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1.
Life Sci ; 264: 118693, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130082

RESUMO

AIMS: Because an adequate protein supply is detrimental for the maintenance of folliculogenesis and ovulation, we evaluated the impact of maternal low protein diet on nutritional parameters, estrous cycle, ovarian histomorphometry, and on the expression of metabolic and survival signaling molecules in different follicular stages. MAIN METHODS: Twenty Wistar pregnant rats were divided into two groups: the normoprotein (NP) group, composed of animals that received 17% protein, and a low-protein (LP) group, composed of animals that received 6% protein during gestation and lactation period. After weaning, female rats were fed with standard diet until the 120-days-old. KEY FINDINGS: LP animals showed reduced body mass index, total body weight, energy intake, feed efficiency, and visceral fat. The ovarian tissue presented vascular congestion and fat accumulation in the medulla, followed by a significant reduction in the amount of primordial and primary follicles. In addition, the number of atretic follicles was higher in LP than in NP animals. Maternal undernutrition also resulted in increased levels of estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) while testosterone (T) was unchanged in the offspring. Although discrete changes in p38MAPK and in PI3K-AKT-mTOR immunostaining were observed in the ovarian follicles and corpus luteum in LP, no differences were found at their protein levels. SIGNIFICANCE: Maternal protein restriction alters estrous cycle and histomorphometry of the offspring's ovary without changing the levels of intracellular regulatory molecules in adulthood. These morphofunctional changes may alter reproductive performance in female offspring, highlighting maternal dietary conditions as an important factor for offspring reproductive health.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Ovário/patologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Animais , Ciclo Estral , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Masculino , Folículo Ovariano/patologia , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais
2.
Ter Arkh ; 92(6): 117-123, 2020 Jul 09.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33346504

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by poor outcomes, an increasing frequency of new cases, the need for expensive method of renal replacement therapy at the terminal stage. The main task facing the doctor is slowing the progression of CKD and delay the start of dialysis by applying the nephroprotective strategy, of which diet therapy is an essential part. The key components of the diet for CKD patients are reducing sodium intake to 2.3 g per day in order to improve control of blood pressure (BP), dietary protein restriction adequate to renal function from 0.8 to 0.3 g/kg of body weight per day combined with the prescribing of ketoanalogues of essential amino acids, hyperglycemia control. With the progression of CKD, the main objectives of the diet therapy are the prevention/correction of complications: protein-energy waisting, metabolic acidosis, ensuring sufficient calories, corresponding to the bodys energy expenditures (3035 kcal/kg of body weight per day), limiting phosphate intake to 0.81 g a day, restriction of food potassium. Low-protein diet in combination with ketoanalogues of amino acids, regular monitoring and correction of the nutritional status of patients at the pre-dialysis stages of CKD is an effective and safe method of nephroprotection, which allows delaying the start of dialysis.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Diálise , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Humanos , Estado Nutricional , Apoio Nutricional , Diálise Renal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia
3.
Vnitr Lek ; 66(6): 10-13, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33380147

RESUMO

For patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) appropriately chosen and timely initiated dietary measures, as a complement to drug therapy, may slow the progression of the disease and delay the need for dialysis treatment. According to the results, dietary protein restriction may play a very important in management of such a patient. The effect of low protein diet is given by the early initiation and well cooperation of patients. The low protein diet with supplementation of ketoanalogues of amino acids is an attractive intervention to help maintain good nutritional status of patients and also have a positive role in calcium phosphate metabolism. Depending on the level of CKD´s progression it should not be forgotten either the fluid balance and the limitation of the intake of salt and phosphorus in the diet which may also have an unfortunate effect on the course of the disease.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Estado Nutricional , Diálise Renal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5262, 2020 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067453

RESUMO

Lifestyle, mainly dietary, interventions are first-line treatment for women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but the optimal diet remains undefined. We combined a hyperandrogenized PCOS mouse model with a systematic macronutrient approach, to elucidate the impact of dietary macronutrients on the development of PCOS. We identify that an optimum dietary macronutrient balance of a low protein, medium carbohydrate and fat diet can ameliorate key PCOS reproductive traits. However, PCOS mice display a hindered ability for their metabolic system to respond to diet variations, and varying macronutrient balance did not have a beneficial effect on the development of metabolic PCOS traits. We reveal that PCOS traits in a hyperandrogenic PCOS mouse model are ameliorated selectively by diet, with reproductive traits displaying greater sensitivity than metabolic traits to dietary macronutrient balance. Hence, providing evidence to support the development of evidence-based dietary interventions as a promising strategy for the treatment of PCOS, especially reproductive traits.


