Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.784
Filtrar
1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(4): 1748-1756, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An extreme reduction of the crude protein (CP) level in diets, even balanced with amino acids (AAs), is detrimental for intestinal nitrogen (N) metabolism and the growth of pigs. This study investigated the effects of casein hydrolysate supplementation in low-CP diets on growth performance, N balance, and intestinal N supply for pigs. A total of 24 barrows were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments of 160 g kg-1 CP (control), 130 g kg-1 CP (LAA), and 130 g kg-1 CP plus casein hydrolysate (LCH) for 28 days. RESULTS: The LCH group had a higher average daily feed intake (ADFI) and average daily gain (ADG) than the LAA group, and a higher ADG than the control (P < 0.05). Compared with the control, both the LAA and LCH decreased N intake, serum urea N, fecal N, and N excretion, and increased apparent N availability, with LCH having higher N intake and N retention than LAA group (P < 0.05). Compared with LAA, LCH increased ileal fluxes of CP and AA (P < 0.05), and with values similar to those of the control. However, ileal flows of CP and AA were similar between LCH and LAA, both of which were lower than those in the control (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Using protein hydrolysate to replace some crystalline AAs in low-CP diets increased feed intake, N retention and ADG without affecting N utilization. These findings point to the important impact of protein hydrolysate supplementation on improving growth for pigs fed low-CP diets. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Caseínas/metabolismo , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Fezes/química , Feminino , Íleo/metabolismo , Masculino , Nitrogênio/metabolismo
2.
Life Sci ; 243: 117216, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884096

RESUMO

AIMS: Maternal protein malnutrition during perinatal period has long-term consequences on the offspring's metabolic phenotype. Here we determined the effects of maternal protein-restricted (PR) diet on offspring's metabolism in 3- and 12-week-old. MAIN METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with standard chow diet or PR diet during pregnancy and lactation. Food intake and body weight of offspring were measured weekly. The oral glucose tolerance tests were underwent, the pancreases were collected for histochemical staining, and the duodenum, jejunum and ileum were collected for gene and protein expression analysis in 3- and 12-week-old offspring. KEY FINDINGS: PR offspring had significant lower body weight and persisted till 12-week-old. From 3- to 12-week-old, PR offspring presented considerably impaired glucose tolerance, while no marked change was shown in control rats. Additionally, the average islet size of PR offspring decreased significantly in 12-week-old. The mRNA and protein expression of nutrient-responsive receptors and transporters T1R3, SGLT1 and GLUT2 increased significantly in the intestine of 3-week-old PR offspring. And from 3- and 12-week-old, the increase tendency of expression subdued. SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that maternal PR diet during critical developmental windows influences offspring metabolism, which may be subdued partially, but not be reversed completely by chow diet after weaning.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Intolerância à Glucose , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Masculino , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
3.
Food Funct ; 10(10): 6417-6428, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517363

RESUMO

Protein fermentation has an adverse effect on colonic health; high-quality proteins and reducing the protein level (protein restriction) can effectively decrease the amount of proteins flowing into the colon for microbial protein fermentation. The study is aimed at determining the effects of different protein sources on colonic microbial composition and barrier function in nursery pigs with a low protein diet. A total of 264 weaned pigs were randomly divided into 4 dietary groups and each group had 6 pens with 11 pigs. Four low protein, amino acid (AA)-supplemented diets containing either 4% Palbio 50 RD (P50), Soyppt-50% (S50), concentrated degossypolized cottonseed protein (CDCP), or fish meal (FM) were prepared, and all the diets had similar digestible energy (DE), crude protein content (CP, about 18%), and equal amount of standardized ileal digestible (SID) lysine, methionine, tryptophan, and threonine. After 28 days of feeding trial, CDCP decreased the Desulfovibrio abundance but increased the Parabacteroides abundance. S50 elevated the Bacteroides and CF231 abundance. P50 and FM reduced the Clostridium and Ruminococcus abundance. CDCP upregulated the Occludin mRNA expression and tended to increase the amount of mixed neutral-acidic mucins in the colon. FM and CDCP declined the serum DAO and endotoxin contents. S50 and CDCP decreased the levels of serum IL-1α, and P50 lowered the serum IL-8 content. We concluded that plant protein (CDCP and S50) had advantages over animal protein (P50 and FM) in maintaining the colonic health via the regulation of colonic microbiota and barrier function.


