents, women of childbearing age, pregnant women and nursing mothers). A low salt intake should be advised, but it should be iodized. It is also imperative that food control agencies establish effective control over adequate iodization of salt. Indicators on iodine nutrition should be included in future health surveys. The EUthyroid study and the Krakow Declaration on iodine nutrition provide an opportunity to set up a pan-European plan for the prevention of iodine deficiency that should be considered and used by health authorities


Assuntos
Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Compostos de Iodo/uso terapêutico , Deficiência de Iodo/prevenção & controle , Valor Nutritivo , Iodo/administração & dosagem , Iodo/metabolismo , Aleitamento Materno , Dieta Hipossódica , Planejamento em Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Sociedades Médicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Pública/normas
4.
J Food Sci ; 84(10): 2961-2972, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612540

RESUMO

The high sodium content of kimchi is a contradicting factor from its fame as a healthy food. With the aim of reducing the sodium content of kimchi, the objective of this study was to understand the effect of providing "sodium-reduced" information on the acceptance of kimchi according to the age of consumption. Six sodium-reduced kimchi samples, prepared with different percentages of sodium reduction (25% and 50%) and potassium chloride concentration (none, 0.47%, and 0.93%), were compared to control kimchi (2.0% w/v NaCl). Sensory characterization of the samples was obtained using descriptive analysis. A total of 167 kimchi consumers with balanced proportion of the young (below 40) and the old (above 40) evaluated seven kimchi samples in either of the two conditions: blind testing condition or informed testing condition where each of the samples was provided with a label that informed about "sodium reduction percentage" and "whether a salt replacer was used or not." The results showed that in terms of healthiness perception, Korean female consumers believed that kimchi with a high sodium reduction rate would contribute to health in general, though an unfavorable notion of using a salt replacer was also observed. Also, the results suggested that promoting information about sodium reduction in kimchi would generally increase consumer acceptance. However, this phenomenon was influenced not only by the sample for which the information was provided, but also by the age of consumers with different health interests and kimchi experience. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The findings of this study showed simply reducing sodium and promoting it with a health claim showed limitation in achieving a high level of sodium reduction, such as a 50% reduction rate, which implied the importance of using supplementary material such as potassium chloride that can fulfill the missing saltiness and flavors of the original product. Promotion of "sodium-reduced" claims in kimchi generally results in increased consumer acceptance. However, the effectiveness of the information was dependent on which sample was provided and the age of the consumers, among whom health interests and kimchi experience differ.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Dieta Hipossódica/psicologia , Cloreto de Potássio/análise , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Verduras/química , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comportamento , Feminino , Aromatizantes/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paladar , Adulto Jovem
6.
Br J Hosp Med (Lond) ; 80(9): 517-524, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498658

RESUMO

Nocturia may be a multifactorial condition and should be regarded as a syndrome rather than a diagnosis, with many factors contributing to the clinical presentation. The effects of sleep deprivation can have a severely detrimental impact on the quality of life and productivity of the working age population, with considerable economic implications. Patients are unlikely to seek an appointment with their GP complaining of nocturia - they are more likely to complain of the effects of the condition, such as chronic tiredness, or injuries resulting from falls. The main criterion in deciding whether a patient should undergo further investigations into suspected nocturia is the degree to which the patient finds the condition bothersome. In some patients, lifestyle modifications may be an effective way to manage nocturia before medication is considered. As the only licensed product for all adults including those over 65 years of age, low dose desmopressin (Noqdirna® (as lyophilisate) Ferring Pharmaceuticals Ltd) is highly effective in the management of idiopathic nocturnal polyuria, producing improvements in clinical symptoms, sleep parameters and quality of life. Care should be administered as a joint enterprise between the patient's GP and colleagues in secondary care. This article outlines the findings of a roundtable discussion into the optimal management of patients with nocturnal polyuria.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Noctúria/terapia , Antidiuréticos/uso terapêutico , Desamino Arginina Vasopressina/uso terapêutico , Desprescrições , Dieta Hipossódica , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Noctúria/induzido quimicamente , Noctúria/diagnóstico
7.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514387

RESUMO

Despite public health efforts to reduce dietary sodium, sodium intakes in most countries remains high. The purpose of this study was to determine if using novel web-based tools that provide tailored feedback, the Sodium Calculator and Sodium Calculator Plus, improves users' sodium-related knowledge, attitudes, and intended behaviours (KAB). In this single arm pre- and post-test study, 199 healthy adults aged 18-34 years completed a validated questionnaire to assess changes to sodium-related KAB before and after using the calculators. After using the calculators, the proportion of participants who accurately identified the sodium adequate intake and chronic disease risk reduction level increased (19% to 74% and 23% to 74%, respectively, both p = 0.021). The proportion accurately self-assessing their sodium intake as 'high' also increased (41% to 66%, p = 0.021). Several intended behavioural changes were reported, i.e., buying foods with sodium-reduced labels, using the Nutrition Facts table, using spices and herbs instead of salt, and limiting eating out. Evidence-based eHealth tools that assess and provide personalized feedback on sodium intake have the potential to aid in facilitating sodium reduction in individuals. This study is an important first step in evaluating and optimizing the implementation of eHealth tools to help reduce Canadians' sodium intakes.


