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1.
Nutrients ; 12(11)2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137947

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease is still spreading in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) with subsequent lockdowns and social distancing measures being enforced by the government. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of the lockdown on eating habits and lifestyle behaviors among residents of the UAE. A cross-sectional study among adults in the UAE was conducted using an online questionnaire between April and May 2020. A total of 1012 subjects participated in the study. During the pandemic, 31% reported weight gain and 72.2% had less than eight cups of water per day. Furthermore, the dietary habits of the participants were distanced from the Mediterranean diet principles and closer to "unhealthy" dietary patterns. Moreover, 38.5% did not engage in physical activity and 36.2% spent over five hours per day on screens for entertainment. A significantly higher percentage of participants reported physical exhaustion, emotional exhaustion, irritability, and tension "all the time" during the pandemic compared to before the pandemic (p < 0.001). Sleep disturbances were prevalent among 60.8% of the participants during the pandemic. Although lockdowns are an important safety measure to protect public health, results indicate that they might cause a variety of lifestyle changes, physical inactivity, and psychological problems among adults in the UAE.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Dieta Mediterrânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Estilo de Vida , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/psicologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Mediterrânea/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Sedentário , Inquéritos e Questionários , Emirados Árabes Unidos , Ganho de Peso , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003331, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether the effect on mortality of a higher body mass index (BMI) can be compensated for by adherence to a healthy diet and whether the effect on mortality by a low adherence to a healthy diet can be compensated for by a normal weight. We aimed to evaluate the associations of BMI combined with adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet on all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Our longitudinal cohort design included the Swedish Mammography Cohort (SMC) and the Cohort of Swedish Men (COSM) (1997-2017), with a total of 79,003 women (44%) and men (56%) and a mean baseline age of 61 years. BMI was categorized into normal weight (20-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25-29.9 kg/m2), and obesity (30+ kg/m2). Adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet was assessed by means of the modified Mediterranean-like diet (mMED) score, ranging from 0 to 8; mMED was classified into 3 categories (0 to <4, 4 to <6, and 6-8 score points), forming a total of 9 BMI × mMED combinations. We identified mortality by use of national Swedish registers. Cox proportional hazard models with time-updated information on exposure and covariates were used to calculate the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of mortality with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Our HRs were adjusted for age, baseline educational level, marital status, leisure time physical exercise, walking/cycling, height, energy intake, smoking habits, baseline Charlson's weighted comorbidity index, and baseline diabetes mellitus. During up to 21 years of follow-up, 30,389 (38%) participants died, corresponding to 22 deaths per 1,000 person-years. We found the lowest HR of all-cause mortality among overweight individuals with high mMED (HR 0.94; 95% CI 0.90, 0.98) compared with those with normal weight and high mMED. Using the same reference, obese individuals with high mMED did not experience significantly higher all-cause mortality (HR 1.03; 95% CI 0.96-1.11). In contrast, compared with those with normal weight and high mMED, individuals with a low mMED had a high mortality despite a normal BMI (HR 1.60; 95% CI 1.48-1.74). We found similar estimates among women and men. For CVD mortality (12,064 deaths) the findings were broadly similar, though obese individuals with high mMED retained a modestly increased risk of CVD death (HR 1.29; 95% CI 1.16-1.44) compared with those with normal weight and high mMED. A main limitation of the present study is the observational design with self-reported lifestyle information with risk of residual or unmeasured confounding (e.g., genetic liability), and no causal inferences can be made based on this study alone. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that diet quality modifies the association between BMI and all-cause mortality in women and men. A healthy diet may, however, not completely counter higher CVD mortality related to obesity.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/dietoterapia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Dieta Mediterrânea/psicologia , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta Saudável , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Fumar , Suécia
3.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531892

