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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835678

RESUMO

Existing definitions of food literacy (FL) and nutrition literacy (NL) in particular refer to individual knowledge, motivation, competences, and awareness, which determine the relationship between individuals and food, the food system, and nutrition information. Several authors proposed specific conceptualization of the terms. Nevertheless, the description of analogies and differences between FL and NL is still lacking, as is an integrated framework which highlights the meaning of the concepts. This work aims to describe and discuss evidence provided by the literature in order to develop and propose a comprehensive conceptualization of FL and NL to the scientific community. We systematically reviewed six databases, considering the search terms of FL and NL. We collected the antecedents, components, and consequences of both FL and NL. We underlined and traced similarities of the concepts as well as prerogative features through the content analysis of definitions. We obtained 14 definitions of NL and 12 definitions of FL; 42 papers presented antecedents and 53 papers contained consequences. We observed that NL could be considered a specific form of FL. In addition, we noted that the consequences of NL are included in the subset of the consequences of FL and the conceptual limits of FL correspond to the outcome of healthful diet. We conclude that FL and NL build a multifaceted concept which implies both individual and public perspectives. We propose a conceptualization which could be useful to develop an executive framework aimed at providing healthy eating for the population.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável , Letramento em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Valor Nutritivo , Dieta Saudável/métodos , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Letramento em Saúde/métodos , Letramento em Saúde/normas , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/normas , Humanos , Estado Nutricional
2.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1611, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overconsumption of energy from food contributes to high rates of overweight and obesity in many populations. A promising set of interventions tested in pilot studies in worksite cafeterias, suggests energy intake may be reduced by increasing the proportion of healthier - i.e. lower energy - food options available, and decreasing portion sizes. The current study aims to assess the impact on energy purchased of i. increasing the proportion of lower energy options available; ii. combining this with reducing portion sizes, in a full trial. METHODS: A stepped-wedge randomised controlled trial in 19 worksite cafeterias, where the proportion of lower energy options available in targeted food categories (including main meals, snacks, and cold drinks) will be increased; and combined with reduced portion sizes. The primary outcome is total energy (kcal) purchased from targeted food categories using a pooled estimate across all sites. Follow-up analyses will test whether the impact on energy purchased varies according to the extent of intervention implementation. DISCUSSION: This study will provide the most reliable estimate to date of the effect sizes of two promising interventions for reducing energy purchased in worksite cafeterias. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was prospectively registered on ISRCTN (date: 24.05.19; TRN: ISRCTN87225572; doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN87225572).