Assuntos
Colo/microbiologia , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Colo/metabolismo , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Feminino , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Masculino , Mucinas/metabolismo , Suínos
4.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480383

RESUMO

Noncompliance is widespread in adults with PKU and is associated with adverse metabolic, nutritional and cognitive abnormalities. Returning to the PKU diet is important for this at-risk population, yet for many this is challenging to achieve. Strategies that ease the return to the PKU diet, while offering nutritional and cognitive advantages, are needed. Twelve PKU adults (33.7 ± 2.6 years), who had been noncompliant for 4.5 years (range: 1 to 11 years), took 33 g of a low-volume, nutrient-enriched, protein substitute daily for 28 days. Outcomes of eating behaviour, nutrient intake and mood were assessed at entry (baseline, days 1-3) and after the intervention period (days 29-31). At baseline, intakes of natural protein and estimated phenylalanine were high (66.4 g and 3318.5 mg, respectively) and intakes of calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, iodine and vitamin D were below country-specific recommendations. With use of the experimental protein substitute, natural protein and estimated phenylalanine intake declined (p = 0.043 for both). Fat and saturated fat intakes also decreased (p = 0.019 and p = 0.041, respectively), while energy and carbohydrate intake remained unchanged. Micronutrient intake increased (p ≤ 0.05 for all aforementioned) to levels well within reference nutrient intake recommendations. Blood vitamin B12 and vitamin D increased by 19.8% and 10.4%, respectively. Reductions in anxiety and confusion were also observed during the course of the study yet should be handled as preliminary data. This study demonstrates that reintroducing a low-volume, nutrient-enriched protein substitute delivers favourable nutritional and possible mood benefits in noncompliant PKU patients, yet longer-term studies are needed to further confirm this. This preliminary knowledge should be used in the design of new strategies to better facilitate patients' return to the PKU diet, with the approach described here as a foundation.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/psicologia , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Fenilcetonúrias/dietoterapia , Adulto , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/métodos , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenilalanina/sangue , Fenilcetonúrias/sangue , Fenilcetonúrias/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470570

RESUMO

Dietary protein restriction has beneficial impacts on metabolic health. B0AT1 (SLC6A19) is the major transporter of neutral amino acids at the intestinal epithelia and absorbs the bulk of the diet-derived neutral amino acids from the intestinal lumen. It also reabsorbs neutral amino acids in the renal proximal tubules. Mice lacking B0AT1 show cellular outcomes of protein restriction, such as high FGF21 levels and low mTORC1 activity. Moreover, they have improved glucose homeostasis and resist diet-induced obesity. In this study, we investigated the relationship between protein restriction and dietary protein intake in C57Bl6/J wild-type (wt) and SLC6A19-knockout (SLC6A19ko) mice. When SLC6A19ko mice were fed diets containing 5%, 25%, or 52% of their total calories derived from protein, no differences in food intake or weight gain were observed. All essential amino acids significantly positively correlated with increasing dietary casein content in the wt mice. The SLC6A19ko mice showed reduced postprandial levels of essential amino acids in plasma, particularly following high-protein diets. Upon fasting, essential amino acids were the same in the wt and SLC6A19ko mice due to reduced amino acid catabolism. Bacterial metabolites originating from amino acid fermentation correlated with the dietary protein content, but showed a complex profile in the blood of the SLC6A19ko mice. This study highlights the potential of SLC6A19 as a knock-out or inhibition target to induce protein restriction for the treatment of metabolic disorders.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos Neutros/deficiência , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Dieta Rica em Proteínas , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Absorção Intestinal , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Síndromes de Malabsorção/metabolismo , Reabsorção Renal , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos Neutros/genética , Aminoácidos/administração & dosagem , Aminoácidos/sangue , Animais , Peso Corporal , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/sangue , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Síndromes de Malabsorção/sangue , Síndromes de Malabsorção/genética , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout
6.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484354