Assuntos
Nutrientes/metabolismo , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nutrientes/análise , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/dietoterapia
5.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD001892, 2020 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33118160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined as reduced function of the kidneys present for 3 months or longer with adverse implications for health and survival. For several decades low protein diets have been proposed for participants with CKD with the aim of slowing the progression to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) and delaying the onset of renal replacement therapy. However the relative benefits and harms of dietary protein restriction for preventing progression of CKD have not been resolved. This is an update of a systematic review first published in 2000 and updated in 2006, 2009 and 2018. OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy of low protein diets in preventing the natural progression of CKD towards ESKD and in delaying the need for commencing dialysis treatment in non-diabetic adults. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Register of Studies up to 7 September 2020 through contact with the Information Specialist using search terms relevant to this review. Studies in the Register are identified through searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE, conference proceedings, the International Clinical Trials Register (ICTRP) Search Portal and ClinicalTrials.gov. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi RCTs in which adults with non-diabetic CKD (stages 3 to 5) not on dialysis were randomised to receive a very low protein intake (0.3 to 0.4 g/kg/day) compared with a low protein intake (0.5 to 0.6 g/kg/day) or a low protein intake compared with a normal protein intake (≥ 0.8 g/kg/day) for 12 months or more. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently selected studies and extracted data. For dichotomous outcomes (death, all causes), requirement for dialysis, adverse effects) the risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated and summary statistics estimated using the random effects model. Where continuous scales of measurement were used (glomerular filtration rate (GFR), weight), these data were analysed as the mean difference (MD) or standardised mean difference (SMD) if different scales had been used. The certainty of the evidence was assessed using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 17 studies with 2996 analysed participants (range 19 to 840). Four larger multicentre studies were subdivided according to interventions so that the review included 21 separate data sets. Mean duration of participant follow-up ranged from 12 to 50 months. Random sequence generation and allocation concealment were considered at low risk of bias in eleven and nine studies respectively. All studies were considered at high risk for performance bias as they were open-label studies. We assessed detection bias for outcome assessment for GFR and ESKD separately. As GFR measurement was a laboratory outcome all studies were assessed at low risk of detection bias. For ESKD, nine studies were at low risk of detection bias as the need to commence dialysis was determined by personnel independent of the study investigators. Five studies were assessed at high risk of attrition bias with eleven studies at low risk. Ten studies were at high risk for reporting bias as they did not include data which could be included in a meta-analysis. Eight studies reported funding from government bodies while the remainder did not report on funding. Ten studies compared a low protein diet with a normal protein diet in participants with CKD categories 3a and b (9 studies) or 4 (one study). There was probably little or no difference in the numbers of participants who died (5 studies 1680 participants: RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.51 to 1.18; 13 fewer deaths per 1000; moderate certainty evidence). A low protein diet may make little or no difference in the number of participants who reached ESKD compared with a normal protein diet (6 studies, 1814 participants: RR 1.05, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.53; 7 more per 1000 reached ESKD; low certainty evidence). It remains uncertain whether a low protein diet compared with a normal protein intake impacts on the outcome of final or change in GFR (8 studies, 1680 participants: SMD -0.18, 95% CI -0.75 to 0.38; very low certainty evidence). Eight studies compared a very low protein diet with a low protein diet and two studies compared a very low protein diet with a normal protein diet. A very low protein intake compared with a low protein intake probably made little or no difference to death (6 studies, 681 participants: RR 1.26, 95% CI 0.62 to 2.54; 10 more deaths per 1000; moderate certainty evidence). However it probably reduces the number who reach ESKD (10 studies, 1010 participants: RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.85; 165 per 1000 fewer reached ESKD; moderate certainty evidence). It remains uncertain whether a very low protein diet compared with a low or normal protein intake influences the final or change in GFR (6 studies, 456 participants: SMD 0.12, 95% CI -0.27 to 0.52; very low certainty evidence). Final body weight was reported in only three studies. It is uncertain whether the intervention alters final body weight (3 studies, 89 participants: MD -0.40 kg, 95% CI -6.33 to 5.52; very low certainty evidence).Twelve studies reported no evidence of protein energy wasting (malnutrition) in their study participants while three studies reported small numbers of participants in each group with protein energy wasting. Most studies reported that adherence to diet was satisfactory. Quality of life was not formally assessed in any studies. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This review found that very low protein diets probably reduce the number of people with CKD 4 or 5, who progress to ESKD. In contrast low protein diets may make little difference to the number of people who progress to ESKD. Low or very low protein diets probably do not influence death. However there are limited data on adverse effects such as weight differences and protein energy wasting. There are no data on whether quality of life is impacted by difficulties in adhering to protein restriction. Studies evaluating the adverse effects and the impact on quality of life of dietary protein restriction are required before these dietary approaches can be recommended for widespread use.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Progressão da Doença , Falência Renal Crônica/dietoterapia , Falência Renal Crônica/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Viés , Causas de Morte , Doença Crônica , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
6.
Life Sci ; 263: 118574, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049280