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Serviços de Alimentação , Abastecimento de Alimentos/métodos , Tamanho da Porção/psicologia , Adulto , Dieta Saudável/métodos , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Refeições , Obesidade/psicologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Local de Trabalho/psicologia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior research has found poor health among construction workers is related to poor nutrition and low fruit and vegetable consumption. Promoting nutrition knowledge can improve dietary behaviors, but nutrition education among construction workers is limited. We evaluated the effectiveness of nutrition education on fruit and vegetable consumption among construction apprentices. In this pilot evaluative study, 36 construction apprentices enrolled in skill training programs received two 1.5-hour nutrition classes. Twelve questions addressing healthy eating knowledge and behavior were administered at baseline, after intervention, and at three months follow-up. After intervention, daily fruit consumption improved from baseline (mean (s.d.) =1.42 (0.55)) to post intervention (mean (s.d.) =1.72 (0.70)) (p < 0.05) and to three months follow-up (mean(s.d.) =1.94 (0.83)) (p > 0.05). After intervention, daily vegetable consumption improved from baseline (mean (s.d.) =1.67 (0.59)) to post intervention (mean (s.d.) =1.97 (0.74)) (p < 0.05) and to three months follow-up (mean (s.d.) = 2.19 (0.82)) (p > 0.05). Younger construction apprentices showed better healthy eating knowledge at post intervention and three months follow-up (p > 0.05). Working in normal hours showed better healthy eating knowledge at post intervention but not at three months follow up (p > 0.05). Both age groups and working hours did not show significant differences on healthy eating behaviour. Nutrition education implemented as a three-hour session within skill courses may possibly promote fruit and vegetable consumption among construction apprentices. Further research with control group is required to support the findings in this study.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção/educação , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Capacitação em Serviço/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Projetos Piloto , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1711, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blogs are widely being used by health professionals and consumers to communicate and access nutrition information. There are numerous benefits for dietitians to establish and contribute to healthy eating blogs. In particular, to disseminate evidence-based nutrition information to promote healthier dietary practices. The aim of this study was to explore characteristics of popular healthy eating blogs and inform the provision of healthy eating information in the Australian context. METHODS: A content analysis approach was used to identify characteristics of popular Australian healthy eating blogs. A purposive and snowball sampling approach was used to identify healthy eating blogs from search engines including Google, Bing and Yahoo. Blogs were deemed eligible if: (1) the author self-identified as a health professional; (2) the blog was written by a single author; (3) the blog was written by an Australian author; (4) the blog had a minimum of one post per month, and (5) the blog focused on communicating healthy eating information to the general adult population. RESULTS: Five popular blogs were followed over a three-month period (December 2017-March 2018), with 76 blog posts included for analysis. Characteristics of these popular blogs were examined and four main features were identified: (i) clearly conveying the purpose of each post; (ii) developing a strong understanding of the reader base and their preferences; (iii) employing a consistent writing style; use of vocabulary and layout; and (iv) communicating healthy eating information in a practical manner. These findings reveal important insight into the features that promote effective nutrition communication within this context. CONCLUSION: Findings from this study highlight common characteristics of popular healthy eating blogs. Future research into the development of blog guidelines which incorporate the characteristics identified in this study can support dietitians in establishing or contributing to the successful provision of evidence-based nutritional information through blogs.


Assuntos
Blogging/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento de Escolha , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Austrália , Humanos
5.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 932019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708572

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Social support can introduce favorable changes in lifestyle to reduce the cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to verify these changes in the clinical population participating in this study and present the psychometric properties of the scales of social support for 'Eating Habits' and 'Exercise' in patients diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: 135 participants attending a programme for changing lifestyle habits. Sociodemographic, psychological, and lifestyle variables were assessed at the Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves (HUVN) in Granada (Spain) between 2013 and 2014. The following procedures were used: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), internal consistency, sensibility to change and temporal stability. RESULTS: The AFC confirmed the original structure of both scales, except for the exclusion of factor 2 (family) from the social support scale for the year. For the social support scale, the local adjustment, all items presented high values of factor loads and individual reliability (λ≥0.64 and R2≥0.41, respectively). For the exercise scale, the local adjustment, the items presented high values of factor loads and individual reliability (λ≥0.62 and R2≥0.38, respectively). Internal consistency values were between adequate and excellent, with Cronbach's alpha figures between 0.714 and 0.864. Regarding sensitivity to change, the experimental group increased the perception of social support for food and exercise. The control group did not show significant differences. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show adequate indices for validity and reliability of the measures. Both measures appeared to be useful to assess social support in patients diagnosed with metabolic syndrome.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Síndrome Metabólica/psicologia , Testes Psicológicos , Apoio Social , Adulto , Idoso , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espanha
6.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731796

RESUMO

The purpose of this paper is to extend behavioural theory and segmentation application. Specifically, this paper draws on three segmentation bases and behavioural theory that extends focus beyond individual psychological predispositions to form segments within the healthy eating context for young adult university students (20-35 years) in Queensland, Australia. Participants were invited to take part in an online survey via email and through face to face intercept to ensure a diverse cross section was obtained. Structural equation modelling revealed that the Motivation, Opportunity, and Ability (MOA) framework can be utilised to explain healthful eating behaviour and two-step cluster analysis uncovered two distinct segments with education, motivation to eat healthily and Turconi's eating behaviour scores being the most important variables within the wider multivariate segment formation. This paper contributes to literature in the following ways. First, it confirms the importance of behavioural bases in segment formation and supports inclusion of other bases, namely demographics and psychographics. Next, it provides evidence of the value of including behavioural theory, which extends focus beyond what individuals think to understand how the environment may support them. Finally, this paper demonstrates that the MOA framework together with eating behaviour and demographic factors (education) can produce theoretically informed segments.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Teoria Psicológica , Estudantes/psicologia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Queensland , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671595