RESUMO

Diet is a key component of care during chronic kidney disease (CKD). Nutritional interventions, and, specifically, a restricted protein diet has been under debate for decades. In order to reduce the risk of nutritional disorders in very-low protein diets (VLDP), supplementation by nitrogen-free ketoacid analogues (KAs) have been proposed. The aim of this review is to summarize the potential effects of this dietary therapy on renal function, uremic toxins levels, and nutritional and metabolic parameters and propose future directions. The purpose of this paper is also to select all experimental and randomized clinical studies (RCTs) that have compared VLDP + KA to normal diet or/and low protein diet (LPD). We reviewed the SCOPUS, WEB of SCIENCES, CENTRAL, and PUBMED databases from their inception to 1 January, 2019. Following duplicate removal and application of exclusion criteria, 23 RCTs and 12 experimental studies were included. LPD/VLPD + KAs appear nutritionally safe even if how muscle protein metabolism adapts to an LPD/VLPD + KAs is still largely unknown. VLPD + KAs seem to reduce uremic toxins production but the impact on intestinal microbiota remains unexplored. All studies observed a reduction of acidosis, phosphorus, and possibly sodium intake, while still providing adequate calcium intake. The impact of this diet on carbohydrate and bone parameters are only preliminary and need to be confirmed with RCTs. The Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study, the largest RCTs, failed to demonstrate a benefit in the primary outcome of the decline rate for the glomerular filtration rate. However, the design of this study was challenged and data were subsequently reanalyzed. However, when adherent patients were selected, with a rapid rate of progression and a long-term follow up, more recent meta-analysis and RCTs suggest that these diets can reduce the loss of the glomerular filtration rate in addition to the beneficial effects of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors. The current evidence suggests that KAs supplemented LPD diets should be included as part of the clinical recommendations for both the nutritional prevention and metabolic management of CKD. More research is needed to examine the effectiveness of KAs especially on uremic toxins. A reflection about the dose and composition of the KAs supplement, the cost-effective features, and their indication to reduce the frequency of dialysis needs to be completed.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Cetoácidos/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/dietoterapia , Humanos , Cetoácidos/administração & dosagem
7.
J Anim Sci ; 97(9): 3882-3897, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394569

RESUMO

Fifty-four lactating multiparous Yorkshire sows were used to test the hypothesis that feeding a reduced protein diet with a near ideal AA (NIAA) profile increases the biological utilization efficiency of N and essential AA (EAA) for milk production in part as a result of reduced dietary Leu concentration. Sows were fed 1 of 3 isocaloric diets containing the following concentration of CP (% as-fed, analyzed): 18.74 (Control: CON), 13.78 (Optimal: OPT), and 14.25 (Optimal + Leu: OPTLEU). The OPT and OPTLEU diets contained the same concentration of crystalline AA (CAA) to meet requirements of the limiting AA. Crystalline Leu was added to OPTLEU to contain the same SID Leu concentration as that of CON. Sows were weighed on days 1 and 21 of lactation and piglets on days 1, 4, 8, 14, 18, and 21 of lactation. Nitrogen retention was measured for 48 or 72 h between days 4 and 8 (early) and days 14 and 18 (peak) of lactation. Sow BW change and ADFI did not differ between diets. Litter growth rate (LGR) during early lactation did not differ between diets. At peak lactation, LGR was higher in sows fed OPT compared with CON (P < 0.05) and lower in sows fed OPTLEU compared with OPT (P < 0.05). In early and peak lactation, total N retention, and milk N output efficiency were greater in OPT (P < 0.01) and OPTLEU (P < 0.05) than CON. Compared with CON, overall biological efficiency of N, Arg, His, Ile, Leu, Phe, and Trp were greater (P < 0.05), whereas those of Lys, Met, Thr, and Val did not differ in sows fed OPT and OPTLEU, except for Leu which did not differ between OPTLEU and CON. Compared with OPT, only Leu and Met efficiency were lower (P < 0.01) and tended to be lower (P = 0.10), respectively, in sows fed OPTLEU. Reducing CP with a NIAA profile to attain the minimum Leu requirement maintained overall lactation performance, improved utilization efficiency of N, Arg, His, Ile, Leu, Phe + Tyr, and Trp for milk production, and maximized efficiency of Ile, Leu, Lys, Met + Cys, Phe + Tyr, Thr, Trp, and Val. Addition of Leu did not reduce N and EAA utilization efficiency. This study provides revised and novel maximum biological efficiency value (MBEV) for Ile (65.4), Leu (75.1), Lys (63.2), Met + Cys (78.2), Phe + Tyr (69.5), Thr (71.0), Trp (70.1), and Val (57.0). These MBEV can be used to more accurately predict the requirement for those AA during lactation.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/veterinária , Leite/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Lactação
8.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 811, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diets that restrict energy or macronutrient intake (e.g. fasting/ketogenic diets (KDs)) may selectively protect non-tumour cells during cancer treatment. Previous reviews have focused on a subset of dietary restrictions (DR) or have not performed systematic searches. We conducted a systematic scoping review of DR at the time of cancer treatment. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, AMED and Web of Science databases were searched for studies of adults undergoing DR alongside treatment for cancer. Search results were screened against inclusion/exclusion criteria. Data from included studies were extracted by two independent reviewers. Results were summarised narratively. RESULTS: Twenty-three independent studies (34 articles), with small sample sizes, met the inclusion criteria. Four categories were identified: KDs (10 studies), fasting (4 studies), protein restriction (5 studies) and combined interventions (4 studies). Diets were tolerated well, however adherence was variable, particularly for KDs. Biomarker analysis in KDs and fasting resulted in the expected increase in ketones or reduction in insulin-like growth factors, respectively, however they did not reduce glucose. CONCLUSIONS: Future research with adequately powered studies is required to test the effects of each DR intervention on treatment toxicities and outcomes. Further research into improving adherence to DR may improve the feasibility of larger trials.