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether dietary behaviours of the Spanish adult population were changed during the COVID-19 outbreak confinement. For that purpose, an online questionnaire, based on 44 items including socio-demographic data, Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) Adherence Screener (MEDAS) as a reference of a healthy diet, processed foods intake, changes in their usual food choices and weight gain was distributed using social media and snowball sampling. A total of 7514 participants (37% aged below 35 years, 70.6% female, 77.9% university-level education or higher) from all the Spanish territory completed the questionnaire. Results outlined healthier dietary behaviours during the confinement when compared to previous habits. Overall, the MEDAS score (ranging from 0 to 14, whereby higher a scoring reflects greater adherence to the MedDiet) increased significantly from 6.53 ± 2 to 7.34 ± 1.93 during the confinement. Multivariate logistic regression models, adjusted for age, gender, region and other variables, showed a statistically significant higher likelihood of changing the adherence to the MedDiet (towards an increase in adherence) in those persons who decreased the intake of fried foods, snacks, fast foods, red meat, pastries or sweet beverages, but increased MedDiet-related foods such as olive oil, vegetables, fruits or legumes during the confinement. COVID-19 confinement in Spain has led to the adoption of healthier dietary habits/behaviours in the studied population, as reflected by a higher adherence to the MedDiet. This improvement, if sustained in the long-term, could have a positive impact on the prevention of chronic diseases and COVID-19-related complications.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Dieta Mediterrânea/psicologia , Dieta Mediterrânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Espanha/epidemiologia
4.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(6): 1214-1225, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mounting epidemiologic studies have investigated the potential inverse association between Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence and colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality. OBJECTIVES: This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the association between MD adherence and CRC incidence and mortality. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were searched to identify eligible studies through September 2019. A random-effects model was used to estimate summary RRs and 95% CIs. RESULTS: This meta-analysis included 13 prospective cohort studies, of which 9 reported CRC incidence and 5 reported CRC mortality. The summary RR of CRC incidence was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.84, 0.96) for highest compared with lowest MD adherence and 0.96 (95% CI: 0.94, 0.99) per 2-score increase in MD adherence. The summary RRs for highest compared with lowest MD adherence were 0.82 for rectal cancer (95% CI: 0.71, 0.95), 0.94 for proximal colon cancer (95% CI: 0.87, 1.02), and 0.91 for distal colon cancer (95% CI: 0.79, 1.04). Neither the summary HR of overall mortality for highest compared with lowest pre- and postdiagnosis MD adherence, nor the summary HR of CRC-specific mortality for highest compared with lowest prediagnosis MD adherence achieved a value with statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis supports the inverse association of MD adherence with CRC incidence, but not with overall mortality or CRC-specific mortality among those diagnosed with CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Dieta Mediterrânea/psicologia , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/psicologia , Dieta Mediterrânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028574

RESUMO

This cross-sectional study examined the impact of adherence to Mediterranean diet on burnout syndrome risk in 94 athletes 8-15 years old. Diet pattern and burnout syndrome risk were assessed through the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire and the KIDMED Questionnaire. 55.3% of girls and 16.1% of boys had a high risk of burnout syndrome and the risk increased with age. Of the 78.7% with low adherence to Mediterranean diet, 31.1% showed no risk of burnout syndrome, 33.8% had a moderate risk, and 35.1% high risk. Of the 21.3% with a high adherence to Mediterranean diet, 35% had no risk of burnout syndrome, 45% had a moderate risk, and 20% had a high risk. Participants with moderate/high burnout syndrome risk were more likely to be girls and spend a higher number of hours watching television or playing video games. There is not enough statistical evidence in this study to reject the independence between the level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet and the risk of burnout syndrome in children, except in the case of daily consumption of fresh or cooked vegetables.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Psicológico , Dieta Mediterrânea , Tênis , Adolescente , Esgotamento Psicológico/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Mediterrânea/psicologia , Dieta Mediterrânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tênis/psicologia , Tênis/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Nutrients ; 12(2)2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069883

RESUMO

Inadequate diet, physical activity, and sleep-related behaviors are potential risk factors for overweight and obese, therefore we investigated the relations between body mass index (BMI) and behavioral factors in a sample of Italian adolescents. Four hundred nine Italian secondary school students (46% females, 12.5 ± 0.6 y.o.) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Anthropometric measures, adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (KIDMED), physical activity level (PAQ-C), sleep duration, daytime sleepiness (PDSS), sleep quality, and school achievement data were collected through an online questionnaire. The percentage of overweight adolescents was slightly lower (14%) compared to the regional and the national figures. Approximately 88% of the sample reported a medium/high adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and 77% a moderate/vigorous physical activity level. The average sleep duration was in line with the international sleep recommendation for adolescents and 82% had a medium/high sleep quality. No differences were found between genders except for BMI (lower in females). Unexpectedly, no differences were found among the BMI groups (normal weight vs. overweight vs. obese) for lifestyle variables; in contrast, Mediterranean Diet adherence was associated with sleep habits. Further investigation is required to better explore the associations among behavioral variables involved in adolescents' healthy development.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Sono , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Rev Paul Pediatr ; 38: e2018242, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939514