RESUMO

AIMS: We investigated the involvement of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) on the cardiorespiratory control in rats from dams fed with a low-protein diet. MAIN METHODS: Male offspring were obtained from dams fed a normoprotein diet (NP, 17% casein) and low-protein diet (LP, 8% casein) during pregnancy and lactation. Direct measurements of arterial pressure (AP), heart rate (HR) and respiratory frequency (RF) were recorded in awake 90-day-old at resting and after losartan potassium through either intracerebroventricular (ICV) microinjections or intravenous (IV) administration. Cardiovascular variability was evaluated by spectral analysis. Peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity was assessed through the potassium cyanide (KCN; 40 µg/0.1 ml/rat, IV). Gene expression was evaluated by qPCR, and MAPK (Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase) expression was evaluated by western blot. KEY FINDINGS: The LP offspring had higher mean AP (MAP) and RF than NP offspring. In the spectral analysis, the LP rats also showed higher low frequency of systolic AP (NP: 2.7 ± 0.3 vs. LP: 5.0 ± 1.0 mmHg). After ICV losartan, MAP and RF in LP rats remained higher than those in NP rats, but without changes in HR. The peripheral chemoreflex was similar between the groups. LP group had lower gene expression of Rac1 (Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1) (NP: 1.13 ± 0.06 vs. LP: 0.88 ± 0.08). Peripherally, LP rats had larger delta of MAP after IV losartan (NP: -9.8 ± 2 vs. LP: -23 ± 6 mmHg), without changes in HR and RF. SIGNIFICANCE: In rats, the RAS participates peripherally, but not centrally, in the maintenance of arterial hypertension in male offspring induced by maternal protein restriction.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/efeitos adversos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna/fisiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiologia , Animais , Pressão Arterial/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Arterial/fisiologia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Lactação/fisiologia , Losartan/farmacologia , Masculino , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Taxa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos , Taxa Respiratória/fisiologia
7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15859, 2020 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985541

RESUMO

Feeding pigs with very-low protein (VLP) diets while supplemented with limiting amino acids (AA) results in decreased growth. The objective of this study was to determine if supplementing VLP diets with branched-chain AA (BCAA) would reverse the negative effects of these diets on growth and whether this is associated with alterations in energy balance, blood metabolomics and fecal microbiota composition. Twenty-four nursery pigs were weight-matched, individually housed and allotted into following treatments (n = 8/group): control (CON), low protein (LP) and LP supplemented with BCAA (LP + BCAA) for 4 weeks. Relative to CON, pigs fed with LP had lower feed intake (FI) and body weight (BW) throughout the study, but those fed with LP + BCAA improved overall FI computed for 4 weeks, tended to increase the overall average daily gain, delayed the FI and BW depression for ~ 2 weeks and had transiently higher energy expenditure. Feeding pigs with LP + BCAA impacted the phenylalanine and protein metabolism and fatty acids synthesis pathways. Compared to CON, the LP + BCAA group had higher abundance of Paludibacteraceae and Synergistaceae and reduced populations of Streptococcaceae, Oxyphotobacteria_unclassified, Pseudomonadaceae and Shewanellaceae in their feces. Thus, supplementing VLP diets with BCAA temporarily annuls the adverse effects of these diets on growth, which is linked with alterations in energy balance and metabolic and gut microbiome profile.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada/análise , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Fezes/microbiologia , Metabolômica , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/sangue , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Respiração/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos
8.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 319(4): R485-R496, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877242

