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1.
Ther Umsch ; 77(7): 302-311, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996430

RESUMO

Which diet is appropriate for patients with diabetes mellitus? Abstract. What is considered a balanced diet for the general population is in principle also true for people with diabetes. The scarce scientific evidence does not justify a dogmatic attitude with strict rules and bans on nutrients or foods. Rather, all macronutrient groups are represented in a balanced diet, whereby a reduction in calorie intake can be equally successful via carbohydrates or fats. Ideal are products of high quality and with low and gentle processing, such as starch products rich in fibre and cold-pressed vegetable oils. The benefits of increased protein intake in terms of diabetes management and weight control are becoming increasingly clear. However, plant-based or dairy products should be used as sources rather than red or processed meat. The Mediterranean diet and concepts with a comparable scientific basis are most likely to meet the criteria of a "suitable" diet for diabetes patients. Although alcohol is dense with empty calories, there is no reason not to tolerate the consumption embedded in such a diet. In view of the individually different metabolic reactions to the same foods and taking into account the scarce evidence, a personalised approach is more appropriate than ever.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Dieta Mediterrânea , Ingestão de Energia , Humanos
2.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003282, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endothelial dysfunction is a crucial step in atherosclerosis development, and its severity is determinant for the risk of cardiovascular recurrence. Diet may be an effective strategy to protect the endothelium, although there is no consensus about the best dietary model. The CORonary Diet Intervention with Olive oil and cardiovascular PREVention (CORDIOPREV) study is an ongoing prospective, randomized, single-blind, controlled trial in 1,002 coronary heart disease (CHD) patients, whose primary objective is to compare the effect of 2 healthy dietary patterns (low-fat versus Mediterranean diet) on the incidence of cardiovascular events. Here, we report the results of one secondary outcome of the CORDIOPREV study: to evaluate the effect of these diets on endothelial function, assessed by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery. METHODS AND FINDINGS: From the total participants taking part in the CORDIOPREV study, 805 completed endothelial function study at baseline and were randomized to follow a Mediterranean diet (35% fat, 22% monounsaturated fatty acids [MUFAs], and <50% carbohydrates) or a low-fat diet (28% fat, 12% MUFAs, and >55% carbohydrates), with endothelial function measurement repeated after 1 year. As secondary objectives and to explore different underlying mechanisms in the modulation of endothelial function, we quantified endothelial microparticles (EMPs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and evaluated, in 24 preselected patients, in vitro cellular processes related to endothelial damage (reactive oxygen species, apoptosis, and senescence) and endothelial repair (cell proliferation and angiogenesis), as well as other modulators (micro-RNAs [miRNAs] and proteins). Patients who followed the Mediterranean diet had higher FMD (3.83%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.91-4.23) compared with those in the low-fat diet (1.16%; 95% CI: 0.80 to 1.98) with a difference between diets of 2.63% (95% CI: 1.89-3.40, p = 0.011), even in those patients with severe endothelial dysfunction. We observed higher EPC levels (group difference: 1.64%; 95% CI: 0.79-2.13, p = 0.028) and lower EMPs (group difference: -755 EMPs/µl; 95% CI: -1,010 to -567, p = 0.015) after the Mediterranean diet compared with the low-fat diet in all patients. We also observed lower intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (group difference: 11.1; 95% CI: 2.5 to 19.6, p = 0.010), cellular apoptosis (group difference: -20.2; 95% CI: -26.7 to -5.11, p = 0.013) and senescence (18.0; 95% CI: 3.57 to 25.1, p = 0.031), and higher cellular proliferation (group difference: 11.3; 95% CI: 4.51 to 13.5, p = 0.011) and angiogenesis (total master segments length, group difference: 549; 95% CI: 110 to 670, p = 0.022) after the Mediterranean diet than the low-fat diet. Each dietary intervention was associated with distinct changes in the epigenetic and proteomic factors that modulate biological process associated with endothelial dysfunction. The evaluation of endothelial function is a substudy of the CORDIOPREV study. As in any substudy, these results should be treated with caution, such as the potential for false positives because of the exploratory nature of the analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the Mediterranean diet better modulates endothelial function compared with a low-fat diet and is associated with a better balance of vascular homeostasis in CHD patients, even in those with severe endothelial dysfunction. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL, http://www.cordioprev.es/index.php/en. clinicaltrials.gov number NCT00924937.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/dietoterapia , Endotélio/metabolismo , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras , Dieta Mediterrânea , Gorduras na Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Azeite de Oliva , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteômica , Método Simples-Cego
3.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003331, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether the effect on mortality of a higher body mass index (BMI) can be compensated for by adherence to a healthy diet and whether the effect on mortality by a low adherence to a healthy diet can be compensated for by a normal weight. We aimed to evaluate the associations of BMI combined with adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet on all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Our longitudinal cohort design included the Swedish Mammography Cohort (SMC) and the Cohort of Swedish Men (COSM) (1997-2017), with a total of 79,003 women (44%) and men (56%) and a mean baseline age of 61 years. BMI was categorized into normal weight (20-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25-29.9 kg/m2), and obesity (30+ kg/m2). Adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet was assessed by means of the modified Mediterranean-like diet (mMED) score, ranging from 0 to 8; mMED was classified into 3 categories (0 to <4, 4 to <6, and 6-8 score points), forming a total of 9 BMI × mMED combinations. We identified mortality by use of national Swedish registers. Cox proportional hazard models with time-updated information on exposure and covariates were used to calculate the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of mortality with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Our HRs were adjusted for age, baseline educational level, marital status, leisure time physical exercise, walking/cycling, height, energy intake, smoking habits, baseline Charlson's weighted comorbidity index, and baseline diabetes mellitus. During up to 21 years of follow-up, 30,389 (38%) participants died, corresponding to 22 deaths per 1,000 person-years. We found the lowest HR of all-cause mortality among overweight individuals with high mMED (HR 0.94; 95% CI 0.90, 0.98) compared with those with normal weight and high mMED. Using the same reference, obese individuals with high mMED did not experience significantly higher all-cause mortality (HR 1.03; 95% CI 0.96-1.11). In contrast, compared with those with normal weight and high mMED, individuals with a low mMED had a high mortality despite a normal BMI (HR 1.60; 95% CI 1.48-1.74). We found similar estimates among women and men. For CVD mortality (12,064 deaths) the findings were broadly similar, though obese individuals with high mMED retained a modestly increased risk of CVD death (HR 1.29; 95% CI 1.16-1.44) compared with those with normal weight and high mMED. A main limitation of the present study is the observational design with self-reported lifestyle information with risk of residual or unmeasured confounding (e.g., genetic liability), and no causal inferences can be made based on this study alone. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that diet quality modifies the association between BMI and all-cause mortality in women and men. A healthy diet may, however, not completely counter higher CVD mortality related to obesity.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/dietoterapia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Dieta Mediterrânea/psicologia , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta Saudável , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Fumar , Suécia
4.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942695

