Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.155
Filtrar
1.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(4): e20200884, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495204

RESUMO

To assess the effect of vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) on the esophageal and intestinal morphology of western diet (WD)-obese rats and to characterize the stomach histopathology of WD rats submitted to VSG. Male Wistar rats received WD from 2-4 months of age, to induce obesity, before randomly submitting them to pseudo (WD-SHAM), VSG (WD-VSG) or RYGB (WD-RYGB) surgeries. Gastrointestinal histomorphometry was performed at 3-months post-surgery. The upper esophagus of VSG and RYGB rats increased luminal area, while reductions in the keratin layer of the mucosa and the tunica muscularis were observed only in the RYGB animals. In the lower esophagus, both surgeries increased keratin layer thickness, but reduced the mucosal mucus content, while RYGB increased the thickness of the tunica mucosa and muscularis. The glandular region of the stomach of WD-VSG rats exhibited hypotrophy, epithelial erosion, fibrosis and moderate inflammatory infiltration. VSG and RYGB increased the villi height in the ileum, and the thickness of the tunica muscularis in the jejunum and ileum of WD rats; furthermore, RYGB augmented the ileal villi height. Thus both approaches induced histomorphological alterations in the esophagus and intestine and VSG damaged the gastric mucosa, even over the long-term.


Assuntos
Derivação Gástrica , Animais , Dieta Ocidental , Gastrectomia , Masculino , Obesidade/cirurgia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
2.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 18(1): 62, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A ketogenic diet (KD) is a nutritional approach, usually adopted for weight loss, that restricts daily carbohydrates under 30 g/day. KD showed contradictory results on sport performance, whilst no data are available on team sports. We sought to investigate the influence of a KD on different parameters in semi-professional soccer players. METHODS: Subjects were randomly assigned to a iso-protein (1.8 g/Kg body weight/day) ketogenic diet (KD) or western diet (WD) for 30 days. Body weight and body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), cross sectional area (CSA) and isometric muscle strength of quadriceps, counter movement jump (CMJ) and yoyo intermittent recovery test time were measured. RESULTS: There was a significantly higher decrease of body fat (p = 0.0359), visceral adipose tissue (VAT) (p = 0.0018), waist circumference (p = 0.0185) and extra-cellular water (p = 0.0060) in KD compared to WD group. Lean soft tissue, quadriceps muscle area, maximal strength and REE showed no changes in both groups. RER decreased significantly in KD (p = 0.0008). Yo-yo intermittent test improved significantly (p < 0.0001) in both groups without significant differences between groups. CMJ significantly improved (p = 0.0021) only in KD. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study investigating the effects of a KD on semi-professional soccer players. In our study KD athletes lost fat mass without any detrimental effects on strength, power and muscle mass. When the goal is a rapid weight reduction in such athletes, the use of a KD should be taken into account. TRIAL REGISTRATION: registered retrospectively on Clinical Trial registration number NCT04078971 .


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Dieta Cetogênica , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Adulto , Atletas , Dieta Ocidental , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Elife ; 102021 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515026

RESUMO

The immune cells of macaques fed a Western-like diet adopt a pro-inflammatory profile.


Assuntos
Dieta Ocidental , Dieta , Animais , Macaca fascicularis
4.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371818

