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1.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209271

RESUMO

To limit the spread of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, a nationwide lockdown started in Italy in March 2020. In this unpredictable situation, a cross-sectional study using an online questionnaire was carried out by the Observatory on Food Surplus, Recovery and Waste of CREA Food and Nutrition Centre. The aim of this work was to evaluate how Italian habits changed during this period, the determinants of changes, and the effect on food waste prevention. In a sample of 2678 respondents, 62% showed low Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (AMD). During lockdown many of participants improved the quality of their diet, increasing their consumption of fruit (24.4%), vegetables (28.5%), legumes (22.1%), nuts (12%), and fish or shellfish (14%). Unfavorable changes were observed with the excessive consumption of sweets or pastries (36.9%) and comfort foods (22.7%), and a lack of physical activity (37.2%). The main novelty of this study was the examination of dietary changes identified by a cluster analysis. Respondents with generally high AMD improved their eating habits, while the habits of the respondents with generally low AMD remained unchanged. In addition, nearly 80% of respondents were sensitive to food waste. The study provides a useful contribution to the debate on nutritional recommendations in case of further lockdown.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Comportamento Alimentar , Estilo de Vida , Estado Nutricional , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Mediterrânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Eliminação de Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Verduras
2.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201125

RESUMO

The Mediterranean diet is a central element of a healthy lifestyle, where polyphenols play a key role due to their anti-oxidant properties, and for some of them, as nutripharmacological compounds capable of preventing a number of diseases, including cancer. Due to the high prevalence of intestinal cancer (ranking second in causing morbidity and mortality), this review is focused on the beneficial effects of selected dietary phytophenols, largely present in Mediterranean cooking: apigenin, curcumin, epigallocatechin gallate, quercetin-rutine, and resveratrol. The role of the Mediterranean diet in the prevention of colorectal cancer and future perspectives are discussed in terms of food polyphenol content, the effectiveness, the plasma level, and the importance of other factors, such as the polyphenol metabolites and the influence of the microbiome. Perspectives are discussed in terms of microbiome-dependency of the brain-second brain axis. The emergence of polyphenol formulations may strengthen the efficiency of the Mediterranean diet in the prevention of cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Dieta Mediterrânea , Humanos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205057

RESUMO

COVID-19 is an unprecedented global pandemic. On 12 March 2020, a lockdown order was issued in Italy in attempt to contain the health crisis. The study aimed to assess the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on diet, physical activity, sleep quality, and distress in an Italian cohort. An online anonymous interview, which included validated questionnaires was created to compare lifestyle habits pre- and during the lockdown. Data analysis from 604 subjects with a mean age of 29.8 years was carried out using multivariate analysis. Compared to pre-COVID-19 times, 67% of people changed their eating habits and increased consumption of foods containing added sugars. Women and men with low adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) were more likely to be physically inactive (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.01, respectively). Results from logistic regression showed a three times higher risk of being inactive if adherence to the MedDiet was low (p < 0.0001), especially in men between 26 and 35 years. Lower levels of distress were reported in males who were physically active (89%) (p < 0.001). Our findings may help to identify effective lifestyle interventions during restrictive conditions.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Estilo de Vida , Pandemias , Adulto , Dieta Mediterrânea , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Distanciamento Físico , Angústia Psicológica , SARS-CoV-2 , Comportamento Sedentário , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259556

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted daily activities worldwide. University students may have experienced substantial changes in daily living as a result of restrictions on university attendance. The return to normalcy may take a long time, and understanding the influence that shifts in daily routines have had on the lifestyles of university students may inform approaches to support overall well-being. We analyzed changes in the lifestyles of students enrolled at a health sciences university during the COVID-19 pandemic. This longitudinal study took place at the Faculty of Medicine and Nursing in the University of the Basque Country in Spain, and the final sample consisted of 113 nursing students, 109 medical students, and 45 physiotherapy students. Our results demonstrate changes in lifestyles of university students during the pandemic. MedDiet adherence scores and the percentage of students with high adherence increased during the pandemic. This increase was due to the increased consumption of vegetables and nuts. In terms of physical activity, the practice of moderate and intense physical activity was maintained. These results provide important information for both public health authorities and educational institutions to guide strategies to maintain the well-being of students and enhance opportunities for young adults to lead a healthy lifestyle.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Dieta Saudável , Dieta Mediterrânea , Exercício Físico , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/psicologia , Universidades , Adolescente , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
5.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288969