RESUMO

Due to the pandemic situation caused by the COVID-19 infection, some governments have implemented house confinement measures. The objective of our study is to learn the dietary patterns, consumption, and physical activity of the Spanish population before and during the period of confinement by COVID-19. A cross-sectional descriptive study based on a questionnaire during May 2020, coinciding with the period of confinement and the step forward into Phase 1, is carried out. During confinement, the adherence to the Mediterranean Diet increases (8.0% versus 4.7%; p < 0.001). No socio-demographic variables show statistical significance (p < 0.05) regarding good adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MD) before and during confinement. During confinement, consumption of homemade baking shows a higher increase (0.28% versus 4.60%; p = 0.004). During confinement, the number of subjects that practice exercise decreases (29.4% versus 28.8%; p = 0.004), as well as the time spent exercising (more than an hour, 26.6% versus 14.7%, p = 0.001). Mediterranean Diet adherence slightly increases during confinement, although consumption of 'unhealthy' food also increases. Moreover, the number of subjects that practice physical activity, as well as the time spent on it weekly, decreases.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Estilo de Vida , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Isolamento Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Culinária , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Mediterrânea , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Quarentena , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e22385, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957420

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Reduced bone mineral density and increased risk of falls are related with Alzheimer disease, and these increase likelihood of bone osteoporotic fractures causing serious complications such as disability, fear of falling, loss autonomy, decreased quality of life, and anticipated mortality in elderly patients. Gait and balance disturb are 2 factors to favor falls in elderly, and in patients with cognitive impairment, the risk of falls increases to double. Exercise and Mediterranean diet produce beneficial effects for aging, cognitive decline, and are widely recommended to reduce the effects of osteoporosis, fall risk, and related fragility fractures. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the short and medium-term effects during 6 months, of a multicomponent physical exercise program with a Mediterranean diet on bone mineral density, fall risk, balance, and gait by a controlled clinical trial in patients with Alzheimer disease. METHODS: The study is a 6-month, randomized controlled parallel-group, single-blinded clinical trial. Institutionalized patients with Alzheimer disease will be included. The intervention group will perform a multicomponent physical exercise program in reduced groups, with a frequency of 3 sessions per week, associated with a Mediterranean diet. This program includes strength, balance, and aerobic resistance exercises, and in the main part of the session, also ludic exercises to improve agility, coordination, and balance. The control group will receive usual care. The outcomes to assess are the change of physical functions, such as gait and balance, and the change of bone mineral density by calcaneal quantitative ultrasound, during the study follow-up at 1, 3, and 6 months. This clinical trial will generate more and new evidence on the effects of a multicomponent physical exercise program and Mediterranean diet in patients with Alzheimer disease on risk of falls and osteoporotic fractures, the relation of these with bone mineral density, gait and balance, and the correlations between them. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study protocol has been approved by the Ethics Committee of the University of Salamanca. The results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and disseminated in national and international conferences, to the participants and their families, and the general public through the associations of people with AD. TRIAL REGISTRATION ID: ClínicalTrials.gov ID: NCT04439097.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Densidade Óssea , Dieta Mediterrânea , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Marcha , Humanos , Masculino , Equilíbrio Postural , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
6.
Wiad Lek ; 73(7): 1448-1453, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759435