RESUMO

The association between immunity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been studied, but its interaction with lifestyles remains unclear. We studied their association and interactions with lifestyles in 40,768 adults aged over 40 years from a large-scale, hospital-based cohort study collected during 2010-2013. White blood cell counts (WBC) and serum C-reactive protein concentrations (CRP) were used as indexes of immune status. The participants were categorized into four groups by the cutoff points of 6.2 × 109/L WBC(L-WBC) and <0.5 mg/dL CRP(L-CRP): L-WBC+L-CRP(n = 25,604), H-WBC+L-CRP(n = 13,880), L-WBC+H-CRP(n = 464), and H-WBC+H-CRP(n = 820). The participants in the H-WBC+L-CRP were younger and had higher numbers of males than the L-WBC+L-CRP. MetS risk was higher by 1.75- and 1.86-fold in the H-WBC+L-CRP and H-WBC+H-CRP, respectively, than the L-WBC+L-CRP. MetS components, including plasma glucose and triglyceride concentrations, and SBP were elevated in H-WBC+L-CRP and H-WBC+H-CRP compared with L-WBC+L-CR+P. The risk of hyperglycemia and high HbA1c was the highest in the H-WBC+H-CRP among all groups. Areas of WBC counts and serum CRP concentrations were 0.637 and 0.672, respectively, in the receiver operating characteristic curve. Daily intake of energy, carbohydrate, protein, and fat was not significantly different in the groups based on WBC counts and CRP. However, a plant-based diet (PBD), physical activity, and non-smoking were related to lowering WBC counts and CRP, but a Western-style diet was linked to elevating CRP. A high PBD intake and smoking status interacted with immunity to influence MetS risk: a low PBD and current smoking were associated with a higher MetS risk in the H-WBC+H-CRP. In conclusion, overactivated immunity determined by CRP and WBC was associated with MetS risk. Behavior modification with PBD and physical activity might be related to immunity regulation.


Assuntos
Dieta Vegetariana/métodos , Ingestão de Alimentos/imunologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/imunologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição/imunologia , Adulto , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
5.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444955

RESUMO

Diet and dietary components have profound effects on the composition of the gut microbiota and are among the most important contributors to the alteration in bacterial flora. This review examines the effects the "Western", "plant-based", "high-fat", "medical ketogenic", and "Mediterranean" diets have on the composition of the gut microbiota in both mice and human subjects. We show that specific dietary components that are commonly found in the "plant-based" and "Mediterranean" diet play a role in shifting the microbial composition. This review further evaluates the bacterial metabolites that are associated with diet, and their role in systemic inflammation and metabolic endotoxemia. Furthermore, the associations between diet/dietary components and altering bacterial composition, may lead to potential therapeutic targets for type II diabetes, obesity, and inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Animais , Dieta/métodos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Dieta Cetogênica/efeitos adversos , Dieta Mediterrânea/efeitos adversos , Dieta Vegetariana/efeitos adversos , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Endotoxemia/etiologia , Endotoxemia/microbiologia , Humanos , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/microbiologia , Camundongos
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(32): 9287-9298, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347479

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by marked imbalances in lipid storage and metabolism. Because the beneficial health effects of cereal ß-glucan (BG) include lowering cholesterol and regulating lipid metabolism, BG may alleviate the imbalances in lipid metabolism observed during NAFLD. The aim of our study was to investigate whether BG from highland barley has an effect on western diet-induced NAFLD in mice. Using lipidomics, we investigated the underlying mechanisms of BG intervention, and identified potential lipid biomarkers. The results reveal that BG (300 mg/kg body weight) significantly alleviated liver steatosis. Lipidomics analysis demonstrated that BG also altered lipid metabolic patterns. We were able to identify 13 differentially regulated lipid species that may be useful as lipid biomarkers. Several genes in the hepatic lipid and cholesterol metabolism pathways were also modulated. These findings provide evidence that BG ameliorates NAFLD by altering liver lipid metabolites and regulating lipid metabolism-related genes.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , beta-Glucanas , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Dieta Ocidental , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hordeum/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipidômica , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , beta-Glucanas/metabolismo
7.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444686

RESUMO

Consumers are shifting towards plant-based diets, driven by both environmental and health reasons. This has led to the development of new plant-based meat alternatives (PBMAs) that are marketed as being sustainable and good for health. However, it remains unclear whether these novel PBMAs to replace animal foods carry the same established nutritional benefits as traditional plant-based diets based on pulses, legumes and vegetables. We modelled a reference omnivore diet using NHANES 2017-2018 data and compared it to diets that substituted animal products in the reference diet with either traditional or novel plant-based foods to create flexitarian, vegetarian and vegan diets matched for calories and macronutrients. With the exception of the traditional vegan diet, all diets with traditional plant-based substitutes met daily requirements for calcium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc, iron and Vitamin B12 and were lower in saturated fat, sodium and sugar than the reference diet. Diets based on novel plant-based substitutes were below daily requirements for calcium, potassium, magnesium, zinc and Vitamin B12 and exceeded the reference diet for saturated fat, sodium and sugar. Much of the recent focus has been on protein quality and quantity, but our case study highlights the risk of unintentionally increasing undesirable nutrients while reducing the overall nutrient density of the diet when less healthy plant-based substitutes are selected. Opportunities exist for PBMA producers to enhance the nutrient profile and diversify the format of future plant-based foods that are marketed as healthy, sustainable alternatives to animal-based products.