RESUMO

Maternal low-protein diet (LP) throughout gestation affects pancreatic ß-cell fraction of the offspring at birth, thus increasing their susceptibility to metabolic dysfunction and type 2 diabetes in adulthood. The present study sought to strictly examine the effects of LP during the last week of gestation (LP12.5) alone as a developmental window for ß-cell programming and metabolic dysfunction in adulthood. Islet morphology analysis revealed normal ß-cell fraction in LP12.5 newborns. Normal glucose tolerance was observed in 6- to 8-wk-old male and female LP12.5 offspring. However, male LP12.5 offspring displayed glucose intolerance and reduced insulin sensitivity associated with ß-cell dysfunction with aging. High-fat diet exposure of metabolically normal 12-wk-old male LP12.5 induced glucose intolerance due to increased body weight, insulin resistance, and insufficient ß-cell mass adaptation despite higher insulin secretion. Assessment of epigenetic mechanisms through microRNAs (miRs) by a real-time PCR-based microarray in islets revealed elevation in miRs that regulate insulin secretion (miRs 342, 143), insulin resistance (miR143), and obesity (miR219). In the islets, overexpression of miR143 reduced insulin secretion in response to glucose. In contrast to the model of LP exposure throughout pregnancy, islet protein levels of mTOR and pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 were normal in LP12.5 islets. Collectively, these data suggest that LP diet during the last week of pregnancy is critical and sufficient to induce specific and distinct developmental programming effects of tissues that control glucose homeostasis, thus causing permanent changes in specific set of microRNAs that may contribute to the overall vulnerability of the offspring to obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna/fisiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Secreção de Insulina/fisiologia , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Gravidez
9.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 76(3 Suppl 1): S1-S107, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829751

RESUMO

The National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) has provided evidence-based guidelines for nutrition in kidney diseases since 1999. Since the publication of the first KDOQI nutrition guideline, there has been a great accumulation of new evidence regarding the management of nutritional aspects of kidney disease and sophistication in the guidelines process. The 2020 update to the KDOQI Clinical Practice Guideline for Nutrition in CKD was developed as a joint effort with the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (Academy). It provides comprehensive up-to-date information on the understanding and care of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), especially in terms of their metabolic and nutritional milieu for the practicing clinician and allied health care workers. The guideline was expanded to include not only patients with end-stage kidney disease or advanced CKD, but also patients with stages 1-5 CKD who are not receiving dialysis and patients with a functional kidney transplant. The updated guideline statements focus on 6 primary areas: nutritional assessment, medical nutrition therapy (MNT), dietary protein and energy intake, nutritional supplementation, micronutrients, and electrolytes. The guidelines primarily cover dietary management rather than all possible nutritional interventions. The evidence data and guideline statements were evaluated using Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. As applicable, each guideline statement is accompanied by rationale/background information, a detailed justification, monitoring and evaluation guidance, implementation considerations, special discussions, and recommendations for future research.


Assuntos
Terapia Nutricional/normas , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Eletrólitos/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Avaliação Nutricional , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/dietoterapia , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32751190

RESUMO

The conversion of lysine to glutamate is needed for signaling in all plants and animals. In mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells, and probably their progenitors, endogenous glutamate production and signaling help maintain cellular pluripotency and proliferation, although the source of glutamate is yet to be determined. If the source of glutamate is lysine, then lysine deprivation caused by maternal low-protein diets could alter early embryo development and, consequently, the health of the offspring in adulthood. For these reasons, we measured three pertinent variables in human embryonic stem (hES) cells as a model for the inner cell masses of human blastocysts. We found that RNA encoding the alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase enzyme, which regulates glutamate production from lysine, was highly expressed in hES cells. Moreover, the mean amount of lysine consumed by hES cells was 50% greater than the mean amount of glutamate they produced, indicating that lysine is likely converted to glutamate in these cells. Finally, hES cells expressed RNA encoding at least two glutamate receptors. Since this may also be the case for hES progenitor cells in blastocysts, further studies are warranted to verify the presence of this signaling process in hES cells and to determine whether lysine deprivation alters early mammalian embryo development.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Lisina , Adulto , Animais , Blastocisto , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Camundongos
11.
Life Sci ; 259: 118281, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798554