RESUMO

Childhood obesity rates have been increasing over the years and is considered one of the most serious public health problems of the century. Low socioeconomic status has been associated with a higher body mass index. However, the pathways underlying this complex relationship are poorly understood. This study aimed to evaluate the possible mediation and/or moderation effects of complexity of knowledge about healthy eating, and self-regulation processes towards healthy eating, in the association between family's income and weight of elementary school age children. The results showed that complexity of knowledge does not mediate the relationship between socioeconomic status and weight. Still, whenever the levels of complexity of knowledge and self-regulation are high, there is a moderation effect of complexity of knowledge on the relationship between family's income and weight, conditioned by self-regulation scores. These promising findings support the idea that knowledge about healthy eating in isolation could be insufficient for practicing a healthy diet and underline the relevance of combining transmission of knowledge with training in specific competences (e.g., self-regulation strategies). Considering that complexity of knowledge about healthy eating and self-regulation strategies are interrelated and can be both improved, future preventive interventions could consider incorporating both in their design to mitigate childhood obesity.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
8.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1435, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Connected health devices and applications (referred to hereafter as "SDApps" - Smart devices and applications) are being portrayed as a new way for prevention, with the promise of accessibility, effectiveness and personalization. Many effectiveness evaluations (experimental designs) with strong internal validity exist. While effectiveness does appear to vary, the mechanisms used by these devices have not yet been thoroughly investigated. This article seeks to unpack this black box, and describes the process of elaboration of an intervention theory for healthy eating and physical activity SDApps. It includes a set of requirements relative to their impact on social health inequalities. METHODS: To build this theory, we drew on theory-driven approaches and in particular on the theory of change (ToC) method. To this end, we developed a cumulative and iterative process combining scientific data from the literature with knowledge from experts (researchers and practitioners) and from patients or users. It was a 3-step process, as follows: 1 - identifying the evidence base; 2 - developing the theory through design intervention and creating realistic expectations, including in our case specific work on social health inequalities (SHIs); 3 - modeling process and outcome. RESULTS: We produced an evidence-based theory according to the ToC model, based on scientific evidence and knowledge from experts and users. It sets out a causal pathway leveraging 11 key mechanisms - theoretical domains - with which 50 behavior change techniques can be used towards 3 ultimate goals: Capacity, Opportunity, Motivation - Behavior (COM-B). Furthermore, the theory specifically integrates requirements relative to the impact on SHIs. CONCLUSIONS: This theory is an aid to SDAapp design and evaluation and it can be used to consider the question of the possible impact of SDApps on the increase in inequalities. Firstly, it enables developers to adopt a more overarching and thorough approach to supporting behavior change, and secondly it encourages comprehensive and contributive evaluations of existing SDApps. Lastly, it allows health inequalities to be fully considered.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Aplicativos Móveis , Teoria Psicológica , Humanos
9.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694181