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To translate and culturally adapt the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index in Children and Adolescent (KIDMED) for the Brazilian population. METHODS: The processes of translation and cultural adaptation followed internationally standardized methodological norms. We used the intraclass correlation coefficient and the Bland-Altman dispersion analysis to assess the reproducibility and calculated the internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha coefficient. RESULTS: A total of 102 children and adolescents participated in the cross-cultural adaptation, of whom 58 (56.9%) were females, with a mean age of 9.8±4.9 years. The mean overall scores of adherence to the Mediterranean diet in the test and retest were similar (8.00 and 3.80 versus 8.01 and 3.84) for children and adolescents, respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficient for children and adolescents was 0.893 and 0.998, respectively. The internal consistency was 0.72. The Bland-Altman plot analysis showed good agreement between the final scores of the test and retest questionnaires, with no statistically significant difference. CONCLUSIONS: The KIDMED questionnaire was translated into Brazilian Portuguese and culturally adapted, presenting high reproducibility. This questionnaire can, therefore, be included and used in Brazilian studies that aim at evaluating the adherence to the Mediterranean diet among children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Dieta Mediterrânea/psicologia , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Características Culturais , Dieta Mediterrânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Traduções
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739416

RESUMO

Unhealthy lifestyles, low levels of physical fitness, and adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) are associated with bad quality of life and the development of a wide range of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The current study aimed to evaluate the level of adherence to the MD in physical fitness performance and body composition parameters in children and adolescents of Estonia. Therefore, 413 adolescents (56% boys) from the city of Tartu completed the Mediterranean Diet Questionnaire (KIDMED) for analyzing the adherence to MD and performed the Alpha Fitness Test for measuring physical fitness and body composition. A 41.67% of low, 44.05% of average, and 14.28% of high adherence to MD was detected, without difference between genders (p = 0.747). In the Alpha Fitness battery, a higher performance was observed in all tests for boys vs. girls (p < 0.05). In relation to body composition, higher height, weight, and waist values were observed in boys (p < 0.05) and a lower body fat percentage (p < 0.01) without differences in body mass index (BMI; p = 0.906). The adherence to the MD is classified as average/low. Gender significantly influences all variables of the Alpha Fitness battery and anthropometrics measures excepting BMI. According the levels of adherence to the MD, no statistically different prevalence was observed for Non-Overweight (N-Oweight), Non-Overfat (N-Ofat), or Non-Overwaist (N-Owaist). Still, a risk factor for Overweight (Oweight) in boys with low adherence was observed in comparison to those with a mid-level of adherence to the MD.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea/psicologia , Dieta Mediterrânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Aptidão Física/psicologia , Adolescente , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Estônia/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 71(4): 1321-1330, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nutrition plays an important role in the aging process. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has been shown to be associated with lower rates of diseases. Cognitive status seems to be strongly interrelated with physical well-being, so that one influences the other. Physical performance measures are not only associated with clinical and subclinical age-related modifications, but are also able to predict disability, institutionalization, and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate prospectively the associations between Mediterranean-Style Dietary Pattern Score (MSDPS), clinical characteristics, and cognition of the population sample of The TREVISO LONGEVA (TRELONG) Study, in Treviso, Italy. METHODS: Global cognition, physical performance measures, MSDPS, and other clinical features were detected in 2010 in 82 men and 108 women. These characteristics were evaluated in relation to the physical performance measures identified 3.8 years later in 2013 in the same subjects, using a semantic connectivity map, through Auto-CM system, to grasp further and non-linear associations between variables which might remain, otherwise, undetected. RESULTS: The Auto-CM system's map showed a close association between better levels of global cognition and MSDPS in 2010 and higher physical performance in 2013. On the other hand, worse levels of global cognition and MSDPS in 2010 were associated with lower physical performance in 2013. CONCLUSION: The prevention models for successful aging may benefit from integrated programs that include cognitive, physical, and dietary interventions, since these aspects are mutually interrelated.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Dieta Mediterrânea , Envelhecimento Saudável , Redes Neurais de Computação , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dieta Mediterrânea/psicologia , Dieta Mediterrânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Exame Físico/métodos , Exame Físico/estatística & dados numéricos , Desempenho Físico Funcional
11.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547562