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Following a Mediterranean diet significantly reduces the risk of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of the study was to assess nutritional knowledge among adult residents of the Silesian Province on the Mediterranean diet in the prevention of cardiovascular and nervous system diseases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Material and methods: The study was conducted using an anonymous self-made questionnaire. 190 adults from the Silesian Province participated in the study. RESULTS: Results: The respondents had a good or sufficient level of knowledge on the Mediterranean diet. Respondents as the benefits of using the Mediterranean diet more often indicated a reduction in the risk of cardiovascular diseases than prevention of nervous system diseases. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The inhabitants of Silesian Province have a fairly good level of knowledge on the preventive use of the Mediterranean diet. Public knowledge on the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, as well as knowledge on the principles of the Mediterranean diet, and on the benefits of its use, can reduce the incidence of cardiovascular and nervous system diseases.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Humanos , Incidência , Fatores de Risco
7.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 143: 111558, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640331

RESUMO

Prevention and treatment of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, cancer, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, arthritis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and various infectious diseases; lately most notably COVID-19 have been in the front line of research worldwide. Although targeting different organs, these pathologies have common biochemical impairments - redox disparity and, prominently, dysregulation of the inflammatory pathways. Research data have shown that diet components like polyphenols, poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), fibres as well as lifestyle (fasting, physical exercise) are important factors influencing signalling pathways with a significant potential to improve metabolic homeostasis and immune cells' functions. In the present manuscript we have reviewed scientific data from recent publications regarding the beneficial cellular and molecular effects induced by dietary plant products, mainly polyphenolic compounds and PUFAs, and summarize the clinical outcomes expected from these types of interventions, in a search for effective long-term approaches to improve the immune system response.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/etiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Polifenóis/efeitos adversos , Animais , Dieta Mediterrânea , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Polifenóis/uso terapêutico
8.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 229, 2020 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-574901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On December 12th 2019, a new coronavirus (SARS-Cov2) emerged in Wuhan, China, sparking a pandemic of acute respiratory syndrome in humans (COVID-19). On the 24th of April 2020, the number of COVID-19 deaths in the world, according to the COVID-Case Tracker by Johns Hopkins University, was 195,313, and the number of COVID-19 confirmed cases was 2,783,512. The COVID-19 pandemic represents a massive impact on human health, causing sudden lifestyle changes, through social distancing and isolation at home, with social and economic consequences. Optimizing public health during this pandemic requires not only knowledge from the medical and biological sciences, but also of all human sciences related to lifestyle, social and behavioural studies, including dietary habits and lifestyle. METHODS: Our study aimed to investigate the immediate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on eating habits and lifestyle changes among the Italian population aged ≥ 12 years. The study comprised a structured questionnaire packet that inquired demographic information (age, gender, place of residence, current employment); anthropometric data (reported weight and height); dietary habits information (adherence to the Mediterranean diet, daily intake of certain foods, food frequency, and number of meals/day); lifestyle habits information (grocery shopping, habit of smoking, sleep quality and physical activity). The survey was conducted from the 5th to the 24th of April 2020. RESULTS: A total of 3533 respondents have been included in the study, aged between 12 and 86 years (76.1% females). The perception of weight gain was observed in 48.6% of the population; 3.3% of smokers decided to quit smoking; a slight increased physical activity has been reported, especially for bodyweight training, in 38.3% of respondents; the population group aged 18-30 years resulted in having a higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet when compared to the younger and the elderly population (p < 0.001; p < 0.001, respectively); 15% of respondents turned to farmers or organic, purchasing fruits and vegetables, especially in the North and Center of Italy, where BMI values were lower. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we have provided for the first time data on the Italian population lifestyle, eating habits and adherence to the Mediterranean Diet pattern during the COVID-19 lockdown. However, as the COVID-19 pandemic is ongoing, our data need to be confirmed and investigated in future more extensive population studies.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Estilo de Vida , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Quarentena , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Dieta Mediterrânea , Ingestão de Líquidos , Emergências , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Sono , Fumar , Adulto Jovem
9.
Comunidad (Barc., Internet) ; 22(1): 0-0, mar.-jun. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193591