Assuntos
Dieta Vegetariana , Dieta , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Valor Nutritivo/fisiologia , Animais , Dieta Saudável , Dieta Vegana , Dieta Ocidental , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Humanos , Carne , Inquéritos Nutricionais
8.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443654

RESUMO

Since westernized diet-induced insulin resistance is a risk factor in Alzheimer's disease (AD) development, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) coexists with amyloid ß (Aß)1-42 in these patients, our AD novel model was developed to resemble sporadic AD by injecting LPS into high fat/fructose diet (HFFD)-fed rats. The neuroprotective potential of palonosetron and/or methyllycaconitine, 5-HT3 receptor and α7 nAChR blockers, respectively, was evaluated after 8 days of daily administration in HFFD/LPS rats. All regimens improved histopathological findings and enhanced spatial memory (Morris Water Maze); however, palonosetron alone or with methyllycaconitine promoted animal performance during novel object recognition tests. In the hippocampus, all regimens reduced the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and skewed microglia M1 to M2 phenotype, indicated by the decreased M1 markers and the enhanced M2 related parameters. Additionally, palonosetron and its combination regimen downregulated the expression of ASC/TMS1, as well as levels of inflammasome downstream molecules and abated cleaved caspase-1, interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-18 and caspase-11. Furthermore, ACh and 5-HT were augmented after being hampered by the insult. Our study speculates that blocking 5-HT3 receptor using palonosetron overrides methyllycaconitine to combat AD-induced neuroinflammation and inflammasome cascade, as well as to restore microglial function in a HFFD/LPS novel model for sporadic AD.


Assuntos
Aconitina/análogos & derivados , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Palonossetrom/farmacologia , Aconitina/farmacologia , Doença de Alzheimer/etiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/genética , Animais , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização CARD/genética , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/patologia , Humanos , Inflamassomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/patologia , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Interleucina-18/genética , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/patologia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/genética , Piroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Receptores 5-HT3 de Serotonina/genética , Fatores de Risco , Memória Espacial/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444797

RESUMO

Our aim was to determine the effect of diet on gut microbiota, digestive function and sensations, using an integrated clinical, metagenomics and metabolomics approach. We conducted a cross-over, randomised study on the effects of a Western-type diet versus a fibre-enriched Mediterranean diet. In 20 healthy men, each diet was administered for 2 weeks preceded by a 2-week washout diet. The following outcomes were recorded: (a) number of anal gas evacuations; (b) digestive sensations; (c) volume of gas evacuated after a probe meal; (d) colonic content by magnetic resonance imaging; (e) gut microbiota taxonomy and metabolic functions by shotgun sequencing of faecal samples; (f) urinary metabolites using untargeted metabolomics. As compared to a Western diet, the Mediterranean diet was associated with (i) higher number of anal gas evacuations, (ii) sensation of flatulence and borborygmi, (iii) larger volume of gas after the meal and (iv) larger colonic content. Despite the relatively little difference in microbiota composition between both diets, microbial metabolism differed substantially, as shown by urinary metabolite profiles and the abundance of microbial metabolic pathways. The effects of the diet were less evident in individuals with robust microbiotas (higher beta-diversity). To conclude, healthy individuals tolerate dietary changes with minor microbial modifications at the composition level but with remarkable variation in microbial metabolism.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Dieta Ocidental , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Metagenômica , Adolescente , Adulto , Biodiversidade , Colo , Estudos Cross-Over , Fezes/microbiologia , Flatulência , Humanos , Masculino , Metabolômica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202894