RESUMO

AIMS: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can increase the risk of hypertension and kidney disease at adulthood due to fetal programming. In our previous study, we found that supplementation with low concentration of ouabain during pregnancy could restore glomerulus numbers at birth, rescuing kidney development. However, the metabolic pattern of kidney in IUGR offspring and the effect of ouabain have not been evaluated. MAIN METHODS: In this study, based on GC-MS and LC-MS platforms, we used the protein restriction rat model to explore the molecular mechanisms of kidney damage induced by IUGR and the protective effect of ouabain. KEY FINDINGS: The results showed that malnutrition could induce IUGR in rat offspring at the 20th gestational day but ouabain treatment could partially reverse the body and kidney weight loss. Ouabain treatment could upregulate arginine, N-acetylornithine and carbamoyl phosphate as well as adenine nucleotide and guanine nucleotide downregulated by low-protein diet. Moreover, six metabolites were identified to be significantly correlated with fetal kidney weight, with 3 metabolites involved in arginine metabolism (arginine, N-acetylornithine, urea) and UDP-glucuronate correlated positively, while lysine and anthranilate correlated negatively. SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggested that the underlying mechanism of ouabain against renal maldevelopment involved the metabolic regulation, particularly the arginine metabolism, which played an important role in the development of fetal kidney.


Assuntos
Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Ouabaína/farmacologia , Animais , Arginina/metabolismo , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/fisiopatologia , Peso Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Glomérulos Renais/metabolismo , Masculino , Metabolômica , Ouabaína/metabolismo , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(32): e21634, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769929

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Arginineemia, also known as arginase deficiency, is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disease. The diagnosis sometimes may be delayed due to atypical clinical manifestations. Confirmation of arginineemia depends on genetic testing. PATIENT CONCERNS: We reported a Chinese male child presenting with hyperargininemia and progressive spastic diplegia, who has a novel compound heterozygous mutation in the arginase-1 (ARG1) gene (c.263-266delAGAA, p.K88Rfs45;c.674T>C,p.L216P), respectively, coming from his mother and father. DIAGNOSIS: The patient was diagnosed with argininemia with a novel compound homozygous mutation of the ARG1 gene at the age of 12 years. INTERVENTIONS: The patient had a low-protein diet (0.8 g/kg/day). Baclofen, eperisone hydrochloride, botulinum toxin, and rehabilitation training were used to improve his spastic diplegia symptoms for 3 months. OUTCOMES: The patient's blood arginine was still high after 3 months' low-protein diet. His spastic diplegia symptoms had not aggravated after 3 months' treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Argininemia should be considered in a patient with slowly progressive neurologic manifestations, especially spastic diplegia. This case also suggests that tandem mass spectrometry should be used as an effective tool in the validity of neonatal screening for early diagnosis.


Assuntos
Arginase/genética , Hiperargininemia/complicações , Arginase/sangue , Arginase/urina , Baclofeno/uso terapêutico , Toxinas Botulínicas/uso terapêutico , Paralisia Cerebral/complicações , Paralisia Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , China , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/métodos , Humanos , Hiperargininemia/genética , Hiperargininemia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Propiofenonas/uso terapêutico
13.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235840, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702025

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Maternal protein malnutrition is associated with impaired fetal growth, and lifetime consequences for the offspring. Our group has previously developed a model of protein-restriction in the non-human primate, which was associated with fetal growth restriction, stillbirth, decreased placental perfusion, and evidence of fetal hypoxia, suggesting perturbed vascular development. Our objective was to histologically characterize the micro-anatomic alterations associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes taking an approach that permits investigation of the 3D vascular structure and surrounding histology without the requirement for 3D vascular casting or relying on 2D stereology which both have methodological limitations. METHODS: Rhesus macaques were assigned in the pre-gestational period to a control diet that contained 26% protein, or study diet containing 13% protein (50% PR diet). Placental tissue was collected at delivery and processed using a clarification, immunohistochemistry, and confocal microscopy protocol published previously by our group. Three dimensional reconstructions and quantitative assessment of the vascular micro-anatomy was performed using analysis software (Imaris®) and statistical analysis accounted for maternal and fetal confounders. RESULTS: In unadjusted analysis, when comparing those pregnancies on a 50% PR diet (n = 4) with those on a control diet (n = 4), protein-restriction diet was associated with decreased maternal pre-pregnancy weight (difference of -1.975kg, 95% CI -3.267 to -0.6826). When controlling for maternal pre-pregnancy weight, fetal sex, and latency from tissue collection to imaging, a gestational protein-restriction diet was associated with decreases in total vascular length, total vascular surface area, total vascular volume, and vascular density. CONCLUSION: In this pilot study, a gestational protein-restriction diet altered the placental micro-vasculature with decreased vascular caliber and density, which may be related to the observed adverse pregnancy outcomes and perturbed placental perfusion previously demonstrated in this model.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/efeitos adversos , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/patologia , Transtornos da Nutrição Fetal/patologia , Placenta/patologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/etiologia , Transtornos da Nutrição Fetal/etiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Macaca mulatta/embriologia , Macaca mulatta/fisiologia , Projetos Piloto , Circulação Placentária , Gravidez , Natimorto
14.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(9): 7951-7956, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32684460