RESUMO

To limit the spread of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, a nationwide lockdown started in Italy in March 2020. In this unpredictable situation, a cross-sectional study using an online questionnaire was carried out by the Observatory on Food Surplus, Recovery and Waste of CREA Food and Nutrition Centre. The aim of this work was to evaluate how Italian habits changed during this period, the determinants of changes, and the effect on food waste prevention. In a sample of 2678 respondents, 62% showed low Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (AMD). During lockdown many of participants improved the quality of their diet, increasing their consumption of fruit (24.4%), vegetables (28.5%), legumes (22.1%), nuts (12%), and fish or shellfish (14%). Unfavorable changes were observed with the excessive consumption of sweets or pastries (36.9%) and comfort foods (22.7%), and a lack of physical activity (37.2%). The main novelty of this study was the examination of dietary changes identified by a cluster analysis. Respondents with generally high AMD improved their eating habits, while the habits of the respondents with generally low AMD remained unchanged. In addition, nearly 80% of respondents were sensitive to food waste. The study provides a useful contribution to the debate on nutritional recommendations in case of further lockdown.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Comportamento Alimentar , Estilo de Vida , Estado Nutricional , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Mediterrânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Eliminação de Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Verduras
6.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200390

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted daily activities worldwide. University students may have experienced substantial changes in daily living as a result of restrictions on university attendance. The return to normalcy may take a long time, and understanding the influence that shifts in daily routines have had on the lifestyles of university students may inform approaches to support overall well-being. We analyzed changes in the lifestyles of students enrolled at a health sciences university during the COVID-19 pandemic. This longitudinal study took place at the Faculty of Medicine and Nursing in the University of the Basque Country in Spain, and the final sample consisted of 113 nursing students, 109 medical students, and 45 physiotherapy students. Our results demonstrate changes in lifestyles of university students during the pandemic. MedDiet adherence scores and the percentage of students with high adherence increased during the pandemic. This increase was due to the increased consumption of vegetables and nuts. In terms of physical activity, the practice of moderate and intense physical activity was maintained. These results provide important information for both public health authorities and educational institutions to guide strategies to maintain the well-being of students and enhance opportunities for young adults to lead a healthy lifestyle.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Dieta Saudável , Dieta Mediterrânea , Exercício Físico , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/psicologia , Universidades , Adolescente , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203025

RESUMO

Clinical decision support systems (CDSS) are data aggregation tools based on computer technology that assist clinicians to promote healthy weight management and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. We carried out a randomised controlled 3-month trial to implement lifestyle modifications in breast cancer (BC) patients by means of CDSS during the COVID-19 pandemic. In total, 55 BC women at stages I-IIIA were enrolled. They were randomly assigned either to Control group, receiving general lifestyle advice (n = 28) or the CDSS group (n = 27), to whom the CDSS provided personalised dietary plans based on the Mediterranean diet (MD) together with physical activity guidelines. Food data, anthropometry, blood markers and quality of life were evaluated. At 3 months, higher adherence to MD was recorded in the CDSS group, accompanied by lower body weight (kg) and body fat mass percentage compared to control (p < 0.001). In the CDSS arm, global health/quality of life was significantly improved at the trial endpoint (p < 0.05). Fasting blood glucose and lipid levels (i.e., cholesterol, LDL, triacylglycerols) of the CDSS arm remained unchanged (p > 0.05) but were elevated in the control arm at 3 months (p < 0.05). In conclusion, CDSS could be a promising tool to assist BC patients with lifestyle modifications during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , COVID-19 , Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Dieta Mediterrânea , Estilo de Vida , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adulto , Terapia Comportamental , Glicemia/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/etiologia , Cooperação do Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , SARS-CoV-2 , Triglicerídeos/sangue
8.
Trials ; 22(1): 459, 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has altered the research landscape for clinical trials, requiring thoughtful consideration regarding how to handle the risks and benefits of continuing them. DESIGN: This brief report describes the experience of adapting the Building Research in Diet and Cognition (BRIDGE) study, a randomized clinical trial examining the effects of the Mediterranean diet, with and without weight loss, on cognitive functioning in 185 older obese African American adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. MEASUREMENT: The University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) developed an expedited amendment process for research shifting to remote data collection. We conducted the study in three consecutive groups. For group 3, 14-month data collection period, we adapted our protocol to allow data collection via telephone and e-mail. We were unable to collect certain measures that required face-to-face contact. RESULTS: For measures that could be collected remotely, 14-month retention was similar for group 3 compared to groups 1 and 2: data were collected for 86.9% of group 3 (remote) and 87.9% of groups 1 and 2 (face to face), p = .84. CONCLUSIONS: In order to preserve the integrity of our clinical trial and ensure the safety of our participants and staff during the COVID-19 pandemic, we had to carefully and efficiently adapt our data collection procedures. The procedures put in place allowed us to collect our primary outcomes and the majority of our secondary outcomes and will enable us to examine the role of dietary intake, with and without weight loss, on cognitive functioning in a vulnerable and high-risk population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT3129048. Registration Date: 4/17/2017.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Dieta Mediterrânea , Adulto , Chicago , Cognição , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(6)2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199973