RESUMO

Consumption of different types of high-calorie foods leads to the development of various metabolic disorders. However, the effects of multi-strain probiotics on different types of diet-induced obesity and intestinal dysbiosis remain unclear. In this study, mice were fed a control diet, high-fat diet (HFD; 60% kcal fat and 20% kcal carbohydrate), or western diet (WD; 40% kcal fat and 43% kcal carbohydrate) and administered with multi-strain AB-Kefir containing six strains of lactic acid bacteria and a Bifidobacterium strain, at 109 CFU per mouse for 10 weeks. Results demonstrated that AB-Kefir reduced body weight gain, glucose intolerance, and hepatic steatosis with a minor influence on gut microbiota composition in HFD-fed mice, but not in WD-fed mice. In addition, AB-Kefir significantly reduced the weight and size of adipose tissues by regulating the expression of CD36, Igf1, and Pgc1 in HFD-fed mice. Although AB-Kefir did not reduce the volume of white adipose tissue, it markedly regulated CD36, Dgat1 and Mogat1 mRNA expression. Moreover, the abundance of Eubacterium_coprostanoligenes_group and Ruminiclostridium significantly correlated with changes in body weight, liver weight, and fasting glucose in test mice. Overall, this study provides important evidence to understand the interactions between probiotics, gut microbiota, and diet in obesity treatment.


Assuntos
Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos/métodos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/métodos , Kefir/microbiologia , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Peso Corporal , Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos/efeitos adversos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Dieta Ocidental , Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Disbiose/dietoterapia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Fígado Gorduroso/dietoterapia , Fígado Gorduroso/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intolerância à Glucose/dietoterapia , Intolerância à Glucose/microbiologia , Inflamação , Fígado/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/microbiologia , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208122

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to assess the association between dietary patterns and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among US adults in a hospital-based case-control study. We analyzed data from 641 cases and 1002 controls recruited at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center during 2001-2018. Cases were patients with a pathologically or radiologically confirmed new diagnosis of HCC; controls were cancer-free spouses of patients with cancers other than gastrointestinal, lung, liver, or head and neck cancer. Cases and controls were frequency-matched by age and sex. Dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using unconditional logistic regression with adjustment for major HCC risk factors, including hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection. A vegetable-based dietary pattern was inversely associated with HCC risk (highest compared with lowest tertile: OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.46-0.94). A Western diet pattern was directly associated with HCC risk (highest compared with lowest tertile: OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.19-2.69). These findings emphasize the potential role of dietary intake in HCC prevention and clinical management.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Dieta Ocidental , Dieta , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Verduras , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199098

RESUMO

Mitochondria play an essential role in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Previously, we found that succinate-activated respiration was the most affected mitochondrial parameter in mice with mild NAFLD. In this study, we focused on the role of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) in NAFLD pathogenesis. To induce the progression of NAFLD to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), C57BL/6J mice were fed a Western-style diet (WD) or control diet for 30 weeks. NAFLD severity was evaluated histologically and the expression of selected proteins and genes was assessed. Mitochondrial respiration was measured by high-resolution respirometry. Liver redox status was assessed using glutathione, malondialdehyde, and mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Metabolomic analysis was performed by GC/MS. WD consumption for 30 weeks led to reduced succinate-activated respiration. We also observed decreased SDH activity, decreased expression of the SDH activator sirtuin 3, decreased gene expression of SDH subunits, and increased levels of hepatic succinate, an important signaling molecule. Succinate receptor 1 (SUCNR1) gene and protein expression were reduced in the livers of WD-fed mice. We did not observe signs of oxidative damage compared to the control group. The changes observed in WD-fed mice appear to be adaptive to prevent mitochondrial respiratory chain overload and massive ROS production.