RESUMO

Los hábitos de vida son un importante determinante de la salud, encontrándose entre ellos la alimentación saludable. Es primordial centrar nuestros esfuerzos en promocionar la dieta mediterránea. OBJETIVOS: fomentar el conocimiento y la práctica de la cocina tradicional basada en la dieta mediterránea en la población adscrita a un centro de salud. MÉTODOS: estrategia de participación comunitaria basada en el trabajo coordinado de asociaciones vecinales, ciudadanas y culturales de la zona, para promocionar un envejecimiento saludable. Intervención comunitaria basada en el fortalecimiento de la comunidad mediante distintas actividades compartidas. RESULTADOS: Libro de recetas: recetas tradicionales aportadas por personas de la zona. Dos ediciones (2014 y 2018) con 23 y 25 recetas. Receta del mes: difundida en consultas del centro de salud, los expositores y las páginas web de asociaciones de la zona. Talleres de cocina (2015-2019): elaboración grupal y comida colectiva, recetas de cocina popular. Se realizan tres sesiones prácticas, con 15 personas. 1) Cocinamos (grupos de 5 personas). 2) Comemos juntos, siguiendo la «forma de comer» mediterránea: encuentro, compañía y disfrute. 3) Puesta en común de la forma de elaboración por la persona responsable del plato. 4) Recogida y limpieza. Sesiones divulgativas: metodología participativa, enfoque práctico. Se han realizado las siguientes sesiones divulgativas: taller de aceites de oliva (2015), taller de quesos (2016), taller de tipos de pan (2017), taller de leches (2018), taller de azúcares (2019) y sesiones sobre alimentación saludable en centros educativos. Desayunos saludables (2016-2019): se han organizado en el centro educativo en el que se realiza el taller de cocina. CONCLUSIONES: el fomento de la dieta mediterránea puede hacerse desde la participación comunitaria con intervenciones colaborativas


Lifestyles are important determinants of health, including healthy diet. This is fundamental to focus our efforts on promoting a Mediterranean diet. OBJECTIVES: To encourage knowledge and practice of traditional cuisine based on a Mediterranean diet in the population assigned to a Health Centre. METHODS: Community participation strategy based on coordination with neighborhood, city and cultural associations in the area to promote healthy ageing. Community intervention based on strengthening the community by shared activities. RESULTS: Recipe book: Traditional recipes provided by local people. There are two editions (2014, 2018) with 23 and 25 recipes, respectively. Recipe of the month: Widespread coverage in health centre, display to the public and area association websites. Cooking workshops: Group cooking and collective meals of popular cuisine recipes, three practice sessions, 15 people. 1) We cook; 3-5 people. 2) We share the meal. Dish tasting according to the Mediterranean style of eating: meeting, company and enjoyment. 3) Sharing the way the dish was cooked by the person responsible for it. 4) Collecting and cleaning. Informative sessions: Participatory methodology, practical approach. Workshops which took place: "Olive oil workshop" (2015). "Cheese workshop" (2016). "Types of bread workshop"(2017). "Milk workshop" (2018). "Sugar workshop" (2019). Sessions about healthy eating in schools. Healthy breakfast (2016-2019): in schools with cooking workshops. CONCLUSIONS: The Mediterranean diet can be promoted from community participation with collaborative interventions


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Dieta Mediterrânea , Envelhecimento Saudável , Participação da Comunidade , Promoção da Saúde
10.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(3): 443-449, mayo-jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193850

RESUMO

ANTECEDENTES: los hábitos alimentarios y los patrones de actividad física (AF) juegan un papel crucial en el desarrollo integral de niños y adolescentes. OBJETIVO: comparar según frecuencia de AF (es decir, 0, 1, 2, 3 o 4 veces/semana) y estatus corporal (es decir, normopeso, sobrepeso y obesidad) la adherencia a la dieta mediterránea (DM), la insatisfacción por la imagen corporal y la condición física relacionada con la salud (CF), y, como segundo objetivo, determinar la asociación entre estas variables. MÉTODOS: participaron 481 escolares, 166 mujeres y 315 hombres, de entre 8 y 15 años (12,10 ± 1,10 años) pertenecientes a escuelas públicas de la ciudad de Temuco (Chile). Se clasificaron en 3 grupos según la frecuencia de AF: grupo 1, no realiza AF; grupo 2, AF 1-2 veces/semana, y grupo 3: AF 3-4 veces/semana. Se midió la capacidad cardiorrespiratoria (CRF), el salto de longitud a pies juntos (SJT), la fuerza prensil, la adherencia a la DM y la insatisfacción con la imagen corporal. RESULTADOS: los escolares con más días de AF/semana reportaron mayor adherencia a la DM (p = 0,020), VO2MAX (p < 0,001) y mayor SJT (p < 0,001). Asimismo, los escolares con normopeso presentaron más adherencia a la DM (p < 0,001) y menor grado de insatisfacción con la imagen corporal (p < 0,001). Se aprecia una asociación positiva entre la AF y la CRF (B; 1,28, p < 01001). El género presentó asociación con la insatisfacción de la imagen corporal (B; 25,51, p = 01019). CONCLUSIÓN: los escolares con mayor frecuencia de AF/semana presentaron mayor adherencia a la DM y mejor CF relacionada a la salud