RESUMO

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common female endocrine disorder and is characterized by chronic anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries. Obesity, low-grade chronic inflammatory status, and insulin-resistance (IR) often coexist in PCOS. The Mediterranean diet (MD) is an anti-inflammatory dietary pattern, which is rich in complex carbohydrates and fiber, and high in monounsaturated fat. There is a close association among obesity, low-grade chronic inflammation, IR, and hormonal derangements in PCOS. The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the adherence to MD, the dietary intake, and the body composition and their association with PCOS clinical severity in a cohort of treatment-naïve women with PCOS when compared with a control group of healthy women matched for age and body mass index (BMI). In this case-controlled, cross-sectional study, we enrolled 112 patients with PCOS and 112 controls. PREvención con DIetaMEDiterránea (PREDIMED) and seven-day food records were used to evaluate the degree of adherence to the MD and dietary pattern, respectively. Body composition was evaluated by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) phase-sensitive system. Testosterone levels and Ferriman-Gallwey score assessed the clinical severity of PCOS. C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were determined with a nephelometric assay with CardioPhase high sensitivity. PCOS women showed higher testosterone levels, Ferriman-Gallwey score, fasting insulin and glucose levels, and Homeostatic Model Assessment (HoMA)-IR when compared with the control group (p < 0.001). In addition, we found that the PCOS women consumed less extra-virgin olive oil, legumes, fish/seafood, and nuts compared with control group. Despite no differences in energy intake between the two groups, the PCOS women consumed a lower quantity of complex carbohydrate, fiber, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), and higher quantity of simple carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fatty acid (SFA), PUFA and n-6 PUFA than the control group. The PCOS women have an adverse body composition when compared with controls, with the lowest values of phase angle (PhA) and fat-free mass (p < 0.001). Additionally, after adjusting for BMI and total energy intake, testosterone levels showed significant negative correlations with PREDIMED score (p < 0.001) and consumption of protein (p = 0.005), complex carbohydrate (p < 0.001), fiber (p < 0.001), MUFA (p < 0.001), n-3 PUFA (p = 0.001), and positive associations with CRP levels, simple carbohydrate, SFA, n-6 PUFA (p < 0.001, respectively), and PUFA (p = 0.002). The cut-off for PREDIMED score ≤ 6 (p < 0.001, area under the curve (AUC) 0.848, standard error 0.036, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.768 to 0.909) could serve as a threshold for significantly increased risk of high value of testosterone levels. In conclusion, a novel direct association between the adherence to MD and the clinical severity of the disease was reported in women with PCOS. This association could support a therapeutic role of foods and nutrients of the Mediterranean dietary pattern in the PCOS pathogenesis likely involving their inflammatory status, IR, and hyperandrogenemia. In addition, we reported a different body composition that is characterized by lower PhA and fat-free mass than controls. These data suggested a role of PhA as a useful marker of the clinical severity of this syndrome and provided strong evidence regarding the strategic relevance of the nutritional assessment in the management of women with PCOS.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Dieta Mediterrânea/psicologia , Cooperação do Paciente , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/dietoterapia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Impedância Elétrica , Ingestão de Energia , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/psicologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561490

RESUMO

Research suggests that attention, mood, and satiety can be influenced by meal composition and postprandial activity. The present study examined whether this hypothesis applies to persons with a risk phenotype for the development of cardiovascular/neurodegenerative diseases. A randomized crossover trial was conducted in subjects with metabolic syndrome traits (n = 26, 8 female, age 70 ± 5, BMI 30.3 ± 2.3 kg/m2). Each subject participated in four interventions: iso-energetic (4300 kJ) meals (Western diet high-fat, WD, and Mediterranean-type diet, MD) followed by either 30 min of moderate walking (4.6 ± 0.1 km/h) or rest. Attention, mood, satiety and plasma cortisol concentrations were measured at fasting and 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 h postprandially. Data were analyzed by linear mixed models. In all interventions, attention increased continuously in the postprandial period (time effect, P < 0.001). After WD, attention was lower after walking compared to resting (meal × activity effect, P < 0.05). Postprandial mood was generally "good" with no intervention effects. Postprandial satiety increased reaching maximum at 1.5 h after meal (time effect, P < 0.001) and was higher after MD compared to WD (meal effect, P < 0.001). In all interventions, plasma cortisol decreased similar to its diurnal variation (time effect, P < 0.001). In our subjects, meal composition had no relevant impact on attention and mood. After typical WD, resting instead of walking seems to have a more beneficial effect on postprandial attention. MD leads to a strong and long-lasting feeling of satiety, possibly resulting in reduced energy intake in the further course of the day and, thus, long-term effect on weight control.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea/psicologia , Dieta Ocidental/psicologia , Período Pós-Prandial , Caminhada/psicologia , Afeto , Idoso , Atenção , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Cross-Over , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Refeições , Saciação
13.
Issues Ment Health Nurs ; 40(10): 851-860, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339786