Assuntos
Dieta Cetogênica , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Jejum , Neoplasias/dietoterapia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 56: 21-30, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442950

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Selenium(Se)is an important trace element for human health. Studies have shown that selenium deficiency and low protein(Pr) intake are the primary risk factors for Keshan disease.The relationship between the cardiac malfunction induced by these two risk factors and the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway is poorly understood.This study aimed to determine the effect of selenium deficiency and low protein intake on the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway. METHODS: In the present study, 120 weaning Wistar rats were randomly fed one of six different diets. The myocardial tissue sections were deparaffinized in water and subjected to hematoxylin-eosin staining. Mitochondrial changes in the myocardial tissue were observed and photographed using an H-7650 Hitachi transmission electron microscope. Levels of whole blood Se were measured using hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Whole blood glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was measured using a glutathione peroxidase cellular activity assay kit. Malondialdehyde (MDA), total-anti-oxidizing-capability(T-AOC)and reactive oxygen species(ROS)levels in serum and myocardial tissue were measured using MDA, T-AOC and ROS kits. Apoptosis was detected by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Experimental results showed that the selenium-deficient diet decreased serum selenium levels and GSH-PX activity, which caused severe cardiac dysfunction. Importantly, the levels of MDA and ROS in serum and myocardial tissue defects were significantly increased, where as total-anti-oxidizing-capability(T-AOC) levels were dramatically decreased as a result of the combination of selenium deficiency and low protein intake (P<0.05).The levels of cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-3 were enhanced, but the expression of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) was reduced (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that selenium deficiency and low protein intake can cause oxidative stress in the myocardium and induce cell apoptosis via the mitochondria-mediated pathway.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Selênio/deficiência , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Caspase 9/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Glutationa Peroxidase , Masculino , Malondialdeído/sangue , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/ultraestrutura , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Selênio/sangue
10.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 56: 38-45, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Along with economic development and living standards' improvement, more and more attention has been converted from satisfying meat quantity to pursuing meat quality. RESEARCH PURPOSE: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of increasing selenium (Se) supplementation to a moderately-reduced energy and protein diet (MREP) on growth performance, antioxidant status, meat quality in finishing pigs. BASIC PROCEDURES: A total of 144 "Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire" pigs with the average body weight of 75 ± 1 kg were randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments with six replicates per treatment and eight pigs per replicate. The 3 experimental diets were as follows: (1) Normal energy and protein (NEP) +0.2 mg/kg Se diet (14.02 MJ/kg DE, 14% CP and 0.2 mg/kg Se as selenite sodium), (2) MREP +0.2 mg/kg Se diet (13.60 MJ/kg DE, 13% CP and 0.2 mg/kg Se as selenite sodium), and (3) MREP +0.5 mg/kg Se diet (13.60 MJ/kg DE, 13% CP, 0.2 mg/kg Se as selenite sodium, and 0.3 mg/kg Se as Se-enriched yeast). The study lasted for 45 days. MAIN FINDINGS: The results show that there were no differences for growth performance, antioxidant status and meat quality of finishing pigs between NEP +0.2 mg/kg Se group and MREP +0.2 mg/kg Se group (P>0.05). However, compared to pigs from MREP +0.2 mg/kg Se group, pigs from MREP +0.5 mg/kg Se group had greater Se concentration, GSH-Px activity and GSH concentration, but lower MDA concentration in serum (P<0.05). Also, pigs from MREP +0.5 mg/kg Se group had greater Se concentration, T-AOC, and SOD activity, but lower MDA concentration in loin compared with pigs from MREP +0.2 mg/kg Se group (P<0.05). As for meat quality, pigs from MREP +0.5 mg/kg Se group had greater a* value (relative redness) at 45 min and 24 h in loin compared with pigs from MREP +0.2 mg/kg Se group (P<0.05). Compared to pigs from MREP +0.2 mg/kg Se group, pigs from MREP +0.5 mg/kg Se group had lower MDA concentration of fresh pork during a simulated retail display at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 7 day (P<0.05). PRINCIPAL CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, increasing selenium supplementation to a moderately-reduced energy and protein diet improved antioxidant status and meat quality without affecting growth performance in finishing pigs. (New Aspects) The present study provided a nutritional strategy for reducing feed costs and improving pork quality without influencing growth performance in finishing pigs.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Carne/normas , Selênio/farmacologia , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredução
11.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461828