BACKGROUND: dietary habits and physical activity (PA) patterns play a crucial role in the integral development of children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE: to compare according PA frequency (i.e., 0,1,2,3 or 4 times / week) and weight status (i.e., normal weight, overweight and obesity), adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD), body image dissatisfaction and the physical fitness related to health, and as second objective to determine the association between these variables. METHODS: 481 schoolchildren, 166 women and 315 men aged between 8 and 15 years (12.10 ± 1.10 years) belonging to public schools of Temuco, Chile participated. They were classified in three groups according PA frequency: group 1, without PA; group 2, PA 1-2 times/week, and group 3, PA 3-4 times/week. Cardio respiratory fitness (CRF), standing jump long test (SJT), handgrip strength, adherence to MD and body image dissatisfaction were measured. RESULTS: Schoolchildren with more days of PA / week reported higher adherence to MD (p = 0.020), VO2max (p < 0.001) and SJT (p < 0.001) than peers. Likewise, schoolchildren with normal weight show more adherence to MD (P <0.001) and lower body image dissatisfaction (p < 0.001). There is a positive association between PA with VO2MAX (B, 1.28, p < 0.001). The gender presented association with body image dissatisfaction (B, 25.51, p = 0.019). CONCLUSION: the schoolchildren with greater frequency of PA/week, presenting greater adherence to MD and better physical fitness related to health


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Comportamento Alimentar , Imagem Corporal , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Dieta Mediterrânea , Chile , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Destreza Motora , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Estudos Transversais , Antropometria
11.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(3): 543-548, mayo-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193862

RESUMO

ANTECEDENTES Y OBJETIVO: la hipercolesterolemia familiar heterocigota (HFH) es el trastorno del metabolismo lipídico monogénico más común que se asocia a patología cardiovascular prematura. Nuestro objetivo fue describir el grado de control metabólico, el perfil cardiovascular y la adherencia a la dieta mediterránea de una cohorte de pacientes con HFH. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: estudio de cohortes retrospectivo de casos índices y familiares diagnosticados genéticamente de HFH desde 2009 a 2017. Se analizaron los datos antropométricos, clínicos, analíticos, del estudio genético y del tratamiento. RESULTADOS: se estudiaron 138 sujetos con una edad media de 48,8 (17,7) años, el 55,8 % mujeres. Se encontró la mutación positiva en el 55,8 %. La media de colesterol total al diagnóstico fue de 281,1 (68,4) mg/dl y la de LDL de 204 (65) mg/dl. El 10,1 % presentaban cardiopatía isquémica previa. Entre los casos familiares se observó una menor edad media [32,89 (19,2) años vs. 50,3 (17,6) años, p < 0,001], así como valores de LDL inferiores en el momento del diagnóstico [181,9 (64,3) mg/dl vs. 226,8 (52) mg/dl, p < 0,005] en comparación con los casos índice. Se evidenció una correlación positiva entre dosis de tratamiento hipolipemiante y reducción de los niveles de LDL (r = 0,254, p < 0,05), aunque solo el 30 % de los pacientes alcanzaron sus objetivos de LDL. Los pacientes con HFH presentaron una elevada adherencia a la dieta mediterránea, con una puntuación media de 9,5 (1,9) en el test Predimed. CONCLUSIONES: la detección precoz de la HFH es necesaria para prevenir eventos cardiovasculares prematuros. El diagnóstico de casos familiares anticipa el tratamiento de los pacientes con HFH. Los pacientes con HFH están más sensibilizados sobre la adherencia a las dietas cardiosaludables


INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: familial heterozygous hypercholesterolemia (HFH) is the most common monogenic lipid metabolism disorder that associates premature cardiovascular disease. Our aim was to describe the degree of metabolic control, cardiovascular profile, and adherence to the Mediterranean diet in a cohort of HFH patients. Subjects and methods: a retrospective cohort study of the index cases and their relatives genetically diagnosed with HFH by the Endocrinology and Nutrition Service in the HCUV from 2009 to 2017. Anthropometric, clinical, laboratory, genetic, and treatment data were analyzed. RESULTS: a total of 138 subjects were studied, with a mean age of 48.8 (17.7) years, 55.8 % of them women. A gene mutation was found in 55.8 %, and 10.1 % had previous ischemic heart disease. At diagnosis mean total cholesterol was 281.1 (68.4) mg/dL, and LDL-C was 204 (65) mg/dL. Among family cases, at diagnosis, a lower mean age was observed [32.89 (19.2) years vs 50.3 (17.6) years, p < 0.001] as well as lower LDL values [181.9 (64.3) mg/dL vs 226.8 (52) mg/dL, p < 0.005] as compared to index cases. A positive correlation was observed between lipid-lowering treatment dose and LDL level reduction (r = 0.254, p < 0.05), although only 30 % of patients reached their LDL target. Patients with HFH were highly adherent to Mediterranean diet, with an average score of 9.5 (1.9) in the Predimed test. CONCLUSIONS: early HFH detection is necessary to prevent premature cardiovascular events. A diagnosis of cases among family members anticipates the treatment of patients with HFH. Patients with HFH are more sensitive to heart-healthy diets


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento , Dieta Mediterrânea , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/dietoterapia , Saúde Pública/normas , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos de Coortes , Diagnóstico Precoce , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal
12.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(3): 549-558, mayo-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-193863

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: studies have been published in Europe comparing the mean macronutrient and micronutrient intake values of the general population with those of the vegan population, but none has been conducted in a country that mainly follows the Mediterranean diet. Therefore, the aim of this study was to carry out this comparison in Spain. METHODS: a cross-sectional study of a sample of Spanish vegans was designed in 2015. To compare the distribution of nutrients with those of the general population, we used data from the Spanish Agency for Food Safety and Nutrition, which was considered to be normally distributed as it was a large population with biological parameters. All participants were asked about their dietary intake for the previous day (24 hour reminder) and the nutrients were calculated using specialized software. The distributions were compared using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. RESULTS: the sample comprised 102 vegans, 67 of whom were women. The vegan population consumed more carbohydrates and fiber, less total fat (women only), fewer saturated fatty acids, and more polyunsaturated fatty acids. They had much lower cholesterol intake, lower calcium and iodine intake, higher iron and folic acid intake, and much lower intake of vitamins B12 and D. CONCLUSIONS: Spanish vegans had nutritional deficiencies compared to the general population and should therefore ensure their diet includes the necessary supplements


ANTECEDENTES: se han publicado en Europa estudios que comparan los valores medios de ingesta de macronutrientes y micronutrientes de la población general con los de la población vegana, pero ninguno se ha llevado a cabo en un país que sigue principalmente la dieta mediterránea. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este estudio fue llevar a cabo esta comparación en España. MÉTODOS: se diseñó un estudio transversal de una muestra de veganos españoles en 2015. Para comparar la distribución de nutrientes con los de la población general, utilizamos datos de la Agencia Española de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutrición, considerando dichos datos como una distribución normal de parámetros biológicos al constituir una gran muestra. A todos los participantes se les preguntó sobre su ingesta dietética en el día anterior y los nutrientes se calcularon utilizando un software especializado. Las distribuciones se compararon mediante la prueba de Kolmogorov-Smirnov. RESULTADOS: la muestra comprendió 102 veganos, 67 de los cuales eran mujeres. La población vegana consumió más carbohidratos y fibra, menos grasa total (solo mujeres), menos ácidos grasos saturados y más ácidos grasos poliinsaturados. Tenían una ingesta mucho más baja de colesterol, una ingesta más baja de calcio y yodo, una mayor ingesta de hierro y ácido fólico, y una ingesta mucho más baja de vitaminas B12 y D. CONCLUSIÓN: los veganos españoles tenían deficiencias nutricionales en comparación con la población general y, por lo tanto, deben asegurarse de que su dieta incluya los suplementos necesarios


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Nutrientes/uso terapêutico , Micronutrientes/uso terapêutico , Veganos/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta Vegana/métodos , Dietoterapia/métodos , Dieta Mediterrânea , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais
13.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3295, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520245