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Shift work has a significant influence on the mental health of workers. Nursing is characterised by a rotational work system. This study aimed to determine whether there was a link between adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) and the risk of suffering an eating disorder (ED) in nurses according to their work shift. Materials and Methods: A total of 240 women (nurses and nursing assistants) were evaluated and completed the PREDIMED-PLUS questionnaire on adherence to the MD and the EAT-26 (Eating Attitude Test, 26 items). Results: The results indicate that there are no differences in adherence to the MD depending on the work shift, being that adherence to the diet is already low. Statistically significant differences appear depending on the work shift in the following dimensions: restrictive behaviours and bulimia subscales (presenting higher scores in the 7-h rotating shift versus the fixed morning shift or 12-h rotating shift) and for total EAT-26 score. Conclusion: Whilst they do not condition adherence to a MD, the nursing shifts that are the most changing in terms of time patterns may condition restrictive behaviours and compensatory risk behaviours related to an ED.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Estudos Transversais , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065436

RESUMO

High saturated fat diets have been associated with the development of obesity and hypertension, along with other pathologies related to the metabolic syndrome. In contrast, the Mediterranean diet, characterized by its high content of monounsaturated fatty acids, has been proposed as a dietary factor capable of positively regulating cardiovascular function. These effects have been linked to changes in the local renal renin angiotensin system (RAS) and the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. The main goal of this study was to analyze the role of two dietary fat sources on aminopeptidases activities involved in local kidney RAS. Male Wistar rats (six months old) were fed during 24 weeks with three different diets: the standard diet (S), the standard diet supplemented with virgin olive oil (20%) (VOO), or the standard diet enriched with butter (20%) plus cholesterol (0.1%) (Bch). Kidney samples were separated in medulla and cortex for aminopeptidase activities (AP) assay. Urine samples were collected for routine analysis by chemical tests. Aminopeptidase activities were determined by fluorometric methods in soluble (sol) and membrane-bound (mb) fractions of renal tissue, using arylamide derivatives as substrates. After the experimental period, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) values were similar in standard and VOO animals, and significantly lower than in the Bch group. At the same time, a significant increase in GluAP and IRAP activities were found in renal medulla of Bch animals. However, in VOO group the increase of GluAP activity in renal medulla was lower, while AspAP activity decreased in the renal cortex. Furthermore, the VOO diet also affected other aminopeptidase activities, such as TyrAP and pGluAP, related to the regulation of the sympathetic nervous system and the metabolic rate. These results support the beneficial effect of VOO in the regulation of SBP through changes in local AP activities of the kidney.


Assuntos
Aminopeptidases/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Renal/efeitos dos fármacos , Medula Renal/efeitos dos fármacos , Azeite de Oliva/farmacologia , Animais , Manteiga , Colesterol/metabolismo , Dieta Mediterrânea , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Córtex Renal/metabolismo , Medula Renal/metabolismo , Masculino , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073264

RESUMO

The notion of the Mediterranean diet has progressively evolved over the past half a century, from a healthy (coronary) dietary pattern to a model of sustainable diet [...].