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine the dietary intake of both inpatients and outpatients with schizophrenia in the Portuguese population as a potential key contributing factor to the poor physical health profiles, and understand the relationship of diet quality to other lifestyle factors. Participants of this cross-sectional study completed a semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Diet quality was determined by adherence to the Mediterranean Diet. In addition participants completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short-Form and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Tobacco smoking was assessed through a series of general questions. A total of 100 patients (50% inpatients and 28% female) with schizophrenia were included in the final analysis. Patients reported a high consumption of caffeine, while deficits were evident for fibre and folate intakes, when compared to the European Food Safety Authority recommendations. Both inpatients and outpatients reported poor to moderate diet quality. Smokers reported poorer diet quality when compared to non-smokers (p < 0.001). Dietary intake, and its relationship to other lifestyle components, should be considered for intervention, in order to improve physical health of people living with schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea/psicologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Esquizofrenia/enfermagem , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Adulto , Dietoterapia/enfermagem , Dietoterapia/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados/psicologia , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Necessidades Nutricionais , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/psicologia , Portugal , Fatores de Risco , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia
14.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197100

RESUMO

The eating habits of adolescents are a serious current public health problem. Scientists call attention to the availability of social resources for enhancing healthy eating behavior. Social capital defines those resources as trust, reciprocity, social participation, integrity, and coherence, and they are supposed to help people achieve their life goals, in general, and health goals, in particular. Our aim is to investigate the relationship between social capital within its different contexts and adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MD) among Lithuanian adolescents. The nationally representative cross-sectional study included 1863 students (906 boys and 957 girls). The KIDMED index questionnaire (Mediterranean Diet Quality Index in children and adolescents) was used to evaluate the adherence to an MD. Family, neighborhood, and school contexts of social capital were assessed using six items indicating family support, neighborhood trust, social control, vertical trust, horizontal trust, and reciprocity at school. Covariates such as gender, physical activity, parental education, and body mass index were also included in the analysis. Descriptive results showed that only 14% of Lithuanian adolescents followed an MD. Linear regression analysis indicated that family support (ß = 0.096) and trust in school teachers (ß = 0.074) were related to better rates of adherence, especially regarding the consumption of fruits, vegetables, cereals, fish, and the use of olive oil as a main source of fat. More adolescents who perceived family support and trust in their teachers used these products regularly and were less likely to skip breakfast. These findings could be used as a base for further developing nutrition education programs aimed at enhancing support and trust among families and schoolteachers.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Dieta Mediterrânea/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Capital Social , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Lituânia , Masculino
15.
Diabetes Care ; 42(8): 1372-1379, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123154

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine associations of a Mediterranean diet score (MeDS) with 2-year change in cognitive function by type 2 diabetes and glycemic control status and contrast it against other diet quality scores. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used data from the longitudinal Boston Puerto Rican Health Study (n = 913; 42.6% with type 2 diabetes at 2 years). Glycemic control at baseline was categorized as uncontrolled (hemoglobin A1c ≥7% [53 mmol/mol]) versus controlled. Two-year change in glycemic control was defined as stable/improved versus poor/declined. We defined MeDS, Healthy Eating Index, Alternate Healthy Eating Index, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension scores. Adjusted mixed linear models assessed 2-year change in global cognitive function z score, executive and memory function, and nine individual cognitive tests. RESULTS: Higher MeDS, but no other diet quality score, was associated with higher 2-year change in global cognitive function in adults with type 2 diabetes (ß ± SE = 0.027 ± 0.011; P = 0.016) but not in those without (P = 0.80). Similar results were noted for Mini-Mental State Examination, word recognition, digit span, and clock drawing tests. Results remained consistent for individuals under glycemic control at baseline (0.062 ± 0.020; P = 0.004) and stable/improved over 2 years (0.053 ± 0.019; P = 0.007), but not for individuals with uncontrolled or poor/declined glycemic control. All diet quality scores were associated with higher 2-year memory function in adults without type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Both adhering to a Mediterranean diet and effectively managing type 2 diabetes may support optimal cognitive function. Healthy diets, in general, can help improve memory function among adults without type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Cognição , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Dieta Saudável , Dieta Mediterrânea/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/análise , Boston , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Memória , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Porto Rico
16.
Nutrition ; 65: 91-96, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079018