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in a cohort of workers and to quantify its association with compliance with the Mediterranean diet follow-up. METHOD: a cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out on a cohort of 23,729 workers. Clinical data from annual medical examinations and the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener were used to assess adherence to the Mediterranean diet. RESULTS: 51.3% of the participants showed good adherence to the Mediterranean diet. The multivariate analysis showed an inverse and significant association between the follow-up of the Mediterranean diet and the prevalence of abdominal obesity (Odds Ratio = 0.64, 95% CI 0.56; 0.73), dyslipidemia (Odds Ratio = 0.55, 95% CI 0.42; 0.73), and metabolic syndrome (Odds Ratio = 0.76, 95% CI 0.67; 0.86). CONCLUSIONS: our results suggest that the Mediterranean diet is potentially effective in promoting cardiovascular health. Implementing the interventions promoting the Mediterranean diet in the working population seems justified.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Dieta Mediterrânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cooperação do Paciente , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 229, 2020 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On December 12th 2019, a new coronavirus (SARS-Cov2) emerged in Wuhan, China, sparking a pandemic of acute respiratory syndrome in humans (COVID-19). On the 24th of April 2020, the number of COVID-19 deaths in the world, according to the COVID-Case Tracker by Johns Hopkins University, was 195,313, and the number of COVID-19 confirmed cases was 2,783,512. The COVID-19 pandemic represents a massive impact on human health, causing sudden lifestyle changes, through social distancing and isolation at home, with social and economic consequences. Optimizing public health during this pandemic requires not only knowledge from the medical and biological sciences, but also of all human sciences related to lifestyle, social and behavioural studies, including dietary habits and lifestyle. METHODS: Our study aimed to investigate the immediate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on eating habits and lifestyle changes among the Italian population aged ≥ 12 years. The study comprised a structured questionnaire packet that inquired demographic information (age, gender, place of residence, current employment); anthropometric data (reported weight and height); dietary habits information (adherence to the Mediterranean diet, daily intake of certain foods, food frequency, and number of meals/day); lifestyle habits information (grocery shopping, habit of smoking, sleep quality and physical activity). The survey was conducted from the 5th to the 24th of April 2020. RESULTS: A total of 3533 respondents have been included in the study, aged between 12 and 86 years (76.1% females). The perception of weight gain was observed in 48.6% of the population; 3.3% of smokers decided to quit smoking; a slight increased physical activity has been reported, especially for bodyweight training, in 38.3% of respondents; the population group aged 18-30 years resulted in having a higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet when compared to the younger and the elderly population (p < 0.001; p < 0.001, respectively); 15% of respondents turned to farmers or organic, purchasing fruits and vegetables, especially in the North and Center of Italy, where BMI values were lower. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we have provided for the first time data on the Italian population lifestyle, eating habits and adherence to the Mediterranean Diet pattern during the COVID-19 lockdown. However, as the COVID-19 pandemic is ongoing, our data need to be confirmed and investigated in future more extensive population studies.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Estilo de Vida , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Quarentena , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Dieta Mediterrânea , Ingestão de Líquidos , Emergências , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Sono , Fumar , Adulto Jovem
15.
Cardiovasc Ther ; 2020: 2342837, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32547635

RESUMO

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) represent one of the biggest causes of death globally, and their prevalence, aetiology, and outcome are related to genetic, metabolic, and environmental factors, among which sex- and age-dependent differences may play a key role. Among CVD risk factors, platelet hyperactivity deserves particular mention, as it is involved in the pathophysiology of main cardiovascular events (including stroke, myocardial infarction, and peripheral vascular injury) and is closely related to sex/age differences. Several determinants (e.g., hormonal status and traditional cardiovascular risk factors), together with platelet-related factors (e.g., plasma membrane composition, receptor signaling, and platelet-derived microparticles) can elucidate sex-related disparity in platelet functionality and CVD onset and outcome, especially in relation to efficacy of current primary and secondary interventional strategies. Here, we examined the state of the art concerning sex differences in platelet biology and their relationship with specific cardiovascular events and responses to common antiplatelet therapies. Moreover, as healthy nutrition is widely recognized to play a key role in CVD, we also focused our attention on specific dietary components (especially polyunsaturated fatty acids and flavonoids) and patterns (such as Mediterranean diet), which also emerged to impact platelet functions in a sex-dependent manner. These results highlight that full understanding of gender-related differences will be useful for designing personalized strategies, in order to prevent and/or treat platelet-mediated vascular damage.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/dietoterapia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Dieta Saudável , Dieta Mediterrânea , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Prevenção Primária , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Prevenção Secundária , Fatores Sexuais , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531892

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether dietary behaviours of the Spanish adult population were changed during the COVID-19 outbreak confinement. For that purpose, an online questionnaire, based on 44 items including socio-demographic data, Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) Adherence Screener (MEDAS) as a reference of a healthy diet, processed foods intake, changes in their usual food choices and weight gain was distributed using social media and snowball sampling. A total of 7514 participants (37% aged below 35 years, 70.6% female, 77.9% university-level education or higher) from all the Spanish territory completed the questionnaire. Results outlined healthier dietary behaviours during the confinement when compared to previous habits. Overall, the MEDAS score (ranging from 0 to 14, whereby higher a scoring reflects greater adherence to the MedDiet) increased significantly from 6.53 ± 2 to 7.34 ± 1.93 during the confinement. Multivariate logistic regression models, adjusted for age, gender, region and other variables, showed a statistically significant higher likelihood of changing the adherence to the MedDiet (towards an increase in adherence) in those persons who decreased the intake of fried foods, snacks, fast foods, red meat, pastries or sweet beverages, but increased MedDiet-related foods such as olive oil, vegetables, fruits or legumes during the confinement. COVID-19 confinement in Spain has led to the adoption of healthier dietary habits/behaviours in the studied population, as reflected by a higher adherence to the MedDiet. This improvement, if sustained in the long-term, could have a positive impact on the prevention of chronic diseases and COVID-19-related complications.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Dieta Mediterrânea/psicologia , Dieta Mediterrânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Espanha/epidemiologia
18.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 64(3): 205-222, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555987

RESUMO

The Human Genome Project has significantly broadened our understanding of the molecular aspects regulating the homeostasis and the pathophysiology of different clinical conditions. Consequently, the field of nutrition has been strongly influenced by such improvements in knowledge - especially for determining how nutrients act at the molecular level in different conditions, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. In this manner, characterizing how the genome influences the diet and vice-versa provides insights about the molecular mechanisms involved in chronic inflammation-related diseases. Therefore, the present review aims to discuss the potential application of Nutritional Genomics to modulate obesity-related inflammatory responses. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2020;64(3):205-22.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Inflamação/genética , Nutrigenômica , Obesidade/genética , Doença Crônica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo
19.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(2): 364-372, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association of dietary pattern with the risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is little understood and has scarcely been investigated. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the association of several complete dietary patterns [Mediterranean, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), and Pro-vegetarian dietary pattern] with the risk of BCC, conducting a nested case-control study (4 controls for each case). METHODS: Cases and controls were selected from the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) cohort using risk set sampling. Cases were identified among subjects free of skin cancer at baseline but who later reported a physician-made BCC diagnosis during the follow-up period. In the cohort we identified 101 incident cases of BCC. RESULTS: In multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression analyses, better adherence to the Mediterranean diet (highest compared with lowest quintile) was associated with a 72% relative reduction in the odds of BCC (OR: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.77; Ptrend = 0.014); the DASH diet was associated with a 68% RR reduction (OR: 0.32; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.76; Ptrend = 0.013) for the comparison between extreme quintiles. No association was found between a Pro-vegetarian dietary pattern and BCC. Higher fruit consumption (highest compared with lowest quintile, OR: 0.27; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.64; Ptrend < 0.001) and low-fat dairy products (OR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.92; Ptrend = 0.014) were associated with a lower BCC risk. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that Mediterranean and DASH dietary patterns may be associated with a lower risk of BCC, but confirmatory studies are required.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Basocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Basocelular/prevenção & controle , Dieta Mediterrânea , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Abordagens Dietéticas para Conter a Hipertensão , Feminino , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Verduras/metabolismo , Vegetarianos
20.
Neurology ; 95(4): e374-e383, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554763

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To quantify the impact of a healthy lifestyle on the risk of Alzheimer dementia. METHODS: Using data from the Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP; n = 1,845) and the Rush Memory and Aging Project (MAP; n = 920), we defined a healthy lifestyle score on the basis of nonsmoking, ≥150 min/wk moderate/vigorous-intensity physical activity, light to moderate alcohol consumption, high-quality Mediterranean-DASH Diet Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay diet (upper 40%), and engagement in late-life cognitive activities (upper 40%), giving an overall score ranging from 0 to 5. Cox proportional hazard models were used for each cohort to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the lifestyle score with Alzheimer dementia, and a random-effect meta-analysis was used to pool the results. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 5.8 years in CHAP and 6.0 years in MAP, 379 and 229 participants, respectively, had incident Alzheimer dementia. In multivariable-adjusted models, the pooled HR (95% CI) of Alzheimer dementia across 2 cohorts was 0.73 (95% CI 0.66-0.80) per each additional healthy lifestyle factor. Compared to participants with 0 to 1 healthy lifestyle factor, the risk of Alzheimer dementia was 37% lower (pooled HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.47-0.84) in those with 2 to 3 healthy lifestyle factors and 60% lower (pooled HR 0.40, 95% CI 0.28-0.56) in those with 4 to 5 healthy lifestyle factors. CONCLUSION: A healthy lifestyle as a composite score is associated with a substantially lower risk of Alzheimer's dementia.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta Mediterrânea , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
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