RESUMO

Phenylketonuria (PKU) is treated with dietary restrictions and sometimes tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). PKU patients are at risk for developing micronutrient deficiencies, such as vitamin B12 and folic acid, likely due to their diet. Tyrosinemia type 1 (TT1) is similar to PKU in both pathogenesis and treatment. TT1 patients follow a similar diet, but nutritional deficiencies have not been investigated yet. In this retrospective study, biomarkers of micronutrients in TT1 and PKU patients were investigated and outcomes were correlated to dietary intake and anthropometric measurements from regular follow-up measurements from patients attending the outpatient clinic. Data was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis, Fisher's exact and Spearman correlation tests. Furthermore, descriptive data were used. Overall, similar results for TT1 and PKU patients (with and without BH4) were observed. In all groups high vitamin B12 concentrations were seen rather than B12 deficiencies. Furthermore, all groups showed biochemical evidence of vitamin D deficiency. This study shows that micronutrients in TT1 and PKU patients are similar and often within the normal ranges and that vitamin D concentrations could be optimized.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/administração & dosagem , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Micronutrientes/sangue , Estado Nutricional , Fenilcetonúrias/dietoterapia , Tirosinemias/dietoterapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Aminoácidos/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biopterina/análogos & derivados , Biopterina/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cicloexanonas/uso terapêutico , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitrobenzoatos/uso terapêutico , Fenilcetonúrias/sangue , Fenilcetonúrias/diagnóstico , Fenilcetonúrias/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Tirosinemias/sangue , Tirosinemias/fisiopatologia , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/diagnóstico , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/etiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/diagnóstico , Deficiência de Vitamina D/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461865

RESUMO

Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) is characterized in part by limited dietary variety, but dietary characteristics of this disorder have not yet been systematically studied. Our objective was to examine dietary intake defined by diet variety, macronutrient intake, and micronutrient intake in children and adolescents with full or subthreshold ARFID in comparison to healthy controls. We collected and analyzed four-day food record data for 52 participants with full or subthreshold ARFID, and 52 healthy controls, aged 9-22 years. We examined frequency of commonly reported foods by logistic regression and intake by food groups, macronutrients, and micronutrients between groups with repeated-measures ANOVA. Participants with full or subthreshold ARFID did not report any fruit or vegetable category in their top five most commonly reported food categories, whereas these food groups occupied three of the top five groups for healthy controls. Vegetable and protein intake were significantly lower in full or subthreshold ARFID compared to healthy controls. Intakes of added sugars and total carbohydrates were significantly higher in full or subthreshold ARFID compared to healthy controls. Individuals with full or subthreshold ARFID had lower intake of vitamins K and B12, consistent with limited vegetable and protein intake compared to healthy controls. Our results support the need for diet diversification as part of therapeutic interventions for ARFID to reduce risk for nutrient insufficiencies and related complications.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Comportamento Infantil , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/efeitos adversos , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar , Valor Nutritivo , Verduras , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Recomendações Nutricionais , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
13.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443582