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) and its associated factors in older Portuguese adults. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study was designed. In the context of the Nutrition UP 65 study, a national cluster sample of 1407 Portuguese individuals ≥65 y of age was analyzed. Adherence to the MDP was evaluated with the Portuguese version of the Prevention with Mediterranean Diet tool. The association between an individual's characteristics and adherence to the MDP was analyzed through hierarchical logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: In this study, 43% of participants adhered to the MDP (n = 609). Higher educational level (odds ratio [OR], 2.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.54-3.69), living in the center (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.01-1.79), being married or living in a common-law marriage (OR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.20-1.97), and body mass index (ORpreobese, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.02-2.25) were related with increased odds of adherence to the MDP. Otherwise, lower adherence to the MDP was found for participants who were ≥80 y of age (OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.52-0.94), who lived in Madeira (OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.14-0.89) and Azores (OR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.08-0.99), who rated their health as moderate (OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.50-0.84) or as bad or very bad (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.45-0.90), and those who reported six or more comorbidities (OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.39-0.97). CONCLUSIONS: Of the sample, 57% did not adhere to the Mediterranean diet. Potentially modifiable factors associated with lower adherence to the MDP were lower educational and health status.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Portugal
17.
Nutrients ; 11(3)2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30841631

RESUMO

The Mediterranean diet (MD) has been associated with an improvement in health and an increase in longevity. Certain components of a MD can play a role in the prevention of osteoporosis and/or hip fracture. We investigated the association between the degree of adherence to a MD and bone mineral density (BMD) measured in several bone areas in a population of Spanish premenopausal women. We analyzed 442 premenopausal women aged 42.73 ± 6.67 years. Bone measurements were obtained using quantitative bone ultrasound (QUS) for the phalanx, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for the lumbar spine, Ward's triangle, trochanter, and hip, and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) for the non-dominant distal forearm. MD adherence was evaluated with MedDietScore. Amplitude-dependent speed of sound (Ad-SOS), BMD, and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) (total, trabecular, and cortical bone density) were positively associated with higher adherence to the MD (p < 0.05). Adherence to the MD was significantly associated with QUS, BMD, and vBMD in multiple regression analysis; QUS: Ad-SOS (m/s) ß = 0.099 (p = 0.030); BMD (g/cm²): femur neck ß = 0.114 (p = 0.010) and Ward's triangle ß = 0.125 (p = 0.006); vBMD (mg/cm³): total density ß = 0.119 (p = 0.036), trabecular density ß = 0.120 (p = 0.035), and cortical density ß = 0.122 (p = 0.032). We conclude that the adherence to the MD was positively associated with better bone mass in Spanish premenopausal women.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Dieta Mediterrânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Menopausa/fisiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Osso Esponjoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Mediterrânea/psicologia , Feminino , Antebraço/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pré-Menopausa/psicologia , Espanha , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
18.
Toxicol Lett ; 308: 7-16, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898663

