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1.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(12)2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794983

RESUMO

We report a case of a 60-year-old man who struggled with frequent migraines for 12.5 years, which were refractory to all conventional therapies. Six months before initial consultation, these migraines become chronic. The patient was then advised to follow the Low Inflammatory Foods Everyday (LIFE) diet, a nutrient-dense, dark green leafy vegetable-rich, whole food plant-based diet. Within 2 months, his headache frequency declined from 18 to 24 headache days per month to 1, and he discontinued his preventive and abortive migraine medications. After 3 months, the patient had no headaches. These results far exceed the goal of migraine treatment with medication, which is to reduce migraine frequency by >50% per month. In addition, the results were durable; this patient has been migraine-free for 7.5 years. Serum beta-carotene more than tripled after the patient started the LIFE diet, consistent with its high content of dark green leafy vegetables. Weight, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), complete blood count (CBC), hydration status, sodium and other electrolytes remained constant throughout the study.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Dieta , Dieta Vegetariana , Cefaleia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/prevenção & controle , Nutrientes
2.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 285: 193-198, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734873

RESUMO

Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common gynecological tumor in high-income countries, and its incidence has increased over time. The most critical risk factor for EC is the long-term unopposed exposure to increased estrogens both exogenous and endogenous. Machine learning can be used as a promising tool to resolve longstanding challenges and support identification of the risk factors and their correlations before the clinical trials and make them more focused. In this paper we present the results of the research of the correlation analysis of Endometrial cancer risk factors. The study was performed with EC patients of the Almazov center in Saint-Petersburg, Russia. All women involved in the current study underwent radical surgical intervention due to EC. After initial cancer treatment, they were referred to the Almazov center outpatient specialists for follow-up visits. Many of them were readmitted of the inpatient clinic due to relapse. We extracted a variety of parameters related to lifestyle, dietary habits, socioeconomic, and reproductive features from the inpatient and outpatient databases of Almazov center. The medical records of the women with enough data were included in the study. Prediction of Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed respectively. The AUC of ROC was calculated for PFS = 0.93 and for OS = 0.94.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio , Doença Crônica , Dieta Vegetariana , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Recidiva
3.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684342

RESUMO

Plant-based low protein diets (LPDs) have gained popularity for managing chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The nutritional adequacy of these and other LPDs prescribed for CKD patients have not been carefully examined. This study assessed the nutrient composition of such LPDs and moderately high protein diets (MHPDs) that might be prescribed for patients in the Asia Pacific region with CKD who are not dialyzed or undergoing maintenance dialysis. Conventional diets containing at least 50% animal-based proteins and plant-based diets were also planned with protein prescriptions of 0.5 to 0.8 g/kg/day and MHPDs with protein prescriptions of 1.0 to 1.2 g/kg/day. Plant-based, lacto-, ovo-, and lacto-ovo-vegetarian and vegan LPDs and MHPDs were planned by replacing some or all of the animal proteins from the conventional diet. With 0.5 g protein/kg/day, all diets were below the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for at least one essential amino acid (EAA). At a protein prescription of 0.6 g/kg/day, only the conventional LPD met the RDA for all EAAs. This deficiency with the plant-based LPDs persisted even with several plant food substitutions. With a protein prescription ≥0.7 g/kg/day, all the plant-based and vegetarian LPDs provided the RDA for all EAA. The plant-based and vegetarian diets also contained relatively greater potassium, phosphorus, and calcium content but lower long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin B-12 than the conventional diet. Other essential micronutrients were commonly below the RDA even at higher protein intakes. The low contents of some essential micronutrients were found in both animal-based and plant-based diets. Prescription of all LPDs for CKD patients, especially plant-based and vegetarian LPDs, requires careful planning to ensure the adequacy of all nutrients, particularly essential amino acids. Consideration should be given to supplementing all animal-based and plant-based LPDs and MHPDs with multivitamins and certain trace elements.


Assuntos
Dieta , Modelos Teóricos , Estado Nutricional , Plantas , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/dietoterapia , Ácidos/análise , Animais , Dieta Rica em Proteínas , Dieta Vegetariana , Rim/patologia , Nutrientes/análise , Recomendações Nutricionais
4.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684375

RESUMO

Plant-based diets are recommended for cancer survivors, but their relationship with breast cancer outcomes has not been examined. We evaluated whether long-term concordance with plant-based diets reduced the risk of recurrence and mortality among a prospective cohort of 3646 women diagnosed with breast cancer from 2005 to 2013. Participants completed food frequency questionnaires at diagnosis and 6-, 25-, and 72-month follow-up, from which we derived plant-based diet indices, including overall (PDI), healthful (hPDI), and unhealthful (uPDI). We observed 461 recurrences and 653 deaths over a median follow-up of 9.51 years. Using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, we estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals for breast cancer recurrence and all-cause, breast-cancer-specific, and non-breast-cancer mortality. Increased concordance with hPDI was associated with a reduced hazard of all-cause (HR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.83-1.05) and non-breast-cancer mortality (HR 0.83, 95% CI: 0.71-0.98), whereas increased concordance with uPDI was associated with increased hazards (HR 1.07, 95% CI: 0.96-1.2 and HR 1.20, 95% CI: 1.02-1.41, respectively). No associations with recurrence or breast-cancer-specific mortality were observed. In conclusion, healthful vs. unhealthful plant-based dietary patterns had differing associations with mortality. To enhance overall survival, dietary recommendations for breast cancer patients should emphasize healthful plant foods.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Dieta Vegetariana , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Intervalos de Confiança , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sobrevida
5.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684522

RESUMO

As a key modulator of training adaptations and racing performance, nutrition plays a critical role in endurance runners' success, and the training/racing behaviors of runners are potentially affected by their diet types. The present study aimed to investigate whether distance runners with a vegan diet (i.e., devoid of foods or ingredients from animal sources), vegetarian diet (i.e., devoid of meat and flesh foods), and omnivorous diet (i.e., a mixed diet with no restriction on food sources) have different training and racing patterns in general and based on race distance subgroups. A total of 3835 recreational runners completed an online survey. Runners were assigned to dietary (omnivorous, vegetarian, and vegan) and race distance (<21 km, half-marathon, and marathon/ultra-marathon) groups. In addition to sociodemographic information, a complete profile of data sets focusing on running and racing behaviors/patterns was evaluated using a questionnaire-based epidemiological approach. There were 1272 omnivores (47% females), 598 vegetarians (64% females), and 994 vegans (65% females). Compared to vegans and vegetarians, omnivorous runners prepared for a longer time period for running events, had a higher number of half-marathons and marathons completed with a better finish time, and had more reliance on training under supervision (p < 0.05). The present findings indicate an important association of diet types with patterns of training and racing amongst endurance runners that may be related to different motives of omnivorous, vegetarian, and vegan runners for participating in events.


Assuntos
Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta Vegana/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta Vegetariana/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Corrida/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/métodos , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Carne , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Pol Arch Intern Med ; 131(10)2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34704706

RESUMO

Plant­based diets are considered to improve cardiometabolic health and to protect against cardiovascular disease. Although they center around plant­based foods, they do not necessarily exclude all animal products and comprise of a range of intakes that vary according to the type and the proportion of animal products included. Numerous metabolic pathways have been identified through which plant­based diets can exert beneficial effects including improved body composition, lipid profile, and glucose metabolism and decreased inflammation and blood pressure. Their effects on thrombosis as a cardiovascular disease pathway are, however, less clear. Ample evidence for the effects of individual dietary components of plant­based diets on thrombotic risk factors exists, but the effect of whole diets and / or dietary patterns remains less­well explored with the existing literature reporting inconsistent and inconclusive findings. Here we aim to review the literature describing the effect of different plant­based diets (vegan, lacto­vegetarian, lacto­ovo­vegetarian, pescatarian, and flexitarian) and dietary patterns (Mediterranean, Nordic, Portfolio, and DASH) on specific thrombotic risk factors (fibrinogen, platelets, factor VII, fibrinolysis) in order to better clarify these relationships and to try to explain the apparent discrepant findings. We demonstrate that a one­size­fits-all conclusion cannot be drawn and that the potential antithrombotic effect of different plant­based diets depends on the nutrient composition, the content of active antithrombotic dietary components, the relative absence of prothrombotic dietary factors as well as the degree of total caloric restriction.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Trombose , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Dieta Vegetariana , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Trombose/etiologia , Trombose/prevenção & controle
7.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(9)2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577781

RESUMO

Two recent studies of the health effects of vegetarian diets reported conflicting results: the EPIC-Oxford study reported a significant increase in strokes among vegetarians compared to meat-eaters among a predominantly Caucasian cohort, while another, performed on Taiwanese Buddhists, reported significantly lower incidence of strokes among vegetarians. This was doubly puzzling given the pronounced decrease in cardiovascular events among the EPIC-Oxford group. In this article, we make a detailed comparison of the actual dietary intake of various food groups by the cohorts in these studies. We then use the nutritional principles of Ayurveda-traditional Indian medicine-to show how these apparently contradictory results may be explained. Systems of traditional medicine such as Ayurveda possess profound knowledge of the effects of food on physiology. Ayurveda takes into account not just the type of food, but also multiple other factors such as taste, temperature, and time of consumption. Traditional cuisines have evolved hand in hand with such systems of medicine to optimize nutrition in the context of local climate and food availability. Harnessing the experiential wisdom of these traditional systems to create an integrative nutrition science would help fight the ongoing epidemic of chronic lifestyle diseases, and improve health and wellness.


Assuntos
Dieta , Ciências da Nutrição , Dieta Vegetariana , Humanos , Carne , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486861

RESUMO

The article considers the issue of alternative dietary intake in children of vegetarian families, both in Russia and abroad. The types of vegetarianism, its advantages and limitations are highlighted on the basis of empirical studies of national and foreign researchers. The emphasis is made on the risks to physical and mental health of children in case of unbalanced diet and on the need for regular consultations with pediatricians and nutritionists as well.


Assuntos
Dieta Vegetariana , Vegetarianos , Criança , Dieta , Humanos , Pediatras , Federação Russa
9.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578915

RESUMO

Affordability of different isocaloric healthy diets in Germany-an assessment of food prices for seven distinct food patterns Background: For decades, low-fat diets were recommended as the ideal food pattern to prevent obesity, type 2 diabetes and their long-term complications. Nowadays, several alternatives considering sources and quantity of protein, fat and carbohydrates have arisen and clinical evidence supports all of them for at least some metabolic outcomes. Given this variety in diets and the lack of a single ideal diet, one must evaluate if patients at risk, many of which having a lower income, can actually afford these diets. AIM: We modelled four-week food plans for a typical family of two adults and two school children based on seven different dietary patterns: highly processed standard omnivore diet (HPSD), freshly cooked standard omnivore diet (FCSD), both with German average dietary composition, low-protein vegan diet (VeganD), low-fat vegetarian diet (VegetD), low-fat omnivore diet (LFD), Mediterranean diet (MedD) and high-fat moderate-carb diet (MCD). The isocaloric diets were designed with typical menu variation for all meal times. We then assessed the lowest possible prices for all necessary grocery items in 12 different supermarket chains, avoiding organic foods, special offers, advertised exotic super foods and luxury articles. Prices for dietary patterns were compared in total, stratified by meal time and by food groups. RESULTS: Among all seven dietary patterns, price dispersion by supermarket chains was 12-16%. Lowest average costs were calculated for the VegetD and the FCSD, followed by HPSD, LFD, VeganD, MedD and-on top-MCD. VeganD, MedD and MCD were about 16%, 23% and 67% more expensive compared to the FCSD. Major food groups determining prices for all diets are vegetables, salads and animal-derived products. Calculations for social welfare severely underestimate expenses for any kind of diet. CONCLUSIONS: Food prices are a relevant factor for healthy food choices. Food purchasing is financially challenging for persons with very low income in Germany. Fresh-cooked plant-based diets are less pricy than the unhealthy HPSD. Diets with reduced carbohydrate content are considerably more expensive, limiting their use for people with low income. Minimum wage and financial support for long-term unemployed people in Germany are insufficient to assure a healthy lifestyle.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/economia , Comportamento Alimentar , Alimentos/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Comércio/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor , Custos e Análise de Custo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/economia , Dieta Mediterrânea/economia , Dieta Vegana/economia , Dieta Vegetariana/economia , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Alemanha , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Verduras/economia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501575

RESUMO

Current nutritional trends include plant-based diets as nutritional behavior of consumers who are increasingly concerned about a healthy lifestyle. Sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.) is a plant with great virtues, containing more than 100 types of compounds. It is a plant with versatile properties, multiple economic advantages and a rich history, which still continues in natural medicine, and it is hence included in the daily diet by more and more people for the prevention and treatment of diet-related diseases. Its uniqueness is due to its chemical composition and the health beneficial properties that rise from its composition. This review is a detailed analytical picture of the current state of knowledge currently available regarding the Hippophaë plant, providing an overview of the qualities of sea buckthorn. This article summarizes data on sea buckthorn's nutritional value, health beneficial properties, and its applications.


Assuntos
Hippophae , Dieta , Dieta Vegetariana , Frutas , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo
11.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578812

RESUMO

Vegans and vegetarians often consume foods containing photosensitizers capable of triggering phytophotodermatitis. The potential effect of vegan and vegetarian diets on the response of psoriatic patients undergoing phototherapy is not well characterized. We assessed clinical outcomes of vegan, vegetarian and omnivore adult psoriatic patients undergoing band ultraviolet B phototherapy (NB-UVB). In this multicenter prospective observational study, we enrolled 119 adult, psoriatic patients, of whom 40 were omnivores, 41 were vegetarians and 38 were vegans, with phototherapy indication. After determining the minimum erythemal dose (MED), we performed NB-UVB sessions for 8 weeks. The first irradiation dosage was 70.00% of the MED, then increased by 20.00% (no erythema) or by 10.00% (presence of erythema) until a maximum single dose of 3 J/cm2 was reached and constantly maintained. All the enrolled patients completed the 8 weeks of therapy. Severe erythema was present in 16 (42.11%) vegans, 7 (17.07%) vegetarians and 4 (10.00%) omnivores (p < 0.01). MED was lowest among vegans (21.18 ± 4.85 J/m2), followed by vegetarians (28.90 ± 6.66 J/m2) and omnivores (33.63 ± 4.53 J/m2, p < 0.01). Patients with severe erythema were more likely to have a high furocumarin intake (OR 5.67, 95% CI 3.74-8.61, p < 0.01). Vegans consumed the highest amount of furocumarin-rich foods. A model examining erythema, adjusted for gender, age, skin type, MED, phototherapy type, number of phototherapies and furocumarin intake, confirmed that vegans had a lower number of treatments. Vegans had more frequent severe erythema from NB-UVB, even after adjustment of the phototherapy protocol for their lower MED. Assessing diet information and adapting the protocol for vegan patients may be prudent.


Assuntos
Dermatite Fototóxica/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/efeitos adversos , Fototerapia/métodos , Psoríase/terapia , Adulto , Dieta/métodos , Dieta Vegana/efeitos adversos , Dieta Vegana/métodos , Dieta Vegetariana/efeitos adversos , Dieta Vegetariana/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/administração & dosagem , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578841

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the serum levels of ferritin and the prevalence of iron deficiency in vegan and omnivorous individuals by taking into account the presence of elements that cause an elevation of ferritin levels, such as increased homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), body mass index (BMI), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) values. The parameters were evaluated in 1340 individuals, i.e., 422 men and 225 women who do not menstruate and 693 women who do menstruate, based on omnivorous or vegetarian eating habits. The progressive increase in BMI, HOMA-IR, and inflammation caused an elevation in ferritin concentration, regardless of the eating habits in the groups studied. In the overall sample, omnivores had a higher prevalence of obesity, higher ferritin levels, and a lower prevalence of iron deficiency (ferritin < 30 ng/mL). However, after the exclusion of individuals with inflammation (with overweight/obesity and elevated hs-CRP levels), the actual iron deficiency was assessed and was not higher among vegetarians, except in women with regular menstrual cycles. Our data show that nutritional status and inflammation levels affect ferritin levels and may interfere with the correct diagnosis of iron deficiency in both vegetarian and omnivorous individuals. Compared to vegetarians, women who do not menstruate and men had the same prevalence of iron deficiency when following an omnivorous diet.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/sangue , Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Dieta/métodos , Ferritinas/sangue , Vegetarianos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Vegetariana , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578897

RESUMO

Vegetarian dietary patterns provide health benefits for cardiovascular health; however, the studies examining the association of vegetarian diets with stroke incidence showed inconsistent findings. We systematically evaluated the risk of incident stroke among vegetarians (diets excluding meat, poultry, fish, and seafood) compared among nonvegetarians. A systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science was performed until 20 May 2021. Prospective cohort studies comparing the risk estimates for incident stroke between vegetarians and nonvegetarians were included. Of 398 articles identified in the database search, data from seven cohort studies (408 total stroke cases in 29,705 vegetarians and 13,026 total stroke cases in 627,728 nonvegetarians) were included. The meta-analysis revealed no significant association between adhering to the vegetarian dietary patterns and the risk of incident stroke (HR = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.67-1.11; I2 = 68%, n = 7). Subgroup analyses suggested that studies conducted in Asia and those with a mean baseline age of participants 50-65 years showed a lower risk of stroke in vegetarians. Moreover, no significant association between vegetarian diets and the risk of ischemic stroke (HR = 0.56; 95% CI = 0.22-1.42; I2 = 82%, n = 3) or hemorrhagic stroke (HR = 0.77; 95% CI = 0.19-3.09; I2 = 85%, n = 2) was found. To be conclusive, no strong relationship between vegetarian diets and the incidence of stroke was observed. Given the limited certainty of evidence from NutriGrade, future well-designed studies are warranted to provide solid evidence on this topic.


Assuntos
Dieta/métodos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Vegetarianos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta Vegetariana/métodos , Dieta Vegetariana/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579100

RESUMO

Evidence supports regular dietary inclusion of legumes due to their positive effects on both human and planetary health. Intake within Australia is suboptimal, with consumer data suggesting that an inability to integrate legumes into usual dietary patterns is a barrier to consumption. This places the food industry in a unique position to offer Australians the ability to incorporate legumes into usual dietary patterns via innovative new products. The aim of this study was to explore the legume category and compare nutrition product data and the use of nutrition and health claims between 2019 and 2021. An audit of legume products from four major metropolitan Sydney supermarkets (Aldi, Coles, IGA, Woolworths) collected ingredient lists, nutrition information and on-pack claims for baked beans, legume dips, legume flours, legume snacks (including subcategories of legume chips and whole legume snacks), canned legumes, dried legumes, frozen legumes, and pulse pasta. The total number of legume products available on the market nearly doubled from 2019 (n = 312) to 2021 (n = 610); this was driven by traditional plain canned and dried legumes and some new and convenient options, particularly snacks (legume chips) where the largest growth occurred. Of all legume products (n = 610), 82% met the Nutrient Profiling Scoring Criteria, 86.8% were at least a source of dietary fibre, and 55.9% were at least a source of protein. Nutrition content claims relating to dietary fibre, gluten free and protein more than doubled since 2019, with each featuring on over one third of the products identified in 2021. Vegan/vegetarian on-pack claims more than doubled since 2019, and claims related to the term plant-based/plant protein and environmental sustainability emerged on packs in 2021. By addressing barriers to consumption, such as lack of time and knowledge on how to prepare legumes, innovative legume products may help influence future consumption patterns.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Supermercados , Austrália , Dieta Vegetariana , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo
16.
Appetite ; 167: 105652, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418504

RESUMO

Encouraging greater consumption of vegetarian foods could be a strategy to improve plant-based food intake among non-vegetarians. Prior research on vegetarianism has focused mostly on people's motivations to be a vegetarian. However, the factors that motivate non-vegetarians to consume vegetarian meals remain largely unknown. The current research tested associations between attitudes, self-identity, and vegetarian meal consumption among 746 U.S. college students and 484 Chinese college students. Two types of attitudes were assessed: attitudes towards vegetarian food (ATF), which represents the personal benefits (including healthiness, tastiness, and enjoyableness) and attitudes towards people who are vegetarians (ATP), which represents the social benefits (perceived as being environmentally friendly, nice, and good-looking). Results showed that U.S. college students were more likely to be either vegetarians or non-vegetarians, while more Chinese college students tended to report being semi-vegetarians. In both samples, ATF and ATP were positively associated with self-identity and vegetarian meal consumption. Moderation analyses suggested that associations between attitudes and consumption were significant only among people who do not hold a definite self-identity as a vegetarian. In addition, ATP was significantly associated with vegetarian meal consumption among U.S. non- and semi-vegetarians alike, but among Chinese non-vegetarians only. These findings suggest that self-identity and cross-cultural differences are important to consider in promoting consumption of vegetarian meals through improving the public's attitudes towards vegetarian food and vegetarians.


Assuntos
Dieta Vegetariana , Vegetarianos , Atitude , China , Humanos , Refeições , Estudantes
17.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444667

RESUMO

Low-carbon diets can counteract climate change and promote health if they are nutritionally adequate, affordable and culturally acceptable. This study aimed at developing sustainable diets and to compare these with the EAT-Lancet diet. The Swedish national dietary survey Riksmaten Adolescents 2016-2017 was used as the baseline. Diets were optimized using linear programming for four dietary patterns: omnivores, pescatarians, vegetarians and vegans. The deviation from the baseline Riksmaten diet was minimized for all optimized diets while fulfilling nutrient and climate footprint constraints. Constraining the diet-related carbon dioxide equivalents of omnivores to 1.57 kg/day resulted in a diet associated with a reduction of meat, dairy products, and processed foods and an increase in potatoes, pulses, eggs and seafood. Climate-friendly, nutritionally adequate diets for pescatarians, vegetarians and vegans contained fewer foods and included considerable amounts of fortified dairy and meat substitutes. The optimized diets did not align very well with the food-group pattern of the EAT-Lancet diet. These findings suggest how to design future diets that are climate-friendly, nutritionally adequate, affordable, and culturally acceptable for Swedish adolescents with different dietary patterns. The discrepancies with the EAT diet indicate that the cultural dietary context is likely to play an important role in characterizing sustainable diets for specific populations.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Dieta Saudável , Dieta Vegetariana , Valor Nutritivo , Carne Vermelha , Alimentos Marinhos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Pegada de Carbono , Dieta Saudável/efeitos adversos , Dieta Vegana , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Preferências Alimentares , Efeito Estufa , Humanos , Estado Nutricional , Recomendações Nutricionais , Carne Vermelha/efeitos adversos , Alimentos Marinhos/efeitos adversos , Suécia
18.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445009