RESUMO

A well-nourished and healthy population is a central tenet of sustainable development. In South Africa, cultural beliefs and food taboos followed by some pregnant women influence their food consumption, which impacts the health of mothers and children during pregnancy and immediately afterwards. We documented food taboos and beliefs amongst pregnant isiXhosa women from five communities in the Kat River Valley, South Africa. A mixed-methods approach was used, which was comprised of questionnaire interviews with 224 women and nine focus group discussions with 94 participants. Overall, 37% of the women reported one or more food practices shaped by local cultural taboos or beliefs. The most commonly avoided foods were meat products, fish, potatoes, fruits, beans, eggs, butternut and pumpkin, which are rich in essential micronutrients, protein and carbohydrates. Most foods were avoided for reasons associated with pregnancy outcome, labour and to avoid an undesirable body form for the baby. Some pregnant women consumed herbal decoctions for strengthening pregnancy, facilitating labour and overall health of both themselves and the foetus. Most learnt of the taboos and practices from their own mother or grandmother, but there was also knowledge transmission in social groups. Some pregnant women in the study may be considered nutritionally vulnerable due to the likelihood of decreased intake of nutrient-rich foods resulting from cultural beliefs and food taboos against some nutritious foods. Encouraging such women to adopt a healthy diet with more protein-rich foods, vegetables and fruits would significantly improve maternal nutrition and children's nutrition. Adhering to culturally appropriate nutrition education may be an important care practice for many pregnant women in the Kat River Valley.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Tabu , Adulto , Cultura , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , África do Sul , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694320

RESUMO

Awareness and knowledge of nutrient-dense foods are important for older adults to help them make dietary choices that support a food-first approach to healthy aging. This is especially important since age is a major risk factor for chronic disease and the proportion of older adults in North America is increasing. Beans can contribute to a food-first approach to healthy aging as they are nutrient-dense and can reduce the risk of chronic diseases. However, studies exploring awareness and knowledge of beans in older adults are lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore older adults' awareness of beans in relation to their nutrient content and role in chronic disease risk. Community-dwelling older adults (≥65 years old) were recruited and completed a validated researcher-administered questionnaire (n = 250), which was followed by 10 focus groups (n = 49). Results showed that the majority of older adults considered beans as a healthy food and thought consuming them could improve their health (99.2% and 98.0%, respectively); however, only 51.2% were bean consumers. While the majority (83.6%) of older adults were aware that a serving of beans is high in dietary fibre, bean consumers were significantly more likely to think that consuming beans could improve health areas related to dietary fibre including body weight management and constipation. Furthermore, most (84.8%) older adults thought consuming beans could improve heart health; however, bean consumers were significantly more likely to be aware that one serving of beans is low in nutrients relevant to heart health including total fat, saturated and trans fat as well as cholesterol. This research can help to inform healthcare professionals and public health agencies to create specific dietary strategies focusing on increasing older adults' awareness and knowledge of beans in relation to their nutrient profile and role in promoting health.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/psicologia , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Fabaceae , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Conscientização , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente/psicologia , Masculino , América do Norte , Valor Nutritivo
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698796