RESUMO

We used 20 mid-lactating Holstein cows, housed in 4 pens according to a Latin square design, to evaluate the effects of dietary protein restriction (crude protein: 12.3 vs. 15.0% dry matter) and conjugated linoleic acid supplementation (CLA: 6.34 g/d of C18:2cis-9,trans-11 and 6.14 g/d of C18:2trans-10,cis-12) on milk composition, coagulation, curd firming and syneresis modeling, and cheese yield and quality (96 small cheeses). Dietary crude protein restriction, suggested as a way to reduce N excretion in farming, caused a reduction in milk protein content (-4%,), milk casein (-3.8%), lactose (-1%), cheese soluble protein (-16.8%), and the cheese maturation index (-15%), and a correlated increase in cheese fat content (+7.5%) and the fat to protein ratio (+18%). A modest reduction (-0.9%) in milk fat recovery in the curd did not affect cheese yield. The addition of CLA to the cows' diet, suggested as a way to improve N use efficiency and the nutritional value of dairy products, caused substantial alterations to the milk composition, cheese-making process, and cheese quality. The CLA reduced the fat (-12.3%), protein (-2%), casein (-2.2%), lactose (-1.0), and total solids (-4%) contents of milk, tended to delay coagulation, and weakened curd firming. The CLA reduced the fresh cheese yield (-7.5%) and cheese solids (-8.2%) because of the lower nutrient content of the milk, but also because of a lower recovery of milk protein in the curd (-0.9%) and lower total solids (-4.5%). It also reduced the fat content in the ripened cheese (-11.8%), as well as the fat to protein ratio (-19.4%) as a result of having increased the protein content (+9.3%). Last, it increased the lightness of the paste of the ripened cheeses (+3.3%), and especially the shear force (+16.3%). Dietary crude protein restriction, and CLA addition in particular, substantially altered the milk composition, cheese-making process, and cheese quality, and therefore needs to be carefully evaluated. Further studies are required to shed light on the causes of these modifications.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Queijo , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/farmacologia , Animais , Caseínas/análise , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos , Lactação , Leite/química , Proteínas do Leite/análise
15.
Br Poult Sci ; 61(6): 695-702, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32551967

RESUMO

1. Four experiments were conducted to determine the 4th limiting amino acid (AA) in maize-soybean meal-based diets. 2. Deletion assay methodology was used to quantify performance and carcase trait responses to potential deficiencies in essential and conditionally essential AA caused by reductions in dietary crude protein of maize-soybean meal-based diets from 202.9 to 186.5 g/kg. 3. The deletion of Val, Phe and Gly + Pro resulted in negative effects on live performance and carcase traits for male broilers, whereas AA deletion only affected wing weights for females with no response on live performance. 4. Further experimentation could not duplicate a response to Phe or Pro in male broilers. 5. Valine was identified as the potential 4th limiting AA in maize-soybean meal-based diets and was not found to be co-limiting with Ile.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Galinhas , Aminoácidos , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Dieta/veterinária , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta , Feminino , Masculino , Soja
16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 10019, 2020 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572062