Assuntos
Dieta Ocidental , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo , Ácido Succínico/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Biomarcadores , Respiração Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Fibrose , Metaboloma , Metabolômica/métodos , Camundongos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Succinato Desidrogenase/metabolismo
13.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202045

RESUMO

Factors associated with frailty, particularly dietary patterns, are not fully understood in Mediterranean countries. This study aimed to investigate the association of data-driven dietary patterns with frailty prevalence in older Lebanese adults. We conducted a cross-sectional national study that included 352 participants above 60 years of age. Sociodemographic and health-related data were collected. Food frequency questionnaires were used to elaborate dietary patterns via the K-mean cluster analysis method. Frailty that accounted for 15% of the sample was twice as much in women (20%) than men (10%). Identified dietary patterns included a Westernized-type dietary pattern (WDP), a high intake/Mediterranean-type dietary pattern (HI-MEDDP), and a moderate intake/Mediterranean-type dietary pattern (MOD-MEDDP). In the multivariate analysis, age, waist to height ratio, polypharmacy, age-related conditions, and WDP were independently associated with frailty. In comparison to MOD-MEDDP, and after adjusting for covariates, adopting a WDP was strongly associated with a higher frailty prevalence in men (OR = 6.63, 95% (CI) (1.82-24.21) and in women (OR = 11.54, 95% (CI) (2.02-65.85). In conclusion, MOD-MEDDP was associated with the least prevalence of frailty, and WDP had the strongest association with frailty in this sample. In the Mediterranean sample, a diet far from the traditional one appears as the key deleterious determinant of frailty.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta Ocidental/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso Fragilizado/estatística & dados numéricos , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Dieta Mediterrânea/efeitos adversos , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Fragilidade/etiologia , Humanos , Líbano/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
BMJ ; 374: n1554, 2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261638

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relation between intake of ultra-processed food and risk of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: 21 low, middle, and high income countries across seven geographical regions (Europe and North America, South America, Africa, Middle East, south Asia, South East Asia, and China). PARTICIPANTS: 116 087 adults aged 35-70 years with at least one cycle of follow-up and complete baseline food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) data (country specific validated FFQs were used to document baseline dietary intake). Participants were followed prospectively at least every three years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome was development of IBD, including Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. Associations between ultra-processed food intake and risk of IBD were assessed using Cox proportional hazard multivariable models. Results are presented as hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Participants were enrolled in the study between 2003 and 2016. During the median follow-up of 9.7 years (interquartile range 8.9-11.2 years), 467 participants developed incident IBD (90 with Crohn's disease and 377 with ulcerative colitis). After adjustment for potential confounding factors, higher intake of ultra-processed food was associated with a higher risk of incident IBD (hazard ratio 1.82, 95% confidence interval 1.22 to 2.72 for ≥5 servings/day and 1.67, 1.18 to 2.37 for 1-4 servings/day compared with <1 serving/day, P=0.006 for trend). Different subgroups of ultra-processed food, including soft drinks, refined sweetened foods, salty snacks, and processed meat, each were associated with higher hazard ratios for IBD. Results were consistent for Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis with low heterogeneity. Intakes of white meat, red meat, dairy, starch, and fruit, vegetables, and legumes were not associated with incident IBD. CONCLUSIONS: Higher intake of ultra-processed food was positively associated with risk of IBD. Further studies are needed to identify the contributory factors within ultra-processed foods. STUDY REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03225586.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/epidemiologia , Doença de Crohn/epidemiologia , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Causalidade , Dieta Ocidental/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298930

RESUMO

(1) Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a growing global health problem. NAFLD progression involves a complex interplay of imbalanced inflammatory cell populations and inflammatory signals such as reactive oxygen species and cytokines. These signals can derive from the liver itself but also from adipose tissue or be mediated via changes in the gut microbiome. We analyzed the effects of a simultaneous migration blockade caused by L-selectin-deficiency and an enhancement of the anti-oxidative stress response triggered by hepatocytic Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) deletion on NAFLD progression. (2) Methods: L-selectin-deficient mice (Lsel-/-Keap1flx/flx) and littermates with selective hepatic Keap1 deletion (Lsel-/-Keap1Δhepa) were compared in a 24-week Western-style diet (WD) model. (3) Results: Lsel-/-Keap1Δhepa mice exhibited increased expression of erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) target genes in the liver, decreased body weight, reduced epidydimal white adipose tissue with decreased immune cell frequencies, and improved glucose response when compared to their Lsel-/-Keap1flx/flx littermates. Although WD feeding caused drastic changes in fecal microbiota profiles with decreased microbial diversity, no genotype-dependent shifts were observed. (4) Conclusions: Upregulation of the anti-oxidative stress response improves metabolic changes in L-selectin-deficient mice but does not prevent NAFLD progression and shifts in the gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Fezes/microbiologia , Selectina L/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Regulação para Cima/genética , Animais , Dieta Ocidental , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/patologia , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/genética , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética
16.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 426: 115644, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252412

RESUMO

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are pervasive in the environment resulting in nearly universal detection in people. Human serum PFAS concentrations are strongly associated with increased serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and growing evidence suggests an association with serum triacylglycerides (TG). Here, we tested the hypothesis that perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) dysregulates liver and serum triacylglycerides in human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (hPPARα)-expressing mice fed an American diet. Mice were exposed to PFOA (3.5 mg/L) in drinking water for 6 weeks resulting in a serum concentration of 48 ± 9 µg/ml. In male and female hPPARα mice, PFOA increased total liver TG and TG substituted with saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Lack of expression of PPARα alone also increased total liver TG, and PFOA treatment had little effect on liver TG in PPARα null mice. In hPPARα mice, PFOA neither significantly increased nor decreased serum TG; however, there was a modest increase in TG associated with very low-density cholesterol particles in both sexes. Intriguingly, in female PPARα null mice, PFOA significantly increased serum TG, with a similar trend in males. PFOA also modified fatty acid and TG homeostasis-related gene expression in liver, in a hPPARα-dependent manner, but not in adipose. The results of our study and others reveal the importance of context (serum concentration and genotype) in determining the effect of PFOA on lipid homeostasis.


Assuntos
Caprilatos/toxicidade , Dieta Ocidental , Dislipidemias/induzido quimicamente , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , PPAR alfa/genética , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dislipidemias/genética , Dislipidemias/metabolismo , Dislipidemias/patologia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Genótipo , Lipidômica , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Transgênicos , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Estados Unidos
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205981

RESUMO

Dietary changes are known to alter the composition of the gut microbiome. However, it is less understood how repeatable and reversible these changes are and how diet switches affect the microbiota in the various segments of the gastrointestinal tract. Here, a treatment group of conventionally raised laboratory mice is subjected to two periods of western diet (WD) interrupted by a period of standard diet (SD) of the same duration. Beta-diversity analyses show that diet-induced microbiota changes are largely reversible (q = 0.1501; PERMANOVA, weighted-UniFrac comparison of the treatment-SD group to the control-SD group) and repeatable (q = 0.032; PERMANOVA, weighted-UniFrac comparison of both WD treatments). Furthermore, we report that diet switches alter the gut microbiota composition along the length of the intestinal tract in a segment-specific manner, leading to gut segment-specific Firmicutes/Bacteroidota ratios. We identified prevalent and distinct Amplicon Sequencing Variants (ASVs), particularly in genera of the recently described Muribaculaceae, along the gut as well as ASVs that are differentially abundant between segments of treatment and control groups. Overall, this study provides insights into the reversibility of diet-induced microbiota changes and highlights the importance of expanding sampling efforts beyond the collections of fecal samples to characterize diet-dependent and segment-specific microbiome differences.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Microbiota/genética , Animais , Bacteroidetes/genética , Bacteroidetes/isolamento & purificação , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Fezes/microbiologia , Firmicutes/genética , Firmicutes/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Camundongos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
18.
Ageing Res Rev ; 70: 101397, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214643