RESUMO

Combined diet and physical activity school-based interventions (rather than only diet or physical activity interventions) are more likely to help prevent children from becoming overweight in the long term. However, such interventions are less prevalent, and therefore, this pilot study aimed to assess the feasibility of a gardening intervention coupled with awareness about plant-based meals among 9-10 year old children in a London primary school. We recruited 60 children from two Year 5 classes, one class participated as an intervention group, and results were compared against another class who acted as the control group. Children's physical activity (PA) was measured using GENEActiv wrist-worn accelerometers. Their fruit and vegetable intake and attitudes to and preferences in eating fruits and vegetables were measured using a self-report questionnaire. Furthermore, three focus groups were held with children in the intervention group to understand the reasons behind any change as a result of the intervention. Results are inconclusive; however, they indicate some impact on reduction of sedentary behaviour, increase of moderate to vigorous PA, knowledge of nutrition and some level of acceptance in trying new vegetables. School-based interventions involving gardening show some promise to increase children's PA and improve their attitudes to eating fruits and vegetables.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Estudantes/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Londres , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 184, 2019 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthy eating behaviour is an essential determinant of overall health. This behaviour is generally poor among people at risk of experiencing food insecurity, which may be caused by many factors including perceived higher costs of healthy foods, financial stress, inadequate nutritional knowledge, and inadequate skills required for healthy food preparation. Few studies have examined how these factors influence eating behaviour among people at risk of experiencing food insecurity. We therefore aimed to gain a better understanding of the needs and perceptions regarding healthy eating in this target group. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative exploration grounded in data using inductive analyses with 10 participants at risk of experiencing food insecurity. The analysis using an inductive approach identified four core factors influencing eating behaviour: Health related topics; Social and cultural influences; Influences by the physical environment; and Financial influences. RESULTS: Overall, participants showed adequate nutrition knowledge. However, eating behaviour was strongly influenced by both social factors (e.g. child food preferences and cultural food habits), and physical environmental factors (e.g. temptations in the local food environment). Perceived barriers for healthy eating behaviour included poor mental health, financial stress, and high food prices. Participants had a generally conscious attitude towards their financial situation, reflected in their strategies to cope with a limited budget. Food insecurity was mostly mentioned in reference to the past or to others and not to participants' own current experiences. Participants were familiar with several existing resources to reduce food-related financial strain (e.g. debt assistance) and generally had a positive attitude towards these resources. An exception was the Food Bank, of which the food parcel content was not well appreciated. Proposed interventions to reduce food-related financial strain included distributing free meals, facilitating social contacts, increasing healthy food supply in the neighbourhood, and lowering prices of healthy foods. CONCLUSION: The insights from this study increase understanding of factors influencing eating behaviour of people at risk of food insecurity. Therefore, this study could inform future development of potential interventions aiming at helping people at risk of experiencing food insecurity to improve healthy eating, thereby decreasing the risk of diet-related diseases.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Risco
13.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1550, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is high prevalence of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Saudi Arabia that is still increasing. Early diagnosis of prediabetes, and immediate, effective intervention is yet unestablished. Conventional health promotion approaches are used to educate prediabetic patients. Behavior modification is very effective in prediabetics to delay T2DM. Thus, the main objective of this study is to examine the effect of the new behavioral model, the Transtheoretical Model short messages (text 4 change) to modify lifestyle to prevent or delay the onset of T2DM, through promotion of a healthy diet and increased physical activity, in impaired glucose tolerance patients. Another objective is to estimate the impact of this model on markers of cardiovascular and metabolic risks as T2DM is one of the modifiable risk factors to prevent cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: This is a randomized controlled trial. One thousand and sixteen, eligible Saudi adults will be recruited from the Heart Health Promotion study (HHP), which was conducted at the King Saud University from July 2013 to April 2014. These adults were at a higher risk of developing T2DM within 2-3 years. The research team's database has a contact list and they will recruit individuals over 6-8 weeks. All participants will be randomized at a 1:1 ratio into two groups, receive group education about lifestyle modifications and written information about diet and physical activity. Text 4 change SMS texts will be sent only to the intervention group. All participants will be assessed at baseline, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months for behavioral change using a World Health Organization (WHO) STEPS questionnaire and for glycated hemoglobin, biochemical and anthropometric measurements using standard methods. DISCUSSION: This new approach for promoting the importance of behavior modification in prediabetics is expected to delay and/or prevent the development of T2DM in Saudi Arabia, subsequently reducing the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality too. Results from this study will promote an innovative and high-tech way to decrease the burden of cardiovascular diseases in Saudi Arabia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Standard Randomized Control Trial, registration number ISRCTN10857643. Registered 4 June, 2018.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Intolerância à Glucose/terapia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Estado Pré-Diabético/psicologia , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Projetos de Pesquisa , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
14.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223098, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has begun a public process to redefine how companies are allowed to use the term "healthy" on food packages. Although the definition is formulated based on the latest consensus in nutrition and epidemiological research, it is also important to understand how consumers define and understand the term if it is to be behaviorally relevant. This research is an exploratory study designed to provide a descriptive account of consumers' perceptions of and beliefs about the meaning of "healthy" food. METHODS: A nationwide U.S. sample of 1,290 food consumers was surveyed in December 2018. Respondents answered 15 questions designed to gauge perceptions of healthy food and to elicit preference for policies surrounding healthy food definitions. Responses are weighted to demographically match the population. Categorical variables have a sampling error of ±2.7%. Exploratory factor analysis is used to determine latent dimensions of health perceptions related to food type. RESULTS: Consumers were about evenly split on whether a food can be deemed healthy based solely on the foods' nutritional content (52.1% believing as such) or whether there were other factors that affect whether a food is healthy (47.9% believing as such). Consumers were also about evenly split on whether an individual food can be considered healthy (believed by 47.9%) or whether this healthiness is instead a characteristic of one's overall diet (believed by 52.1%). Ratings of individual food products revealed that "healthy" perceptions are comprised of at least three underlying latent dimensions related to animal origin, preservation, and freshness/processing. Focusing on individual macronutrients, perceived healthiness was generally decreasing in a food's fat, sodium, and carbohydrate content and increasing in protein content. About 40% of consumers thought a healthy label implied they should increase consumption of the type of food bearing the label and about 15% thought the label meant they could eat all they wanted. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest consumer's perceptions of "healthy," which is primarily based on fat content, partially aligns with the FDA definition but also suggest consumers perceive the word as a broader and more nuanced concept that defies easy, uniform definition. Results highlight areas where nutrition education may be needed and suggest disclosures may need to accompany health claims so that consumers know what, precisely, is being communicated.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Rotulagem de Alimentos/ética , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Comportamento de Escolha , Carboidratos da Dieta/análise , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Alimentos Especializados/análise , Alimentos Especializados/provisão & distribução , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration/legislação & jurisprudência
15.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1342, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of consuming fast foods and non-nutritious snacks is progressively increasing among adolescents. This study aimed to explore factors behind snack consumption at school among Iranian high-school students. METHODS: This descriptive qualitative study was conducted in 2017 in four boys' and four girls' high-schools located in Isfahan, Khorramabad, and Tehran, Iran. Data were collected through 42 in-depth semi-structured interviews and four focus groups with male and female students, their parents, and their school teachers and administrators. The conventional content analysis approach was used for data analysis. Trustworthiness was applied to the study through prolonged engagement, maximum variation sampling, and member checking techniques. RESULTS: Factors behind students' snack consumption came into two main groups, namely influential behaviors, and influential emotions and perceptions. Influential behaviors included the behaviors of students, their family members, peers, school administrators, and snack sellers. Moreover, influential emotions and perceptions included positive and negative feelings towards healthy snacks, fear over the consequences of unhealthy snacks, and perceived positive outcomes of healthy snacks. CONCLUSIONS: Students' snack consumption at school is affected not only by their own behaviors, emotions, and perceptions, but also by significant others' behaviors and environmental factors. School administrators need to make environmental modifications to turn school environment into a pleasant place for healthy snack consumption and make healthy snack consumption a pleasurable experience for students.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Lanches/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Infuência dos Pares , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540273