Assuntos
Dieta Hipossódica , Comportamento Alimentar , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Internet , Recomendações Nutricionais , Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Medição de Risco , Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374898

RESUMO

In face of the high prevalence of non-communicable diseases, nutritional claims represent a useful tool to help people to make healthier food choices. However, recent research notes that when some people experience an intense emotional state, they increase their food consumption, particularly of energy-dense and sweet foods. In consequence, this study aims to assess whether emotional eating (EE) style influences the purchase of food products carrying these claims. To this end, a real choice experiment (RCE) was conducted with 306 participants who were asked to evaluate different types of toast. An error component random parameter logit (ECRPL) was used to analyze their preferences for reduced-fat and low-salt claims toast and the effects of the variation of the EE score on individual preferences. Findings of this study suggest that emotional eating negatively impacts purchasing behavior related to nutritional claims. In particular, a decrease of the willingness to pay between 9% and 16% for every unit of toast with nutritional claims was noted when an increase of EE individual score was registered. In this regard, to increase the effectiveness of the nutritional claims, policymakers and private sectors should consider the management of individuals' emotional states in designing public health policies and marketing strategies, respectively.


Assuntos
Pão , Comportamento de Escolha , Comportamento do Consumidor , Emoções , Comportamento Alimentar , Embalagem de Alimentos , Valor Nutritivo , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras , Dieta Hipossódica , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
10.
Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba ; 76(3): 148-153, 2019 08 29.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465181

RESUMO

Introduction: It is recommended to limit the consumption of sodium to 2 g / day and consume 25 g / 2000 kcal of fiber. Baked and cookies are the key food-vehicle to achieve these recommendations. x Objective: To evaluate the acceptability of the optimal healthy bread with nutritional information in a breakfast, teatime or snack (DMC) in real consumption situation. Methodology: In the offices of the Faculty of Medicine, a tray was delivered with: infusions, sweeteners, milk powder, jams, healthy bread, commercial orange juice and nutritional information to be consumed by participants as DMC. 100 students, teachers and non-teachers performed the acceptance test of different components of the tray using a scale of 1 (dislike very much) to 10 (like very much), they answered demographic data, what was your DM C, amount of bread consumed and the price they would pay for it. Results: 43.4% consumed the tray for teatime. Most consumed infusion: coffee. 100% consumed the bread and 91% accompanied it with jam. The average value of acceptability was 8.57 ± 1.44 without significant differences by age, sex or Body Mass Index. 76% consumed at least 3/4. The average price they were willing to pay was $ 54.65 / kilo ±12.32 (reference French bread $ 50 / kilo). The average scores of acceptability were: 8.82±1.27 for presentation of the tray, 8.53±1.43 of the DMC consumed and 8.17±2 of the commercial orange juice. Conclusions: The acceptability of the bread in real situation of consumption was very good, being an effective strategy to reduce the ingestion of NaCl and increase the fiber.


Assuntos
/métodos , Dieta Hipossódica/métodos , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Valor Nutritivo , Adolescente , Adulto , Argentina , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pão , Estudos de Coortes , Comportamento do Consumidor , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Fibras na Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
Trials ; 20(1): 414, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Only one-third of hypertensive patients achieve and maintain blood-pressure control. This is attributed to low treatment adherence and has a negative impact on clinical outcomes. Adherence is multidimensional and involves aspects both related to patient characteristics and to the chronic nature of the disease. In this context, motivational interviewing has been proposed as an approach to foster patients' motivations to change their behavior for the benefit of their own health, thus providing more lasting behavioral changes. DESIGN AND METHODS: Single-center, parallel, randomized controlled trial with outcome-assessor blinding. This study will select adult patients (n = 120) diagnosed with hypertension who receive regular follow-up in a specialized outpatient clinic. Patients will be randomly allocated across two groups: the intervention group will have appointments focused on motivational interviewing, while the control group will have traditional appointments. Patients will be monitored face-to-face, once monthly for six months. The primary outcomes will be a reduction of at least 8 mmHg in systolic blood pressure and changes in mean blood pressure measured by 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Secondary outcomes include improvement of adherence to a low-sodium diet, adherence to self-care behaviors, regular use of antihypertensive medications, increase or maintenance of physical activity, weight reduction, evaluation of changes in daytime sleepiness, and cessation of smoking. DISCUSSION: This study shows an intervention strategy that will be tested and, if effective, warrant replication in monitoring of other chronic diseases. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02892929 . Registered on 24 August 2016.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação , Entrevista Motivacional , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Autocuidado , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil , Dieta Hipossódica , Exercício , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sono , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Perda de Peso , Adulto Jovem
13.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357402