RESUMO

An excess of saturated fatty acids and simple sugars in the diet is a known environmental risk factor of Alzheimer's disease (AD) but the holistic view of the interacting processes through which such diet may contribute to AD pathogenesis is missing. We addressed this need through extensive analysis of published studies investigating the effects of western diet (WD) on AD development in humans and laboratory animals. We reviewed WD-induced systemic alterations comprising metabolic changes, induction of obesity and adipose tissue inflammation, gut microbiota dysbiosis and acceleration of systemic low-grade inflammation. Next we provide an overview of the evidence demonstrating that WD-associated systemic alterations drive impairment of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and development of neuroinflammation paralleled by accumulation of toxic amyloid. Later these changes are followed by dysfunction of synaptic transmission, neurodegeneration and finally memory and cognitive impairment. We conclude that WD can trigger AD by acceleration of inflammaging, and that BBB impairment induced by metabolic and systemic inflammation play the central role in this process. Moreover, the concurrence of neuroinflammation and Aß dyshomeostasis, which by reciprocal interactions drive the vicious cycle of neurodegeneration, contradicts Aß as the primary trigger of AD. Given that in 2019 the World Health Organization recommended focusing on modifiable risk factors in AD prevention, this overview of the sequential, complex pathomechanisms initiated by WD, which can lead from peripheral disturbances to neurodegeneration, can support future prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Síndrome Metabólica , Doença de Alzheimer/etiologia , Animais , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Inflamação , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia
19.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204478

RESUMO

Broadly consumed dietary patterns, such as the European and Western ones, are exerting pressures on biodiversity both in Europe and globally, and shifting toward a sustainable dietary pattern has thus become a must. This paper constitutes a preliminary communication of the results of a research project on the issue. In this study, the pressures of three dietary patterns (European, Western, and Mediterranean) on biodiversity are addressed in terms of land use, water use, greenhouse gas emissions, and eutrophication impact indicators. The environmental impacts are calculated based on a compositional analysis of each dietary pattern and the environmental footprints of the corresponding food groups. Food balance sheets published by the FAO are used as a basis for the compositional analysis, while the environmental footprints of each of the representative food products are retrieved from related life cycle assessment (LCA) studies. The results show that a shift from the European to the Mediterranean dietary pattern would lead to 10 m2/capita/day land savings, 240 L/capita/day water savings, 3 kg CO2/capita/day reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, and 20 gPO4eq/capita/day reductions in eutrophication potential. Likewise, a shift from the Western to the Mediterranean dietary pattern would lead to 18 m2/capita/day land savings, 100 L/capita/day water savings, 4 kg CO2/capita/day reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, and 16 gPO4eq/capita/day reduction in eutrophication potential. Based on these findings, it is clear that this shift is urgently needed as a step toward environmentally sustainable dietary patterns, such as the Mediterranean one, to preserve biodiversity for future generations.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Dieta Mediterrânea , Dieta Ocidental , Efeito Estufa , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Humanos
20.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 41(9): 2387-2398, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320835

RESUMO

Objective: CD4 T cells are important regulators of atherosclerotic progression. The metabolic profile of CD4 T cells controls their signaling and function, but how atherosclerosis affects T-cell metabolism is unknown. Here, we sought to determine the impact of atherosclerosis on CD4 T-cell metabolism and the contribution of such metabolic alterations to atheroprogression. Approach and Results: Using PCR arrays, we profiled the expression of metabolism genes in CD4 T cells from atherosclerotic apolipoprotein-E knockout mice fed a Western diet. These cells exhibited dysregulated expression of genes critically involved in glycolysis and fatty acid degradation, compared with those from animals fed a standard laboratory diet. We examined how T-cell metabolism was changed in either Western diet­fed apolipoprotein-E knockout mice or samples from patients with cardiovascular disease by measuring glucose uptake, activation, and proliferation in CD4 T cells. We found that naive CD4 T cells from Western diet­fed apolipoprotein-E knockout mice failed to uptake glucose and displayed impaired proliferation and activation, compared with CD4 T cells from standard laboratory diet­fed animals. Similarly, we observed that naive CD4 T-cell frequencies were reduced in the circulation of human subjects with high cardiovascular disease compared with low cardiovascular disease. Naive T cells from high cardiovascular disease subjects also showed reduced proliferative capacity. Conclusions: These results highlight the dysfunction that occurs in CD4 T-cell metabolism and immune responses during atherosclerosis. Targeting metabolic pathways within naive CD4 T cells could thus yield novel therapeutic approaches for improving CD4 T-cell responses against atheroprogression.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Glicólise , Placa Aterosclerótica , Idoso , Animais , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/imunologia , Aterosclerose/patologia , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Dieta Ocidental , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Glicólise/genética , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout para ApoE , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxirredução , Fenótipo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...