RESUMO

Young adults are the highest consumers of food prepared outside home, which has been linked to weight gain. The aim of this qualitative research was to gather opinions from young adults about what influences their food choice when eating out and if they so desired, what might enable healthy choices. Thirty-one adults aged 18 to 30 years participated in four focus groups (females = 24). Predetermined questions were used to guide discussions which were audiotaped then transcribed. The content was organized into themes and sub-themes using NVivo software. Two broad groupings arose-personal behaviors and changes to physical and social food environments. For many, eating out was viewed as a special occasion so that healthy food was not a priority and despite understanding health consequences of poor diets this was not an immediate concern. Price discounts and menu-labelling were suggested and trust in credible organizations and peers' endorsement of meals and venues expressed. The role of smartphones in the modern food environment emerged as a tool to enable immediate access to many restaurants to order food and access reviews and social media as a source of persuasive food imagery. Current menu-labelling initiatives should continue, food pricing be explored and influence of smartphones on diet further researched. However, these findings may be limited by the high proportion of women and higher socioeconomic status and urban residence of many participants.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Grupos Focais , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Alimentos , Meio Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Custos e Análise de Custo , Fast Foods , Feminino , Alimentos/economia , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Refeições , Restaurantes , Smartphone , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547360

RESUMO

This study determined non-nutritive sweetener (NNS; artificial sweetener) depth of knowledge among university health and science students. An online survey was delivered to 1248 science students and completed by 493 respondents (19.0 ± 2.2 years old), evaluating ability to provide an NNS description/definition, examples of NNS from memory, and evaluate NNS word familiarity with a click-drag-box to identify six NNS by chemical name (CN) and six NNS by trade name (TN), relative to six decoy NNS, six caloric sweeteners, and six food items (mean ± standard deviation). NNS definitions contained 1.1 ± 1.1 of four previously defined elements suggestive of knowledge depth, with highest scores among self-described non-NNS users and food ingredient label users. Knowledge depth was not correlated with gender, age, American College Test score, or history of weight loss attempts. Without prompting, respondents could name 0.9 ± 1.1 NNS from memory, with highest scores among self-described non-NNS users (1.4 ± 0.8) and food ingredient label users (1.4 ± 0.8). NNS example memory was not correlated with gender, age, ACT score, or history of weight loss attempts. With the click-drag-box exercise, NNS were correctly identified 4.9 ± 1.0 times by TN and significantly less by CN (3.9 ± 1.9 times). Decoy NNS were incorrectly identified as being a real NNS 4.7 ± 1.3 times, while caloric sweeteners and food items were incorrectly identified as NNS 1.7 ± 1.7 times and 1.0 ± 1.5 times, (TN and Decoy NNS > CN > caloric sweetener and food item). NNS knowledge among university students may be inadequate for understanding what NNS are, if they consume NNS, or whether NNS are important for dietary health.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adoçantes não Calóricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
18.
Health Psychol ; 38(12): 1137-1149, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556657

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A greater frequency of family meals is associated with better diet quality and lower body mass index (BMI) in children. However, the effect sizes are small, and it remains unclear which qualitative components of family meals contribute to these positive health outcomes. This meta-analysis synthesizes studies on social, environmental, and behavioral attributes of family meals and identifies components of family meals that are related to better nutritional health in children. METHOD: A systematic literature search (50 studies; 49,137 participants; 61 reported effect sizes) identified 6 different components of healthy family mealtimes. Separate meta-analyses examined the association between each component and children's nutritional health. Age (children vs. adolescents), outcome type (BMI vs. diet quality), and socioeconomic status (SES; controlled vs. not controlled for SES) were examined as potential moderators. RESULTS: Positive associations consistently emerged between 5 components and children's nutritional health: turning the TV off during meals (r = .09), parental modeling of healthy eating (r = .12), higher food quality (r = .12), positive atmosphere (r = .13), children's involvement in meal preparation (r = .08), and longer meal duration (r = .20). No moderating effects were found. CONCLUSIONS: How a family eats together shows significant associations with nutritional health in children. Randomized control trials are needed to further verify these findings. The generalizability of the identified mealtime components to other contexts of social eating is also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Dieta/psicologia , Saúde da Família/normas , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Refeições/psicologia , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480257

RESUMO

"Serious games" are a novel and entertaining approach for nutritional education. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the short-term effectiveness of "Fit, Food, Fun" (FFF), a serious game to impart nutritional knowledge among children and adolescents. Data collection was conducted at two secondary schools in Bavaria, Germany. The gameplay intervention (gameplay group; GG) consisted of a 15-minute FFF gameplay session during each of three consecutive days. The teaching intervention (teaching group; TG) was performed in a classic lecture format. Nutritional knowledge was evaluated via questionnaires at baseline and post-intervention. Statistical analyses were performed using R (R Core Team, 2018). In total, baseline data were available for 39 participants in the GG and 44 participants in the TG. The mean age was 13.5 ± 0.7 years in the GG and 12.8 ± 0.9 years in the TG. There was a significant (p-value < 0.001) improvement in nutritional knowledge in both intervention groups. Moreover, a between-group difference with a significantly (p-value = 0.01) higher increase in nutritional knowledge was detected for the TG. This pilot study provides evidence for the short-term effectiveness of both educational interventions on the improvement in nutritional knowledge. Finally, the FFF game might be an adequate educational tool for the transfer of nutritional knowledge among children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Jogos de Vídeo
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