RESUMO

Reformulation of bread in terms of salt content remains an important measure to help achieve a reduction in salt intake in the population and for the prevention of hypertension and elevated blood pressure (BP). Our fundamental studies on the reduction of salt on dough and bread characteristics showed that wheat breads produced with 0.3 g salt/100 g ("low-salt") were found to be comparable quality to that produced with the typical level of salt (1.2%). This food-based intervention trial examined, using a 5 week cross-over design, the potential for inclusion of "low-salt" bread as part of a pragmatic reduced-salt diet on BP, markers of bone metabolism, and plasma lipids in 97 adults with slightly to moderately elevated BP. Assuming all sodium from dietary intake was excreted through the urine, the intake of salt decreased by 1.7 g/day, on average, during the reduced-salt dietary period. Systolic BP was significantly lower (by 3.3 mmHg on average; p < 0.0001) during the reduced-salt dietary period compared to the usual-salt dietary period, but there was no significant difference (p = 0.81) in diastolic BP. There were no significant differences (p > 0.12, in all cases) in any of the urinary- or serum-based biochemical indices of calcium or bone metabolism or in plasma lipids between the two periods. In conclusion, a modest reduction in dietary salt intake, in which the use of "low-salt" (i.e., 0.3 g/100g) bread played a key role along with dietary advice, and led to a significant, and clinically meaningful, decrease in systolic, but not diastolic, BP in adults with mildly to moderately elevated BP.


Assuntos
Pão , Dieta Hipossódica , Hipertensão/dietoterapia , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores/sangue , Pressão Sanguínea , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/sangue , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Irlanda , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo , Recomendações Nutricionais , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31341118

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In our previous study in which we aimed to clarify the factors related to salt intake in women aged 40-59 years, salt intake was found to be not related to salt-reduction cognizance. The aim of this research was to clarify factors related to salt intake in those who were cognizant of the importance of reducing their salt intake. METHODS: Two hundred and forty-seven female guardians (effective rate, 32.2%) in a medical university, aged 40-59 years old, participated in this study. The participants were divided into three groups according to their salt-reduction cognizance. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in salt intake between the three groups who were salt-reduction cognizant. Intakes of potassium (mg/1,000 kcal), vegetables, and fruits were higher in those who were cognizant of the importance of reducing their salt intake. The frequencies of consuming stewed foods, miso soup, and vinegared and marinated dishes were also higher. Those who were salt-reduction cognizant were knowledgeable about salt consumption, had experienced making low-salt dishes, used low-sodium seasoning, and made light-tasting dishes by regulating ingredients when cooking. However, when it came to eating, there was no difference in the percentage of those who left most of the broth when eating noodle soups and the frequency with which they added seasoning in terms of salt-reduction cognizance. CONCLUSION: Salt-reduction cognizant women aged 40-59 years made conscious efforts to use less salt at the time of cooking, but made no efforts when eating, even though they were cognizant of the importance of reducing their salt intake.