RESUMO

Drosophila melanogaster has been used in Diet Restriction (DR) studies for a few decades now, due to easy diet implementation and its short lifespan. Since the concentration of protein determines the trade-offs between lifespan and fecundity, it is important to understand the level of protein and the extent of its influence on lifespan, fecundity and activity of fruit flies. In this study, we intend to assess the effect of a series of protein restricted diets from age 1 day of the adult fly on these traits to understand the possible variations in trade-off across tested diets. We found that lifespan under different protein concentrations remains unaltered, even though protein restricted diets exerted an age-specific influence on fecundity. Interestingly, there was no difference in lifetime activity of the flies in most of the tested protein restricted (PR) diets, even though a sex-dependent influence of protein concentrations was observed. Additionally, we report that not all concentrations of PR diet increase activity, thereby suggesting that the correlation between lifespan and the lifetime activity can be challenged under protein-restricted condition. Therefore, the PR does not need to exert its effect on lifespan and fecundity only but can also influence activity levels of the flies, thereby emphasizing the role of nutrient allotment between lifespan, fecundity and activity.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Longevidade/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Masculino
17.
Poult Sci ; 99(6): 2916-2925, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475425

RESUMO

Globally, the poultry industry is 1 of the most advanced livestock industries. Feed contributes to the biggest proportion (65-70%) of the production cost. Most feed ingredients in Malaysia are imported, which contributes to the high food bill annually, and alternative feed formulation may help decrease the cost of poultry feed. Feed formulation are improved to efficiently meet the dietary requirements of the broilers and 1 of the ways is by reducing the level of crude protein in the diet while supplementing essential amino acids. In this study, the effects of methionine and lysine, which are the 2 most limiting amino acids in the chicken diet, were supplemented in a low crude protein diet, and its effects on the growth and expression of immunity genes such as MUC2, SLC, GAL6, and LEAP-2 were studied. A total of 300 Cobb500 broilers were tested with 10 different dietary treatments. Experimental treatment diets consist of high, standard, and low levels of methionine and lysine in the diet with reduced crude protein. The control group consists of diet with standard levels of lysine, methionine, and crude protein as recommended for Cobb500 broilers. Ribonucleic acid was extracted from the jejunum, spleen, and liver for gene expression analysis which was performed with real-time polymerase chain reaction using SYBR Green chemistry. Results of the growth performance at 6 wk showed improved feed conversion ratio when lysine was increased by 0.2% in a low crude protein diet at 1.96 ± 0.11. Gene expression of MUC2 gene in the jejunum showed a significant increase across all experimental diets with the treatment with higher lysine in low crude protein diet with the highest increase of 3.8 times as compared with the control diet. The other genes expressed in the spleen and liver were mostly downregulated. It was concluded that supplementation of high lysine with standard methionine in a low crude protein diet performed better in terms of lowest feed conversion ratio and high upregulation of MUC2 gene.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Galinhas/genética , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/veterinária , Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Lisina/metabolismo , Metionina/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Lisina/administração & dosagem , Metionina/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória
18.
Mol Cell ; 78(3): 371-373, 2020 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386538

RESUMO

Yoshida et al. (2020) report in this issue of Molecular Cell that a paternal low-protein diet elevates ROS in the testicular germ cells, altering ATF7 activity and H3K9me2 abundance on target genes, including tRNA loci. These changes are maintained in spermatozoa, regulating tsRNA biogenesis, and together transmit intergenerational effects.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Hereditariedade , Epigênese Genética , Masculino , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Espermatozoides
19.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13381, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378296

RESUMO

This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of reduced dietary crude protein (CP) levels supplemented with or without exogenous phytase on growing pigs. Six dietary treatments arranged in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangements of 3 CP levels (containing 14%, 16%, and 18% CP) supplemented each with or without 5,000 FTU/g phytase enzyme. Thirty growing pigs (average weight of 17.80 ± 0.10 kg) were allotted to the six dietary treatments in a complete randomized design. The final weight, daily weight gain, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) increased significantly with increasing CP levels. While, phytase supplementation improved (p = .044) FCR in pigs. Total solid and volatile solid content of the slurry were higher (p = .001) in pigs fed 14% and 16% CP diets supplemented with phytase when compared with other treatment groups. Concentration of methane gas emitted was lowest (p = .001) in the slurry of pigs fed 14% CP diet with or without phytase and those fed 16% CP diet with phytase supplementation. In conclusion, reduction in dietary CP levels resulted in reduced weight gain and poor FCR. While, reduced CP with phytase supplementation reduced concentration of methane gas emitted.


Assuntos
6-Fitase , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fezes/química , Gases/metabolismo , Metano/metabolismo , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/efeitos adversos , Ganho de Peso
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