RESUMO

Dietary protein profoundly influences organismal traits ultimately affecting healthspan. While intracellular signalling downstream of altered amino acid supply is undoubtedly important, peptide hormones have emerged as critical factors determining systemic responses to variations in protein intake. Here the regulation and role of certain peptides hormones in such responses to altered dietary protein intake is reviewed.


Assuntos
Dieta Rica em Proteínas , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Metabolismo Energético , Hormônios Peptídicos/metabolismo , Animais , Regulação do Apetite , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais
14.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(24): 2973-2976, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31293334

RESUMO

Until recently, with the exception of coeliac disease, gastroenterologists have not been particularly interested in the role of diet in the management of gastrointestinal disorders. However, patients have always felt that diet must play a part in their symptoms and, in the absence of any medical interest, have turned to alternative dietary practitioners for help, which can often have no evidence base. Fortunately, with the advent of the FODMAP diet (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols) and the realisation that diet can have a profound effect on the microbiome, medical opinion is now changing. Nevertheless, research on the various diets that are now available is often completely lacking. Lectins are carbohydrate binding proteins which are widely distributed in nature and are found in a whole variety of commonly consumed foods. It seems likely that the exclusion of lectins from the diet could become the next "food fashion" for alternative practitioners to promote, especially as there is some evidence to suggest that certain lectins may be harmful to health. It is, therefore, the purpose of this viewpoint to try and stimulate research on the dietary effects of lectins, which is currently minimal, so that we can pre-empt a situation where we are unable to give patients or the public evidence based advice on this topic.


Assuntos
Dietas da Moda , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/efeitos adversos , Proteínas na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gastroenteropatias/dietoterapia , Lectinas/efeitos adversos , Terapias Complementares/métodos , Terapias Complementares/tendências , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos/efeitos adversos , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos/métodos , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/métodos , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Glutens/administração & dosagem , Glutens/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Lectinas/administração & dosagem , Monossacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Monossacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Oligossacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Oligossacarídeos/efeitos adversos
15.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284588

RESUMO

Evidence suggests a role of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), in which animal foods are especially rich, in optimal neural development. The LC-PUFAs docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid, found in high concentrations in the brain and retina, have potential beneficial effects on cognition, and motor and visual functions. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is the most common inborn error of amino acid metabolism. The treatment of PKU consists of a phenylalanine-free diet, which limits the intake of natural proteins of high biological value. In this systematic review, we summarize the available evidence supporting a role for LC-PUFA supplementation as an effective means of increasing LC-PUFA levels and improving visual and neurocognitive functions in PKU patients. Data from controlled trials of children and adults (up to 47 years of age) were obtained by searching the MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. For each selected study, the risk of bias was assessed applying the methodology of the Cochrane Collaboration. The findings indicate that DHA supplementation in PKU patients from 2 weeks to 47 years of age improves DHA status and decreases visual evoked potential P100 wave latency in PKU children from 1 to 11 years old. Neurocognitive data are inconclusive.


Assuntos
Ácido Araquidônico/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/administração & dosagem , Fenilcetonúrias/dietoterapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ácido Araquidônico/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/efeitos adversos , Potencial Evocado Motor , Potenciais Evocados Visuais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenilcetonúrias/diagnóstico , Fenilcetonúrias/fisiopatologia , Fenilcetonúrias/psicologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
Environ Toxicol ; 34(11): 1263-1272, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287222