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea
12.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234788

RESUMO

The aim of this observational study was investigating the possible correlation between adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MeD) and SARS-COV-2 infection rates and severity among healthcare professionals (HCPs). An online self-administrated questionnaire (evaluating both MeD adherence and dietary habits) was filled out by HCPs working in Piedmont (Northern Italy) from 15 January to 28 February 2021. Out of the 1206 questionnaires collected, 900 were considered reliable and analyzed. Individuals who reported the SARS-COV-2 infection (n = 148) showed a significantly lower MeD score, with a lower adherence in fruit, vegetables, cereals, and olive oil consumption. In a logistic regression model, the risk of infection was inversely associated with the MeD score (OR = 0.88; 95% CI 0.81-0.97) and the consumption of cereals (OR = 0.64; 0.45-0.90). Asymptomatic individuals with SARS-COV-2 infection reported a lower intake of saturated fats than symptomatic; individuals requiring hospitalization were significantly older and reported worse dietary habits than both asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals. After combining all symptomatic individuals together, age (OR = 1.05; 1.01-1.09) and saturated fats intake (OR = 1.09; 1.01-1.17) were associated with the infection severity. HCPs who reported a SARS-COV-2 infection showed a significantly lower MeD score and cereal consumption. The infection severity was directly associated with higher age and saturated fat intake.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Dieta Mediterrânea , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
13.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069656

RESUMO

The aim of this observational study was investigating the possible correlation between adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MeD) and SARS-COV-2 infection rates and severity among healthcare professionals (HCPs). An online self-administrated questionnaire (evaluating both MeD adherence and dietary habits) was filled out by HCPs working in Piedmont (Northern Italy) from 15 January to 28 February 2021. Out of the 1206 questionnaires collected, 900 were considered reliable and analyzed. Individuals who reported the SARS-COV-2 infection (n = 148) showed a significantly lower MeD score, with a lower adherence in fruit, vegetables, cereals, and olive oil consumption. In a logistic regression model, the risk of infection was inversely associated with the MeD score (OR = 0.88; 95% CI 0.81-0.97) and the consumption of cereals (OR = 0.64; 0.45-0.90). Asymptomatic individuals with SARS-COV-2 infection reported a lower intake of saturated fats than symptomatic; individuals requiring hospitalization were significantly older and reported worse dietary habits than both asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals. After combining all symptomatic individuals together, age (OR = 1.05; 1.01-1.09) and saturated fats intake (OR = 1.09; 1.01-1.17) were associated with the infection severity. HCPs who reported a SARS-COV-2 infection showed a significantly lower MeD score and cereal consumption. The infection severity was directly associated with higher age and saturated fat intake.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Dieta Mediterrânea , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062731

RESUMO

Youth obesity is a strong predictor of adult obesity, which has well-known negative health consequences. Thus, addressing adult obesity requires tackling youth obesity. MED4Youth's main objective is to strengthen the link between the Mediterranean Diet (MD) and the health benefits against youth obesity and associated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, identifying positive effects exerted by an MD including sourdough bread and healthy products from the Mediterranean basis (chickpeas/hummus, nuts, and pomegranate juice). For this purpose, a multicenter randomized controlled trial in which an MD-based intervention will be compared to a traditional low-fat diet intervention will be carried out with 240 overweight and obese adolescents (13-17 years) from Spain, Portugal, and Italy. Both interventions will be combined with an educational web-application addressed to engage the adolescents through a learning-through-playing approach, using both educational materials and games. To assess the interventions, adherence to the MD, dietary records, physical activity, food frequency, sociodemographic, and quality of life questionnaires as well as classical anthropometric and biochemical parameters will be evaluated. Furthermore, an omics approach will be performed to elucidate whether the interventions can shape the gut microbiota and gut-derived metabolites to gain knowledge on the mechanisms through which the MD can exert its beneficial effects.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Adolescente , Adulto , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras , Humanos , Itália , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Portugal , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Espanha
15.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(7): e13597, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34032283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social containment measures imposed in Europe during the lockdown to face COVID-19 pandemic can generate long-term potential threats for metabolic health. METHODS: A cohort of 494 non-COVID-19 subjects living in 21 EU countries were interviewed by an anonymous questionnaire exploring anthropometric and lifestyle changes during 1-month lockdown. A subgroup of 41 overweight/obese Italian subjects with previously diagnosed nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) joined the study following a 12-month follow-up period promoting weight loss by healthy lifestyle. RESULTS: During the lockdown, body weight increased in 55% of subjects (average 2.4 ± 0.9 kg). Weight change increased with age, but not baseline body mass index. Subjects living in Italy had greater weight gain than those living in other European Countries. Weight gain during the lockdown was highest in subjects reporting no physical activity, and low adherence to Mediterranean diet. In the NAFLD group, weight gain occurred in 70% of cases. Subjects reporting weight loss during lockdown had decreased fatty liver score at 3 months before the lockdown, as compared with 1 year before. CONCLUSIONS: Strict measures of social containment-even short-term-pave the way to the increased risk of metabolic abnormalities in the medium-long term. In this context, adherence to Mediterranean diet and regular physical activity play a protective role both in terms of weight gain and fatty liver development/progression, with implication for primary and secondary prevention. When adopting measures imposing social containment, intensive educational campaigns must increase public awareness about beneficial effects of healthy lifestyles.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício Físico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico por imagem , Obesidade/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso , Adolescente , Adulto , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Dieta Mediterrânea , União Europeia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Política Pública , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(7): e13597, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social containment measures imposed in Europe during the lockdown to face COVID-19 pandemic can generate long-term potential threats for metabolic health. METHODS: A cohort of 494 non-COVID-19 subjects living in 21 EU countries were interviewed by an anonymous questionnaire exploring anthropometric and lifestyle changes during 1-month lockdown. A subgroup of 41 overweight/obese Italian subjects with previously diagnosed nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) joined the study following a 12-month follow-up period promoting weight loss by healthy lifestyle. RESULTS: During the lockdown, body weight increased in 55% of subjects (average 2.4 ± 0.9 kg). Weight change increased with age, but not baseline body mass index. Subjects living in Italy had greater weight gain than those living in other European Countries. Weight gain during the lockdown was highest in subjects reporting no physical activity, and low adherence to Mediterranean diet. In the NAFLD group, weight gain occurred in 70% of cases. Subjects reporting weight loss during lockdown had decreased fatty liver score at 3 months before the lockdown, as compared with 1 year before. CONCLUSIONS: Strict measures of social containment-even short-term-pave the way to the increased risk of metabolic abnormalities in the medium-long term. In this context, adherence to Mediterranean diet and regular physical activity play a protective role both in terms of weight gain and fatty liver development/progression, with implication for primary and secondary prevention. When adopting measures imposing social containment, intensive educational campaigns must increase public awareness about beneficial effects of healthy lifestyles.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício Físico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico por imagem , Obesidade/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso , Adolescente , Adulto , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Dieta Mediterrânea , União Europeia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Política Pública , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 43: 329-334, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Given reports of changes in dietary habits during covid-19 lockdown, our aim was to assess weight changes, over a 3-month Covid-19 national lockdown in a cohort of NAFLD-HIV patients on a dietary intervention trial. METHODS: After NAFLD screening in an outpatient Infectious Diseases Clinic, NAFLD patients were randomly allocated to general dietary recommendations (SC group) or to a structured dietary intervention based on the Mediterranean diet (intervention group). During lockdown, follow-up consultations in the intervention group were done by video and/or phone. After 3 months of lockdown, all patients (intervention and SC group) consented to a telephone interview which aimed to characterize eating habits and lifestyle changes and evaluate stress and depression. Biochemical data when available, was compared between the peri-period of confinement. RESULTS: One hundred and twelve patients were screened. From the 55 NAFDL identified, 27 were allocated to dietary intervention and 28 to SC and were followed before lockdown for a mean period of 5.0 ± 1.5 months in which SC group gained a median of 0.65 kg vs. a median loss of 1.5 kg in the intervention group (p < 0.001). During lockdown, 93.3% of patients in the SC group referred that "diet got worse" vs. 6.7% in the intervention group p < 0.01), and 35.3% vs. 15.7% (p = 0.014) reported increase in appetite, respectively. Both groups gained weight, SC group vs. 0.7 ± 1.7 kg in the intervention group, p < 0.001). Higher weight gain was associated with changes in the dietary pattern (3.8 ± 2.1 kg vs. 2.0 ± 1.3 kg in "no change in dietary pattern"; p = 0.002). Glucose blood levels increased after lockdown in the SC group, with a mean increase of 15 mg/dl (p = 0.023). The remaining metabolic parameters remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: The maintenance of dietary intervention, using telemedicine, can mitigate the adverse change in dietary habits and physical activity pattern, preventing a substantial increase in body weight.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , COVID-19 , Dieta Mediterrânea , Infecções por HIV/dietoterapia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/dietoterapia , Distanciamento Físico , Telemedicina , Adulto , Apetite , Glicemia/metabolismo , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Depressão , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Ganho de Peso , Perda de Peso
18.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946967

RESUMO

The Mediterranean diet (MD), despite its multiple benefits, presents low levels of adherence among children. Moreover, childhood is a key stage in the acquisition of healthy habits. The aim of this study was to describe adherence to MD in school-age children from Asturias, Spain, and to evaluate the association with weight status and several lifestyle behaviors. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 309 children aged between 8 and 13 years old. The level of adherence to MD was evaluated through the KIDMED questionnaire. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between adherence to MD and weight status, frequency of out-of-school exercise, frequency of school canteen attendance, and sleep habits. We found that 54.4% of children had optimal adherence to MD and 29.9% of the sample was overweight or obese. Frequency of exercise practice was positively associated with optimal adherence to MD (95% CI: 1.02, 1.33). A positive association was found between some KIDMED items and frequency of out-of-school exercise practice and attendance at the school canteen. This study shows the need for an improvement in the adherence to MD in youth considering the concomitant occurrence of other related healthy behaviors.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Dieta Mediterrânea , Exercício Físico , Cooperação do Paciente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Espanha
19.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946280

RESUMO

High adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) has been associated with a lower prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). The present study aimed to investigate the impact of MD adherence on parameters of MetS. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Cochrane Central Registry of Clinical Trials (CENTRAL), Scopus, EMBASE, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases. Observational studies that recorded adherence to MD and components/measures of the MetS, such as waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP), fasting blood glucose (FBG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglycerides (TG), were included in this study. A total of 58 studies were included in our study. WC and TG were significantly lower in the high adherence MD group (SMD: -0.20, (95%CI: -0.40, -0.01), SMD: -0.27 (95%CI: -0.27, -0.11), respectively), while HDL cholesterol was significantly higher in the same group (SMD: -0.28 (95%CI: 0.07, 0.50). There was no difference in FBG and SBP among the two groups (SMD: -0.21 (95%CI: -0.54, 0.12) & SMD: -0.15 (95%CI: -0.38, 0.07), respectively). MD may have a positive impact on all parameters of MetS. However, further research is needed in this field.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto
20.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 43: 329-334, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34024536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Given reports of changes in dietary habits during covid-19 lockdown, our aim was to assess weight changes, over a 3-month Covid-19 national lockdown in a cohort of NAFLD-HIV patients on a dietary intervention trial. METHODS: After NAFLD screening in an outpatient Infectious Diseases Clinic, NAFLD patients were randomly allocated to general dietary recommendations (SC group) or to a structured dietary intervention based on the Mediterranean diet (intervention group). During lockdown, follow-up consultations in the intervention group were done by video and/or phone. After 3 months of lockdown, all patients (intervention and SC group) consented to a telephone interview which aimed to characterize eating habits and lifestyle changes and evaluate stress and depression. Biochemical data when available, was compared between the peri-period of confinement. RESULTS: One hundred and twelve patients were screened. From the 55 NAFDL identified, 27 were allocated to dietary intervention and 28 to SC and were followed before lockdown for a mean period of 5.0 ± 1.5 months in which SC group gained a median of 0.65 kg vs. a median loss of 1.5 kg in the intervention group (p < 0.001). During lockdown, 93.3% of patients in the SC group referred that "diet got worse" vs. 6.7% in the intervention group p < 0.01), and 35.3% vs. 15.7% (p = 0.014) reported increase in appetite, respectively. Both groups gained weight, SC group vs. 0.7 ± 1.7 kg in the intervention group, p < 0.001). Higher weight gain was associated with changes in the dietary pattern (3.8 ± 2.1 kg vs. 2.0 ± 1.3 kg in "no change in dietary pattern"; p = 0.002). Glucose blood levels increased after lockdown in the SC group, with a mean increase of 15 mg/dl (p = 0.023). The remaining metabolic parameters remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: The maintenance of dietary intervention, using telemedicine, can mitigate the adverse change in dietary habits and physical activity pattern, preventing a substantial increase in body weight.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , COVID-19 , Dieta Mediterrânea , Infecções por HIV/dietoterapia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/dietoterapia , Distanciamento Físico , Telemedicina , Adulto , Apetite , Glicemia/metabolismo , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Depressão , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Ganho de Peso , Perda de Peso
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