RESUMO

Opioids are addictive drugs, whose misuse evoke withdrawal and relapse. Mediterranean-based diet (MBD) is rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), while Western based diets (WBDs) contain saturated fatty acids including interesterified fat (IF) and palm oil (PO), influencing neural functions. We compared MBD and WBDs on morphine-induced addiction parameters. Rats fed with MBD (chow plus 20% soybean- and fish-oil- n-6/n-3 PUFA 1:1) or WBD (WBD- PO or WBD-IF: chow plus 20% of palm oil or interesterified fat, respectively; high n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio) were exposed to morphine in conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Anxiety-like behavior, locomotion and thermal sensitivity were evaluated during withdrawal. After morphine-CPP extinction, animals were challenged to morphine-reinstatement to induce relapse. All groups showed morphine-CPP, WBDs favored anxiety-like behaviors per se, locomotor sensitization and thermal hipersensitivity during withdrawal, resulting in increased morphine-reinstatement in comparison to MBD, which did not show relapse. WBDs increased glucocorticoid receptor immunoreactivity in the pre-frontal cortex, increasing corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) per se and after morphine-reinstatement. In the nucleus accumbens, WBDs increased dopamine transporter (DAT) and dopamine receptor-2 (D2R) immunoreactivity and decreased dopamine receptor-1 (D1R). These findings indicate that WBDs facilitate morphine-reinstatement, unlike MBD, preserving the DA system mesolimbic neuroplasticity.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Dependência de Morfina/dietoterapia , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Animais , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Ansiedade/psicologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta Mediterrânea/psicologia , Dieta Ocidental/psicologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipersensibilidade/prevenção & controle , Hipersensibilidade/psicologia , Masculino , Morfina/administração & dosagem , Dependência de Morfina/psicologia , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Wistar , Recidiva
19.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 23(3): 1221-1238, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30779092

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: As mood disorders and obesity are interrelated, and both are linked to increased morbidity and mortality, risk factors for obesity should be identified and closely monitored in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). The aim of this study was to determine the diet quality of BD patients and to investigate its putative associations with comorbid obesity and disorders of carbohydrate metabolism, as well as the relationship between diet and clinical features of BD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eating patterns in 113 euthymic BD patients and 160 healthy control subjects were assessed using data obtained from a food frequency questionnaire. Associations of diet quality with subjects' weight, waist circumference (WC), insulin resistance index and clinical features of BD were also analyzed. RESULTS: BD patients had lower Mediterranean Diet Score than controls. Using principal analysis, four dietary patterns were revealed in the BD group (western-type, pro-healthy carbohydrates, unhealthy snacks, and meats and potatoes). Over 70% of patients with BD had Body Mass Index above 25kg/m2. The values of Fasting Triglycerides Glucose Index and WC were significantly higher in BD patients than in the control group. No significant association between diet quality indices and the clinical course of BD was found. CONCLUSIONS: In our work, euthymic bipolar patients showed unhealthy dietary patterns and had lower adherence to the Mediterranean diet than the controls. Increased values of insulin resistance indicators in the BD group point to the necessity of monitoring glucose and triglycerides levels and measurement of waist circumference in bipolar patients in the routine clinical practice. The cooperation between psychiatrists, dieticians and other medical professionals are necessary to develop dietary recommendations for patients with bipolar disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/metabolismo , Dieta Mediterrânea , Comportamento Alimentar , Escala de Avaliação Comportamental , Transtorno Bipolar/sangue , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Glicemia/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colesterol/sangue , Dieta Mediterrânea/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/psicologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Circunferência da Cintura
20.
Public Health Nutr ; 22(8): 1433-1443, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30732662

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Healthy lifestyle habits are the cornerstone in the management of familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). Nevertheless, dietary studies on FH-affected populations are scarce. The present study analyses dietary habits, adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern and physical activity in an adult population with FH and compares them with their non-affected relatives. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Data came from SAFEHEART, a nationwide study in Spain.ParticipantsIndividuals (n 3714) aged ≥18 years with a genetic diagnosis of FH (n2736) and their non-affected relatives (n 978). Food consumption was evaluated using a validated FFQ. RESULTS: Total energy intake was lower in FH patients v. non-affected relatives (P<0·005). Percentage of energy from fats was also lower in the FH population (35 % in men, 36 % in women) v. those non-affected (38 % in both sexes, P<0·005), due to the lower consumption of saturated fats (12·1 % in FH patients, 13·2 % in non-affected, P<0·005). Consumption of sugars was lower in FH patients v. non-affected relatives (P<0·05). Consumption of vegetables, fish and skimmed milk was higher in the FH population (P<0·005). Patients with FH showed greater adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern v. non-affected relatives (P<0·005). Active smoking was lower and moderate physical activity was higher in people with FH, especially women (P<0·005). CONCLUSIONS: Adult patients with FH report healthier lifestyles than their non-affected family members. They eat a healthier diet, perform more physical activity and smoke less. However, this patient group's consumption of saturated fats and sugars still exceeds guidelines.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos
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