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effect of gestational low protein diet (LPD) and/or postnatal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure on mammary gland development and carcinogenesis in female offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal protein diet (NPD, 17% protein) or LPD (6% protein). At weaning, female offspring were distributed in four groups (NPD, LPD, NPD + BPA, and LPD + BPA) and received vehicle or BPA in drinking water (0.1%), during postnatal day (PND) 21 to 51. On PND 51, some female offspring were euthanized or received a single dose of 7,12-dimethylbenzoanthracene (DMBA, 30 mg/kg, i.g.) and were euthanized on PND 250. On PND 51, neither gestational LPD nor postnatal BPA exposure, individually or in combination, significantly altered the development of mammary gland tree, mean number of terminal structures or estrogen receptor beta (ER-ß), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) or caspase-3 protein expression in the mammary tissue. A significant reduction in mammary epithelial area (%) was observed in both LPD groups and a significant increase in ER-α protein expression was detected only in LPD group. In LPD + BPA group was observed a significant increase in both fat pad area (%) and in mean number of mammary epithelial cells positive for progesterone receptor (PR). On PND 250, the groups that received BPA presented lower latency and higher tumor incidence and tumor multiplicity and LPD + BPA group more aggressive tumors. These findings suggest that postnatal BPA exposure associated with gestational LPD is able to induce morphological changes in the mammary gland and increase susceptibility to mammary carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/induzido quimicamente , Fenóis/toxicidade , Animais , Carcinogênese , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Feminino , Masculino , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/patologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo
17.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 9(7): 2161-2170, 2019 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289120

RESUMO

Increasing evidence indicates that parental diet affects the metabolism and health of offspring. It is reported that paternal low-protein diet (pLPD) induces glucose intolerance and the expression of genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis in mouse offspring liver. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a pLPD on gene expression in offspring white adipose tissue (WAT), another important tissue for the regulation of metabolism. RNA-seq analysis indicated that pLPD up- and down-regulated 54 and 274 genes, respectively, in offspring WAT. The mRNA expression of many genes involved in lipogenesis was down-regulated by pLPD feeding, which may contribute to metabolic disorder. The expression of carbohydrate response element-binding protein ß (ChREBP-ß), an important lipogenic transcription factor, was also significantly lower in the WAT of pLPD offspring, which may have mediated the down-regulation of the lipogenic genes. By contrast, the LPD did not affect the expression of lipogenic genes in the WAT of the male progenitor, but increased the expression of lipid oxidation genes, suggesting that a LPD may reduce lipogenesis using different mechanisms in parents and offspring. These findings add to our understanding of how paternal diet can regulate metabolism in their offspring.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/metabolismo , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Herança Paterna , Transcriptoma , Animais , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Lipogênese/genética , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos
18.
Anim Sci J ; 90(9): 1200-1211, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317623

RESUMO

The study aimed to evaluate nutrient digestibility and intestine gene expression in the progeny from cows supplemented during gestation and fed diets with or without rumen-protected fat (RPF) in the feedlot. Forty-eight Nellore steers, averaging 340 kg, were housed in individual pens and allotted in a completely randomized design using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (dams nutrition × RPF). Cows' supplementation started after 124 ± 21 days of gestation. The feedlot lasted 135 days and diets had the inclusion of zero or 6% of RPF. Digestibility was evaluated by total feces collection. Steers were slaughtered using the concussion technique and samples of pancreas and small intestine were collected immediately after the slaughter to analyze α-amylase activity, and the expression of SLC5A1, CD36, and CCK and villi morphometry. Feeding RPF increased nutrients digestibility (p < 0.01). There was no effect of maternal nutrition on digestibility and α-amylase activity in steers (p > 0.05). Duodenal expression of SLC5A1, CD36, and CCK increased in the progeny from restricted cows. In conclusion, protein restriction during mid to late gestation of dams has long-term effects on small-intestine length and on expression of membrane transporters genes in the duodenum of the progeny. However, maternal nutrition does not affect digestibility in the feedlot.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Dieta Hiperlipídica/veterinária , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/veterinária , Dieta/veterinária , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Prenhez , Animais , Bovinos , Digestão/fisiologia , Proteínas de Transporte de Ácido Graxo/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Ácido Graxo/metabolismo , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Intestino Delgado/anatomia & histologia , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Gravidez , Proteínas de Transporte de Sódio-Glucose/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Sódio-Glucose/metabolismo , alfa-Amilases/genética , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
19.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(9): 7936-7947, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255267