RESUMO

The Portfolio Diet, a plant-based portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods, has been shown to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and other cardiovascular risk factors, in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). It is not known if these beneficial effects translate to a lower incidence cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. To support examinations between Portfolio Diet adherence and disease, a Portfolio Diet score (PDS) was developed and its predictive and concurrent validity was assessed within the Toronto Healthy Diet Study, a six-month RCT in overweight adults. Predictive validity was assessed using change in the PDS measured by food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and concomitant change in LDL-C from baseline to six months using multiple linear regression, adjusted for potential confounders (n = 652). Concurrent validity was assessed in a subset of participants (n = 50) who completed the FFQ and a 7-day diet record (7DDR) at baseline. The PDS determined from each diet assessment method was used to derive correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots to assess the between-method agreement. The change in PDS was inversely associated with change in LDL-C (ß coefficients: -0.01 mmol/L (95% confidence intervals (CIs): -0.02, -0.002; p =0.02). The correlation between the PDS from the FFQ and 7DDR was 0.69 (95% CIs: 0.48, 0.85). The Bland-Altman plot showed reasonable agreement between the score from the FFQ and 7DDR. These findings indicate predictive validity of the PDS with lower LDL-C, and reasonable concurrent validity of the PDS as assessed by an FFQ against a 7DDR.


Assuntos
Registros de Dieta , Dieta Saudável , Dieta Vegetariana , Comportamento Alimentar , Valor Nutritivo , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361696

RESUMO

The nutritional composition and productivity of halophytes is strongly related to the biotic/abiotic stress to which these extremophile salt tolerant plants are subjected during their cultivation cycle. In this study, two commercial halophyte species (Inula crithmoides and Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum) were cultivated at six levels of salinity using a soilless cultivation system. In this way, it was possible to understand the response mechanisms of these halophytes to salt stress. The relative productivity decreased from the salinities of 110 and 200 mmol L-1 upwards for I. crithmoides and M. nodiflorum, respectively. Nonetheless, the nutritional profile for human consumption remained balanced. In general, I. crithmoides vitamin (B1 and B6) contents were significantly higher than those of M. nodiflorum. For both species, ß-carotene and lutein were induced by salinity, possibly as a response to oxidative stress. Phenolic compounds were more abundant in plants cultivated at lower salinities, while the antioxidant activity increased as a response to salt stress. Sensory characteristics were evaluated by a panel of culinary chefs showing a preference for plants grown at the salt concentration of 350 mmol L-1. In summary, salinity stress was effective in boosting important nutritional components in these species, and the soilless system promotes the sustainable and safe production of halophyte plants for human consumption.


Assuntos
Inula/química , Inula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mesembryanthemum/química , Mesembryanthemum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Valor Nutritivo , Salinidade , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/química , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Dieta Vegetariana , Humanos , Luteína/análise , Minerais/análise , Estresse Oxidativo , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Piridoxina/análise , Estresse Salino , Taninos/análise , Tiamina/análise , beta Caroteno/análise
20.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444816

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the general quality of life (QoL) of Brazilian vegetarians. A cross-sectional study was conducted with Brazilian vegetarian adults (18 years old and above). Individuals were recruited to participate in a nationwide online survey that comprised the WHOQOL-BREF as well as sociodemographic and characterization questions related to vegetarianism. The WHOQOL-BREF is composed of 24 items which are divided into four domains (domain 1: physical health; domain 2: psychological well-being; domain 3: social relationships; and domain 4: environment), plus two general items which were analyzed separately, totaling 26 items. The answers from the questionnaire were converted into scores with a 0-100 scale range, with separate analyses for each domain. Results were compared among groups based on the different characteristics of the vegetarian population. A total of 4375 individuals completed the survey. General average score results were 74.67 (domain 1), 66.71 (domain 2), 63.66 (domain 3) and 65.76 (domain 4). Vegans showed better scores when compared to the other vegetarians, except in domain four, where the statistical difference was observed only for semi-vegetarians (lower score). Individuals adopting a vegetarian diet for longer (>1 year) showed better results for domains one and two, with no difference for the other domains. Having close people also adopting a vegetarian diet positively influenced the results for all domains. On the other hand, it was not possible to distinguish any clear influence of the motivation for adopting a vegetarian diet on the scores' results. Adopting a vegetarian diet does not have detrimental effects on one's QoL. In fact, the more plant-based the diet, and the longer it was adopted, the better the results were.


Assuntos
Dieta , Motivação , Qualidade de Vida , Vegetarianos/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Vegetariana , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Veganos , Vegetarianos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
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