Assuntos
Estado de Consciência , Dieta Hipossódica/psicologia , Dieta Hipossódica/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Tutores Legais/psicologia , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Estudantes de Medicina , Adulto , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Tutores Legais/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Potássio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Verduras
15.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218947, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the benefits of evidence-based self-care behaviors in the management of hypertension, hypertensive patients have low rate of adherence to the recommended self-care behaviors. Studies related to self-care behaviors among hypertensive patients are limited in Ethiopia. OBJECTIVE: To assess the rate of adherence to self-care behaviors and associated factors among hypertensive patients. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the cardiac clinic of Ayder comprehensive specialized hospital among ambulatory hypertensive patients. Self-care behaviors were assessed using an adopted Hypertension Self-Care Activity Level Effects (H-SCALE). Data were collected through patient interview and review of medical records. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of self-care behaviors. RESULT: A total of 276 patients were included in the study. The majority of the participants were nonsmokers (89.9%) and alcohol abstainers (68.8%). Less than half of the participants were adherent to the prescribed antihypertensive medications (48.2%) and recommended physical activity level (44.9%). Moreover, only 21.45% and 29% were adherent to weight management and low salt diet recommendations, respectively. Our finding indicated that rural resident (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 0.45, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.21-0.97), comorbidity (AOR: 0.16, 95% CI: 0.08-0.31), and negative medication belief (AOR: 0.25, 95% CI: 0.14-0.46) were significantly associated with medication adherence. Female sex (AOR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.23-0.92), old age (AOR: 0.19, 95% CI: 0.06-0.60) and lack of knowledge on self-care behaviors (AOR: 0.13, 95% CI: 0.03-0.57) were significantly associated with adherence to weight management. Female sex (AOR: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.03-3.75) and lack of knowledge on self-care (AOR: 0.07, 95% CI: 0.03-0.16) were significantly associated with adherence to alcohol abstinence. Female sex (AOR: 6.33, 95% CI: 1.80-22.31) and khat chewing (AOR: 0.08, 95% CI: 0.03-0.24) were significantly associated with non-smoking behavior. There was also a significant association between female sex and physical activity (AOR: 0.22, 95% CI: 0.12-0.40). CONCLUSION: The rate of adherence to self-care behaviors particularly weight management, low salt intake, physical exercise, and medication intake was low in our study. Elders, females, khat chewers, rural residents, and patients with negative medication belief, comorbidity, and inadequate knowledge of SCBs were less adherent to self-care behaviors compared to their counterparts. Therefore, health care providers should pay more emphasis to patients at risk of having low self-care behaviors.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/psicologia , Autocuidado/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Anti-Hipertensivos , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Hipossódica/psicologia , Etiópia , Exercício/psicologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Adulto Jovem
16.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31245946

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) lesion on the initiation and expression of sodium appetite in sodium-deficient rats. METHODS: Three groups of SD rats (n=6 in each group) were treated with bilateral CeA lesion, sham lesion or no lesion. After the recovery, the rats were fed with low-sodium diets for 14 days to establish a sodium-deficient rat model. The double-bottle selection in single cage test was used to observe the intake of 0.3 mol/L NaCl and DW in 5 timepoint with 24 hours in sodium-deficient rats. Immunofluorescence staining of aldosterone-sensitive neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS)was used to investigate the effect of CeA lesion or not on the activity of aldosterone-sensitive neurons in rats with or without sodium deficiency. RESULTS: After fed with low-sodium diet for14 days, the volume and preference rate of 0.3 mol/L NaCl intake of the rats within 24 h were significantly increased compared with those before low-sodium diet (P<0.01). The intake volume and the preference rate of 0.3 mol/L NaCl in CeA lesion rats were significantly decreased than those in CeA sham lesion rats and normal rats in the sodium-deficient condition (P<0.01). The CeA lesion had no effects on the activity of aldosterone-sensitive neurons in NTS in rats with low-sodium diet. CONCLUSION: Low-sodium diet induces an increase in the expression of sodium appetite in rats. CeA lesions inhibit the behavioral expression of sodium appetite in sodium-deficient rats but have no effects on the initiation of sodium appetite in rats with sodium-deficient rats.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo , Apetite , Dieta Hipossódica , Sódio , Tonsila do Cerebelo/patologia , Animais , Neurônios , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sódio na Dieta/farmacologia
17.
J Vasc Res ; 56(2): 65-76, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079107

RESUMO

The effects of high sodium intake on the functionality of resistance arteries have been repeatedly studied in vitro, but no study has focused on salt-sensitive hypertension in vivo. We studied the in vivo reactivity of mesenteric small arteries (MSAs) to vasoactive agents in Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats with various sodium diets. Twenty-four male DS rats were randomized into 3 groups: LS (0.3% NaCl diet), NS (0.6% NaCl diet), and HS (8% NaCl diet). After a 12-week intervention, the diameter changes of the MSAs after noradrenaline (NA) and acetylcholine (ACh) exposure were detected by a microscope, and changes in blood perfusion through the MSAs were measured by full-field laser perfusion imaging. HS enhanced the constrictive response of the MSAs to NA and attenuated the relaxing response to ACh. Low sodium intake reduced the response of the MSAs to NA and promoted ACh-induced vasodilatation. HS also aggravated NA-induced blood perfusion reduction and impaired ACh-induced hyperperfusion of the MSAs. Pathologically, HS was associated with arteriolar structural damage and fibrosis of the MSAs. We conclude that sodium intake affects the responsiveness of the MSAs to vasoactive agents in DS rats and might play important roles in modulating blood pressure in hypertensive individuals.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Artérias Mesentéricas/fisiopatologia , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Vasoconstrição , Vasodilatação , Animais , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Dieta Hipossódica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibrose , Hipertensão/etiologia , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Hipertensão/patologia , Masculino , Artérias Mesentéricas/metabolismo , Artérias Mesentéricas/patologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Ratos Endogâmicos Dahl , Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina/metabolismo , Circulação Esplâncnica , Remodelação Vascular , Resistência Vascular
18.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(5): 519-522, 2019 May 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091612

RESUMO

In order to evaluate the intervention effect of the school-based salt reduction model, 28 primary schools were selected in Shandong Province in September 2014 and randomly divided into intervention group (1 361 students, 1 306 parents) and control group (1 364 students,1 340 parents). A series of "small hands and big hands" salt reduction intervention activities were conducted in intervention group for 8 months. After the intervention, the total awareness rate of salt reduction knowledge, the total holding rate of related beliefs and the total reporting rate of related behaviors were 70.65%, 80.30% and 67.03% among students, and 85.66%, 93.77% and 87.93% among parents, in the intervention group, which were higher than those in the control group (37.12%, 66.52% and 50.07% among students; 55.11%, 87.52% and 57.96% among parents) (all P values <0.05). The school-based salt reduction model is effective and feasible.


Assuntos
Dieta Hipossódica/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , China , Estudos de Viabilidade , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) ; 65(2): 142-147, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31061282

RESUMO

The plasma concentrations of mineral (sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), and zinc (Zn)) are kept within narrow ranges to maintain homeostasis; hence, it is difficult to use them as indicators of nutritional status. We selected the excretion of these minerals in the second voided fasting early morning urine (EMU) as potential indicators of nutritional status. We previously reported that Na restriction caused a negative balance of Ca and Mg. Therefore, Na restriction can cause changes in EMU-minerals. This study aimed to examine the relationship between dietary Na restriction and urinary mineral excretion. The study lasted for 21 d, including 16 d of balance period and 3 d of recovery period. The participants (11 healthy young women) were divided into the Na restriction group (n=5) (NaCl: 6 g/d) and control group (n=6) (NaCl: 12 g/d). The Na restriction group changed to the control diet (NaCl: 12 g/d) during only the recovery period. The EMU-Na, Ca, Mg, P and Zn in the Na restriction group significantly decreased compared with that of the control group. The EMU-Na, K, Ca, Mg, and Zn in the group with NaCl intake of 6 g/d significantly decreased compared with that of the group with NaCl intake of 12 g/d (in the Na restriction group). We conclude that the decrease in excretion of Na, Ca, Mg and Zn in the EMU can lead to Na restriction. This result can serve as basis when considering EMU as an indicator of mineral status.


Assuntos
Dieta Hipossódica , Metais , Fósforo/urina , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Adulto , Jejum/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Metais/metabolismo , Metais/urina , Fósforo/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/urina , Espectrofotometria Atômica , Adulto Jovem
20.
Hypertension ; 74(1): 194-200, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079530

RESUMO

Dietary sodium restriction has multiple beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. The underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, and the roles of metabolomics have been rarely studied. We aimed to test the hypothesis that the reduction in dietary sodium intake would induce changes in metabolomic profiling among black hypertensives, and the changes would be associated with reduced blood pressure (BP) and improved skin capillary density. A total of 64 untreated black hypertensives were included from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial of sodium reduction. The participants were given either 9 slow sodium tablets (10 mmol sodium per tablet) or placebo tablets daily for 6 weeks, they then crossed over to receive the other tablets for another 6 weeks, while on reduced sodium diet aiming at achieving daily sodium intake around 2.0 g. Untargeted metabolomic profiling was performed in paired serum samples, which were collected at the end of each period, so were BP and capillary density. Mixed-effects models were used. There were 34 metabolites identified with raw P's<0.05. Among those, 2 metabolites including ß-hydroxyisovalerate and methionine sulfone were significantly increased with sodium reduction (false discovery rate =0.006 and 0.099, respectively). Increased ß-hydroxyisovalerate was associated with reduced office systolic BP and ambulatory daytime systolic BP, whereas increased methionine sulfone was associated with reduced 24-hour diastolic BP, ambulatory nighttime diastolic BP, and increased skin capillary density. Our results suggest that dietary sodium reduction increases the circulating levels of ß-hydroxyisovalerate and methionine sulfone. Further studies are warranted. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT00152074.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dieta Hipossódica/métodos , Hipertensão/dietoterapia , Metabolômica/métodos , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipertensão/etnologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Medição de Risco , Cloreto de Sódio , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem
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