RESUMO

Objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of supplementing rumen-protected methionine (RP-Met), threonine (RP-Thr), isoleucine (RP-Ile), and leucine (RP-Leu) individually or jointly to a low-protein diet, on the performance of lactating dairy cows, as well as to determine the effects of these amino acids (AA) on the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in vivo. Ten lactating Holstein cows were randomly allocated to a repeated 5 × 5 Latin square experiment with five 19-d periods. Treatments were high-protein diet (16% crude protein, positive control; HP), low-protein diet (12% crude protein, negative control; LP), LP plus RP-Met (LPM), LP plus RP-Met and RP-Thr (LPMT), and LP plus RP-Met, RP-Thr, RP-Ile, and RP-Leu (LPMTIL). The dry matter intakes (DMI) of the LP, LPM, and LPMT diets were lower than that of the HP diet, whereas the DMI of the LPMTIL diet was intermediate between the HP diet and the other LP diets. Supplementing RP-Met to the LP diet increased the yields of milk and milk protein, increased the content of milk urea N, and tended to increase milk N efficiency. Co-supplementation of RP-Thr with RP-Met resulted in no further milk production increase. Co-supplementation of all 4 rumen-protected amino acids (RP-AA) increased milk and lactose yields to the level of the HP diet and tended to increase milk protein yield compared with the LPMT diet. We found no significant differences in the contents and yields of milk components between the LPMTIL and HP diets except for a lower milk urea N content in the LPMTIL diet. Venous concentrations of the measured AA were similar across the LP and LP diets supplemented with RP-AA. Relative to levels of the HP diet, LP diets had higher venous concentrations of Met and Gly and tended to have higher Phe concentration and lower concentrations of Val and BCAA. The LPMTIL diet had higher venous concentrations of Arg, Lys, Met, Phe, and Glu, and a lower Val concentration. Phosphorylation status of the measured mTOR components in LPM and LPMT treatments were similar to those in the LP treatment but phosphorylation status of mTOR and eIF4E-binding protein 1 (4eBP1) in LPMTIL treatment were higher. The phosphorylation rates of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) in the 4 LP and LP plus RP-AA diets were higher than that of the HP diet. Overall, results of the present study supported the concept that under the relatively short time of this experiment, supplementing RP-AA, which are believed to stimulate the mTOR signal pathway, can lead to increased milk protein yield. This increase appears to be due to increased DMI, greater mTOR signaling, and greater eEF2 activity.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos Essenciais/administração & dosagem , Bovinos/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Leite/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Aminoácidos Essenciais/análise , Animais , Indústria de Laticínios , Dieta/veterinária , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/veterinária , Feminino , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactose/metabolismo , Metionina/administração & dosagem , Leite/química , Nitrogênio/análise , Rúmen/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Ureia/análise
20.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although there is a growing number of early childhood obesity prevention programs, only a few of them are effective in the long run. Even fewer reports exist on lifetime cost-effectiveness of early prevention strategies. This paper aimed to assess the lifetime cost-effectiveness of infant feeding modification aiming at reducing risk of later obesity. METHODS: The simulation model consists of two parts: (a) Model I used data from the European Childhood Obesity Project (CHOP) trial (up to 6 years) and the German Interview and Examination Survey for Children (KiGGS) (6-17 years) to evaluate BMI trajectories of infants receiving either lower protein (LP) or higher protein (HP) content formula; and (b) Model II estimated lifetime cost-effectiveness based on Model I BMI trajectories. Compared to HP formula, LP formula feeding would incur lower costs that are attributable to childhood obesity across all decades of life. RESULTS: Our analysis showed that LP formula would be cost-effective in terms of a positive net monetary benefit (discounted 3%) as an obesity prevention strategy. For the 19% of infants fed with formula in Germany, the LP strategy would result in cost savings of € 2.5 billion. CONCLUSIONS: Our study is one of the first efforts to provide much-needed cost-effectiveness evidence of infant feeding modification, thereby potentially motivating interventionists to reassess their resource allocation.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/economia , Fórmulas Infantis/economia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Custos e Análise de Custo , Europa (Continente) , Alemanha , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA